WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute eosinophil count

  1. Correlation of the severity of atopic dermatitis with absolute eosinophil counts in peripheral blood and serum IgE levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of epidemiological studies, showing incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis, were available, scant attention has been paid to the correlation between the parameters of the disease like severity, absolute eosinophil count and IgE level, which has been known to be associated inconsistently. Hence this study was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 102 patients of atopic dermatitis, both children and adults, and 107 age matched controls were studied at the Pediatric Dermatology clinic, Institute of Child Health and department of Dermatology, AMRI-Apollo hospitals, Kolkata. RESULTS: The average age of onset of atopic dermatitis was observed to be 4.55 years. Both the average absolute eosinophil count and IgE levels in patients of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than that of the controls. Each of these parameters showed significant correlation with severity of the disease and showed a nonhomogeneous distribution reflected by significant association with personal history of bronchial asthma and family history of atopy, when both parents were atopic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that clinical activity of the disease as recorded by the "SCORAD" index can be used as an indicator of the hematological abnormalities as well as to some extent as a prognostic indicator. Family history of atopy correlates with the hematological abnormalities only if both parents are involved and bronchial asthma is the only associated atopic condition which correlates with the parameters of the disease .

  2. Eosinophil count - absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 160. Review Date 2/8/2017 Updated by: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington ...

  3. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on increased blood eosinophil counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian; de Andrade, Alícia Souza; Ribeiro, Felipe Mesquita; Alves, Paola de Araujo Sardenberg; Simonini, Virgínia Ribeiro Fernandes

    2018-03-01

    Vitamin D has been increasingly recognized as an immunomodulatory agent. Its deficiency has been associated with immune-mediated diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. These allergic conditions are dependent on T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells secreting interleukins, overproduction of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and eosinophil activation. We investigated the association between serum vitamin D levels and blood absolute eosinophil count. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 669 men and women referred to a clinical pathology laboratory who underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D testing and complete blood count analysis on the same day. Vitamin D levels were stratified into four ranges: severely deficient (p=.001). The difference was significant between the severe deficiency group and each of the other three groups (p=.012, p=.002, and p=.001, respectively). There was no statistical difference among the four groups in terms of total leukocyte counts (p=.151), neutrophils (p=.177), or lymphocytes (p=.582). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher blood eosinophil count. These results support the possible role of vitamin D in the eosinophil immune response. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eosinophil count, allergies, and rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Kate S; Albers, Erin; Kemna, Mariska; Law, Sabrina; Law, Yuk

    2015-08-01

    Allograft rejection and long-term immunosuppression remain significant challenges in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatric recipients are known to have fewer rejection episodes and to develop more allergic conditions than adults. A T-helper 2 cell dominant phenotype, manifested clinically by allergies and an elevated eosinophil count, may be associated with immunologic quiescence in transplant recipients. This study assessed whether the longitudinal eosinophil count and an allergic phenotype were associated with freedom from rejection. This single-center, longitudinal, observational study included 86 heart transplant patients monitored from 1994 to 2011. Post-transplant biannual complete blood counts, allergic conditions, and clinical characteristics related to rejection risk were examined. At least 1 episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurred in 38 patients (44%), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred in 11 (13%), and 49 patients (57%) were diagnosed with an allergic condition. Patients with ACR or AMR had a lower eosinophil count compared with non-rejectors (p = 0.011 and p = 0.022, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, the presence of panel reactive antibodies to human leukocyte antigen I (p = 0.014) and the median eosinophil count (p = 0.011) were the only independent covariates associated with AMR. Eosinophil count (p = 0.010) and female sex (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors for ACR. Allergic conditions or young age at transplant were not protective from rejection. This study demonstrates a novel association between a high eosinophil count and freedom from rejection. Identifying a biomarker for low rejection risk may allow a reduction in immunosuppression. Further investigation into the role of the T-helper 2 cell phenotype and eosinophils in rejection quiescence is warranted. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ruth H; Brightling, Christopher E; McKenna, Susan; Hargadon, Beverley; Parker, Debbie; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D

    2002-11-30

    Treatment decisions in asthma are based on assessments of symptoms and simple measures of lung function, which do not relate closely to underlying eosinophilic airway inflammation. We aimed to assess whether a management strategy that minimises eosinophilic inflammation reduces asthma exacerbations compared with a standard management strategy. We recruited 74 patients with moderate to severe asthma from hospital clinics and randomly allocated them to management either by standard British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines (BTS management group) or by normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count and reduction of symptoms (sputum management group). We assessed patients nine times over 12 months. The results were used to manage those in the sputum management group, but were not disclosed in the BTS group. The primary outcomes were the number of severe exacerbations and control of eosinophilic inflammation, measured by induced sputum eosinophil count. Analyses were by intention to treat. The sputum eosinophil count was 63% (95% CI 24-100) lower over 12 months in the sputum management group than in the BTS management group (p=0.002). Patients in the sputum management group had significantly fewer severe asthma exacerbations than did patients in the BTS management group (35 vs 109; p=0.01) and significantly fewer patients were admitted to hospital with asthma (one vs six, p=0.047). The average daily dose of inhaled or oral corticosteroids did not differ between the two groups. A treatment strategy directed at normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count reduces asthma exacerbations and admissions without the need for additional anti-inflammatory treatment.

  6. Determination of esophageal eosinophil counts and other histologic features of eosinophilic esophagitis by pathology trainees is highly accurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Spencer; Covey, Shannon; Perjar, Irina; Hollyfield, Johnny; Speck, Olga; Woodward, Kimberly; Woosley, John T; Dellon, Evan S

    2017-04-01

    Many studies of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) use expert pathology review, but it is unknown whether less experienced pathologists can reliably assess EoE histology. We aimed to determine whether trainee pathologists can accurately quantify esophageal eosinophil counts and identify associated histologic features of EoE, as compared with expert pathologists. We used a set of 40 digitized slides from patients with varying degrees of esophageal eosinophilia. Each of 6 trainee pathologists underwent a teaching session and used our validated protocol to determine eosinophil counts and associated EoE findings. The same slides had previously been evaluated by expert pathologists, and these results comprised the criterion standard. Eosinophil counts were correlated, and agreement was calculated for the diagnostic threshold of 15 eosinophils per high-power field as well as for associated EoE findings. Peak eosinophil counts were highly correlated between the trainees and the criterion standard (ρ ranged from 0.87 to 0.92; Ppathology trainees and expert pathologists for determining eosinophil counts was excellent. Agreement was very good for eosinophil degranulation and spongiosis but less so for microabscesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans K

    2015-01-01

    Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5 × 109/l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From...... to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 109/l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil...... count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 109/l, risks of hematological malignancies were increased more than twofold with OR (95% C.I.) of 2.39 (1.91–2.99). Interestingly, risks reached a plateau around an eosinophil count of 1.0 × 109/l. Risks also increased when...

  8. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil counts might predict response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations. We used data from the WISDOM trial to assess whether patients with COPD with higher blood eosinophil counts wou...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  9. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Correlation between eosinophil count and soil-transmitted helminth infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syilvia Jiero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection and its correlation with eosinophil counts among elementary school children within the Medan Belawan District, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Methods: Ninety-nine subjects participated in this study (ascariasis, n = 40; trichuriasis, n = 9; mixed infection, n = 50. Stool samples were examined by using the Kato-Katz method, and blood samples were examined by using peripheral blood smears. Results: The prevalence of STH infection in children from two elementary schools was 65.4%; the baseline prevalences of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and mixed infection were 37.1%, 21.9%, and 40.8%, respectively. The respective mean eosinophil counts among children with ascariasis, trichuriasis, and mixed infection were 7.18%, 8.11%, and 8.64% (P = 0.32, and the respective prevalences of eosinophilia were 47.5%, 77.8%, and 70% (P = 0.05. The eosinophil counts correlated significantly with the number of eggs per gram of feces; ascariasis correlated strongly (P < 0.001; r = 0.62, and trichuriasis showed correlated weakly (P = 0.04; r = 0.21 with this parameter. The mean eosinophil count correlated significantly with STH infection intensity (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts correlated strongly with ascariasis while weakly with trichuriasis. We determined that eosinophil count may be used as a marker of STH infection.

  12. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  13. The Significance of Mast Cells and Eosinophils Counts in Surgically Resected Appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kolur

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: The material for study consisted of appendix specimens received for histopathological examination in the Department of pathology. A 5 year study was conducted, 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Results: Out of 777 cases studied the incidence of appendicitis is high, in the first and second decades of life and slightly higher in females. Recurrent appendicitis was more common when compared to other inflamed appendices. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts in all the layers were very high in acute eosinophilic appendicitis compared to normal appendices. A higher mast cell count was seen in acute eosinophilic appendicitis and recurrent appendicitis. No correlation was found between mast cell and eosinophilic density. Our observations support the allergic theory of appendicitis rather than the obstructive theory. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 150-153

  14. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts neutrophils, the multivariable-adjusted IRRs were 2.14 (1.74-2.63) for moderate exacerbations and 1.18 (0.89-1.55) for severe exacerbations for individuals...

  15. Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years. These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV, which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

  16. Use of absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate absolute lymphocyte count or neutrophil ingestion rate of NBT as alternative indices to CD4+ T cell count in the management of HIV/AIDS subjects. 158 adult participants (male = 70, female = 88) were recruited for the study and grouped as: (i) Symptomatic HIV subjects with or ...

  17. Normal serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts exhibited during Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Hirata, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Parrott, Gretchen; Kinjo, Tetsu; Naka, Hidekatsu; Hokama, Akira; Fujita, Jiro

    2017-02-01

    Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S. stercoralis at the Ryukyu University Hospital and the Nishizaki Hospital. Medical records were reviewed and blood samples were taken before treatment with the anthelminthic, ivermectin, 2weeks following the first dosage, and 2weeks following the second dosage. Commonly reported symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, and general fatigue. Serum IgE levels were found to be normal in patients co-infected with HTLV-1. Additionally, females and patients younger than 70years old exhibited normal serum IgE levels when infected with S. stercoralis. No factor included in our analysis was found to affect eosinophil counts. Serum IgE levels can remain within the normal range for some patients infected with S. stercoralis. Therefore, physicians should not eliminate S. stercoralis infection from the differential diagnosis solely according to findings of normal or low IgE levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-g...

  19. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Hasegawa, Haruki; Brown, Michael; Ketchem, Randal R.; Gavala, Monica; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall Torfi; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Gislason, David; Gislason, Thorarinn; Ludviksson, Bjorn Runar; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Boezen, H. Marike; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Waage, Johannes; Backer, Vibeke; Deichmann, Klaus A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Johnston, James A.; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through

  20. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  1. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  2. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  3. Comparison of prognostic impact of absolute lymphocyte count, absolute monocyte count, absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score and ratio in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Olivera; Popovic, Lazar; Marisavljevic, Dragomir; Jovanovic, Darjana; Filipovic, Branka; Stanisavljevic, Dejana; Matovina-Brko, Gorana; Hajder, Jelena; Matkovic, Tatjana; Živkovic, Radmila; Stanisavljevic, Natasa; Todorović, Milena; Petrovic, Dragana; Mihaljevic, Biljana

    2014-03-01

    The combination of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis has prognostic relevance in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of ALC and AMC and to determine whether ALC/AMC ratio or ALC/AMC prognostic score is better predictor of outcome in DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic significance of ALC and AMC, ALC/AMC ratio and ALC/AMC prognostic score at diagnosis in 222 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ROC analysis showed that optimal cut-off values of AMC and ALC/AMC ratio with the best sensitivity and specificity were 0.59×10(9)/L and 2.8, respectively. Cut-off of ALC was determined according to the literature data (1×10(9)/L). Low ALC, high AMC, low ALC/AMC ratio and high ALC/AMC prognostic score were in significant association with lower rate of therapy response and survival. In contrast, these parameters were not in significant correlation with relapse rate. The patients with low ALC, "high" AMC, low ALC/AMC ratio and high ALC/AMC prognostic score at diagnosis had significantly shorter EFS and OS. In multivariate analysis all tested parameters (ALC, AMC, ALC/AMC prognostic score and ALC/AMC ratio) are independent risk factors along with "bulky" disease and IPI. All tested parameters (ALC, AMC, ALC/AMC score and ALC/AMC ratio) may be useful prognostic factors in DLBCL patients. ALC/AMC score has a slight advantage as it allows the classification of patients into three prognostic groups. Further studies are needed to determine which of these parameters has the highest predictive value. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute Lymphocyte Count Is Not a Suitable Alternative to CD4 Count for Determining Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashika A. Balak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm3. Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r=0.5. No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm3 or 500 cells/mm3. The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm3 and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm3 it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  5. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Hasegawa, Haruki; Brown, Michael; Ketchem, Randal R.; Gavala, Monica; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T.

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_ 001199640: exon7: c.487-1G> C(rs146597587- C), allele frequency = 0.65%) that disrupts a canonical s...

  6. Effect of cigarette smoke on counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa in young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño-Velázquez, Bertha Beatriz; Flores-Rojas, Eulalia Beatriz; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Jurado-Hernandez, Silvio; Venancio Hernández, Marco Antonio; Alanis Flores, Angélica Kathya; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine

    In teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis, exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke increases the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa; the recruitment of eosinophils arises from the combined action of a number of cellular and molecular signals, including eotaxin. To assess the effect of exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke on the count of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa of children and teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis. In a cross-sectional study, forty-four patients were evaluated (aged 7-19 years old): 22 with and 22 with no exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke. After replying to 2 validated questionnaires, on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and on the severity of nasal symptoms, nasal mucosal samples were obtained by scraping the middle one-third of the inferior turbinates. Then counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Patients with exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke showed higher cell counts of both eotaxin-1 and eosinophils than patients with no exposure to the smoke, with no correlation between the two variables. However, both counts, of eotaxin-1 and eosinophils, were related to the cotinine/creatinine ratio. Exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke can increase eotaxin-1 and the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa of young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Eosinophils count and periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Barbieri, L.; Sinigaglia, F.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils have been involved in a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic conditions, with the development of cardiovascular complications in a significant proportion of hypereosinophilic patients. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of eosinophils levels on

  8. Plasma LTE4/PGF2α Ratio and Blood Eosinophil Count Are Increased in Elderly Asthmatics With Previous Asthma Exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga Young; Ye, Young Min; Kim, Sang Ha; Hur, Gyu Young; Kim, Joo Hee; Shim, Jae Jung; Cho, Kumsun; Cho, Joo Youn; Park, Hae Sim

    2017-07-01

    The tools for asthma control assessment recommended by the current guideline are cognitive function- and effort-dependent, which is substantially impaired in the elderly. The aim of this study is to investigate objective assessment tools of asthma control status and previous asthma exacerbation (AE) in elderly subjects. Asthmatics aged >60 years who were treated with step 2 or 3 by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline were enrolled. During the 12-week study period, the subjects used either 400 μg of budesonide plus 10 mg of montelukast or 800 μg of inhaled budesonide. The occurrence of AE during the 4-week run-in and 12-week treatment period was monitored. After 12-week of treatment, sputum eosinophil count, peripheral eosinophil count, the plasma leukotriene E4 (LTE4), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) metabolite levels were measured using the UHPLC/Q-ToF MS system. The study subjects were divided into group 1 (asthmatics who experienced AE during the study period) and group 2 (those who did not). A total of 101 patients aged 60-85 years were enrolled. Twenty-three patients (22.8%) had experienced AE. The plasma LTE4 level, LTE4/PGF2α ratio, and peripheral eosinophil count were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P=0.023, P=0.010, P=0.033, respectively). The plasma LTE4/PGF2α ratio and peripheral eosinophil count at week 12 were significantly associated with previous AE (odds ratio [OR]=1.748, P=0.013; OR=1.256, P=0.027). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate the subjects with previous AE, including these 2 parameters, showed that the area under the curve was 0.700 (P=0.004), with 73.9% sensitivity and 47.9% specificity. In conclusion, a combination of plasma LTE4/PGF2α ratio and peripheral eosinophil count can be an objective assessment tool which is significantly associated with asthma control status in elderly asthmatics. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The

  9. Diagnostic utility of inflammatory biomarkers in asthma: exhaled nitric oxide and induced sputum eosinophil count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Ana Maria; Feixas, Teresa; González, Mercedes; Casan, Pere

    2007-11-01

    Even though an inflammatory process is known to be the underlying cause of asthma, diagnosis is based on clinical history, reversible airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness according to international guidelines. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) and induced sputum eosinophil count (Eos%) have been used as non-invasive inflammatory biomarkers. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of FE(NO), Eos% and spirometry and to assess whether their combined use in clinical practice would improve diagnostic yield. In 50 patients with asthma symptoms we performed spirometry, a methacholine challenge test, FE(NO) measurement and assessment of Eos% in induced sputum. The standard diagnosis of asthma followed the guidelines of the Global Initiative for Asthma. Twenty-two of the 50 patients were diagnosed with asthma. The sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were higher for FE(NO) measurement (77%; area under the receiver operating curve [AUC], 0.8) than for spirometry (22%; AUC, 0.63). The sensitivity and specificity of Eos% in induced sputum were 40% and 82%, respectively, and the diagnostic accuracy of Eos% was lower (AUC, 0.58). When both inflammatory biomarkers were used together specificity increased to 76%. The diagnostic accuracy of FE(NO) measurement was superior to that of the standard diagnostic spirometry in patients with symptoms suggestive of asthma. The use of FE(NO) measurement and induced sputum Eos% together to diagnose asthma in clinical practice is more accurate than spirometry or FE(NO) assessment alone and easier to perform.

  10. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole......-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10-16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10-4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non...... amino acids. The truncated IL-33 has normal intracellular localization but neither binds IL-33R/ST2 nor activates ST2-expressing cells. Together these data demonstrate that rs146597587-C is a loss of function mutation and support the hypothesis that IL-33 haploinsufficiency protects against asthma....

  11. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Smith

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_001199640:exon7:c.487-1G>C (rs146597587-C, allele frequency = 0.65% that disrupts a canonical splice acceptor site before the last coding exon. It is also found at low frequency in European populations. rs146597587-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10-16, N = 103,104, and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10-4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977. Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non-carriers and allele-specific analysis based on RNA sequencing and phased genotypes shows that only 20% of the total expression is from the mutated chromosome. In half of those transcripts the mutation causes retention of the last intron, predicted to result in a premature stop codon that leads to truncation of 66 amino acids. The truncated IL-33 has normal intracellular localization but neither binds IL-33R/ST2 nor activates ST2-expressing cells. Together these data demonstrate that rs146597587-C is a loss of function mutation and support the hypothesis that IL-33 haploinsufficiency protects against asthma.

  12. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Hasegawa, Haruki; Brown, Michael; Ketchem, Randal R; Gavala, Monica; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall Torfi; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Gislason, David; Gislason, Thorarinn; Ludviksson, Bjorn Runar; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Boezen, H Marike; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Waage, Johannes; Backer, Vibeke; Deichmann, Klaus A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Johnston, James A; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-03-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_001199640:exon7:c.487-1G>C (rs146597587-C), allele frequency = 0.65%) that disrupts a canonical splice acceptor site before the last coding exon. It is also found at low frequency in European populations. rs146597587-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10-16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10-4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non-carriers and allele-specific analysis based on RNA sequencing and phased genotypes shows that only 20% of the total expression is from the mutated chromosome. In half of those transcripts the mutation causes retention of the last intron, predicted to result in a premature stop codon that leads to truncation of 66 amino acids. The truncated IL-33 has normal intracellular localization but neither binds IL-33R/ST2 nor activates ST2-expressing cells. Together these data demonstrate that rs146597587-C is a loss of function mutation and support the hypothesis that IL-33 haploinsufficiency protects against asthma.

  13. Flow rate calibration I: a novel approach for performing absolute cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storie, Ian; Sawle, Alex; Goodfellow, Karen; Whitby, Liam; Granger, Vivian; Reilly, John T; Barnett, David

    2003-09-01

    Reports suggest that flow rate (FR) is constant on bench top flow cytometers. Therefore, if FR is constant, the volume acquired in a fixed time period will also be constant, enabling absolute leucocyte counting using flow rate calibration (FRC). FR stability was ascertained on a standard FACSCalibur by counting TruCount beads suspended in phosphate buffered saline over 120 s. Studies using two lysing solutions (FACS lysing solution and PharM Lyse) and corresponding sample lysates established a lysing solution calibration factor (CF). Absolute CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts on 10 peripheral blood samples determined using FRC were compared with the predicate method TruCount/MultiTEST, incorporating MultiSET software. Linearity studies were also performed at three different flow rates. A high degree of linearity over a wide range of counts (50 to >1,600 CD4(+) T lymphocytes/microl) at all three pressures was observed. Importantly, there was no significant difference from the predicate method when appropriate lysing solution CF was used. Using a simple calibration procedure and incorporation of an appropriate lysing solution CF, we show that FRC can easily be performed. The technical details that underpin this novel approach for absolute leucocyte enumeration are provided. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effect of HAART on growth parameters and absolute CD4 count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reduction in the proportion of children with moderate malnutrition (WAZ < -2) from time of HAART commencement to nine months after HAART, was by 61.5% in those without severe immune suppression (SIS) and by 50% in those with SIS Conclusion: This study showed that WAZ and absolute CD4 count changes ...

  15. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  16. The ratio of absolute lymphocyte count at interim of therapy to absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis predicts survival in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuping; Luo, Zebin; Yang, Shilong; Jia, Ming; Zhao, Haizhao; Xu, Weiqun; Tang, Yongmin

    2015-02-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) after therapy has been reported to be an independent prognostic factor for clinical outcome in leukemia. This study mainly analyzed ALC at interim of therapy on day 22 (ALC-22) and the ratio of ALC-22 to ALC at diagnosis (ALC-0) on the impact of survival and the relation of ALC to lymphocyte subsets in 119 pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Univariate analysis revealed that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio <10% was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR)=12.24, P=0.0014) and event-free survival (EFS) (HR=3.3, P=0.0046). In multivariate analysis, ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=6.92, P=0.0181) and EFS (HR=2.78, P=0.0329) after adjusting for age, white blood cell (WBC) count and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. A Spearman correlation test showed that CD3+ T cells had a negative correlation with ALC-0 (r=-0.7204, P<0.0001) and a positive correlation with ALC-22 (r=0.5061, P=0.0071). These data suggest that ALC-22/ALC-0 ratio may serve as a more effective biomarker to predict survival in pediatric B-ALL and ALC is mainly associated with CD3+ T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A

    2010-06-01

    Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive.

  18. Absolute count of T and B lymphocyte subsets is decreased in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambichler T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports on lymphocyte subpopulations in systemic sclerosis (SSc are conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the lymphocyte subsets in SSc patients who were not on immunosuppressive therapy. Methods Lymphocyte subsets were assessed in the peripheral blood of SSc patients (n = 29 and healthy controls (n = 29 using the four colour flow cytometry method. Correlation studies were also performed in order to assess the relationship between lymphocyte subsets and clinical parameters. Results The absolute count of lymphocytes (P = 0.0042, CD3+ (P = 0.0014, CD4+ (P = 0.0070, CD8+ (P = 0.021, and CD19+ cells (P = 0.024 was significantly decreased in SSc patients when compared to healthy controls. CD4+/CD8+ ratio and the absolute count of CD56+ cells observed in SSc patients did not significantly differ from controls (P = 0.165; P = 0.632, respectively. There was no substantial relationship between the lymphocyte subset levels and clinical features (i.e., SSc subtype, autoantibody profiles, organ involvement, except for a significant inverse correlation of CD19+ cells and the modified Rodnan skin score (r = -0.43, P = 0.020. Conclusion Our data support previous reports indicating that subsets of T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc.

  19. Perfect count: a novel approach for the single platform enumeration of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storie, Ian; Sawle, Alex; Goodfellow, Karen; Whitby, Liam; Granger, Vivian; Ward, Rosalie Y; Peel, Janet; Smart, Theresa; Reilly, John T; Barnett, David

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of reliable CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts is vital for the monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic effectiveness in HIV(+) individuals. Flow cytometry has emerged as the method of choice for CD4(+) T lymphocyte enumeration, with single-platform technology, coupled with reference counting beads, fast becoming the "gold standard." However, although single-platform, bead-based, sample acquisition requires the ratio of beads to cells to remain unchanged, there is no available method, until recently, to monitor this. Perfect Count beads have been developed to address this issue and to incorporate two bead populations, with different densities, to allow the detection of inadequate mixing. Comparison of the relative proportions of both beads with the manufacture's defined limits enables an internal QC check during sample acquisition. In this study, we have compared CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts, obtained from 104 HIV(+) patients, using TruCount beads with MultiSet software (defined as the predicated method) and the new Perfect Count beads, incorporating an in house sequential gating strategy. We have demonstrated an excellent degree of correlation between the predicate method and the Perfect Count system (r(2) = 0.9955; Bland Altman bias +27 CD4(+) T lymphocytes/microl). The Perfect Count system is a robust method for performing single platform absolute counts and has the added advantage of having internal QC checks. Such an approach enables the operator to identify potential problems during sample preparation, acquisition and analysis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Absolute lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts after six months of HAART initiation in a resource-limited setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangaraj, S; Venkatesha, D

    2012-06-01

    Owing to the ever-expanding access to HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy) in resource-limited settings, there is a need to evaluate alternate markers like absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as a surrogate for CD4 counts. This study was done to assess the usefulness of ALC as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in monitoring HIV-infected patients after HAART initiation. In this study, 108 HIV-positive adult patients of both sexes fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. CD4 and ALC were recorded at baseline. After initiation on HAART, these patients were followed up at three month intervals. ALC and CD4 counts were positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient= 0.553). After six months of HAART, the sensitivity of an ALC increase as a marker for CD4 count increase at six months was 82 per cent, specificity was 100 per cent, PPV was 100 per cent and NPV was 31 per cent. Area under the corresponding ROC curve for CD4 increase of >100 cells/μl was 0. 825 ± 0.053. ALC may be a useful surrogate marker in predicting an increase in CD4 counts as a response to HAART, but of questionable value in predicting a decrease in CD4 counts.

  1. Effect of HAART on growth parameters and absolute CD4 count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-05-02

    May 2, 2013 ... Methods: Data on demographic/ clinical variables, viral load, abso- lute CD4 count, and weight and height measurements done at en- rolment and at follow-up visits for. 72 eligible children < 15 years who were consecutively enrolled into HAART were analysed. Results: After nine months of. HAART, the ...

  2. A retrospective cohort study in severe asthma describing commonly measured biomarkers: Eosinophil count and IgE levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughney, John; Morice, Alyn; Blyth, Kevin G; Lee, Amanda J; Coutts, Alasdair; McKnight, Eddie; Pavord, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Identifying asthma patients suitable for biologic therapy includes the assessment of blood biomarkers (IgE and eosinophils (EOS)). How they relate to each other is unclear. This retrospective, database study used routinely collected clinical data to identify and evaluate an asthma cohort (classification code for asthma; ≥ 18 years; ≥1 prescription for asthma; ≥1 estimation of serum IgE, in 2 years prior to index date). Distribution into high and low IgE and EOS groups (IgE cut-point: > or ≤75 kU/L; EOS cut point: >or ≤400 μ/L), and characteristics by group are described. In patients with severe asthma (British Thoracic Society Step (BTS) ≥4; N = 884), using maximum recorded IgE/EOS, 33% had high IgE/high EOS, 28% low IgE/low EOS and approximately a fifth each had high IgE/low EOS or low IgE/high EOS. Proportions were similar when EOS values measured 2 or 4 weeks before an exacerbation were excluded. Using EOS/IgE 'same day' measurements (N = 578) only identified half of the high EOS group. Patients in high IgE groups were more likely to be younger males without comorbid COPD; those in high EOS groups were more likely to be on BTS treatment Step 5 vs 4. The low IgE/low EOS group had the lowest incidence of asthma-related hospital attendances, the highest incidence was observed in the high EOS groups. Maximum available EOS measurement irrespective of exacerbations may be relevant when considering therapy. These data showed low IgE/Low EOS to be more benign and high EOS groups at increased risk of frequent, severe exacerbations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Counting the Photons: Determining the Absolute Storage Capacity of Persistent Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van der Heggen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a persistent phosphor is often determined by comparing luminance decay curves, expressed in cd/m 2 . However, these photometric units do not enable a straightforward, objective comparison between different phosphors in terms of the total number of emitted photons, as these units are dependent on the emission spectrum of the phosphor. This may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the storage capacity of the phosphor. An alternative and convenient technique of characterizing the performance of a phosphor was developed on the basis of the absolute storage capacity of phosphors. In this technique, the phosphor is incorporated in a transparent polymer and the measured afterglow is converted into an absolute number of emitted photons, effectively quantifying the amount of energy that can be stored in the material. This method was applied to the benchmark phosphor SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu,Dy and to the nano-sized phosphor CaS:Eu. The results indicated that only a fraction of the Eu ions (around 1.6% in the case of SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu,Dy participated in the energy storage process, which is in line with earlier reports based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These findings imply that there is still a significant margin for improving the storage capacity of persistent phosphors.

  4. An algorithm for applying flagged Sysmex XE-2100 absolute neutrophil counts in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Saelsen, Lone; Abildstrøm, Steen Z

    2008-01-01

    therefore examined if an algorithm could be developed to identify samples in which the automated ANC is valid despite flagged test results. METHODS: During a 3-wk period, a training set consisting of 1448 consecutive flagged test-results from the Sysmex XE-2100 system and associated manual differential....... CONCLUSION: We have developed a simple algorithm that identifies samples from which a valid ANC can be extracted from Sysmex XE-2100 flagged differential counts. In patients where only ANC is required for treatment purposes, this procedure can greatly shorten turn around time and facilitate rapid decision...

  5. The association of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity, peak expiratory flow parameters, and blood eosinophil counts in exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, H Haluk; Tahan, Fulya; Gungor, Hatice Eke

    2015-04-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise, is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the most commonly used spirometric test in the diagnosis of EIB in exercise challenge in asthma. Other parameters such as forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50%) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) are used less often in the diagnosis of EIB. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of FEV1 and FEF50%, PEF parameters, blood eosinophil counts in EIB in children with mild asthma. Sixty-seven children (male: 39, female: 28) with mild asthma were included in this study. Pulmonary functions were assessed before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after exercise. The values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, PEF, and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in EIB in children with mild asthma. There was a positive correlation between FEV1 with FEF50% and PEF values (p<0.05; FEF50%, r=0.68; PEF, r=0.65). Also, a positive correlation was found between blood eosinophil counts and the values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, and PEF (p<0.05; FEV1, r=0.54; FEF50%, r=0.42; PEF, r=0.26). In addition to these correlations, in the exercise negative group for FEV1, the FEF50% and PEF values decreased more than the cutoff values in 3, and 2 patients, respectively. According to the presented study, eosinophil may play a major role in the severity of EIB in mild asthma. FEF50% and PEF values can decrease in response to exercise without changes in FEV1 in mild asthmatic patients.

  6. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relationship of Subepithelial Eosinophilic Inflammation With Epithelial Histology, Endoscopy, Blood Eosinophils, and Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Simko, Audrey; Bussmann, Christian; Safroneeva, Ekaterina; Zwahlen, Marcel; Greuter, Thomas; Biedermann, Luc; Vavricka, Stephan; Godat, Sébastien; Reinhard, Antoine; Saner, Catherine; Maye, Hugo; Sempoux, Christine; Brunel, Christophe; Blanchard, Carine; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Straumann, Alex

    2018-03-01

    For technical reasons, the histologic characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)-specific alterations is almost exclusively based on those found in the esophageal epithelium, whereas little is known about subepithelial abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to systematically assess the nature of subepithelial histologic alterations, and analyze their relationship with epithelial histologic findings, endoscopic features, and symptoms. Adult patients with established EoE diagnosis were prospectively included during a yearly follow-up visit. Patients underwent assessment of clinical, endoscopic, and histologic disease activity using EoE-specific scores. We included 200 EoE patients (mean age 43.5±15.7 years, 74% males) with a median peak count of 36 intraepithelial eosinophils/hpf (IQR 14-84). The following histologic features were identified in the subepithelial layer: eosinophilic infiltration (median peak count of 20 eosinophils/hpf (IQR 10-51)), eosinophil degranulation (43%), fibrosis (82%), and lymphoid follicles (56%). Peak intraepithelial eosinophil counts were higher, identical, and lower when compared to the subepithelial layer in 62.5%, 7%, and 30.5% of patients, respectively. Anti-eosinophilic treatment at inclusion did not influence the relation between subepithelial and epithelial peak eosinophil counts. Subepithelial histologic activity correlated with epithelial histologic activity (rho 0.331, P<0.001), endoscopic severity (rho 0.208, P=0.003), and symptom severity (rho 0.179, P=0.011). Forty percent (21/52) of patients with <15 intraepithelial eosinophils/hpf had subepithelial peak counts of ≥15/hpf. There is a significant but modest correlation between subepithelial histologic activity and epithelial histologic activity, endoscopic severity, and symptom severity. The long-term clinical impact of assessing subepithelial alterations in EoE needs to be further elucidated.

  7. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ayers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs. Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods: One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results: Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001; correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001; negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001, reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions: Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the

  8. Prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following thermal ablation: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin Li, Zhiyu Han, Zhigang Cheng, Jie Yu, Xiaoling Yu, Ping Liang Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC following thermal ablation. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and α-fetoprotein level. ALC ≥1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001. Patients with ALC ≥1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001. Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001. The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001. Conclusion: Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. Keywords: absolute lymphocyte count, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, thermal ablation, recurrence  

  9. Periostin - A Novel Systemic Biomarker for Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emprm, Viswanathan; Rajanandh, M G; Nageswari, A D

    2016-02-01

    Chronic airway inflammation and remodelling are fundamental features of asthma. The molecular phenotypes in asthma are Th2 high and Th2 low. Serum periostin is a biomarker which aid in understanding Th2 high eosinophilic asthma. The present study aimed to identify whether or not serum periostin is a systemic biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics. The study was designed as a prospective, case control study. Patients who presented with consistent symptoms of asthma and confirmed by spirometry with reversibility were the cases. The controls were healthy subjects who had no history of lung disease with normal lung function. The sputum and blood samples were collected from both the groups. Sputum eosinophils, Absolute Eosinophil Counts (AEC) and serum periostin levels were compared between the groups. The study comprised of 101 participants in which 30 were controls and 71 were cases. In the study group, mean post FEV1 was 64.45. There was a positive correlation of sputum eosinophils with severity of obstruction. The ROC curve analysis showed the cut-off value of 24.556 for serum periostin with the p-value of limitation in asthmatic patients with a Th2 high eosinophilic phenotype when compared to AEC and sputum eosinophils.

  10. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Majali, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  11. Blood Eosinophil and Basophil Values Before and After Surgery for Eosinophilic-type Sinonasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Giuseppe; Parrino, Daniela; Zanotti, Claudia; Tealdo, Giulia; Barion, Umberto; Sfriso, Paolo; Marioni, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. Results A significant drop in mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages occurred from before to after endoscopic sinus surgery in the cohort as a whole. Mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages were also reduced after surgery in the subcohorts of CRSwNP patients with (i) asthma, (ii) aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and (iii) no allergy. Although blood eosinophil and basophil counts correlated directly before and after surgery, a statistical reduction in blood basophil counts and percentages after surgery emerged only in the subcohort of nonallergic CRSwNP patients. Conclusion Endoscopic sinus surgery can clear polyps, remove inflammatory tissue, and reduce inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently with the biological mechanism described, endoscopic sinus surgery could coincide with a reduction in blood eosinophils in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP.

  12. A Prospective Study on the Prevalence, Extent of Disease and Outcome of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis in Patients Presenting with Lower Abdominal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chee K; Hui, N Kit

    2017-12-08

    The epidemiology of eosinophilic gastroenteritis remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with lower abdominal symptoms. In a prospective study, colonoscopy was performed on 2,469 consecutive patients. Biopsies were taken from the terminal ileum and ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon in all patients. Sixty-four of the 2,469 patients (2.6%) had eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Only five of the 64 patients (7.8%) with eosinophilic gastroenteritis had endoscopic mucosal abnormalities during colonoscopy. Six of these 64 patients (9.4%) had severe disease at presentation, and seven of these 64 patients (10.9%) required systemic steroid treatment. An elevated absolute peripheral eosinophil count was independently associated with severe disease at presentation (4/6 [66.7%] vs. 3/58 [5.2%], p=0.005; odds ratio [OR], 25.320; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.628 to 243.910), and severe disease at the time of presentation was independently associated with the use of systemic steroid treatment (6/7 [85.7%] vs 0/57 [0%], p=0.008; OR, 18.021; 95% CI, 2.163 to 150.152). The prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis is common, and patients usually present normal-appearing mucosa on colonoscopy. Those with severe disease at presentation usually have a raised absolute peripheral eosinophil count and should be commenced on systemic steroids as an initial therapy.

  13. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sikorska-Szaflik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic disease of the oesophagus. It is becoming more and more common and is observed to occur in both children and adults. This disease is characterized by eosinophilic infiltrations in the oesophageal mucus membrane and clinical signs of oesophageal dysfunction, such as swallowing disorders, food impaction and signs resembling refractory reflux disease. Pathogenetic mechanisms of eosinophilic oesophagitis are not known. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to be responsible. The clinical picture changes with age. In infants and young children, symptoms are non-specific, which creates a risk of overlooking the disease in differential diagnosis. School children present with abdominal pain, retrosternal pain and emesis, whereas adolescents usually report symptoms of reflux disease, dysphagia and episodes of food impaction. Dysphagia, which is rarely observed before puberty, occurs in most adults. The diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis is based on clinical and histological findings. Elimination diets, local or systemic steroid therapy and endoscopic oesophageal dilation are used in treatment. Due to the chronic and recurrent nature of the disease, patients require permanent medical care, selection of appropriate and personalised steroid therapy and/or diet as well as periodical endoscopic checkups. The article presents updated information about eosinophilic oesophagitis. It discusses epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs and symptoms depending on patients’ age as well as principles of diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Wide Field-of-View Fluorescence Imaging with Optical-Quality Curved Microfluidic Chamber for Absolute Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Khan Shourav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  15. Absolute Reticulocyte Count Acts as a Surrogate for Fetal Hemoglobin in Infants and Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riehm Meier

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin switching is largely complete in humans by six months of age. Among infants with sickle cell anemia (HbSS, SCA, reticulocytosis begins early in life as fetal hemoglobin (HbF is replaced by sickle hemoglobin (HbS. The objective of this study was to determine if absolute reticulocyte count (ARC is related to HbF levels in a cohort of pediatric SCA patients. A convenience sample of 106 children with SCA between the ages of 1 month and 20 years who were not receiving hydroxyurea or monthly blood transfusions were enrolled in this observational study. Hematologic data, including ARC and HbF levels, were measured at steady state. F-cells were enumerated by flow cytometry. Initial studies compared infants with ARC greater than or equal to 200 K/μL (ARC ≥ 200 based upon the previously reported utility of this threshold as a predictive marker for SCA severity. Mean HbF and F-cell levels were significantly lower in the ARC ≥ 200 group when compared to the ARC < 200 group. Both HbF and F-cell percentages were negatively correlated to ARC in infants and in children between the ages of 1 and 9 years. However, the inverse relationship was lost after the age of 10 years. Overall, decreased expression and distribution of HbF during childhood SCA is well-correlated with increased reticulocyte production and release into the peripheral blood. As such, these data further support the clinical use of reticulocyte enumeration as a disease severity biomarker for childhood sickle cell anemia.

  16. Impact of C-reactive protein on absolute reticulocyte count in haemodialysis patients: the role of iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Efstathios; Tsiatsiou, Maria; Zanos, Stavros; Katodritou, Eirini; Visvardis, Georgios; Papadopoulou, Dorothea; Passadakis, Ploumis; Vargemezis, Vassilis; Tsakiris, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    The exact mechanisms by which the effects of inflammation on erythropoiesis occur are still to be determined. We aimed to examine the relation between C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythropoiesis as quantified by the absolute reticulocyte count (RTC) and the possible effect of iron status on this relationship. As part of a study that follows the changes of haematologic parameters after the intravenous (IV) administration of iron in 93 stable haemodialysis (HD) patients, we made a cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements and an analysis of changes in RTC 1 week after baseline measurements and iron administration. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that RTC had a positive correlation with CRP; RTC had a negative correlation with reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr). An interaction was also found between CRP and CHr in that CRP had a significant relation to RTC only in those patients whose CHr was more than 31.2 pg. At lower values of CHr, the correlation between CRP and RTC was not significant. Five days after the IV administration of 200 mg iron sucrose, a significant increase of RTC was observed, only in those patients with elevated baseline CRP levels who also showed an increase in CHr levels from ≤ 31.2 pg at baseline to ≥ 31.2 pg post-administration, supporting the presence of an independent positive correlation between CRP and RTC when iron is adequate. It is indicated that, in HD patients, elevated CRP values are associated with increased erythroid production only when CHr is quite satisfactory.

  17. Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. It is classified as a scleroderma-like syndrome. The disease is characterized by fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with significant thickening of fascia. Visceral involvement is rare. Characteristic feature in laboratory tests is peripheral blood eosinophilia. Differential diagnosis should be performed, including ruling out systemic sclerosis, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, scleromyxedema, hypereosinophilic syndrome or Churg-Strauss syndrome. Final diagnosis is confirmed by histopathological examination. In treatment of the disease corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs are used. Some other drugs showed activity in this disease e.g. dapsone, infiximab or rituximab. Prognosis is rather good but sometimes a long-term treatment is necessary. In this paper we summarized the current knowledge on eosinophilic fasciitis.

  18. Corrected Lymphocyte Percentages Reduce the Differences in Absolute CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counts between Dual-Platform and Single-Platform Flow Cytometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulsri, Egarit; Abudaya, Dinar; Lerdwana, Surada; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether a corrected lymphocyte percentage could reduce bias in the absolute cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocyte counts obtained via dual-platform (DP) vs standard single-platform (SP) flow cytometry. The correction factor (CF) for the lymphocyte percentages was calculated at 6 laboratories. The absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in 300 blood specimens infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were determined using the DP and SP methods. Applying the CFs revealed that 4 sites showed a decrease in the mean bias of absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts determined via DP vs standard SP (-109 vs -84 cells/μL, -80 vs -58 cells/μL, -52 vs -45 cells/μL, and -32 vs 1 cells/μL). However, 2 participating laboratories revealed an increase in the difference of the mean bias (-42 vs -49 cells/μL and -20 vs -69 cells/μL). Use of the corrected lymphocyte percentage shows potential for decreasing the difference in CD4 counts between DP and the standard SP method.

  19. Eosinophil Infiltration of the Stomach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was an uneventful recovery and the patient was discharged from hospital 9 days after the operation. Three weeks later he was well and the white cell count was 6200/mm', and no eosinophils were observed in the peripheral blood. Tests for bilharziasis amoebiasis and hydatid disease were negative. ' ,. PATHOLOGY.

  20. Role of tissue eosinophils in oral Leukoplakia: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Madhura, MG; Gajalakshmi, S; Kumar, B Veerendra; Suma, S; Sarita, Y; Shweta, RD

    2015-01-01

    Context: Tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well - recognized. Studies have reported both favorable and unfavorable prognoses associated with tissue eosinophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of eosinophils in the development of tumor is still unclear. Aims: The present study was an attempt to elucidate the potential role of tissue eosinophils in oral leukoplakia, a potentially malignant lesion. Settings and Design: To count eosinophils in tissues...

  1. A Pilot Study of Omalizumab in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Denise; Enav, Benjamin; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Hider, Pamela; Kim-Chang, Julie; Noonan, Laura; Taber, Tabitha; Kaushal, Suhasini; Limgala, Renuka; Brown, Margaret; Gupta, Raavi; Balba, Nader; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Khojah, Amer; Alpan, Oral

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040598 PMID:25789989

  2. A pilot study of omalizumab in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Loizou

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE, once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy.

  3. Increment of absolute neutrophil count in the third trimester and increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth: Hirakata Risk Associated with Pregnancy Assessment Research (HIRAPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harita, Nobuko; Kariya, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Endo, Ginji; Narimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, who have growth restriction, have higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Excessive inflammatory reaction such as neutrophil activation has been observed in pregnant women whose offspring had restricted fetal growth, but the association between white blood cell (WBC) counts and SGA birth has not yet been assessed. We therefore examined the association of WBC count and its change with the risk of SGA birth. We enrolled 2356 pregnant women who had full-term singleton delivery at a private maternity hospital in Hirakata, Japan. SGA was defined as under the 10th percentile of birthweight for gestational age, baby sex, and mother's parity according to the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts renewed in 2010. Blood samples were measured in the first and third trimesters. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess associations between total and differential WBC counts and SGA birth. Women with SGA birth tended to have higher total WBC count in the third trimester compared with women who did not have SGA birth. This tendency was not observed for total WBC count in the first trimester. After adjustment for age, height, body mass index at entry, smoking habit, weekly gestational weight gain, and pregnancy-induced hypertension, higher total WBC count in the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. Total WBC count in the first trimester did not show any significant association with SGA birth. The ratio of total WBC count in the third trimester to that in the first trimester was associated with SGA birth; the odds ratio for 1 unit increase was 3.02 (95% CI: 1.54-5.92). Regarding differential WBC counts in the third trimester, neutrophil count but not lymphocyte count was associated positively with SGA birth. Higher total WBC and absolute neutrophil counts in the third trimester were associated with SGA birth. In addition, greater ratio of increase in total WBC counts during pregnancy

  4. Evaluation of the FACSPresto, a New Point of Care Device for the Enumeration of CD4% and Absolute CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azure Tariro Makadzange

    Full Text Available Enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes is important for pre-ART disease staging and screening for opportunistic infections, however access to CD4 testing in resource limited settings is poor. Point of care (POC technologies can facilitate improved access to CD4 testing. We evaluated the analytical performance of a novel POC device the FACSPresto compared to the FACSCalibur as a reference standard and to the PIMA, a POC device in widespread use in sub-Saharan Africa.Specimens were obtained from 253 HIV infected adults. Venous blood samples were analyzed on the FACSPresto and the FACSCalibur, in a subset of 41 samples additional analysis was done on the PIMA.The absolute CD4 count results obtained on the FACSPresto were comparable to those on the FACSCalibur with low absolute (9.5cells/μl and relative bias (3.2%. Bias in CD4% values was also low (1.06% with a relative bias of 4.9%. The sensitivity was lower at a CD4 count threshold of ≤350cells/μl compared with ≤500cells/μl (84.9% vs. 92.8% resulting in a high upward misclassification rate at low CD4 counts. Specificity at thresholds of ≤350cells/μl and ≤500cells/μl were 96.6% and 96.8% respectively. The PIMA had a high absolute (-68.6cells/μl and relative bias (-10.5% when compared with the FACSCalibur. At thresholds of ≤350cells/μl and ≤500cells/μl the sensitivity was 100% and 95.5% respectively; specificity was 85.7% and 84.2% respectively. The coefficients of repeatability were 4.13%, 5.29% and 9.8% respectively.The analytic performance of the FACSPresto against the reference standard was very good with better agreement and precision than the PIMA. The FACSPresto had comparable sensitivity at a threshold of 500 cells/μl and better specificity than the PIMA. However the FACSPresto showed reduced sensitivity at low CD4 count thresholds.The FACSPresto can be reliably used as a POC device for enumerating absolute CD4 count and CD4% values.

  5. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  6. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  7. Absolute dose calibration of an X-ray system and dead time investigations of photon-counting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentieri, C; Ludwig, J; Ashfaq, A; Fiederle, M

    2002-01-01

    High precision concerning the dose calibration of X-ray sources is required when counting and integrating methods are compared. The dose calibration for a dental X-ray tube was executed with special dose calibration equipment (dosimeter) as function of exposure time and rate. Results were compared with a benchmark spectrum and agree within +-1.5%. Dead time investigations with the Medipix1 photon-counting chip (PCC) have been performed by rate variations. Two different types of dead time, paralysable and non-paralysable will be discussed. The dead time depends on settings of the front-end electronics and is a function of signal height, which might lead to systematic defects of systems. Dead time losses in excess of 30% have been found for the PCC at 200 kHz absorbed photons per pixel.

  8. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in ...

  9. Successful Treatment of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Peritonitis by Oral Corticosteroid Therapy in a Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaowen; Gao, Chenni; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic peritonitis is a well-described complication of peritoneal dialysis and is often associated with either a reaction to the dialysis system constituent (tubing, sterilant or solution) or an underlying bacterial or fungal reaction. We report a case of eosinophilic peritonitis, which is treated by oral prednisone acetate therapy. A 43-year-old female patient developed end-stage renal disease and underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 2.5 years. The patient received 2,000 ml of 1.5% dialysis solution (PD2) with three exchanges daily and 2,000 ml of 2.5% PDF overnight (PD2). She went to the consultation because of a constant turbid peritoneal dialysis effluent for 3 months without abdominal pain. Repeated peritoneal effluent samples showed an elevated white blood cell count of 500 cells/mm(3), with 87% eosinophils. The peripheral blood test revealed a white blood cell count of 3.8 × 10(9)/l, with 32.2% eosinophils. Etiology like bacterial and fungal infection was excluded by peritoneal fluid culture. Turbidness persisted in spite of diagnostic antibiotic treatment. Given the fact that we found a significant elevation of eosinophils in the peripheral blood and an absolute increase in the eosinophil count of >30/mm(3) in dialysis fluid (up to 400/mm(3) in our patient), obvious dialysate effluent turbidness, negative results of repeated peritoneal fluid cultures, inefficacy of antibiotic therapy, and negativity of serum tumor and immunological markers, we drew the conclusion that the patient had idiopathic eosinophilic peritonitis. Oral corticosteroid was administered at once (20 mg prednisone acetate daily), which was gradually weaned off and stopped over an 8-week period. Afterwards, the dialysis effluent became clear, and the cytological analysis showed that the white blood cell count decreased to 1 × 10(6)/l, with no eosinophils. This case reminds us that the diagnosis of eosinophilic peritonitis should be considered when repeated

  10. Flow rate calibration. III. The use of stabilized biostandards to calibrate the flow rate and calculate absolute CD4+ T-cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Clare L; Whitby, Liam; Granger, Viv; Storie, Ian; Reilly, John T; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    We have previously reported a flow rate calibration method for the determination of absolute CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts that removes the need for the addition of latex beads to each sample. However, a limitation with this approach is that a calibration factor (CF) needs to be applied to adjust for differences in viscosity between latex bead suspensions and biological specimens. We have also demonstrated the value of using stabilized whole blood samples in external quality assessment (EQA) studies; such samples have a stable absolute lymphocyte count for over 1 year, at 4 degrees C. It was successfully demonstrated that this material can be used as a flow rate biocalibration (FRB) material for use as a flow cytometric control to provide a sample with a known CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. Such material has advantages over latex bead technology as it can act as a full process control as well as having the same matrix and viscosity characteristics as the test material, thus removing the need for a CF. In this study, we have analyzed 268 consecutive normal, abnormal, and HIV(+) samples using FRB, incorporating the PanLeucoGating approach and compared this to the MultiSet method, defined as the predicate. Percentage similarity statistics revealed the following: 0-3,000 CD4(+) cells/mul mean percentage difference (MPD; bias) 1.2%, 95% CI of 5.6-8%; 0-200 CD4(+) cells/microl MPD of 1.25%, 95% CI of 11.63-14.13%; 201-500 CD4(+) cells/microl MPD of 1%, 95% CI of 4.6-6.6%. This study demonstrates that stabilized whole blood can be used for FRB. It has the advantage of being a full process control, in addition to costing less than latex beads with highly comparable results. As bench top flow cytometers are extremely stable, this is a low cost and robust alternative to bead based methods for generating absolute CD4 counts. Copyright 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in eosinophil number in the lung tissue. Treatment Treatment of acute eosinophilic pneumonia may require hospitalization. It may be necessary to support the person with assistance from a breathing machine. Treatment with intravenous (IV) steroids or other medications which ...

  14. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diny, Nicola L; Rose, Noel R; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  15. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane F. Mosher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  16. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čiháková

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  17. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: increasing incidence in paediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Tavares, Hugo; Teles, Andreia; Nogueira, Rosete; Cardoso Rodrigues, Fernando; Costa, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis has been increasingly diagnosed and results from a chronic esophagic inflammation with eosinophilic infiltrate. Evaluation of the diagnosed paediatric cases in our centre between 2004 and 2008 and revision of current literature on this subject. Four caucasian boys, aged eight to fifteen years old, were diagnosed with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. They presented with disphagia and food impaction and endoscopic findings included multiple concentric rings (pseudo-trachea pattern) and friable mucosa. All of them had mucosal eosinophil counts higher than 20 eosinophils/high-powered field and were given corticosteroids, either topic or systemic (one case) with therapeutic success. The diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis must be considered in presence of disphagia, food impaction or gastroesophageal reflux symptoms refractory to treatment. Endoscopic evaluation may be normal and the diagnosis is based on histological findings, making biopsy mandatory whenever clinically suspected. The increasing incidence of the last years associated with the high recurrence rate will lead to future prevalence increased both in child and adulthood.

  18. The effects of phototherapy on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Aydin, Banu; Zenciroğğlu, Aysegül; Dilli, Dilek; Özkan, Elif; Dursun, Arzu; Okumus, Nurullah

    2014-06-01

    Newborns with jaundice requiring or not requiring phototherapy (PT) are at greater risk of developing asthma later in life. In this study, we investigated the effect of PT treatment on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) levels in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Thirty newborns diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia and exposed to light-emitting diode (LED) PT were enrolled into the study. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, complete blood count and serum ECP concentrations were measured before and after PT. TSB and hemoglobin (Hb) counts were lower after PT (p = 0.001). There was no difference between leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet count before and after PT. Eosinophil levels were increased after PT, although not significantly. ECP levels were higher after PT (p = 0.006). It may be speculated that newborns treated with LED PT, increased ECP might play a role in developing allergic diseases later in life.

  19. ROLE OF SERUM EOSINOPHILIC CATIONIC PROTEIN AND TRYPTASE IN MYELOPROLIFERATIVE AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Komarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A role of intracellular proteins of eosinophils and mast cells remains unclear in the patients with hematological neoplasia. There is a substantial evidence that eosinophils possess some common mechanisms of cooperation with mast cells. Therapeutic interventions into key events controlling eosinophil migration may be a leading factor in treatment of hypereosinophylic states in onco-hematological disorders. Due to unknown functions of eosinophils in majority of eosinophilia-associated diseases, it would be useful to establish an algorithm of accurate diagnostics in the patients with eosinophilia, in order to choose more effective treatment in future.We studied serum levels of secretable eosinophil and mast cells proteins in oncohematological patients with increased eosinophil counts. The aim of our study was to test a significance of quantitative assay for tryptase and ECP in the patients with myelo- and lymphoproliferative diseases. The study group included thirty-eight patients with oncohematological diseases, accompanied by a marked eosinophilia (> 0.4 x 109/L. Eighteen patients with bronchial asthma (BA, and eight cases of solid tumors comprised a reference group for polyclonal eosinophilia. The levels of ECP and tryptase were measured in blood serum using a commercial fluoroimmunoenzyme assay («Pharmacia», Uppsala, Sweden. Total ECP levels were markedly increased in general group with hematological malignancies (p < 0.03, , and in cases of chronic GvHD (p < 0.03, and in a sub-group with lymphoproliferative disorders (р = 0.007 as compared to the group of non-hematological diseases.Serum levels of tryptase were significantly increased in the patients with chronic GvHD after allo-HSCT and lymphoproliferative diseases, as compared to the group of patients with solid tumors (р = 0.03, as well in GvHD compared with lymphoproliferative disorders (р < 0.05.A direct correlation was found between serum ECP levels and absolute

  20. Immature Reticulocyte Fraction and Absolute Neutrophil Count as Predictor of Hemopoietic Recovery in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on Remission Induction Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan E. Rauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL encompasses a group of lymphoid neoplasms that are more common in children and arise from B-and T-lineage lymphoid precursor cells. The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF, a new routine parameter in hematology analyzers, can give an indication of hemopoietic recovery like absolute neutrophil count (ANC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate IRF in excess of 5% was considered as IRF recovery. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 2.5 to 3 mL of EDTA blood of 45 ALL patients undergoing the remission induction phase of their treatment was sampled and analyzed with a Sysmex XE-5000 on day 1 and every second day thereafter until the day of recovery. ANC of >0.5x109/L on the day corresponding to the first of the three consecutive counts was considered as the day of ANC recovery. IRF recovery was an IRF in excess of 5%. Results: The mean age of the patients was 12.04±5.30 years; 25 patients (55.6% were male and 20 patients (44.4% were female. On day 1 of induction remission, the mean IRF value was 9.68±1.41, while the mean ANC value was 0.077±0.061. Mean recovery day for IRF was 11.84±7.44 and mean recovery day for ANC was 17.67±8.77 (twotailed p-value <0.0001 with 95% confidence interval. By day 28, out of 45 patients 36 (80% showed ANC recovery, while 41 (91% showed IRF recovery. The remaining patients who had not shown recovery by day 28 were further followed up and all of them showed recovery of both parameters by day 39. Conclusion: This study concluded that postinduction bone marrow hemopoietic recovery was earlier by IRF than ANC in children with ALL on chemotherapy

  1. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret H. Collins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID are characterized pathologically by excess eosinophils in mucosal biopsies of one or multiple sites in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, simultaneously or sequentially. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is the best characterized EGID, and in most patients it is an abnormal immune-mediated response to food antigens. Current recommendations for diagnosis include signs and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that do not respond to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal biopsies that exhibit at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils in at least one high power field (HPF. Therapy consists of swallowed glucocorticoids or dietary elimination. Eosinophilic gastritis (EG is the second most common form of EGID, but like all forms of EGID except EoE consensus recommendations for either clinical or pathological diagnosis do not exist. EG may be associated clinically with peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia, and pathologically with marked expansion of lamina propria by dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Eosinophilic enteritis (EE may be subdivided into eosinophilic duodenitis, eosinophilic jejunitis, and eosinophilic ileitis. Most investigators believe that EE rarely, if ever, exists as a solitary form of EGID and is encountered only in patients who have at least one other affected portion of the GI tract. Eosinophilic colitis (EC is perhaps the most enigmatic EGID. Distinction of EC from inflammatory bowel disease may be problematic especially in children. Multiple possible etiologies for EGID include hypereosinophilic syndrome, drug reactions, etc. Currently, the only etiology that can be identified histologically is parasitic infestation, if a portion of an invasive parasite is found in mucosal biopsies. This review will provide guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of the various forms of EGID.

  2. Quantitative Relationship Between AUEC of Absolute Neutrophil Count and Duration of Severe Neutropenia for G-CSF in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Ma, Lian; Schrieber, Sarah J; Rahman, Nam Atiqur; Deisseroth, Albert; Farrell, Ann T; Wang, Yaning; Sinha, Vikram; Marathe, Anshu

    2018-02-02

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quantitative relationship between duration of severe neutropenia (DSN, the efficacy endpoint) and area under effect curve of absolute neutrophil counts (ANC-AUEC, the pharmacodynamic endpoint), based on data from filgrastim products, a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Clinical data from filgrastim product comparator and test arms of two randomized, parallel-group, phase III studies in breast cancer patients treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy were utilized. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model best described the negative correlation between DSN and ANC-AUEC. The models predicted that with 10 × 10 9 day/L of increase in ANC-AUEC, the mean DSN would decrease from 1.1 days to 0.93 day in Trial 1 and from 1.2 days to 1.0 day in Trial 2. The findings of the analysis provide useful information regarding the relationship between ANC and DSN that can be used for dose selection and optimization of clinical trial design for G-CSF. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Eosinophilic colitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Horowska-Ziaja, Sabina; Kajor, Maciej; Więcek, Sabina; Chlebowczyk, Wojciech; Woś, Halina

    2017-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis. The test group consisted of 43 children, the average age - 12.1 years diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (according to the Whitington scale) hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Pediatrics of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. Testing for food allergies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic diseases was performed in the group of children and the analysis concerned the intensity of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon mucosa with the severity of clinical symptoms, endoscopic picture, the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergy. Half of the tested children suffered from isolated eosinophilic colitis but the rest of them had eosinophilic infiltrate with inflammatory bowel disease more often, however, the Crohn's disease. The endoscopic image was uncharacteristic, and grade III in the Whitington scale was predominant in the histopathological examination, in most cases located in the entire large intestine. The higher level of total IgE was found in less than half of the patients and it did not correlate with the severity of eosinophilic infiltration. It was shown that the severity of eosinophilic infiltration correlated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic image, and the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. The higher level of antibodies of ASCA and ANCA was found in approximately 20% of the children with isolated eosinophilic colitis and 63% of children with Crohn's disease

  4. Observational study of the natural history of eosinophilic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M A; Hargadon, B; McKenna, S; Shaw, D; Green, R H; Brightling, C E; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2005-05-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is associated with a short-term improvement in cough and reduced sputum eosinophil count but the long-term outcome is uncertain. To determine the long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with and treated for eosinophilic bronchitis. We have performed a longitudinal study of symptoms, eosinophilic airway inflammation, spirometry and airway hyper-responsiveness in all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic bronchitis over 7 years. We identified 52 patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and longitudinal data of greater than 1 year (mean 3.1 years) was available in 32 patients, all of whom were treated with inhaled steroids. Three (9%) patients developed symptoms consistent with asthma and a methacholine PC20<8 mg/mL on one or more occasion. Five (16%) patients developed fixed airflow obstruction defined by a persistent post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity<70%. One (3%) patient had complete resolution of symptoms and eosinophilic airway inflammation off treatment. The remaining patients had ongoing eosinophilic airway inflammation and/or continuing symptoms. Multiple linear regression identified smoking, female gender and area under the curve of sputum eosinophil count over time as the most important predictors of decline in FEV1. The most common outcome in eosinophilic bronchitis is continuing disease and complete resolution is rare. Asthma and fixed airflow obstruction developed in relatively few patients. The most important factors associated with a more rapid decline in FEV1 were female gender, smoking and prolonged eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  5. Early effects of treatment with radium and cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the proportions and absolute counts of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of women with cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluzanska, A.; Robak, T.; Kuchowicz, W.; Bartuzel, T.; Studencki, E.; Zadrozna, O.; Mazurowa, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 20 women with cervical carcinoma the T and B lymphocyte counts were determined in peripheral blood. The determinations were carried out before starting treatment and immediately after radium therapy in a mean dose of 6573 mgh and then after full therapeutic dose of cobalt-60 radiation of 4000 R. For identification of T lymphocytes the rosette E test was used and lymphocytes B were identified by means of the EAC rosette test. Presence of immunoglobulins on lymphocytes B was determined as well. In women with cervical carcinoma the total lymphocyte count in 1 mm 3 of blood, the proportions and absolute counts of T and B lymphocytes were not different from those in healthy women. Immediately after radium therapy the lymphocyte count in peripheral blood fell which was due mainly to a fall of the total count and in the proportion of B lymphocytes. The proportion of lymphocytes T was unchanged and their quantitative fall was statistically not significant. After application of the total therapeutic dose of cobalt-60 radiation a further fall of lymphocyte count was observed, due to a fall of the absolute count of T and B lymphocytes. Their proportions were unchanged. (author)

  6. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC), and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for All Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Dell Railey, Mary; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because infants with SCID have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 patients with SCID transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive patients with classic SCID who received either T-cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N = 154) or HLA-identical (N = 18) nonablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982 to 2013. The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared with 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (35.5%), and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. An absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T-cell function was found in all patients. Infants with SCID appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral, and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and an absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T-cell function confirms the diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body weight, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count in patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy: A single-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Y.; Winarto, H.

    2017-08-01

    The side effects of chemotherapy, a treatment modality of ovarian cancer, can disrupt overall treatment. To date, the clinical and laboratory profiles of ovarian cancer patients during chemotherapy have not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, including body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). To generate these clinical and laboratory profiles, we collected secondary data from the medical records of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. We enrolled 23 patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of chemotherapy. Mean patient BMI before and after chemotherapy was 22.86 kg/m2 and 21.78 kg/m2, respectively. Hb levels before chemotherapy were 8-13 g/dl, with Hb Hb ≥ 10 g/dl in 22 patients (95.65%). Mean ANC was 5845.6 ± 3325.0. An average of 24.65% of patients experienced anemia after each cycle of chemotherapy. Mean ANC before chemotherapy was 3.5582 ± 3.3250. An average of 26.81% of patients had ANC Hb ≥ 10 g/dl before chemotherapy, 16 (72.72%) experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. Of the 20 patients (60.87%) with normal BMI or higher, 14 experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. The mean patient body weight decreased after six cycles of chemotherapy. Hb and ANC were persistently decreased in approximately a quarter of the 23 subjects. The decrease in ANC was not influenced by initial Hb and BMI.

  8. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity.

  9. Eosinophils in glioblastoma biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Colleen S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The development of this malignant glial lesion involves a multi-faceted process that results in a loss of genetic or epigenetic gene control, un-regulated cell growth, and immune tolerance. Of interest, atopic diseases are characterized by a lack of immune tolerance and are inversely associated with glioma risk. One cell type that is an established effector cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease is the eosinophil. In response to various stimuli, the eosinophil is able to produce cytotoxic granules, neuromediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-fibrotic and angiogenic factors involved in pathogen clearance and tissue remodeling and repair. These various biological properties reveal that the eosinophil is a key immunoregulatory cell capable of influencing the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Of central importance to this report is the observation that eosinophil migration to the brain occurs in response to traumatic brain injury and following certain immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM. Although eosinophils have been identified in various central nervous system pathologies, and are known to operate in wound/repair and tumorstatic models, the potential roles of eosinophils in GBM development and the tumor immunological response are only beginning to be recognized and are therefore the subject of the present review.

  10. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA. A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG, PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  11. Role of tissue eosinophils in oral Leukoplakia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhura, M G; Gajalakshmi, S; Kumar, B Veerendra; Suma, S; Sarita, Y; Shweta, R D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well - recognized. Studies have reported both favorable and unfavorable prognoses associated with tissue eosinophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of eosinophils in the development of tumor is still unclear. The present study was an attempt to elucidate the potential role of tissue eosinophils in oral leukoplakia, a potentially malignant lesion. To count eosinophils in tissues of normal subjects and oral leukoplakia cases. To compare tissue eosinophil count (TEC) between normal and oral leukoplakia cases. To compare TEC between dysplastic and non-dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia and to correlate with degree of epithelial dysplasia. A total of 85 cases (59 cases of oral leukoplakia and 26 normal oral tissues) constituted the study material. Tissue eosinophils were counted in 10 different high- power fields. Non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney post hoc analysis and Spearman's correlation statistics). Mean eosinophil count (MEC) in oral leukoplakia cases was significantly more when compared to normal subjects. MEC in dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia was significantly more when compared to those without epithelial dysplasia (Mann-Whitney U-test). Furthermore, MEC was directly proportional to the degree of epithelial dysplasia (Spearman's correlation statistics). TEC may be used as an adjunct to predict the malignant transformation of dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia. Eosinophilic infiltration in oral dysplastic cases should prompt a thorough evaluation for invasiveness, especially when features of invasion are absent or suspected in smaller biopsy specimens. Use of TEC as a prognostic indicator demands larger sample size and mandates long-term follow-up.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an Italian experience Esofagitis eosinofílica: una experiencia italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vindigni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: eosinophilic esophagitis is an esophageal disorder characterized by esophageal and/or upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and by dense esophageal eosinophilia associated with a normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. Prevalently reported in children, eosinophilic esophagitis has recently been reported with increased frequency also in adults. Aims: the purpose of this study was to report our experience with eosinophilic esophagitis in Italy, since there are only very few series of such patients in our country. Patients and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the histological data of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophagitis or reflux disease in the period September 2004-September 2008. Eosinophils were counted where they appeared most numerous in the biopsy, with a cutoff > 15 eosinophils in more than one high-power field as diagnostic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients were excluded if gastric or duodenal biopsies showed a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Results: twenty two patients (14 adults, 8 children, age range 2-59 years were identified according to the above criteria. The average eosinophil count was 86/ high-power field (range 31-150, associated with other pathologic features (eosinophilic microabscesses eosinophil degranulation, basal zone hyperplasia, papillary elongation. The main clinical complaints were dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn, and endoscopic findings consisted of mucosal thickening and inelasticity, longitudinal shearing, rings, and white specks, without difference between adults and children for both clinical and endoscopic variables. Conclusions: eosinophilic esophagitis is not rare in Italy, and displays clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features similar to those described in other countries.

  13. Relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ subset in peripheral blood following mobilization correlates closely and inversely with the absolute count of harvested stem cells in multiple myeloma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Bela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stem cells (SCs guarantee complete/longterm bone marrow (BM repopulation after SC-transplants. The aim of the study was to evaluate absolute count of total SCs (determined by ISHAGE-sequential-gating protocol – SCish and relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ (CD90+SCish subset in peripheral blood (PB as predictive factors of mobilization and apheresis product (AP quality. Methods. Mobilization included chemotherapy and granulocytegrowth- factor (G-CSF. Harvesting was performed by Spectra- Optia-IDL-system. The SCsish were determined as a constitutional part of CD34+ cells in the “stem-cell-region” using FC- 500 flow-cytometer. In this study, the original ISHAGEsequential- gating protocol was modified by introduction of anti-CD90-PE monoclonal-antibody into the analysis of CD90 expression on SCish (CD90+SCish. The results were presented as a percentage of SCish per nucleated-cell count, absolute SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP, percentage of the CD90+SCish expressed to SCish and absolute CD90+SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP. Results. The absolute count of total SCish and CD90+SCish was significantly higher (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0266, respectively in the AP than in the PB samples. The CD90+SCish/total SCish indexes from PB were higher than indexes from the AP (p = 0.039. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish showed a highly significant inverse correlation with the absolute count of total SCish in both, the PB and AP (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0013 respectively. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish from the PB also showed a significant (p = 0.0002 inverse relationship with total SCish count in the AP. Patients with less than 10% CD90+SCish in the PB had evidently higher (p = 0.0025 total SCish count in the AP. Conclusion. We speculate that lower CD90+SCish yield in the AP is not a consequence of an inferior collection efficacy, but most likely a result of several still not fully resolved immature SC

  14. Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli; Brotas, Arles; Lamy, Fabrício; Lisboa, Flávia; Lago, Eduardo; Azulay, David; Cuzzi, Tulia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of eosinophilic fasciitis, or Shulman syndrome, in a 35-year-old man and discuss its clinical and histopathologic aspects, as well as its relationship to scleroderma. Although controversial, the tendency is to set Shulman syndrome apart from all other sclerodermiform states.

  15. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  16. Reactions of eosinophilic granulocytes in the sputum and peripheral blood of children suffering from bronchial asthma with signs of eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic inflammation of the bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Koloskova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to improve the management of bronchial asthma in children by examining the peculiarities and diagnostic value of reaction markers of eosinophil granulocytes in the sputum and peripheral blood of patients with signs of eosinophil and non-eosinophil phenotypes of this disease. A cohort of 118 school-age children suffering from BA was examined during a period free from attacks. Group I (the main group included 61 schoolchildren with signs of eosinophil phenotype (EP of asthma detected by the character of bronchial inflammation with eosinophil granulocytes present in the sputum at a level of >3%, group II (the comparison group included 57 patients with a lower number of eosinophils in the sputum (non-eosinophil phenotype (NP of BA. The average index of the relative content of eosinophils in the peripheral blood among the representatives of group I was 5.82 ± 0.63%, and in children with the signs of NPBA – 6.02 ± 0.74% (P > 0.05, and average indices in the groups of absolute eosinophil number in the blood were 0.37 ± 0.04 and 0.41 ± 0.05 respectively (P > 0.05. The negative reserve of NBT eosinophils in the sputum as a test to verify EPBA showed the following diagnostic values: specificity – 83.3%, predicted value of a positive result – 95.6%. IL-5 content in the blood serum of children with EPBA was 5.99 ± 1.74 ng/ml, in patients of group ІІ – only 1.99 ± 0.49 ng/ml (P 1.0 ng/ml the risk of EPBA showed a statistically significant increase: OR = 4.13, RR = 2.02, and AR – 0.34. The efficacy of the standardized basic anti-inflammatory therapy in patients of clinical group I was higher as compared to the children with the signs of NPBA, which was illustrated by the reduced risk of inadequate control of the disease: the index of absolute risk decrease was 31.7%, relative risk – 57.1% with necessary minimal number of patients – 1.75.

  17. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in sev...

  18. Mepolizumab and exacerbations of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Pranabashis; Brightling, Christopher E; Hargadon, Beverley; Gupta, Sumit; Monteiro, William; Sousa, Ana; Marshall, Richard P; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D

    2009-03-05

    Exacerbations of asthma are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and with considerable use of health care resources. Preventing exacerbations remains an important goal of therapy. There is evidence that eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is associated with the risk of exacerbations. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 61 subjects who had refractory eosinophilic asthma and a history of recurrent severe exacerbations. Subjects received infusions of either mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody (29 subjects), or placebo (32) at monthly intervals for 1 year. The primary outcome measure was the number of severe exacerbations per subject during the 50-week treatment phase. Secondary outcomes included a change in asthma symptoms, scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ, in which scores range from 1 to 7, with lower values indicating more severe impairment and a change of 0.5 unit considered to be clinically important), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) after use of a bronchodilator, airway hyperresponsiveness, and eosinophil counts in the blood and sputum. Mepolizumab was associated with significantly fewer severe exacerbations than placebo over the course of 50 weeks (2.0 vs. 3.4 mean exacerbations per subject; relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.92; P=0.02) and with a significant improvement in the score on the AQLQ (mean increase from baseline, 0.55 vs. 0.19; mean difference between groups, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.62; P=0.02). Mepolizumab significantly lowered eosinophil counts in the blood (P<0.001) and sputum (P=0.002). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to symptoms, FEV(1) after bronchodilator use, or airway hyperresponsiveness. The only serious adverse events reported were hospitalizations for acute severe asthma. Mepolizumab therapy reduces exacerbations and improves AQLQ scores in patients

  19. Blood eosinophil levels in newborns with severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia treated with phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Banu; Beken, Serdar; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-06-01

    Newborns who suffer from jaundice and/or receive phototherapy (PT) are at a higher risk of developing asthma. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between bilirubin and peripheral eosinophil counts in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia needing PT. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed on 306 newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia with gestational age ≥35 weeks (Group 1) and the control group consisted of 295 age and gender-matched newborns (Group 2). Total serum bilirubin, hemoglobin, albumin, leucocyte and eosinophil counts before and after PT were recorded from medical charts. Findings : All the patients in Group 1 received phototherapy and 77 (25.2%) of them needed exchange transfusion (ET). Before receiving PT, the patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb and higher levels of total serum bilirubin and lymphocytes than those in Group 2 although there was no statistically significant difference with regard to peripheral eosinophil counts. Eosinophils were detected to be numerically lower in Group 1. Higher bilirubin subgroups had also lower eosinophil counts. The patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb, leucocyte, albumin and higher levels of eosinophil following PT. Peripheral eosinophil count may be affected by bilirubin levels and/or phototherapy. There is a need for further clinical research based on different models.

  20. Eosinophil as a Protective Cell in S. aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodriguez-Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell counts of leukocytes subpopulations are demonstrating to have an important value in predicting outcome in severe infections. We evaluated here the render of leukogram counts to predict outcome in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Data from patients admitted to the ICU of Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid from 2006 to 2011 with diagnosis of VAP caused by S. aureus were retrospectively collected for the study (n=44. Leukocyte counts were collected at ICU admission and also at VAP diagnosis. Our results showed that nonsurvivors had significant lower eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis performed by the Wald test for forward selection showed that eosinophil increments from ICU admission to VAP diagnosis and total eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis were protective factors against mortality in the first 28 days following diagnosis: (HR [CI 95%], P: (0.996 [0.993–0.999], 0.010; (0.370 [0.180–0.750], 0.006. Patients with eosinophil counts <30 cells/mm3 at diagnosis died earlier. Eosinophil counts identified survivors: (AUROC [CI 95%], P: (0.701 [0.519–0.882], 0.042. Eosinophil behaves as a protective cell in patients with VAP caused by S. aureus.

  1. Enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), Charlson Comorbidity Index and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors for survival of elderly patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated by immunochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, J; Todorovic Balint, M; Sretenovic, D Antic A; Balint, B; Perunicic Jovanovic, M; Andjelic, B; Vukovic, V; Djurasinovic, V; Bila, J; Pavlovic, M; Smiljanic, M; Mihaljevic, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) affects more commonly patients over 60 years. These patients have vast number of comorbidities which can modify survival as well as other clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic significance of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and comorbidities expressed with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A total of 182 DLBCL patients 60 years old and older were included, focusing on whole group and patients older than 70. All patients were treated with immunochemotherapy.Overall treatment response was achieved in 84.6% of patients. The NCCN-IPI was of highly prognostic value in the analyzed group (p1.1x109/L, AMC≤0.59x109/L, and LMR>2.8 were associated with more favorable outcome (p=0.029, p=0.019, p=0.028, respectively). The patients with CCI≥2 had poorer outcome (p=0.008) compared to the patients with CCI 0-1. Multivariate analysis showed that among ALC, AMC, LMR, NCCN-IPI and CCI, the NCCN-IPI was the critical parameter that significantly affected survival (pIPI and ALC proved their prognostic validity, while poorer outcome could be expected in older patients with high CCI (≥2). Furthermore, mentioned prognostic parameters retained their prognostic value in the group of patients older than 70.

  2. Association of sputum and blood eosinophil concentrations with clinical measures of COPD severity: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Hansel, Nadia N; Christenson, Stephanie; Putcha, Nirupama; Ortega, Victor E; Li, Xingnan; Barr, R Graham; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Couper, David J; Cooper, Christopher B; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; O'Neal, Wanda K; Paine, Richard; Peters, Stephen P; Alexis, Neil E; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2017-12-01

    Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0·64, p<0·0001), but with a high false-discovery rate of 72%. In a large, well characterised cohort of former and current smoking patients with a broad range of COPD severity, high concentrations of sputum

  3. Immunopathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hans-Uwe; Straumann, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus associated with dysphagia in adults and refractory reflux syndromes in children. Immunological and genetic approaches have been used to better understand the pathophysiology of the underlying inflammation. Evidence has accumulated that EoE represents a T-helper (Th) 2-type inflammatory disease, in which allergens play a role in triggering the disease. The majority of the patients suffer from concurrent allergic rhinitis, asthma, and eczema, and have a history of atopy. The chronic inflammatory response in EoE is associated with tissue damage and remodeling, both of which lead to esophageal dysfunction and bolus impaction. The new insights into the pathophysiology have resulted in the development of the first pharmacological therapies of EoE. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Mepolizumab for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakos, Mara N; Cargill, Shawna M; Waineo, Melissa F; Wolford, Allen L

    2017-07-01

    Published data on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy and safety of the interleukin-5 antagonist mepolizumab are reviewed. Asthma of the eosinophilic phenotype is characterized by persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation promoted primarily by T-helper type 2 cytokines, the key regulator of eosinophils. Patients with severe eosinophilic asthma are burdened by the need to administer high doses of corticosteroids to help manage their symptoms. In November 2015, mepolizumab (Nucala, GlaxoSmithKline) gained U.S. marketing approval for use as an add-on maintenance treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma in patients 12 years of age or older, making it the first personalized targeted therapy for this population. Efficacy results from clinical trials provided evidence of the corticosteroid-sparing effects of mepolizumab and its ability to reduce both blood and sputum eosinophil counts. Safety data from several Phase II or III studies involving a total of more than 1,300 patients indicated that mepolizumab was generally well tolerated, and types and rates of adverse events in mepolizumab recipients were comparable to those reported with placebo use; the only mepolizumab-associated serious adverse drug events were asthma exacerbations in 2 patients. The recommended dosage of mepolizumab is 100 mg administrated via subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks. Mepolizumab is a safe and efficacious novel add-on therapy for a small subgroup of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma whose asthma is not adequately controlled by standard regimens for asthma treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  6. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis | Chopdat | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract is a common feature of numerous disorders, such as drug reactions, helminth infections, hypereosinophilic syndromes, allergic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrooesophageal reflux disease.

  7. Eosinophils: multifunctional and distinctive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    The eosinophil is a granulocyte prominent in allergic diseases and inflammatory responses against helminthic parasites. The eosinophil was named by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, and derives from the intense staining of its granules with the acidic dye eosin. It has been the subject of extensive investigation ever since. It is strongly associated with human diseases involving mucosal surfaces, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal disorders. Eosinophils are likely involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, innate immunity to certain microbes and pathological changes in allergic disorders. Thus, the eosinophil is considered a multifunctional leukocyte that contributes to a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, depending on its location and activation status. Further studies will be necessary to better understand the biology of this extraordinary leukocyte and to reveal the importance of the cell in human health and disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Skin Rashes, Eosinophilic Cholecystitis, and Retinal Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingbing; Liu, Xialin; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-11-18

    BACKGROUND Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), is a rare vasculitis of unknown etiology. Most of the patients have a long history of asthma and then develop autoimmune inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels, with consequent reduction of blood flow to various organs and tissues. EGPA can cause disorders in multiple systems; the most seriously affected organs are the retina, kidney, brain, cardiovascular system, and skin. CASE REPORT The patient was hospitalized for high fever and skin rashes and then developed right upper abdominal pain, decreased visual acuity, coma, and convulsions. Laboratory investigations showed marked eosinophilia (9412/mm3). Following cholecystectomy, histopathological examination revealed a marked inflammatory cell infiltrate composed mainly of eosinophils. Retinal vasculitis and medium and peripheral vascular closure were confirmed by fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA). The coma and convulsions were controlled successfully by high-dose methylprednisolone. After gradual tapering of the methylprednisolone, the patient's blood count recovered to a normal level, and the other systematic disorders disappeared; however, she was left with irreversible blindness. CONCLUSIONS EGPA can cause eosinophilic cholecystitis, retinal vasculitis, and neuropathy in the short term and calls for effective treatments in order to avoid binocular blindness.

  9. Homeostatic Eosinophils: Characteristics and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marichal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are typically considered to be specialized effector cells that are recruited to the tissues as a result of T helper type 2 (Th2 cell responses associated with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. Once at the site of injury, eosinophils release their cytotoxic granule proteins as well as preformed cytokines and lipid mediators, contributing to parasite destruction but also to exacerbation of inflammation and tissue damage. Accumulating evidence indicates that, besides their roles in Th2 responses, eosinophils also regulate homeostatic processes at steady state, thereby challenging the exclusive paradigm of the eosinophil as a destructive and inflammatory cell. Indeed, under baseline conditions, eosinophils rapidly leave the bloodstream to enter tissues, mainly the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, adipose tissue, thymus, uterus, and mammary glands, where they regulate a variety of important biological functions, such as immunoregulation, control of glucose homeostasis, protection against obesity, regulation of mammary gland development, and preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. This article provides an overview of the characteristics and functions of these homeostatic eosinophils.

  10. COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltboli, Osama; Bafadhel, Mona; Hollins, Fay; Wright, Adam; Hargadon, Beverley; Kulkarni, Neeta; Brightling, Christopher

    2014-07-09

    Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic macrophage red hue (<6%), an indirect measure of macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils, and area under the curve sputum eosinophil count (≥ 3%/year). Eosinophil efferocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages was studied in 17 COPD subjects and 8 normal controls. There were no differences in baseline lung function, health status or exacerbation frequency between the groups: A-low red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n=10), B-high red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n=16), C-low red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n=19) and D- high red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n=58). Positive bacterial culture was lower in groups A (10%) and B (6%) compared to C (44%) and D (21%) (p=0.01). The fall in FEV1 from stable to exacerbation was greatest in group A (ΔFEV1 [95 % CI] -0.41 L [-0.65 to -0.17]) versus group B (-0.16 L [-0.32 to -0.011]), C (-0.11 L [-0.23 to -0.002]) and D (-0.16 L [-0.22 to -0.10]; p=0.02). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils was impaired in COPD versus controls (86 [75 to 92]% versus 93 [88 to 96]%; p=0.028); was most marked in group A (71 [70 to 84]%; p=0.0295) and was inversely correlated with exacerbation frequency (r=-0.63; p=0.006). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations.

  11. Eosinophilic airway inflammation and exacerbations of COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, R; Green, R H; Brightling, C E; Shelley, M; Hargadon, B; McKenna, S; Monteiro, W; Berry, M; Parker, D; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2007-05-01

    Evidence suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. The present authors tested the hypothesis that a management strategy that aims to reduce sputum eosinophil counts is associated with a reduction in exacerbations of COPD. A total of 82 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups. One group was treated according to traditional guidelines (British Thoracic Society (BTS) group) and the other (sputum group) was treated with the additional aim of minimising eosinophilic airway inflammation, assessed using the induced sputum eosinophil count. The primary outcome was exacerbations, which were categorised as mild, moderate or severe. The frequency of severe exacerbations per patient per year was 0.5 and 0.2 in the BTS and sputum groups, respectively (mean reduction 62%). The majority of this benefit was confined to patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation. There was no difference in the frequency of mild and moderate exacerbations. The average daily dose of inhaled or oral corticosteroids during the trial did not differ between the groups. Out of 42 patients in the sputum group, 17 required regular oral corticosteroids to minimise eosinophilic airway inflammation. A management strategy that aims to minimise eosinophilic airway inflammation, as well as symptoms, is associated with a reduction in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  13. Effects of nickel on eosinophil survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Goi, Yoshiaki; Hong, Jang Ja; Seyama, Toshio; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Wada, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Accessories, watches, coins and other items containing metal sometimes cause contact dermatitis and metal allergy. Among metals, nickel in alloys is ionized by sweat on the surface of the skin and exhibits particularly marked irritancy and allergenicity. Although eosinophils play important roles in allergy, the effects of nickel on eosinophils have not been elucidated. Eosinophils were prepared from the peritoneal cavity in rats immunized with Ascaris suum extract. Purified rat eosinophils were incubated in the presence of various kinds of metals including nickel. The viability of eosinophils was analyzed using a flow cytometer. When rat eosinophils were incubated for 3 days in the presence of nickel chloride at 30-1,000 microM, the viability of eosinophils was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Nickel chloride at 300 muM significantly increased the percentage of annexin V+ PI- eosinophils. The population of annexin V+ PI- eosinophils was also increased by nickel sulfate, cobalt chloride and zinc sulfate. The binding of nickel ions to eosinophils was detected by flow cytometer. Nickel ions bind to eosinophils and decrease the viability of eosinophils through the induction of apoptosis. Nickel ions may exhibit activity which modifies the function of eosinophils in allergy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Ergun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for diagnosis in three patients and for assessing treatment response in one patient. Eosinophilic fasciitis may co-exist with morhoea and lichen sclerosus. In view of the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of these disorders, MRI may be helful in delineating the conditions by detecting involvement of fascia.

  16. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.

  17. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  18. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  19. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopathologic studies. The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in World J Gastroenterol 2007 July; 13 (27): 3760-3762, about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies, which are considered necessary for its diagnosis. PMID:18461667

  20. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    alveolar bone. Involvement of other bones is ruled out by nucleotide imaging study. CONCLUSION: EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever there is ... KEYWORDS: Eosinophilic granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis, oral manifestations, alveolar bone .... enough to initiate healing and spontaneous.

  1. Carbamazepine-induced eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeer, V K; Devi, Sobhana R; Chettupuzha, Antony Paul; Mustafa, C P; Sandesh, K; Kumar, Sunil K; Thomas, Varghese; Ashraf, A Syed

    2002-01-01

    We describe a 15-year-old boy who was on carbamazepine for the past 8 years for seizure disorder, who developed recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction. Full-thickness small bowel biopsy obtained at laparotomy was consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. He improved clinically after tapering the drug.

  2. Toxocara-induced eosinophilic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.; Egbers, M.W.E.C.; Lokhorst, W.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The immunoinflammatory response to parasitic nematode infections and allergic diseases have some similarities, the most profound being the increases in eosinophils and serum total IgE concentration. Whether parasitic infections stimulate or inhibit allergic asthma is a matter of debate. We

  3. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How do we diagnose? APFED’s Educational Webinar Series © American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders (APFED) 2006-2015 All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced in whole or in part without express written consent from APFED. About EAD What is ...

  4. Evaluation of the eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Sezen, Seda; Calim, Omer Faruk; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction of the nasal mucosa, the primary mediator of which is immunoglobulin E. Allergic rhinitis occurs in children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between allergies and the eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in children with allergic rhinitis with a positive skin-prick test. This study was planned and performed as a case-control study. There were 695 patients who presented to our clinic who were enrolled in the study. Only group 4 fit the criteria for allergic rhinitis. Group 1 (nonsensitized asymptomatic [control group]), group 2 (nonsensitized symptomatic), group 3 (sensitized asymptomatic), and group 4 (sensitized symptomatic). The patients' allergy symptoms and skin test results were assessed and compared. The eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for each patient was calculated. The eosinophil and lymphocyte counts and the eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were calculated for each group. The eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil counts in groups 3 and 4 were significantly higher (p pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis. This parameter is inexpensive to measure and easy to use and calculate.

  5. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  6. Extracellular DNA traps in bronchoalveolar fluid from a murine eosinophilic pulmonary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A A; Porto, B N; Nuñez, N K; Souza, R G; Vargas, M H M; Silveira, J S; Souza, T T R; Jaeger, N; Pitrez, P M

    2014-12-01

    Asthma is associated with a loss of the structural integrity of airway epithelium and dysfunction of the physical barrier, which protects airways from external harmful factors. Granulocyte activation causes the formation of extracellular traps, releasing web-like structures of DNA and proteins, being important to kill pathogens extracellularly. We investigated whether eosinophils infiltrating airways in an experimental model of asthma would induce eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. We showed that an ovalbumin (OVA) asthma protocol presented a significant increase in eosinophil counts with increased extracellular DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as in lung tissue, confirming the presence of DNA traps colocalized with eosinophil peroxidase. EETs formation was reversed by DNase treatment. With these approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that OVA-challenged mice release extracellular DNA traps, which could aggravate pulmonary dysfunction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Yuki; Odaka, Akio; Inoue, Seiichiro; Komagome, Masahiko; Beck, Yoshifumi; Tamura, Masanori; Arai, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was referred with right abdominal pain. Imaging demonstrated marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and peri-cholecystic effusion. Acute acalculous cholecystitis was diagnosed. Symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment, therefore cholecystectomy was performed. Pathology indicated infiltration of eosinophils into all layers of the gallbladder wall. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has had no further symptoms. Eosinophilic cholecystitis is acute acalculous cholecystitis with infiltration of eosinophils. The causes include parasites, gallstones, allergies, and medications. In addition, it may be seen in conjunction with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic pancreatitis, or both. An allergic reaction to abnormal bile is thought to be the underlying cause. The present case did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of eosinophilic cholecystitis, but this may have been in the process of developing. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong

    1995-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults

  9. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  10. Scleroderma mimicker – Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjali Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening of the deep fascia and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. It may mimic scleroderma and other scleroderma-like conditions. It may be a manifestation of paraneoplastic disorders or may be associated with hematological disorders including lymphomas. Definitive diagnosis is made on histological examination of a deep skin biopsy revealing thickened deep fascia and infiltration by lymphocytes and eosinophils. Enhancement of deep fascia on Gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may be used as a substitute for skin biopsy. Ultrasound imaging is an evolving imaging tool for diagnosing it. Glucocorticoids with or without immunosuppressive agents remains the mainstay of therapy with good response, generally. A younger age of onset, morphea like lesions and dermal fibrosclerosis is more likely to be associated with the refractory disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may result in better outcomes in terms of morbidity and quality of life of the patients.

  11. Corticosteroids for parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaviratananich, Sikawat; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Ngamjarus, Chetta

    2015-02-17

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the major cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis. Dead larvae of this parasite cause inflammation and exacerbate symptoms of meningitis. Corticosteroids are drugs used to reduce the inflammation caused by this parasite. To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), Scopus (1960 to December 2014), Web of Science (1955 to December 2014), LILACS (1982 to December 2014) and CINAHL (1981 to December 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids versus placebo for eosinophilic meningitis. Two review authors (SiT, SaT) independently collected and extracted study data. We graded the methodological quality of the RCTs. We identified and analysed outcomes and adverse effects. We did not identifiy any new trials for inclusion or exclusion in this 2014 update. One study involving 110 participants (55 participants in each group) met our inclusion criteria. The corticosteroid (prednisolone) showed a benefit in shortening the median time to resolution of headaches (five days in the treatment group versus 13 days in the control group, P value treatment (9.1% versus 45.5%, P value treatment group (12.7% versus 40%, P value = 0.002). There was a reduction in the median time of analgesic use in participants receiving corticosteroids (10.5 versus 25.0, P value = 0.038). There were no reported adverse effects from prednisolone in the treatment group. Corticosteroids significantly help relieve headache in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, who have a pain score of four or more on a visual analogue scale. However, there is only one RCT supporting this benefit and this trial did not clearly mention allocation concealment and stratification. Therefore, we agreed to grade our included study as a moderate quality trial. Future well-designed RCTs are necessary.

  12. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  13. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Spencer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include: classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines.

  14. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    OpenAIRE

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; Subandriyo; D Piedrafita; H.W Raadsma

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, Merino sheep, b...

  15. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourdeau, P M; Djezzar, S; Estival, J L; Zammit, C M; Richard, R C; Castot, A C

    2001-04-01

    To report a case of eosinophilic pleuropericarditis resulting from concomitant use of vitamins B5 and H. A 76-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital because of chest pain and dyspnea related to pleurisy and a pericardial tamponade. This patient had no history of allergy and had been taking vitamins B5 and H for two months. Blood tests performed showed an inflammatory syndrome and a high eosinophil concentration (1200-1500 cells/mm3). Pleurocentesis and pericardiotomy yielded a sterile exudative fluid with an eosinophilic infiltrate. There were no nuclear antibodies and no rheumatic factor; screenings for viruses, parasites, bacteria, and malignant tumor were negative. A myelogram, biopsy of the iliac crest bone, and concentration of immunoglobulin E were also normal. After withdrawal of the vitamins, the patient recovered and the eosinophilia disappeared. Prolonged hypereosinophilia has marked predilection to damage specific organs, including the heart, but pleuropericardial effusion is uncommon. Drug-related pleuropericarditis usually occurs without an increased eosinophil count. Other drugs responsible for eosinophilic pleuropericarditis are cephalosporins, dantrolene, propylthiouracil, and nitrofurantoin. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of pleuropericarditis related to vitamins B5 and H. This case suggests that vitamins B5 and H may cause symptomatic, life-threatening, eosinophilic pleuropericarditis. Physicians prescribing these commonly used vitamins should be aware of this potential adverse reaction.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRA -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a form of blood cell cancer characterized ...

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis: indications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is still debated whether the focus of treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) should be directed toward a symptomatic or histological response, or even toward a combination of both. This question cannot be answered as long as we have no solid data evaluating the long-term consequences of untreated symptoms and untreated inflammation. Nevertheless, today there are at least three established reasons to treat patients with clinically and histologically active EoE. First, dysphagia has a substantial negative impact on the patient's daily life. Despite the fact that patients often cope with this symptom and accept even marked restrictions in their nutritional habits, they usually experience a marked enhancement in quality of life under treatment. Second, untreated EoE harbors the risk of long-lasting food impactions. There is evidence that this unpleasant, unforeseeable and even risky incident can be prevented by efficient treatment of the eosinophilic inflammation. Third, it has been demonstrated in several clinical studies as well as in animal models that unbridled eosinophilic inflammation leads to a so-called remodeling of the esophagus with wall thickening, stiffness of the organ and stricture. Prevention of esophageal damage caused by tissue remodeling is therefore another reason to strongly advocate a consequential treatment. Finally, there is increasing evidence that untreated EoE might be a risk factor for acute infection of the esophagus with herpes simplex virus (HSV), leading to a severe ulcerative and extremely painful esophagitis. Prevention of HSV esophagitis might therefore be a fourth indication for treating EoE. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Reliability of histologic assessment in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners, M J; Ambarus, C A; Bredenoord, A J; Verheij, J; Lauwers, G Y; Walsh, J C; Katzka, D A; Nelson, S; van Viegen, T; Furuta, G T; Gupta, S K; Stitt, L; Zou, G; Parker, C E; Shackelton, L M; D Haens, G R; Sandborn, W J; Dellon, E S; Feagan, B G; Collins, M H; Jairath, V; Pai, R K

    2018-04-01

    The validity of the eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) has been demonstrated, but only preliminary reliability data exist. Formally assess the reliability of the EoEHSS and additional histologic features. Four expert gastrointestinal pathologists independently reviewed slides from adult patients with EoE (N = 45) twice, in random order, using standardised training materials and scoring conventions for the EoEHSS and additional histologic features agreed upon during a modified Delphi process. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for scoring the EoEHSS, a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall histopathologic disease severity, and additional histologic features were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Almost perfect intra-rater reliability was observed for the composite EoEHSS scores and the VAS. Inter-rater reliability was also almost perfect for the composite EoEHSS scores and substantial for the VAS. Of the EoEHSS items, eosinophilic inflammation was associated with the highest ICC estimates and consistent with almost perfect intra- and inter-rater reliability. With the exception of dyskeratotic epithelial cells and surface epithelial alteration, ICC estimates for the remaining EoEHSS items were above the benchmarks for substantial intra-rater, and moderate inter-rater reliability. Estimation of peak eosinophil count and number of lamina propria eosinophils were associated with the highest ICC estimates among the exploratory items. The composite EoEHSS and most component items are associated with substantial reliability when assessed by central pathologists. Future studies should assess responsiveness of the score to change after a therapeutic intervention to facilitate its use in clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  2. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis: rapidly emerging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2012-02-03

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), first described in the early 1990's, has rapidly evolved as distinctive chronic inflammatory esophageal disease. The diagnosis is based clinically by the presence of symptoms related to an esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an eosinophil-predominant inflammation once other conditions leading to esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. This striking male-prevalent disease has an increasing incidence and prevalence in the westernised countries. Currently, EoE represents the main cause of dysphagia and bolus impaction in adult patients. Despite the fact that EoE often occurs in atopic patients, the value of allergic testing is still under discussion. Topical corticosteroids lead to a rapid improvement of active EoE clinically and histologically; they are therefore regarded as first-line drug therapy. Elimination diets have similar efficacy as topical corticosteroids, but their long-term use is limited by practical issues. Esophageal dilation of EoE-induced strictures can also be effective in improving symptoms, but this therapy has no effect on the underlying inflammation. Neither the diagnostic nor the long-term therapeutic strategies are yet fully defined.

  4. Role of Adhesion Molecules in Eosinophil Activation: A Comparative Study on the Effect of Adhesion Molecules on Eosinophil Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: The regulation of adhesion molecules, by not only preventing eosinophil adhesion but also eosinophil activation, may be a potential target in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disorders.

  5. Eosinophil cytokines: Emerging roles in immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige eLacy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils derive from the bone marrow and circulate at low levels in the blood in healthy individuals. These granulated cells preferentially leave the circulation and marginate to tissues, where they are implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In diseases such as allergic inflammation, eosinophil numbers escalate markedly in the blood and tissues where inflammatory foci are located. Eosinophils possess a range of immunomodulatory factors that are released upon cell activation, including over 35 cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Unlike T and B cells, eosinophils can rapidly release cytokines within minutes in response to stimulation. While some cytokines are stored as preformed mediators in crystalloid granules and secretory vesicles, eosinophils are also capable of undergoing de novo synthesis and secretion of these immunological factors. Some of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the final steps of cytokine secretion are hypothesized to involve binding of membrane fusion complexes comprised of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. These intracellular receptors regulate the release of granules and vesicles containing a range of secreted proteins, among which are cytokines and chemokines. Emerging evidence from both human and animal model-based research has suggested an active participation of eosinophils in several physiological/pathological processes such as immunomodulation and tissue remodeling. The observed eosinophil effector functions in health and disease implicate eosinophil cytokine secretion as a fundamental immunoregulatory process. The focus of this review is to describe the cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines that are elaborated by eosinophils, and to illustrate some of the intracellular events leading to the release of eosinophil-derived cytokines.

  6. Bronchodilator responses after methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in children with asthma: their relationships with eosinophil markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Seo, Sung Chul; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Bo Hyun; Song, Dae Jin; Choung, Ji Tae

    2012-09-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) and eosinophilic inflammation are characteristic features of asthma. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of BDR after methacholine challenge or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge to blood eosinophil markers in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenges were performed on 69 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma. BDR was calculated as the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expressed as percentage change of the value immediately after the each challenge and the value after inhalation of salbutamol. Serum total IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were determined for each subject. A positive relationship between serum total IgE levels and BDR was found only after the AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.345, p = .001) rather than after the methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.007, p = .495). Peripheral blood eosinophil counts correlated more significantly with BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.212, p = .001) than BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.002, p = .724). Both BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.063, p = .038) and BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.192, p = .001) were significantly correlated with serum ECP levels. BDR after AMP challenge may be more closely related to eosinophilic inflammation, compared with that after methacholine challenge.

  7. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical therapy in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease of the oesophagus. If left untreated, eosinophilic inflammation induces fibrosis, angiogenesis and stricture formation, resulting finally in a so called remodelling with structural and functional damage of the organ. In addition, patients with untreated EoE are permanently at risk of experiencing food impactions. It is therefore widely accepted that active EoE should be treated. Any treatment applied in EoE should ideally achieve two therapeutic goals: first, resolution of symptoms, and, second, control of inflammation. Avoidance of food allergens by elimination diets as well as anti-inflammatory drugs have both the ability to achieve these goals. Among the pharmacological options, only corticosteroids have documented efficacy, whereas alternatives have shown rather disappointing results or are still under evaluation. Of note, swallowed topical corticosteroids are at least as efficient as systemically administered corticosteroids but have fewer side effects. As such topical corticosteroids are widely used as first-line drug in the treatment of EoE, even though this compound is currently not approved for this indication by regulatory authorities. Unfortunately, complete resolution of symptoms can be achieved with swallowed topical corticosteroids only in approximately 70% of patients despite appropriate dosing and despite correct administration of these compounds. Control of inflammation is even harder to achieve, as only in approximately 50% of patients tissue eosinophilia disappears completely under this anti-inflammatory medication. For this group of "difficult to treat" patients, therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Fortunately several anti-allergic drugs and several biologicals are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of Eosinophilic Granule Protein Deposition in Biopsies of Inflammatory Skin Diseases by Automated Image Analysis of Highly Sensitive Immunostaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiehl

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulocytes are major effector cells in inflammation. Extracellular deposition of toxic eosinophilic granule proteins (EGPs, but not the presence of intact eosinophils, is crucial for their functional effect in situ. As even recent morphometric approaches to quantify the involvement of eosinophils in inflammation have been only based on cell counting, we developed a new method for the cell‐independent quantification of EGPs by image analysis of immunostaining. Highly sensitive, automated immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin sections of inflammatory skin diseases with 4 different primary antibodies against EGPs. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed by colour translation, linear combination and automated thresholding. Using strictly standardized protocols, the assay was proven to be specific and accurate concerning segmentation in 8916 fields of 520 sections, well reproducible in repeated measurements and reliable over 16 weeks observation time. The method may be valuable for the cell‐independent segmentation of immunostaining in other applications as well.

  10. A Curious Case of Proximal Muscle Weakness with Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciel Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM is part of a rare disorder, eosinophilic myopathies (EM, which is a form of polymyositis characterized by the presence of eosinophils in muscle biopsy sections and occasionally blood eosinophilia. Herein, we are presenting an interesting case of eosinophilic polymyositis presenting with muscle pain with no other organ systems involved.

  11. Successful Treatment For Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL With Imatinib Mesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane da Silva Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL with mutation in alfa PDGFR gene exhibiting a satisfactory response to treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 25-year-old man presented in a hematology service with a persistent cough and hemogram alterations. His blood count showed a hemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL and a white blood cell count of 94,030/mm3, eosinophils were 68% of all cells. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hypercellularity with marked eosinophilia (77% and erythroid differentiation series was hypocellular with normoblast maturation. The immunohistochemically of the bone biopsy was positive for myeloperoxidase and negative for CD34/CD99, consistent with CEL. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for the beta-fraction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRβ and Philadelphia chromosome (Ph 1 were negative and the alfa PDGFR (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor was positive and showed heterozygosis in c.2531T>C on 18 Exon and homozygous in C.2562+1G>A at the region of the splicing site at the 18 intron. Treatment was initiated and maintained by administering 400mg/day imatinib mesylate. Laboratory findings returned to normal ranges, with clinical improvement and a hematological response observed after the second month of therapy. Currently, the patient’s blood count shows the white blood cell count (5,400 total leukocytes, eosinophils (8.6/mm3, hemoglobin (15.5 g/dl, hematocrit (45.4% and platelets (298,000/mm3 within normal ranges. The mutation search was negative in in peripheral blood one year after the initial treatment. Our work corroborates other studies on the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of patients with CSF PDGFR alpha positive. We emphasize the importance of molecular studies, considering its relevance for the correct staging of the disease. Since CEL is a rare disease, it is important to define its etiology and anticipate its treatment, thus minimizing the damage induced by

  12. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delayed, caused primarily by immune mechanisms other than classical IgE-mediated food allergy. Once a causative food ... specific responses in allergy? » Dietary Therapy and Nutrition Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Work Group Report of ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: eosinophil peroxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Home Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email ... EPXD peroxidase and phospholipid deficiency in eosinophils Presentey anomaly Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  14. Idiopathic eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the latest cognitions, diagnosis and treatment strategies of the three main representatives of the eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID): idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis (EE), idiopathic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) with gastrointestinal involvement. These disorders share important similarities: their origin is unknown and their pathogenesis is due to a histological inflammatory response characterised by eosinophilic tissue infiltration. In spite of these parallels, the courses and prognoses of the diseases differ radically: EE is restricted to the oesophagus, and though it may significantly decrease the patient's quality of life, it has a favourable long-term prognosis. In EGE, the inflammatory process involves several segments of the gastrointestinal tract but this chronic inflammation may also be considered a benign disorder. In contrast, HES is primarily a multisystem disorder that may involve several organs, including the digestive tract, and often has a fatal outcome.

  15. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.W.; Cruise, K.M.; Mitchell, G.F.; Watt, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 x 10 7 eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where nescessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10 8 eosinophils (purity >95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 x 10 4 cells/minute, purity >99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (between 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation, by using 125 I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125 I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights >50,000). No 125 I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). (author)

  16. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  17. Eosinophilia detected by automated blood cell counting in ambulatory North American outpatients. Incidence and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigden, M; Graydon, C

    1997-09-01

    To audit a cohort of ambulatory outpatients with eosinophilia detected on automated blood cell counting. Specific objectives included the determination of whether the eosinophilia had been anticipated, the etiology of the eosinophilia, the clinical follow-up and investigations performed on patients with eosinophilia, and the effect of the detection of eosinophilia on patient management and ultimate clinical outcome. A year-long retrospective review of all patients with an absolute eosinophil count of greater than 0.7 x 10(9)/L. A large outpatient laboratory system. The patient population was managed by family physicians and specialists. Data collection included the results of the hematology profile, the absolute eosinophil count, the clinical situation responsible for the hematologic profile determination, and the probable cause of eosinophilia. Individual physicians were surveyed to determine if discovery of the eosinophilia had changed patient management plan or clinical outcome. Out of 195,300 patients who had a hematology profile performed, 225 were found to have an absolute eosinophilia count higher than 0.7 x 10(9)/L. The overall incidence of eosinophilia in the study population was 0.1%. The eosinophilia was not anticipated in 85% of patients. No obvious cause was detected for the eosinophilia in 36% of patients. Various allergic diseases were responsible for the eosinophilia in the majority of the remaining patients. Fewer than 9% of individuals manifested a serious systemic illness or parasitemia. Further clinical follow-up had been performed in 69% of patients. Additional laboratory tests had been ordered in 59% of patients. The laboratory tests most frequently ordered were a repeat hematology profile or stool examinations for ova and parasites. In only two instances did the discovery of the eosinophilia appear to result in a significant change in patient management or ultimate clinical income. The vast majority of eosinophilias detected in ambulatory

  18. Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein - a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop-Bailey David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP. This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.

  19. Eosinophils and eosinophil-derived proteins in children with moderate asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, MO; Hovenga, H; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory parameters can contribute to the diagnosis of asthma, which is often a difficult procedure in paediatric patients, The aim of this study was to investigate the value of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in the diagnosis of paediatric asthma. The

  20. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Haydee; Beccar Varela, Lucia; De Felippi, Maria S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  1. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  2. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  3. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: An Exceedingly Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard José Lopes Azevedo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enterocolitis is an exceptionally rare condition with few described cases in the literature, representing the least frequent manifestation of the wide spectrum of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. We describe a case of a young male patient presenting with a panmural form of the disease, manifested by abdominal pain, distention, and watery diarrhea with 4 days of evolution, bowel wall thickening, and ascites. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual presentation form of this entity. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its nonspecific symptoms, associated with the absence of standardized histological criteria, hence requiring a high level of suspicion. There is also no consensus regarding treatment: it should be individualized according to the patient's age and severity of symptoms.

  4. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  5. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  6. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  7. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  8. Human eosinophils constitutively express a unique serine protease, PRSS33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumika Toyama

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Activated eosinophils may induce fibroblast extracellular matrix protein synthesis via cell surface expression of PRSS33, which would at least partly explain eosinophils' role(s in airway remodeling.

  9. SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Mª Paz; Cañas, Jose A.; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  10. Goodpasture's syndrome associated with pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, K H; Houk, R W; Vicks, S L; Desrosier, K F; Ridley, D J; Boswell, R N

    1988-08-01

    Lung hemorrhage and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody mediated nephritis define Goodpasture's syndrome. We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with unique clinical findings of Goodpasture's syndrome. Our patient initially presented with leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin followed by the development of nephritis and lung hemorrhage. An open lung biopsy done prior to diagnosing anti-GBM antibody disease demonstrated an intense eosinophilic vasculitis. Skin vasculitis has only been rarely reported, and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis associated with Goodpasture's syndrome.

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: emerging therapies and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Twenty years have passed since eosinophilic esophagitis was first recognized as a new and distinct entity. Current treatment modalities for eosinophilic esophagitis include the "3 Ds": drugs, allergen avoidance with diet, and esophageal dilation. Drugs entail the limitation that only corticosteroids have a proven efficacy; most other compounds evoke only a minimal effect. Diets must be maintained continuously and they interfere markedly with the quality of life, possibly even involving some risk of malnutrition. A greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis, natural history, and disease spectrum will inevitably lead to improved therapeutic outcomes for this emerging entity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of the full blood count and differential parameters to assess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The %CD38onCD8 and CD4+ counts were determined by flow cytometry and the FBC was performed on a Siemens ADVIA 2120 system. FBC parameters investigated were total white cell count (WCC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, platelet count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count, and percentage of ...

  13. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is increased in children with asthma and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeta; Ragazzo, Vincenzo; Costella, Silvia; Piacentini, Giorgio; Boner, Attilio; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Kantar, Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    Asthma is associated with food allergies in a significant number of children, with evidence linking allergies to asthma severity and morbidity. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that the eosinophilic lower airway inflammation is higher in asthmatic children with food allergies. The aims of the study were to compare the eosinophilic inflammatory markers in asthmatic children with and without food allergies. Children with asthma, with (n = 22) and (n = 53) without food allergies were included. All subjects were classified according to the GINA guidelines (2009) and had received at least 3 months of anti-inflammatory therapy prior to testing. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum differential counts were performed using standard techniques.   Children with asthma and food allergies had significantly higher fractional exhaled nitric oxide median (range) [(22.4 (6.1-86.9) vs. 10.3 (2.7-38.7) (p = 0.01)] and sputum eosinophil percentage [15.5 (5.0-53.0) vs. 2.0 (0-20) (p allergies. These results suggest that the children with asthma and food allergies have increased eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. changes in blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein and tryptase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... evidence for mast cell activation during exercise induced bronchospasm. With the concept of airway inflammation, the involvement of eosinophils (EOS) in asthma has been a focus of attention in the last two to three decades. Increases in eosinophil numbers and eosinophil degranulation products, such as ...

  15. Eosinophils: multifaceted biological properties and roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During T-helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with proinflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma is now recognized as an eosinophil mediated inflammation of the airways. Pulmonary function tests are less easily performed in young children. So, measuring markers of eosinophil activation is of special importance in pediatric practice. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the role of eosinophil ...

  17. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  18. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  19. Spectrum of Eosinophilic End-Organ Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Akuthota, Praveen; Weller, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophil-associated disorders can affect practically all tissues and organs in the body, either individually or in combination. This article provides an overview of end-organ manifestations of eosinophilia, discussing selected organ systems including the upper and lower respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous, dermatologic, and renal systems. Mechanisms by which eosinophilia leads to end-organ damage are also considered.

  20. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  1. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  2. Production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with ovine eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Els NT

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific for eosinophils has made it difficult to confirm the functional role of eosinophils in such disease conditions. Using an established mammary model of allergic inflammation in sheep, large numbers of inflammatory cells enriched for eosinophils were collected from parasite-stimulated mammary glands and used for the generation of mAbs against ovine eosinophils. Results A panel of mAbs was raised against ovine eosinophils of which two were shown to be highly specific for eosinophils. The reactivity of mAbs 3.252 and 1.2 identified eosinophils from various cell and tissue preparations with no detectable reactivity on cells of myeloid or lymphoid lineage, tissue mast cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells or other connective tissues. Two other mAbs generated in this study (mAbs 4.4 and 4.10 were found to have reactivity for both eosinophils and neutrophils. Conclusion This study describes the production of new reagents to identify eosinophils (as well as granulocytes in sheep that will be useful in studying the role of eosinophils in disease pathologies in parasite and allergy models.

  3. Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis: a clinical study of 42 consecutive cases in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Ghawche, Frédéric; Delattre, Alex; Berberian, Anthony; Levy, Marc; Valour, Florent

    2014-06-01

    In endemic areas, eosinophilic meningitis is mainly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We describe a series of this poorly-known condition. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2012) including all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis in French Polynesia. Forty-two patients (males: 61.9%, age: 22 (IQR 17-32)) were diagnosed with a serologically proven (n=13) or probable A. cantonensis meningitis, mostly during the dry season (66.6%) and following the consumption of or prolonged contact with an intermediate/paratenic host (64.3%). No differential diagnosis was found in probable cases, in whom serological tests were performed earlier (7.5 days (6.5-10)) compared to positive patients (7.5 (6.5-10) versus 11 (7-30) days, p=0.02). The most commonly reported symptom was headache (92.8%). Fever (7.1%) and biological inflammatory syndrome (14.3%) were rare. Blood eosinophil count was 1200/mm(3) (900-2548). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed a protein level of 0.9 g/L (0.7-1.1), a CSF/plasma glucose ratio of 0.50 (0.40-0.55), and 500 leucocytes/mm(3) (292-725; eosinophils: 42.0% (29.5-60); lymphocytes: 46.5% (32.5-59.0)). Thirteen cases (31.0%) were severe, with 11 focal neurological deficits. A delayed hospital referral (OR 1.13, p=0.05) was associated with severity. A. cantonensis meningitis must be evocated in young patients with meningitic syndrome, severe headache, and CSF inflammation with predominance of eosinophils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Full blood count and blood film (Haemogram)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be associated with eosinophilia. Other respiratory pathology producing a raised eosinophil count includes aspergillus and ascariasis infection. Allergy to drugs used in the treatment of pulmonary infection, e.g. penicillin and sulphonamides, can also be responsible. Pertussis infection causes a lymphocyte. • leucocytosis.

  5. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  6. Focus on audiologic impairment in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccia, Veronica; Fortunato, Susanna; Cristofani-Mencacci, Lodovica; Dallan, Iacopo; Casani, Augusto P; Latorre, Manuela; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Baldini, Chiara

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical features of audiologic impairment and its relationship with the nasal, vestibular, and rheumatologic profile in a cohort of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome. Prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine patients with EGPA, considered controlled according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and the Vasculitis Damage Index, underwent a complete audiologic evalutaion with otomicroscopy, impedance audiometry, speech audiometry, and auditory brainstem responses; rhinologic evaluation was made by means of fiberoptic endoscopy and nasal cytology; the clinical evaluation was completed with analysis of the facial function and, in patients with referred vertigo, with videonystagmography (VNG). Data were compared to the rheumatologic profile (eosinophil count, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies status). Thirty-four of 39 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of those, 18 (52, 8%) were affected by variable degrees of hearing loss (sensorineural hearing loss [SNHL]) in four cases (11, 8%), mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss in two (5, 9%), presbycusis in six (17, 6%), and otitis media with effusion (OME) in six (17, 6%). Vestibular impairment was represented by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and unspecific dizziness in three (8, 8%) and four cases (11, 8%), respectively, all with normal VNG. Ear involvement was statistically related to the EGPA vasculitic pattern and independent from the nasal impairment, cytology, and duration of nasal symptoms. No facial palsy was registered. In our experience, the largest in the existing literature, the otological involvement in EGPA is common and may occur variably as SNHL or OME. Otological involvement occurs early in the course of the disease process, but is nonspecific in making the diagnosis of EGPA. Its recognition is therefore fundamental. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2792-2797, 2016. © 2016 The American

  7. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  8. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  9. Eosinophilic drug reactions detected by a prospective pharmacovigilance programme in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Elena; Medrano-Casique, Nicolás; Tong, Hoi Y; Bellón, Teresa; Cabañas, Rosario; Fiandor, Ana; González-Ramos, Jessica; Herranz, Pedro; Trigo, Elena; Muñoz, Mario; Borobia, Alberto M; Carcas, Antonio J; Frías, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of all eosinophilic drug reactions (EDRs) through the Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital to find out the incidence and distribution of these entities in our hospital, their causative drugs, and predictors. All peripheral eosinophilia >700 × 10 6  cells l -1 detected at admission or during hospitalisation, were prospectively monitored over 42 months. The spectrum of the localised or systemic manifestation of EDR, the incidence, the distribution of causative drugs, and the predictors were analysed. The incidence of EDR was 16.67 (95% Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 9.90-25.98) per 10 000 admissions. Of 274 cases of EDR, 154 (56.2%) cases in 148 patients were asymptomatic hypereosinophilia. In the remaining 120 (43.8%) cases, there was other involvement. Skin and soft tissue reactions were detected in 36 (13.1%) cases; visceral EDRs in 19(7.0%) cases; and drug-induced eosinophilic cutaneous and visceral manifestations were detected in the remaining 65 (23.7%) cases, 64 of which were potential drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). After adjusting for age, sex, and hospitalisation wards, predictors of symptomatic eosinophilia were earlier onset of eosinophilia (hazard ratio [HR], 10.49; 95%CI: 3.13-35.16) higher eosinophil count (HR, 8.51; 95%CI: 3.28-22.08), and a delayed onset of corticosteroids (HR, 1.34; 95%CI: 1.01-1.73). A higher eosinophil count in patients with DRESS was significantly associated with greater impairment of liver function, prolonged hospitalisation, higher cumulative doses of corticosteroids, and if hypogammaglobinaemia was detected, a reactivation of human-herpesvirus 6 was subsequently detected. Half (53.3%, 64/120 cases) of symptomatic EDRs were potential DRESS. The main predictor of severity of EDR was an early severe eosinophilia. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Risperidone-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Emmanouil; Tsigkaropoulou, Evdoxia; Lambrou, Panagiota; Kanakaki, Maria; Chaniotou, Aikaterini; Alevyzakis, Evangelos; Liappas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a severe syndrome which can be induced for many reasons, including drugs. AEP has rarely been associated with first-generation antipsychotics and never been reported after use of second-generation antipsychotics, such as risperidone. We report a case of a 64-year-old man with a medical history of alchoholism and paranoid symptoms, treated with risperidone at low doses. Following risperidone medication, he presented with respiratory distress. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen was indicated of AEP. All evidence indicated risperidone as the most probable causal factor. The syndrome rapidly resolved after discontinuation of the drug. Pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of AEP in our patient seem to be associated with eotaxin and serotonin eosinophilic-specific chemoattracting action, through the serotoninergic action of risperidone. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a clinical adverse reaction of AEP from an atypical antipsychotic agent (risperidone).

  11. Successful treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis with dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho de Sousa, Virgínia; Laureano Oliveira, André; Cardoso, Jorge

    2016-07-15

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of recurrent episodes of pruritic cellulitis-like erythematous plaques, mostly located on the limbs. Simultaneously, fever, malaise and peripheral eosinophilia were noted. The clinical diagnosis of eosinophilic cellulitis (also known as Well's syndrome) was supported by the histopathological finding of typical "flame figures". Treatment with dapsone was initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day. After one year of follow-up the patient was relapse-free. Eosinophilic cellulitis is an uncommon, recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The management is often a challenge, due to the frequent need for long-term therapy. Dapsone is an effective and safe treatment option.

  12. [Eosinophilic esophagitis, a pathology on the rise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda García, M; Gutiérrez Teira, B

    2013-10-01

    The eosinophilic esofagitis is a pathology that consists of an inflammatory condition of the esophagus, which is characterized for having a high percentage of eosinophils. It is a problem of allergic origin and his diagnosis is increasing in the population, especially in children and adult young persons, throughout last decade. The fisiopathology is not completely established nowadays. The diagnosis is confirmed with endoscopia and capture of biopsies. The differential diagnosis is necessary to be done with the disease for reflux gastroesofágico, gastroenteritis eosinofílica, by Crohn's disease, pathology of connective fabric, syndrome hipereosinofílico, infections and response of hypersensitivity to medicaments. Nowadays there is no a treatment that is definitive. We present a clinical case, which was valued initially for the consultation of Primary care. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Sattar, H.; Miah, R.A.; Saleh, A.A.; Hassan, R.; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  14. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  15. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  16. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  17. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  18. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Approach to Absolute Zero 0.3 K. to a Few Milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 6-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0006-0014 ...

  19. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Approach to Absolute Zero From 4. 22 K. to 0. 3 K. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0008-0016 ...

  20. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  1. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  2. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Jesús

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis.

  3. Similarities between human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein: homology with ribonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleich, G.J.; Loegering, D.A.; Bell, M.P.; Checkel, J.L.; Ackerman, S.J.; McKean, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The eosinophil granule contains a series of basic proteins, including eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). EDN and ECP were isolated from eosinophil granules by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. Radioimmunoassay of fractions from heparin-Sepharose showed one peak of EDN activity and two peaks of ECP activity (termed ECP-1 and ECP-2). EDN, ECP-1, and ECP-2 each exhibited heterogeneity in charge and molecular weight when analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Digestion of EDN and both ECP's with endoglycosidase-F decreased their molecular weights indicating that their heterogeneity is due in part to n-linked oligosaccharides. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that ECP-1 and ECP-2 were identical from residues 1 through 59 and that EDN and ECP sequences were highly homologous (37 of 55 residues identical). Both EDN and ECP NH 2 -terminal sequences showed significant homology to RNase, especially in regions of the RNase molecule involved in ligand binding. EDN, ECP-1 and ECP-2 had neurotoxic activity, causing the Gordon phenomenon at doses down 0.15 microgram; the proteins were comparable in their activities. These results indicate that EDN and ECP are related proteins and suggest that they derived from genes associated with the RNase family

  4. Robust Phenotypic Activation of Eosinophils during Experimental Toxocara canis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolpho, Joice Margareth de Almeida; Camillo, Luciana; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Speziali, Elaine; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Correia, Ricardo de Oliveira; Neris, Débora Meira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells that have cytotoxic proinflammatory activities and stimulate CD4 + T-cells in experimental models of allergy and parasitic infections. Eosinophils, when exposed to antigens, are activated, expressing the CD38/CD69 molecules and exhibited increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), CD80 and CD86, suggesting they play a role upon Toxocara canis antigen stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated the profile of eosinophils using conventional and image flow cytometry upon experimental T. canis infection. T. canis antigens induced a robust activation on this subset, contributing to the immune responses elicited in the experimental model for T. canis- associated visceral larva migrans syndrome. Data analysis demonstrated that, during murine T. canis infection, eosinophils from peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow presented upregulated expression of CD69/MHC-II/CD80/CD86. As opposed to splenic and bone marrow eosinophils, circulating eosinophils had increased expression of activation markers upon T. canis infection. The enhanced connectivity between eosinophils and T-cells in T. canis -infected mice in all three compartments (peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow) also supports the hypothesis that eosinophils may adopt a role during T. canis infection. Moreover, in vitro T. canis antigen stimulation resulted in activation and upregulation of co-stimulatory-related molecules by bone marrow-derived eosinophils. Our findings are evidence of activation and upregulation of important activation and co-stimulatory-related molecules in eosinophils and suggest a reshape of activation hierarchy toward eosinophils during experimental T. canis infection.

  5. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Liang; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hau-Inh; Liao, Huang-Shen; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2015-10-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in industry. The metal composition of PM2.5 might contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. To investigate the effects of ZnO NPs on allergic airway inflammation, mice were first exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg) or to a combination of ZnO NPs and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA) by oropharyngeal aspiration on day 0 and day 7 and then were sacrificed 5 days later. The subsequent time course of airway inflammation in the mice after ZnO NPs exposure was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14. To further determine the role of zinc ions, ZnCl2 was also administered. The inflammatory cell count, cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology were examined. We found significant neutrophilia after exposure to high-dose ZnO NPs on day 1 and significant eosinophilia in the BALF at 7 days. However, the expression levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 increased significantly after 24h of exposure to only ZnO NPs and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that ZnO NPs could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  7. Dissociation by steroids of eosinophilic inflammation from airway hyperresponsiveness in murine airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCluskie Kerryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between eosinophils and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in asthma is still controversial. This question was assessed in a murine model of asthma in which we performed a dose ranging study to establish whether the dose of steroid needed to inhibit the eosinophil infiltration correlated with that needed to block AHR. Methods The sensitised BALB/c mice were dosed with vehicle or dexamethasone (0.01–3 mg/kg 2 hours before and 6 hours after each challenge (once daily for 6 days and 2 hours before AHR determination by whole-body plethysmography. At 30 minutes after the AHR to aerosolised methacholine the mice were lavaged and differential white cell counts were determined. Challenging with antigen caused a significant increase in eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and lung tissue, and increased AHR. Results Dexamethasone reduced BAL and lung tissue eosinophilia (ED50 values of 0.06 and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively, whereas a higher dose was needed to block AHR (ED50 of 0.32 mg/kg at 3 mg/ml methacholine. Dissociation was observed between the dose of steroid needed to affect AHR in comparison with eosinophilia and suggests that AHR is not a direct consequence of eosinophilia. Conclusion This novel pharmacological approach has revealed a clear dissociation between eosinophilia and AHR by using steroids that are the mainstay of asthma therapy. These data suggest that eosinophilia is not associated with AHR and questions the rationale that many pharmaceutical companies are adopting in developing low-molecular-mass compounds that target eosinophil activation/recruitment for the treatment of asthma.

  8. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63 000 records in a multihospital health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Jensen, J; Maheshwari, A; Henry, E

    2010-08-01

    Blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes are part of the complete blood count. Reference ranges for these concentrations during the neonatal period, established by very large sample sizes and modern methods, are needed for identifying abnormally low or high values. We constructed reference ranges for eosinophils per microl and monocytes per microl among neonates of 22 to 42 weeks of gestation, on the day of birth, and also during 28 days after birth. Data were obtained from archived electronic records over an eight and one-half-year period in a multihospital health-care system. In keeping with the reference range concept, values were excluded from neonates with a diagnosis of infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eosinophils and monocytes per microl of blood were electronically retrieved from 96 162 records, of which 63 371 that lacked a diagnosis of infection or NEC were included in this reference range report. The mean value for eosinophils per microl on the day of birth increased linearly between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation, as did the 5 and 95% values. The reference range at 40 weeks was 140 to 1300 microl(-1) (mean 550 microl(-1)). Similarly, the mean value for monocytes increased linearly over this interval, with a reference range at 40 weeks of 300 to 3300 microl(-1) (mean 1400 microl(-1)). Over the first 4 weeks after birth, no appreciable change was observed in 5% limit and mean eosinophil count, with a slight increase in the 95% limit in week 4. A slight increase in monocyte count was observed during the first 2 weeks after birth. The results of this analysis describe reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period. Additional study is needed for determining the relevance of values falling outside the reference range.

  9. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided....

  10. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermayer, Richard; Tatevian, Nina; Klish, William; Shulman, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  11. Urinary eosinophil protein X in children with atopic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, M.; Hop, W. C. J.; Sterk, P. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hiemstra, P. S.; de Jongste, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between urinary eosinophil protein X (uEPX) and asthma symptoms, lung function, and other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 180 steroid dependent atopic

  12. Mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells under flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulfman, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in allergic inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. Infiltrates of these cells are present in the interstitium and the lumen of the bronchi of asthmatic patients. Eosinophils must pass the endothelium to enter this site of inflammation. A widely accepted

  13. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    inflammation of the airways. Pulmonary function tests are less easily performed in young children. So, measuring markers of eosinophil activation is of special importance in pediatric practice. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the role of eosinophil protein X. (EPX) as a marker for assessment of asthma attack severity ...

  14. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  15. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhag...

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Katzka, David A

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a new disease. It is caused by a T-helper type 2 cell response to food antigens in contact with the esophageal mucosa. Although no single feature defines EoE, a constellation of compatible demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings establish the diagnosis. Children present with symptoms and endoscopic patterns characteristic of inflammation, whereas adolescents and adults have manifestations of fibrosis and gross esophageal strictures. Clinical and endoscopic scoring systems have helped to standardize diagnosis. There is controversy in EoE research over the optimal endpoint for treatment. Although the most common endpoint is a reduced number of eosinophils in biopsies, changes in symptoms and endoscopic features are becoming important targets of therapy. We should improve our understanding of EoE progression and the need for maintenance therapy, and continue development of diagnostic tools that avoid endoscopy and biopsy analyses to more easily monitor disease activity. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a bulk of mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which was first described in the early 1990s, has rapidly evolved as a distinctive chronic inflammatory esophageal disease. The diagnosis is based clinically on the presence of symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an eosinophil-predominant inflammation once other conditions leading to esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. This striking male-prevalent disease has an increasing incidence and prevalence in the Westernized countries. Currently, EoE represents the main cause of dysphagia and bolus impaction in adult patients. Despite the fact that EoE often occurs in atopic patients, the value of allergic testing is still under discussion. Topical corticosteroids lead to a rapid improvement of active EoE clinically and histologically; they are therefore regarded as first-line drug therapy. Elimination diets have similar efficacy as topical corticosteroids, but their long-term use is limited by practical issues. Esophageal dilation of EoE-induced strictures can also be effective in improving symptoms, but this therapy has no effect on the underlying inflammation. Neither the diagnostic nor the long-term therapeutic strategies have been fully defined. Currently, the list of unsolved issues--or mysteries--is still long and a concerted effort on behalf of clinicians and scientists is required to improve the understanding and the therapeutic management of this mysterious disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Blood Eosinophils and World Trade Center Exposure Predict Surgery in Chronic Rhinosinusitis. A 13.5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sophia; Putman, Barbara; Weakley, Jessica; Hall, Charles B; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Schwartz, Theresa; Olivieri, Brianne; Singh, Ankura; Huie, Maryann; Morrison, Debra; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K; Nolan, Anna; Prezant, David J; Shohet, Michael R; Weiden, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse generated caustic airborne particulates that caused chronic rhinosinusitis in exposed Fire Department of New York firefighters. Surgery was performed when symptoms remained uncontrolled despite medical management. To identify predictors of surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis in firefighters exposed to airborne irritants at the WTC collapse site. We assessed in 8,227 firefighters with WTC exposure between September 11, 2001 (9/11), and September 25, 2001, including WTC-site arrival time, months of rescue and recovery work, and eosinophil concentration measured between 9/11 and March 10, 2003. We assessed the association of serum cytokines and immunoglobulins with eosinophil concentration and surgery for rhinosinusitis in 112 surgical cases and 376 control subjects with serum available from the first 6 months after exposure to the WTC collapse site. Between 9/11 and March 10, 2015, the surgery rate was 0.47 cases per 100 person-years. In the first 18 months post-9/11, surgical patients had higher mean blood eosinophil levels than study cohort patients (219 ± 155 vs. 191 ± 134; P < 0.0001). Increased surgery risk was associated with increasing blood eosinophil counts (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12 per 100 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.17; P < 0.001); arriving at the WTC site on 9/11 or September 12, 2001 (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99; P = 0.03); and working 6 months or longer at the WTC site (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93; P < 0.01). Median blood eosinophil levels for surgical patients were above levels for the cohort in all 18-month intervals March 11, 2000, through March 10, 2015, using 51,163 measurements representing 97,733 person-years of observation. Increasing age, increasing IL-17A, and low IgA in serum from 2001 to 2002 predicted blood eosinophil concentration in surgical patients but not in control subjects (R(2) = 0.26, P < 0.0001; vs. R(2) = 0.008, P = 0

  19. The Biology of Eosinophils and Their Role in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire N. McBrien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review will describe the structure and function of the eosinophil. The roles of several relevant cell surface molecules and receptors will be discussed. We will also explore the systemic and local processes triggering eosinophil differentiation, maturation, and migration to the lungs in asthma, as well as the cytokine-mediated pathways that result in eosinophil activation and degranulation, i.e., the release of multiple pro-inflammatory substances from eosinophil-specific granules, including cationic proteins, cytokines, chemokines growth factors, and enzymes. We will discuss the current understanding of the roles that eosinophils play in key asthma processes such as airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, and airway remodeling, in addition to the evidence relating to eosinophil–pathogen interactions within the lungs.

  20. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  1. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  2. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...... to the lasso. The lasso is applied both directly as a calibration method and as a method to select important variables/wave lengths. It is demonstrated that the lasso algorithm, in general, leads to parameter estimates of which some are zero while others are quite large (compared to e.g. the traditional PLS...

  4. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which...

  5. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, elastase, and cytokine profile in effusion from eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimizu, Hirotaka; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Kato, Masahiko; Otori, Nobuyosi; Kojima, Hiromi

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is an intractable disease characterized by a remarkably viscous effusion and accumulation of numerous eosinophils in both the middle ear effusion and the mucosa. The key factors in EOM pathogenesis remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Middle ear effusion samples were collected from 12 patients with EOM and 9 patients with secretory otitis media (SOM), as controls. Multiple cytokines in the effusion were measured using a Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine 27-Plex panel. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and elastase were measured by ELISA. The concentrations of EDN, elastase, and each cytokine were compared between the EOM and SOM groups. Furthermore, in the EOM group, each cytokine was examined for correlation with EDN and elastase. EDN and elastase concentrations were significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). IL-5, IL-1β, MIP-1α, G-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-4, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, and IL-2 concentration was significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between EDN and IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, eotaxin, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, and RANTES in the EOM group (p < 0.05). Our study showed that IL-5, IL-2, MIP-1α, and IL-1ra are the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Furthermore, not only eosinophil, but also neutrophil are involved in middle ear inflammation of EOM. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  7. Therapeutic targeting of eosinophil adhesion and accumulation in allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBaiula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules.Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target.Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs.This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis.

  8. Role of eosinophilic airway inflammation in models of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapa e Silva José R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils play a central role in the establishment and outcome of bronchial inflammation in asthma. Animal models of allergy are useful to answer questions related to mechanisms of allergic inflammation. We have used models of sensitized and boosted guinea pigs to investigate the nature of bronchial inflammation in allergic conditions. These animals develop marked bronchial infiltration composed mainly of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and eosinophils. Further provocation with antigen leads to degranulation of eosinophils and ulceration of the bronchial mucosa. Eosinophils are the first cells to increase in numbers in the mucosa after antigen challenge and depend on the expression of alpha 4 integrin to adhere to the vascular endothelium and transmigrate to the mucosa. Blockage of alpha4 integrin expression with specific antibody prevents not only the transmigration of eosinophils but also the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR to agonists in sensitized and challenged animals, clearly suggesting a role for this cell type in this altered functional state. Moreover, introduction of antibody against Major Basic Protein into the airways also prevents the development of BHR in similar model. BHR can also be suppressed by the use of FK506, an immunosuppressor that reduces in almost 100% the infiltration of eosinophils into the bronchi of allergic animals. These data support the concept that eosinophil is the most important pro-inflammatory factor in bronchial inflammation associated with allergy.

  9. Eosinophils are rare in biopsy specimens of psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Fernandez, Anthony P; Schneider, Sarah; Billings, Steven D

    2017-12-01

    Histological features of lesional biopsies can be helpful in distinguishing psoriasis subtypes from disease mimickers. However, occasionally, classic histological features are not sufficient for distinction, and additional clues would be useful. There is a common belief that the presence of eosinophils in skin biopsies argues against psoriasis, but actual literature is scant. Skin biopsies with a diagnosis of psoriasis from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed. For inclusion, both histological and clinical features were required to be consistent with psoriasis. For biopsies meeting inclusion criteria, a detailed evaluation for typical histological parameters of psoriasis, as well as presence of dermal eosinophils, was performed. Of 85 cases meeting inclusion criteria, all had either individual or grouped intracorneal neutrophils and dilated papillary blood vessels. Diminished or complete loss of the granular cell layer was seen in 83 cases (98%), and parakeratosis was seen in 84 cases (99%). Alternatively, dermal eosinophils were seen in only 15 cases (18%). Of cases with eosinophils, none had more than 3 eosinophils upon examination of the entire dermis. Active treatment did not appear to impact presence/absence or numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophils are uncommon in psoriasis biopsies, and when present, they are found in small numbers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effective antigen presentation to helper T cells by human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Ruhaifah K; Vickers, Mark A; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Hall, Andrew M; Barker, Robert N; Walsh, Garry M

    2016-12-01

    Although eosinophils are inflammatory cells, there is increasing attention on their immunomodulatory roles. For example, murine eosinophils can present antigen to CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, but it remains unclear whether human eosinophils also have this ability. This study determined whether human eosinophils present a range of antigens, including allergens, to activate Th cells, and characterized their expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules required for effective presentation. Human peripheral blood eosinophils purified from non-allergic donors were pulsed with the antigens house dust mite extract (HDM), Timothy Grass extract (TG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), before co-culture with autologous CD4 + Th cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were measured, with eosinophil expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 determined by flow cytometry. Eosinophils pulsed with HDM, TG or PPD drove Th cell proliferation, with the response strength dependent on antigen concentration. The cytokine responses varied with donor and antigen, and were not biased towards any particular Th subset, often including combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Eosinophils up-regulated surface expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ, CD80, CD86 and CD40 in culture, increases that were sustained over 5 days when incubated with antigens, including HDM, or the major allergens it contains, Der p I or Der p II. Human eosinophils can, therefore, act as effective antigen-presenting cells to stimulate varied Th cell responses against a panel of antigens including HDM, TG or PPD, an ability that may help to determine the development of allergic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  12. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  13. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  14. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Moral-Martínez, María; Barrientos-Delgado, Andrés; Crespo-Lora, Vicente; Cervilla-Sáez-de-Tejada, María Eloísa; Salmerón-Escobar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC) is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  16. Adjusted Count, Complete Count, and Straight Count: Does it Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... research output and citation impact, respectively. This paper reports on the results generated from a case study of the LIS researchers' output using three methods of publications count, namely, adjusted count (Ac), complete count (Cc) and straight count (Sc). Using data extracted from the Library, Information Science and ...

  17. [Mast cells and eosinophils of the respiratory mucosa of sheep with Oestrus ovis (Linné, 1761) infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V K; Bourges, N; Concordet, D; Dorchies, P

    1996-09-01

    Mast cells and eosinophils have been identified by differential stainings and counted in mucous membrane of nasal septum, turbinates and sinus of 77 ewes naturally infected with Oestrus ovis. Results have been compared with those of nine parasite free lambs. Anova tests indicate significant differences between infected and parasite-free sheep for the cell numbers and their distribution among the septum, the turbinates and the sinus and according to their position in mucous membrane, interglandular chorion of sub-mucosa. In infected sheep, the mean number of mast cells is twice the number present in parasite free animals. The burdens of eosinophils are multiplied by 17 for the septum, 29 for the turbinates and 58 for the sinus. The hypothesis of the development of an hypersensitivity phenomenon in ovine oestrosis is sustained by these results.

  18. Psychological distress in patients with morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or

  19. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  20. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung presenting as an endobronchial mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukides, S; Karameris, A; Lachanis, S; Panagou, P; Kalogeropoulos, N

    2000-06-01

    A 19-yr-old male presented with left lung parahilar consolidation and clinical signs of pneumonia. These symptoms were secondary to an endobronchial mass in the apical segment of the lower lobe. At thoracotomy an apical segment bronchial sleeve resection successfully extirpated what later proved to be an endobronchial eosinophilic granuloma. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of an endobronchial eosinophilic granuloma in an adult.

  1. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  2. Anti-eosinophilic effect of Lafoensia pacari in toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, A P; Sá-Nunes, A; Albuquerque, D A; Soares, E G; Faccioli, L H

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported the anti-inflammatory activity of Lafoensia pacari extract in Toxocara canis infection, a model of systemic IL-5-dependent eosinophil migration. In the present study, we describe the kinetics of the anti-inflammatory activity of L. pacari extract and compare it with dexamethasone. T. canis-infected mice were submitted to different treatment protocols and the cells present in bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity were collected at the end of each treatment period. The results showed that L. pacari extract effectively inhibited eosinophil migration only when the treatment was initiated before the peak of eosinophil migration (1st to 18th; 12th to 18th and 12th to 24th day post-infection). When eosinophil migration was established, administration of L. pacari extract had no effect on it (treatment 18th to 24th day post-infection). Dexamethasone was effective in inhibiting eosinophil migration in all periods studied. We suggest that L. pacari extract can potentially be a natural alternative treatment of eosinophilic diseases.

  3. Higher frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis, an unusual finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.; Bashir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar (Pakistan) from Dec 2011 to Nov 2014. Material and Methods: Eighteen hundred (1800) cholecystectomy specimens were included in the study. The specimens which were properly fixed in 10% formalin were included in the specimen, while poorly fixed and autolysed specimens were excluded. The specimens were examined grossly, measured and block selection was done. The slides made were examined under light microscope by one histopathologist and findings were analyzed. Results: Out of 1800 cholecystectomy specimens, 25 cases (1.38%) were diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Out of these 25 cases, 20 (80%) were females having an age range of 30-50 years, while 5 (20%) were males with an age range of 35-55 years. Out of these 25 cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis, 22 (88%) were having cholelithiasis, while 3 (12%) were acalculous eosiniophilic cholecystitis. Conclusion: Eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population is mostly calculous which is very significant finding contrary to data given in western literature, where most of eosinophilic cholecystitis is aclculous. This needs further evaluation to determine any genetic, geographic, environmental, dietary, microbiological or any other factor responsible in etiopathogenesis of calculous eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population, which could be helpful in prevention and management of this disease. (author)

  4. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  5. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 promotes the resolution of eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Alessandri

    Full Text Available Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo.Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk.Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase

  6. Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN). Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purification from normal human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Minuva, U; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) is one of the cationic proteins found in the granules of the human eosinophilic granulocytes. EPX was purified from extracts of granules isolated from blood buffy coat cells of healthy donors. Polyclonal anti-EPX antibodies were...

  7. Clavicular eosinophilic granuloma causing adult shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Menendez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely reported, neoplasms of the clavicle occur, and their symptoms can be mistaken for more common shoulder conditions. We present the case of a benign clavicular neoplasm, rarely seen in adults, presenting with pain, and eventual pathologic fracture in a 49 year-old. A 49 year-old male firefighter underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for shoulder pain after magnetic resonance imaging revealed supraspinatus tendon tear. The patient’s pain persisted after surgery, and was described as routine until he developed severe pain after minor blunt trauma. A local Emergency Room performed the first x-rays, which revealed a pathologic fracture of the distal clavicle through a destructive lesion. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed incisional biopsy, which initially diagnosed osteomyelitis. The patient was subsequently taken to surgery for debridement. Pathology then yielded the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. The patient was taken back to surgery for formal curettage with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient’s pain resolved, the pathologic fracture fully healed, and the patient returned to full time work as a firefighter. Though workup for common shoulder conditions often identifies incidental benign lesions of bone, the converse can be true. Persistent pain despite intervention should raise concern for further investigation. An x-ray alone can reveal a destructive bone lesion as the source of shoulder pain.

  8. Eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis on treatment with isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Aksoy, Gulsah; Koyun, Mustafa; Akkaya, Bahar; Comak, Elif; Gemici, Atilla; Akman, Sema

    2016-12-01

    Drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis is one of the most common causes of childhood acute renal failures which originate from kidneys. Sixteen-year old male patient with the history of isotretinoin use for the last 3 months was admitted with acute renal failure. Renal function parameters were measured as follows: blood urea nitrogen 21 mg/dL, serum creatinine 1.68 mg/dL, cystatin C 1.15 mg/L, and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C 56.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The patient whom pathological signs of renal biopsy sections revealed interstitial mononuclear cell and eosinophilic infiltration was diagnosed with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Isotretinoin is a vitamin A-derived agent which is commonly used in the treatment of acne and may cause drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. What is Known: •Drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is one of the most common causes of childhood acute renal failures. What is New: •Isotretinoin may cause drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  9. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  10. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  11. Clinicopathological Study of Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: Five Year Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabina; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Jetley, Sujata; Husain, Musharraf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gallbladder diseases are very common in Northern India, most common of which is Chronic Cholecystitis. Rarely, histopathological diagnosis of Eosinophilic Cholecystitis (EC) is given when transmural cellular infiltrate consists of more than 90% eosinophils. Aim To determine the prevalence and clinicopathological profile of eosinophilic cholecystitis at a tertiary care hospital of New Delhi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective clinicopathological study done on twenty two cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis over a period of five years from January 2011- December 2015. In cases diagnosed histopathologically as eosinophilic cholecystitis, clinical details were obtained from hospital records and slides were retrieved. Various histologic features, pattern of the inflammatory infiltrate and association of EC with other medical diseases, drugs and allergic states were evaluated. Results Out of a total of 1370 cholecystectomy specimens received during five year period, Eosinophilic cholecystitis was diagnosed in 22 (1.6%) of the specimens. Clinically, seven of these patients had a clinical diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Patient’s age ranged from 25-64 years and male to female ratio was 1:2.7. Most common symptom reported was abdominal pain. Most of the cases showed gallstones radiologically (90%) while only two cases showed peripheral eosinophilia (9%). Histologically, mucosal and muscular eosinophilic infiltrate was seen in 72.6% of the cases. No association with drug therapy, allergies or other pre-existing medical conditions was noted. Conclusion EC is a relatively uncommon entity in which histopathology remains the main stay of diagnosis. Although the presentation may be similar to general cholecystitis, if a postoperative histopathological diagnosis of EC is made, then the patient must be investigated thoroughly to rule out other associated disease conditions, which may have a worse prognosis than cholecystitis itself. PMID:28969136

  12. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  13. Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7438542

  14. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Shibazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole.

  15. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa ...

  16. Propolis as an Anti-allergy Based on Decrease in Total Eosinophil Count in Rat Models

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmika Nambiar; Enny Rohmawaty; Leni Lismayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a natural herb derived from plant resins by bees. Propolis contains flavonoids that act as anti-allergy. The composition of flavonoids in propolis varies according to each region like Brazilian, Chinese, Malaysian and Indonesian propolis due to differences in medicinal plants in that area. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of propolis as an anti-allergy and to determine which is the most effective among propolis of Brazilian, Malaysian and Indonesian ori...

  17. The imaging diagnosis of costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fa; Feng Shiting

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging features of costal eosinophilic granuloma so as to improve diagnosis accuracy of the disease. Methods: The clinical and imaging materials of 6 patients with costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma which were proved by surgery or histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. X-ray plain films were performed in all the cases, CT in 3 cases, 2 cases were received CT plain scan and I case received both CT plain scan and enhanced CT scan. Results: 4 cases of them located in the anterior ribs. All the lesions were round-like and 5 were single cavity and 1 was multiple cavities. 3 of them were expansile destruction and 3 were cystic destruction. Soft tissue mass around the lesion was identified. Conclusion: X-ray plain films integrating CT play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the costal eosinophilic granuloma. (authors)

  18. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  19. Lack of Knowledge and Low Readiness for Health Care Transition in Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Swathi; Book, Wendy M; Kodroff, Ellyn; Strobel, Mary Jo; Gebhart, Jessica H; Jones, Patricia D; Menard-Katcher, Paul; Ferris, Maria E; Dellon, Evan S

    2017-07-01

    A growing population of adolescents/young adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) will need to transition from pediatric to adult health providers. Measuring health care transition (HCT) readiness is critical, but no studies have evaluated this process in EoE/EGE. We determined the scope and predictors of HCT knowledge in patients and parents with EoE/EGE and measured HCT readiness in adolescents/young adults. We conducted an online survey of patients 13 years or older and parents of patients with EoE/EGE who were diagnosed when 25 years or younger. Parents answered questions regarding their children and their own knowledge of HCT. HCT readiness was assessed in adolescents/young adults aged 13 to 25 years with the Self-Management and Transition to Adulthood with Rx Questionnaire (a 6-domain self-report tool) with a score range of 0 to 90. Four hundred fifty participants completed the survey: 205 patients and 245 parents. Included in the analysis (those diagnosed with EoE/EGE at age 25 years or younger) were 75 of 205 patients and children of 245 parent respondents. Overall, 78% (n = 52) of the patients and 76% (n = 187) of parents had no HCT knowledge. Mean HCT readiness score in adolescents/young adults (n = 50) was 30.4 ± 11.3 with higher scores in domains of provider communication and engagement during appointments. Mean parent-reported (n = 123) score was 35.6 ± 9.7 with higher scores in medication management and disease knowledge. There was a significant deficit in HCT knowledge, and HCT readiness scores were lower than other chronic health conditions. HCT preparation and readiness assessments should become a priority for adolescents/young adults with EoE/EGE and their parents.

  20. Absolute activity determination of I-125 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; German, U.; Kol, R.; Levinson, S.; Laichter, Y.

    1997-01-01

    I-125 has been widely used in nuclear medicine and as a tracer in different experiments. The dose equivalent to the thyroid Tom internal contamination of 1-125, can be estimated by in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid or through bioassay of urine . The in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid can be carried out by counting the photon emission from the decay of the 1-125 , by a Nal(Tl) detector calibrated with a thyroid phantom. This direct method is sensitive , but due to the low photon energy (27keV to 35keV), the counting efficiency depends strongly on the variations of the thyroid mass , thyroid depth below the surface , thyroid shape and detector position . It is estimated that the uncertainty of the activity determination can reach several hundred percents . A mewed for absolute determination of the activity of a '251 source based on the counting rate values of file 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo peak, which diminishes the geometry dependence of the counting efficiency , was applied to determine the uptake of 125-I in human thyroid In this work we checked also the application of the absolute determination method wife high sensitivity phoswich detectors. We compare the results of calculations of interval exposure to 125-I for a real case, evaluated by the absolute determination method and by the direct method. (authors)

  1. Morphea and Eosinophilic Fasciitis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jorre S; Seyger, Marieke M B; Thurlings, Rogier M; Radstake, Timothy R D J; de Jong, Elke M G J

    2017-08-01

    Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, encompasses a group of idiopathic sclerotic skin diseases. The spectrum ranges from relatively mild phenotypes, which generally cause few problems besides local discomfort and visible disfigurement, to subtypes with severe complications such as joint contractures and limb length discrepancies. Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, Shulman syndrome) is often regarded as belonging to the severe end of the morphea spectrum. The exact driving mechanisms behind morphea and EF pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. However, extensive extracellular matrix formation and autoimmune dysfunction are thought to be key pathogenic processes. Likewise, these processes are considered essential in systemic sclerosis (SSc) pathogenesis. In addition, similarities in clinical presentation between morphea and SSc have led to many theories about their relatedness. Importantly, morphea may be differentiated from SSc based on absence of sclerodactyly, Raynaud's phenomenon, and nailfold capillary changes. The diagnosis of morphea is often based on characteristic clinical findings. Histopathological evaluation of skin biopsies and laboratory tests are not necessary in the majority of morphea cases. However, full-thickness skin biopsies, containing fascia and muscle tissue, are required for the diagnosis of EF. Monitoring of disease activity and damage, especially of subcutaneous involvement, is one of the most challenging aspects of morphea care. Therefore, data harmonization is crucial for optimizing standard care and for comparability of study results. Recently, the localized scleroderma cutaneous assessment tool (LoSCAT) has been developed and validated for morphea. The LoSCAT is currently the most widely reported outcome measure for morphea. Care providers should take disease subtype, degree of activity, depth of involvement, and quality-of-life impairments into account when initiating treatment. In most patients with circumscribed superficial subtypes

  2. Prostaglandin D2 and Interleukin-5 Reduce Crth2 Surface Expression on Human Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Hamada

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that PGD2 and IL-5 regulate CRTH2 expression on eosinophils through CRTH2 internalization. The decreased expression of CRTH2 on tissue eosinophils may make these cells remain at the site of allergic inflammation.

  3. A novel antagonist of CRTH2 blocks eosinophil release from bone marrow, chemotaxis and respiratory burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royer, J F; Schratl, P; Lorenz, S

    2007-01-01

    developed small molecule antagonist of CRTH2, Cay10471, on eosinophil function with respect to recruitment, respiratory burst and degranulation. METHODS: Chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils were determined using microBoyden chambers. Eosinophil release...... from bone marrow was investigated in the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. Respiratory burst and degranulation were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Cay10471 bound with high affinity to recombinant human and guinea pig CRTH2, but not DP, receptors. The antagonist prevented the PGD......(2)-induced release of eosinophils from guinea pig bone marrow, and inhibited the chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils. Pretreatment with PGD(2) primed eosinophils for chemotaxis towards eotaxin, and this effect was prevented by Cay10471. In contrast...

  4. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia.

  5. Signal transduction and activation of the NADPH oxidase in eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lindsay

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the eosinophil NADPH oxidase and the subsequent release of toxic oxygen radicals has been implicated in the mechanism of parasite killing and inflammation. At present, little is known of the signal transduction pathway that govern agonist-induced activation of the respiratory burst and is the subject of this review. In particular, we focus on the ability of leukotrine B4 to activate the NADPH oxidase in guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils which can be obtained in sufficient number and purity for detailed biochemical experiments to be performed.

  6. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  7. The Incidence of Finger Ridge Counts among the Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted to obtain the occurrence total and absolute finger ridge counts from 102 unrelated Christian populations (60 males and 42 females) of Mysore city, Karnataka state of India. Data were collected by biometric scanner (USB finger print reader). The mean values of Total finger ridge count and ...

  8. The Effect of PPAR Agonists on the Migration of Mature and Immature Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARγ agonists can either enhance or inhibit eosinophil migration, which is a sum of directional migration (chemotaxis and random cell movement (chemokinesis. To date, the effects of PPAR agonists on chemokinesis have not been examined. This study investigates the effects of PPARα, δ, and γ agonists on eosinophil migration and chemokinesis. Eosinophils purified from blood of atopic donors were preincubated with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist, GW9578 (PPARα agonist, GW501516 (PPARδ agonist, or diluent. The effects of PPAR agonists were examined on eosinophil chemokinesis, eotaxin-induced migration of eosinophils, and migration of IL-5Rα+ CD34+ cells. Expressions of CCR3, phospho-p38, phospho-ERK, and calcium release were also measured in eosinophils after rosiglitazone treatment. Low concentrations of rosiglitazone, but not GW9578 or GW501516, increased chemokinesis of eosinophils (P=0.0038, and SDF-1α-induced migration of immature eosinophils (P=0.0538. Rosiglitazone had an effect on eosinophil calcium flux but had no effect on expression of CCR3 or phosphorylation of p38 or ERK. In contrast, high concentrations of rosiglitazone inhibited eosinophil migration (P=0.0042. The effect of rosiglitazone on eosinophil migration and chemokinesis appears to be through modification of calcium signaling, which alludes to a novel PPAR-mediated mechanism to modulate eosinophil function.

  9. Eosinophilic Panniculitis with Full Response to Dapsone Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Aktaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic panniculitis is characterized by a mixed type inflammatory cell infiltration, predominantly with eosinophils, in subcutaneous tissue. Gnathostomiasis (Larva migrans profondus, leucocytoclastic vasculitis and erythema nodosum are implicated as the most common etiologic causes. In this case report, we present an idiopathic eosinophilic panniculitis with full response to Dapsone therapy, which had not responded to corticosteroids, and literature data were reviewed.

  10. BLOOD EOSINOPHIL NUMBERS AND ACTIVITY DURING 24 HOURS - EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; KOETER, GH; HAKANSSON, L; VENGE, P; POSTMA, DS

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral long-acting beta-agonist bambuterol on circadian variation of blood eosinophil numbers, serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA), and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA)

  11. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  12. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: Adjunctive therapy with inhaled steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is a rare form of diffuse parenchymal lung disease first identified by Carrington et al. in 1969. It is characterized by the presence of constitutional and respiratory symptoms with associated peripheral opacities on imaging and elevated serum and/or bronchoalveolar eosinophilia. Although data is limited regarding etiology or prevalence, it is known that ICEP has a 2:1 female: male predominance and typically affects non-smokers. Diagnosis rests on the clinical constellation of respiratory symptoms of at least 2–4 weeks duration, the presence of diffuse pulmonary alveolar consolidation, classically described as the “photographic negative of pulmonary edema”, the presence of eosinophils ≥40% on bronchoalveolar lavage or ≥1000/mm3 eosinophils on peripheral blood and the exclusion of other known causes of eosinophilic lung diseases such as drugs, toxins, fungi, parasites, and collagen-vascular disorders. A dramatic response is achieved with systemic corticosteroids, which is typically dosed over 6 months to 1 year. Despite this response, approximately 30–50% of patients will relapse upon cessation of steroids or during the taper. Although these patients respond well to another trial of steroids, the side effects of long term steroids are well known, including osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension and cataracts. Inhaled corticosteroids as monotherapy has been trialed in the past without success. However, we report a case of a patient who underwent treatment with systemic corticosteroids followed by inhaled steroids who has remained in remission for 2 years.

  13. Racial differences in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders among Caucasian and Asian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.

  14. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance exercise. A J McKune (MMedSci)1. L L Smith (PhD)1 ..... sites).20. It was speculated that during strenuous exercise non-phagocytosable muscle/tissue fragments are liberated accounting, in analogy to the defence against ...

  15. [Acute abdomen caused by eosinophilic enteritis: six observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ubieto, Fernando; Bueno-Delgado, Alvaro; Jiménez-Bernadó, Teresa; Santero Ramírez, María Pilar; Arribas-Del Amo, Dolores; Martínez-Ubieto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by eosinophils; as a casue of acute abdomen it is really exceptional. The etiology is unclear and its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy and parasitic infections as it was confirmed in one of our pathologic studies. From 1997 to 2011 six cases of eosinophilic enteritis that involved a small bowel segment were diagnosed. A partial resection by an irreversible necrosis was necessary in three of them; in the other three only a biopsy was necessary due to the inflammatory aspect of the affected loop causing the acute abdomen. Eosinophilic enteritis can originate acute abdomen processes where an urgent surgical treatment is necessary. The intraoperative aspect can be from a segment of small bowel with inflammatory signs up to a completely irrecoverable loop, where removing of the affected segment is the correct treatment, which can be done laparoscopically.

  16. Eosinophilic granuloma in jaw bone: a pare pediatric case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Details: Herein, we report a case of eosinophilic granuloma in a ten years old boy involving posterior quadrants upper and lower jaws as a destructive lesion involving gingiva, periodontium and alveolar bone. Involvement of other bones is ruled out by nucleotide imaging study. Conclusion: EG should be considered ...

  17. Eosinophilic cellulitis - A case study and management with griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old hypertensive and diabetic male patient suffering from eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome is being reported. The patient responded very well to oral griseofulvin at the time of first presentation and subsequent three recurrences in a period of three years.

  18. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  19. Therapeutic concepts in adult and paediatric eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Schoepfer, Alain M

    2012-12-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) was first described in the early 1990s. Although initially reported to be a rare entity, EoE has rapidly become a regularly diagnosed disease with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 2,000 individuals in the USA and Europe. The disease is characterized by a combination of oesophageal dysfunction and predominant eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal tissue. At diagnosis, other diseases that can be associated with oesophageal eosinophilic infiltration must be ruled out. Children with EoE present with a wide variety of symptoms, whereas adults mostly present with dysphagia for solid food and chest pain. Histologic features of EoE resemble those of T-helper type 2 inflammation. Endoscopy should be carried out to establish the diagnosis, but endoscopic abnormalities are not pathognomonic for EoE and the examination might not show histologic abnormality. Treatment modalities for EoE include drugs (corticosteroids, PPIs, antiallergic and biologic agents), hypoallergenic diets and oesophageal dilatation for strictures that are unresponsive to medical therapy. Unresolved eosinophilic inflammation leads to the formation of oesophageal strictures, which probably increase the risk of food bolus impactions. To date, long-term strategies for the therapeutic management of this chronic inflammatory disease remain poorly defined.

  20. Eosinophilic enteritis – A diagnostic dilemma | Clegg-Lamptey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may mimic peptic ulcer, subacute (or chronic) intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis is often ... Finalement laparotomy a revele des segments enflames de petit intestin, une biopsie de qui a montré Eosinophilic enteritis. Le malade a été traite par la ...

  1. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Lorenz, Emily A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kahwash, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  2. Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T Cadman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1, during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL, we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.

  3. Count it! fun with counting and comparing

    CERN Document Server

    First, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Make math fun with Count It! Fun photographs, colorful graphics, and simple text are used to teach young readers basic math concepts. From counting groups to comparing to estimating this book will help kids develop the skills they need. A simple activity at the end of the book encourages kids to put counting and comparing to use! Aligned to Common Core standards and correlated to state standards. Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  4. Current and emerging treatment options for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsur Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yoram ElitsurDepartment of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology Division, Marshall University, John C Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, USAAbstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a new clinicopathologic disorder and has been recognized as a chronic disease in children and adults. The disease is associated with environmental and food allergies, but the exact pathophysiology has not yet been discovered. Epidemiological studies showed a global distribution of the disease and an uneven geographic distribution within the United States where the northeastern states had a higher rate of prevalence compared to the western states. Studies have shown that there are multiple confounding factors that affect the phenotypic characteristics of the disease which may include place of residence (rural versus urban, ethnicity, race, and genetics, among others. Clinical presentation may be different between adult and pediatric patients, but the endoscopic and histological characteristics of the disease are very similar between those groups. The pathophysiology of the disease has not yet been established, but the mucosal immune system, especially the pathway involving the eosinophil lineage, has been suggested as taking a major role in the pathophysiology. Accordingly, the suggested therapeutic options for this disease include elimination diets, steroids, and anti-eosinophil medications. Unfortunately, those treatment options are limited by their efficacy and the side effects associated with their chronic use. In the current review, we describe the characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis and present the available treatments and their pitfalls. We also speculate on the future development of new treatment for this chronic disease.Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, treatment, children, review

  5. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Coeliac Disease: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. F. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder is a rare disorder characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. There are various gastrointestinal manifestations with eosinophilic ascites being the most unusual and rare presentation. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders associated with peripheral eosinophilia. There are no previous case reports to suggest an association between eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and coeliac disease in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic ascites and gastroenteritis in a 30-year-old woman with a known history of coeliac disease who responded dramatically to a course of steroids.

  6. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid...... that eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens expressed DP and CRTH2 receptors at similar levels. Eosinophils isolated from human peripheral blood likewise expressed DP receptor protein but at lower levels than CRTH2. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils was inhibited both...

  7. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)

  8. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  9. Bidirectional Mast Cell–Eosinophil Interactions in Inflammatory Disorders and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Galdiero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human mast cells (MCs and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus. However, in allergic disorders, MCs and eosinophils can form the “allergic effector unit.” Moreover, in several tumors, MCs and eosinophils can be found in close proximity. Therefore, it is likely that MCs have the capacity to modulate eosinophil functions and vice versa. For example, interleukin 5, stem cell factor, histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs, produced by activated MCs, can modulate eosinophil functions through the engagement of specific receptors. In contrast, eosinophil cationic proteins such as eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein (MBP, nerve growth factor, and VEGFs released by activated eosinophils can modulate MC functions. These bidirectional interactions between MCs and eosinophils might be relevant not only in allergic diseases but also in several inflammatory and neoplastic disorders.

  10. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  11. Relationship of coronary collateral circulation with eosinophils in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Qun; Li, Shi-jing; Wang, De-zhao; Chen, Bu-xing

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils (EOS) have been associated with prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease, and those who showed plenitudinous coronary collateral circulation (CCC) often have good clinical consequences. However, the relationship between EOS and CCC was seldom reported. To investigate the relationship between EOS and CCC development in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). The study population consisted of 502 consecutive patients with UAP who underwent coronary angiography and coronary stenosis ≥80%. CCC was graded according to the Rentrop grading system of 0-3. Rentrop grades of 0 and 1 indicated low-grade CCC group, whereas grades 2 and 3 indicated high-grade CCC group. The EOS was significantly higher in the high-grade CCC group compared with the low-grade CCC group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, EOS (odds ratio: 1.969; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.210-3.3205; P=0.006) and neutrophil count (odds ratio: 0.757; 95% CI: 0.584-0.981; P=0.035) were predictors of high-grade CCC development. EOS of >0.12×10(9)/L could independently predict high-grade CCC with 72.5% sensitivity and 58.4% specificity (area under the curve: 0.681; 95% CI: 0.632-0.729). EOS were associated with high-grade CCC in patients with UAP with coronary stenosis ≥80%. Increased EOS count may play an important role in the development of CCC in patients with UAP.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis prevalence in an adult population undergoing upper endoscopy in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Patiño, E; Ruíz Juárez, I; Meixueiro Daza, A; Grube Pagola, P; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Remes-Troche, J M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) prevalence fluctuates according to the population studied and varies from 0.4% in an open population to 6.5% in subjects with esophageal symptoms. Even though this entity has been described in North American and European populations, it is still considered an 'unusual' condition in Latin America. The study aimed to determine EoE prevalence in patients undergoing elective endoscopy in a tertiary referral center in southeastern Mexico. Consecutive patients were evaluated that had been referred to the Medical and Biological Research Institute, Veracruz, Mexico, for upper endoscopy due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Demographic variables and symptoms were analyzed in all the cases. Eight mucosal biopsies of the esophagus (four proximal and four distal) were obtained and were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Histological diagnosis was established when the mean eosinophil count at a large magnification was ≥15. A total of 235 subjects (137 women, 51.16 years) were evaluated, and EoE prevalence was 1.7% (4/235 95% confidence interval 0.2-3.6%). In all four cases, pH test were normal. Among patients with histological diagnosis of EoE, a greater number of patients with a past history of asthma (50% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.04) and a tendency for a greater frequency of dysphagia (50% vs. 25%, P = 0.10). There were no differences in the endoscopic findings (rings, grooves, plaques, or stricture) when compared with the patients presenting with erosive esophagitis. EoE prevalence among patients undergoing upper endoscopy from southeastern Mexico was 1.7%, which can be regarded as intermediate to low. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  13. Enhanced resolution of eosinophilic liver abscess associated with toxocariasis by albendazole treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Young; Choi, Moon Seok; Gwak, Geum Youn; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Paik, Yong Han; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-04-01

    Visceral larva migrans, caused by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, has emerged as a significant cause of eosinophilic liver abscess (ELA). Differentiation of ELA associated with toxocariasis (ELA-T) from metastasis or primary liver malignancy is sometimes difficult. However, the role of albendazole treatment remains uncertain in this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether albendazole can enhance the radiologic resolution of ELA-T. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients diagnosed with ELA-T at our institution between January 2008 and December 2011. ELA-T was diagnosed based on the imaging findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and the presence of positive serum IgG antibody for Toxocara canis. Among a total of 163 patients, 32 patients received albendazole (albendazole group) and 131 did not (control group). Baseline characteristics and fate of liver nodules were compared between the two groups. Baseline characteristics (age, sex, number and maximal size of lesions, eosinophil count) were similar between the two groups. Median duration for achieving radiologic resolution in the albendazole group was significantly shorter than in the control group (207 days [range 186-228] vs. 302 days [range 224-380], p=0.023). In Cox regression analysis of the cumulative rates of radiologic resolution, the hazard ratio for albendazole treatment was 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.23). Radiologic resolution of ELA-T can be accelerated with albendazole treatment. Hence, inconvenience associated with long-term follow-up and unnecessary worries among patients can be eliminated with albendazole treatment.

  14. Triple role of platelet-activating factor in eosinophil migration across monolayers of lung epithelial cells: eosinophil chemoattractant and priming agent and epithelial cell activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Zuurbier, A. E.; Mul, F. P.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Lutter, R.; Knol, E. F.; Roos, D.

    1998-01-01

    Infiltration of eosinophils into the lung lumen is a hallmark of allergic asthmatic inflammation. To reach the lung lumen, eosinophils must migrate across the vascular endothelium, through the interstitial matrix, and across the lung epithelium. The regulation of this process is obscure. In this

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-05-24

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  17. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  18. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Miehlke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  19. Induction of eosinophilic esophagitis by sublingual pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehlke, Stephan; Alpan, Oral; Schröder, Sören; Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field) 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder) according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  20. Clinical evaluation of the adult who has eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2009-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a rapidly increasing, chronic, T helper 2-type inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by esophagus related symptoms and a dense esophageal eosinophilia, both of which are refractory to proton pump inhibitors. The adult patient presents with a typical history of dysphagia for solids and has often experienced food impactions. However the general appearance shows an apparently healthy individual; the physical examination is usually unremarkable. The endoscopic findings are often subtle and misleading. The diagnosis is therefore based on the histologic finding of a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. In adult patients, topical and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunomodulators, and dilation have proven efficacy, whereas therapy with diet is still under evaluation.

  1. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to compensate, resulting in a high reticulocyte count. Hemolytic disease of the newborn : This condition causes increased RBC destruction, similar to hemolytic anemia described above. A low reticulocyte count with ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 115 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 118 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 117 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  5. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TREATMENT OF THE EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA WITH VERTEBRAL INVOLVEMENT USING ORTHOPEDIC CORSET AND SURGICAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Snetkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment of 72 patients with pathological fracture of vertebra bodies against eosinophilic granuloma a spine are analysed. Orthopedic corset technologies are used in treatment of 42 patients, surgical treatment was applied. Orthopedic corset may be used in patients with eosinophilic granuloma of backbone. This method of treatment was used in a case of the absence of spine secondary deformations and neurologic semiology. Orthopedic corset treatment is associated with long immobilization on the average within 1,5-2 years and never leads to a complete recovery of the damaged spine. Surgical treatment consists in use only at loss of height of a body to 30-40%, when destruction of spine more severe it is necessary to use operative treatment in two stages. Absolute indications to surgical treatment are the neurologic deficit and secondary deformations of a spine. Surgical treatment allows to reduce terms of treatment till 3-4 months and quickly to return the patient to an active life.

  7. Non-specific activation of human eosinophil functional responses by vasoactive intestinal peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr El-Shazly

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils and neuropeptides are thought to play effector roles in allergic diseases, such as rhinitis; however, little is known about the biological effects of neuromediators, especially vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, on eosinophil functional responses. In the present study, it is shown that VIP induces eosinophil chemotaxis and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN release in potency comparable with that induced by platelet activator factor, and in a novel synergistic manner with recombinant human interleukin-5. Contrary to chemotaxis, EDN release was sensitive to staurosporine, the protein kinase C inhibitor, as well as intracellular calcium chelation. However, eosinophil treatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (herbimycin A and phosphatases (pervanadate resulted in a dose-dependent potentiation and blockage of VIP-induced eosinophil chemotaxis, respectively. Treatment of eosinophils with VIP receptor antagonist did not modify VIP-induced chemotaxis or EDN release. Furthermore, exploration of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor I expression was lacking in human eosinophils, but not lymphocytes. These results demonstrate two different mechanisms in triggering eosinophil activation of functional responses by VIP, a calcium-dependent degranulation and a calcium-independent chemotaxis, and elaborate on a novel cytokine–neuropeptide interaction in eosinophilic inflammation.

  8. Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissios Vliagoftis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils circulate in the blood and are recruited in tissues during allergic inflammation. Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines. We characterized the expression of connexin (Cx43 by eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy and studied the biological functions of gap junctions on eosinophils. The formation of functional gap junctions was evaluated measuring dye transfer using flow cytometry. The role of gap junctions on eosinophil transendothelial migration was studied using the inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid. Peripheral blood eosinophils express Cx43 mRNA and protein. Cx43 is localized not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane. The membrane impermeable dye BCECF transferred from eosinophils to epithelial or endothelial cells following coculture in a dose and time dependent fashion. The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. The gap junction inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited eosinophil transendothelial migration in a dose dependent manner. Thus, eosinophils from atopic individuals express Cx43 constitutively and Cx43 may play an important role in eosinophil transendothelial migration and function in sites of inflammation.

  9. Genes Associated with Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    eosinophilic inflammation, but also mast cells, and remodeling. In this regard current therapeutic options include elemental diet which eliminates...symptoms and underscores the food dependence of EoE [15]. However, difficultieswith diet adherence result in this not readily being acceptable as a long...provides insight into disease pathogenesis and treatment strategies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128:23–32. [15] Liacouras CA, Furuta GT, Hirano I, Atkins

  10. Eosinophilic Meningitis Due to Infection With Paragonimus kellicotti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Trotman, Robin L; Samman, Hala; Jung, Richard S; Rosterman, Lee R; Weil, Gary J; Hinthorn, Daniel R

    2017-05-01

    Paragonimus kellicotti is an emerging pathogen in the United States with 19 previously reported cases, most in Missouri. Pulmonary symptoms with eosinophilia are most common, though 1 case did involve the central nervous system with few symptoms. We describe the first 2 cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to Paragonimus kellicotti. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association

    OpenAIRE

    Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow’s ...

  12. Eosinophilic endomyocardial disease due to high grade chest wall sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Brown, P. J.; Thwaites, B. C.; Hastings, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    Eosinophilic endomyocardial disease is characterised by persisting blood eosinophilia and acute endocardial lesions which progress to endomyocardial fibrosis. In most cases the cause is unknown but it has been described in association with malignant tumours. A fatal case is presented of a 64 year old woman with this disease due to a high grade sarcoma of the chest wall, an association not previously reported. Images PMID:7974303

  13. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  14. Dietary Therapy for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Elimination and Reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Cassin, Alison M; Venter, Carina

    2017-12-14

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes). Elimination diets are effective treatments for EoE but pose psychosocial and financial challenges to patients and consequently may impair quality of life. Foods that are commonly eliminated, especially milk, are also nutrient-dense and therefore their elimination may result in inadequate nutrient intake or deficiencies without careful diet planning to include nutritionally comparable and safe food substitutes. After remission is achieved with elimination diets, foods can be reintroduced sequentially to identify specific food triggers, but this reintroduction is not standardized. Food elimination and food reintroductions should consider the patient's lifestyle, nutrition needs, and skills and ideally be managed by a team with knowledge of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders and nutrition.

  15. Oral and Sublingual Immunotherapy: Potential Causes for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Delara; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Nishino, Makoto; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a common health problem worldwide, with increasing prevalence during recent decades. The only approved treatments for food allergy are food avoidance and administration of emergency medications in case of accidental exposure, which negatively affects patients' quality of life, so new treatments are highly desirable. Different food immunotherapy modalities have recently been used, with variable success rates in the induction of desensitization and tolerance, and different numbers and types of adverse reactions. Adverse reactions, especially intolerable gastrointestinal symptoms, are the most important causes of immunotherapy withdrawal. Eosinophilic esophagitis has been reported as a complication of milk, egg, and peanut oral immunotherapies and sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergies, but not for food allergies. Eosinophilic gastritis and eosinophilic colitis also rarely happened following egg and milk oral immunotherapies. The patients undergoing oral and sublingual immunotherapies should be closely followed up for a long time, and those with gastrointestinal symptoms should be evaluated by endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract. These complications are usually reversible after early diagnosis and stopping the immunotherapy protocol. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  17. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  18. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  19. The environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene causes eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation and in vitro airways hyperreactivity in the Brown Norway rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielsen, C.; Zeamari, S.; Vos, J. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Leusink-Muis, A.; Bloksma, N. [Department of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    Based on observations that the persistent environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene (HCB) induces inflammatory skin lesions and eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology as well as in vivo airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat (Michielsen et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:11-20, 2001), which are features of human Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), we have investigated whether HCB induced other features of CSS such as asthma and systemic vasculitis involving the heart and kidneys in this strain of rat. To this end, BN/SsNOlaHsd rats received control feed or feed supplemented with 450 mg/kg HCB. On days 6, 14 or 21, tracheas were isolated to assess non-specific in vitro airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to cumulative concentrations of arecoline and serotonin. In addition, lungs were lavaged to count and differentiate lavage cells, and skin, lungs, heart, kidneys, and lymph nodes were processed for histopathological investigation. HCB induced eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat, which became more severe with time and was associated with significant in vitro AHR to arecoline. Moreover, as in CSS-patients, systemic effects on spleen and lymph nodes were observed in HCB-fed BN/SsNOlaHsd rats, as well as development of skin lesions with vascular changes and eosinophilic infiltrates. In contrast, cardiac or renal involvement, frequently seen in CSS-patients, was not seen in HCB-fed rats. More importantly, there were no indications of necrotizing vasculitis, a hallmark feature of CSS, in the lungs and skin of BN/SsNOlaHsd rats. Thus, it is concluded that the persistent environmental pollutant HCB possibly induces a mild or early stage of CSS in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat that may evolve into fully developed CSS after prolonged exposure to HCB. (orig.)

  20. The environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene causes eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation and in vitro airways hyperreactivity in the Brown Norway rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michielsen, C.; Zeamari, S.; Vos, J.; Leusink-Muis, A.; Bloksma, N.

    2002-01-01

    Based on observations that the persistent environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene (HCB) induces inflammatory skin lesions and eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology as well as in vivo airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat (Michielsen et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:11-20, 2001), which are features of human Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), we have investigated whether HCB induced other features of CSS such as asthma and systemic vasculitis involving the heart and kidneys in this strain of rat. To this end, BN/SsNOlaHsd rats received control feed or feed supplemented with 450 mg/kg HCB. On days 6, 14 or 21, tracheas were isolated to assess non-specific in vitro airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to cumulative concentrations of arecoline and serotonin. In addition, lungs were lavaged to count and differentiate lavage cells, and skin, lungs, heart, kidneys, and lymph nodes were processed for histopathological investigation. HCB induced eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat, which became more severe with time and was associated with significant in vitro AHR to arecoline. Moreover, as in CSS-patients, systemic effects on spleen and lymph nodes were observed in HCB-fed BN/SsNOlaHsd rats, as well as development of skin lesions with vascular changes and eosinophilic infiltrates. In contrast, cardiac or renal involvement, frequently seen in CSS-patients, was not seen in HCB-fed rats. More importantly, there were no indications of necrotizing vasculitis, a hallmark feature of CSS, in the lungs and skin of BN/SsNOlaHsd rats. Thus, it is concluded that the persistent environmental pollutant HCB possibly induces a mild or early stage of CSS in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat that may evolve into fully developed CSS after prolonged exposure to HCB. (orig.)

  1. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein (MBP. Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.

  4. Extracellular microvesicle production by human eosinophils activated by “inflammatory” stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Akuthota

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key function of human eosinophils is to secrete cytokines, chemokines and cationic proteins, trafficking and releasing these mediators for roles in inflammation and other immune responses. Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of pre-synthesized granule-stored mediators through different mechanisms, but the ability of eosinophils to secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs, very small vesicles with preserved membrane topology, is still poorly understood. In the present work, we sought to identify and characterize EVs released from human eosinophils during different conditions: after a culturing period or after isolation and stimulation with inflammatory stimuli, which are known to induce eosinophil activation and secretion: CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. EV production was investigated by nanoscale flow cytometry, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM and pre-embedding immunonanogold EM. The tetraspanins CD63 and CD9 were used as EV biomarkers for both flow cytometry and ultrastructural immunolabeling. Nanoscale flow cytometry showed that human eosinophils produce EVs in culture and that a population of EVs expressed detectable CD9, while CD63 was not consistently detected. When eosinophils were stimulated immediately after isolation and analyzed by TEM, EVs were clearly identified as microvesicles (MVsoutwardly budding off the plasma membrane. Both CCL11 and TNF-α induced significant increases of MVs compared to unstimulated cells.TNF-α induced amplified release of MVs more than CCL11. Eosinophil MV diameters varied from 20-1000 nm. Immunonanogold EM revealed clear immunolabeling for CD63 and CD9 on eosinophil MVs, although not all MVs were labeled. Altogether, we identified, for the first time, that human eosinophils secrete MVs and that this production increases in response to inflammatory stimuli. This is important to understand the complex secretory activities of eosinophils underlying immune

  5. Eritema anular eosinofílico en un adulto Eosinophilic anular erythema in an adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Marta Aguado; Gonzalo, Elena Sierra; Jiménez-Reyes, José

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is an uncommon eosinophilic dermatosis. Clinically it is characterized by recurrent episodes of annular or figurative plaques. The histopathological study shows a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis, composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. It was originally described in children. We report an adult woman who presented with recurrent erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy showed a mainly periv...

  6. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: a novel biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may p...

  7. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  8. Differential effects of corticosteroids and theophylline on the adhesive interaction between eosinophils and endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nagata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids and theophylline have been used widely for the treatment of asthma. These two classes of drugs appear to reduce the tissue infiltration of eosinophils, predominant inflammatory cells in the airways of asthmatic patients. Corticosteroids inhibit the generation of both endothelial-activating Th2 cytokines (e.g. interleukin (IL-4/IL-13 and eosinophil growth factors (e.g. IL-5/granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and also attenuate the effects of eosinophil growth factors on the differentiation and prolonged survival of eosinophils. However, corticosteroids modulate directly neither eosinophil adhesiveness nor the expression of adhesion proteins on endothelial cells in vitro. Therefore, it is likely that the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on the tissue infiltration of eosinophils is the consequence of indirect mechanisms, mainly via the inhibition of cytokines. Interestingly, theophylline, which is generally accepted as a bronchodilator, attenuates eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro at a clinically therapeutic concentration. Furthermore, theophylline inhibits the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells that had been stimulated with IL-4 plus tumor necrosis factor-a. Thus, theophylline possibly exerts an inhibitory effect on both the adhesive property of eosinophils and the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. These findings possibly indicate that theophylline would be adequate to supplement the actions of corticosteroids in asthmatic airway inflammation, partly via its inhibitory effect on the interaction between blood eosinophils and endothelial cells.

  9. Excretory-secretory product of newly excysted metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani directly induces eosinophil apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils are important effector cells in host defense against parasites. Excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by helminthic worms plays important roles in the uptake of nutrients, migration in the host tissue, and in immune modulation. However, little is known about the ability of the ESP to directly trigger eosinophil apoptosis. This study investigated whether the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani could induce apoptosis in human eosinophils. Apoptosis was assayed by staining the cells with FITC-annexin V, and the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. It was found that the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of P. westermani induced a direct time- and concentration-dependent increase in the rate of constitutive apoptosis in mature human eosinophils. Eosinophil apoptosis was first apparent 3 hr after treatment with the ESP and continued to increase after 6 hr of incubation with respect to the cells cultured in the absence of the ESP. While only 2.8% of the eosinophils incubated in the medium for 3 hr were apoptotic, 7.6%, 10.9% and 22.6% of the eosinophils treated with 10, 30 and 100 µg/ml ESP were apoptotic, respectively. This result suggests that the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of P. westermani directly induce eosinophil apoptosis, which may be important for the survival of the parasites and the reduction of eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. PMID:10743354

  10. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  11. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  12. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease

  13. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  14. Pathogen induced chemo-attractant hepoxilin A3 drives neutrophils, but not eosinophils across epithelial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, S A; Patil, S U; Shreffler, W G; Hurley, B P

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both neutrophils and eosinophils can respond to chemotactic gradients of certain eicosanoids, however, it is not known whether eosinophils respond to pathogen induced lipid mediators such as HXA3. In this study, neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from human blood and placed on the basolateral side of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable Transwell filters and challenged by various chemotactic gradients of distinct lipid mediators. We observed that both cell populations migrated across epithelial monolayers in response to a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) gradient, whereas only eosinophils migrated toward a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) gradient. Interestingly, while pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration was substantial, pathogen induced eosinophil trans-epithelial migration was not observed. Further, gradients of chemotactic lipids derived from pathogen infected epithelial cells known to be enriched for HXA3 as well as purified HXA3 drove significant numbers of neutrophils across epithelial barriers, whereas eosinophils failed to respond to these gradients. These data suggest that although the eicosanoid HXA3 serves as an important neutrophil chemo-attractant at mucosal surfaces during pathogenic infection, HXA3 does not appear to exhibit chemotactic activity toward eosinophils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of eosinophils activated with Alternaria on the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Sung-Yong; Kim, Yee-Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils and fibroblasts are known to play major roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Fungi are commonly found in nasal secretion and are associated with airway inflammation. To investigate whether activated eosinophils by airborne fungi can influence the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) from nasal fibroblasts. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus, respectively, for 24 hours and ECM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were measured. Eosinophils isolated from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus for 4 hours then superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 were measured. Then activated eosinophils were cocultured with nasal fibroblasts for 24 hours, and ECM mRNA expressions were measured. Alternaria strongly enhanced ECM mRNA expression and protein production from nasal fibroblasts. Alternaria also induced the production of superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 from eosinophils, and activated eosinophils enhanced ECM mRNA expression when they were cocultured without the Transwell insert system. Eosinophils activated with Alternaria enhanced ECM mRNA expression from nasal polyp fibroblasts. Alternaria plays an important role in tissue fibrosis in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by directly or indirectly influencing the production of ECM from nasal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined

  17. CD25+ T-lymphocytes induce CD11b on eosinophils in allergic nasal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Horiguchi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the allergic mucosa, there is a significant increase in numbers of CD25+ cells and activated eosinophils. To determine whether a link exists between the activated T-lymphocytes and tissue eosinophils in nasal allergy, we studied CD25+ cells in the nasal mucosa and compared the levels of soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R both in the serum and the nasal secretions, and further investigated expression of CD11b on eosinophils in the nasal lavage fluids and peripheral blood of patients with nasal allergy. We also examined the effects of the culture supernatant of Con A- and IL-2-activated T-lymphocytes on CD11b expression on eosinophils in the present study. The concentration of sIL-2R in the nasal secretions from patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP was significantly higher than that from normal subjects (p < 0.01. The sIL-2R level was significantly higher in the nasal secretions than in the sera in patients (p < 0.01, and CD11b expression on eosinophils from nasal hvage fluid was significandy higher than that of eosinophils from peripheral blood of the same individuals (p < 0.01. The activated T-lymphocytes promoted eosinophil activation with upregulation of CD11b in vitro, and eosinophils in the nasal secretions from patients significantly expressed more CD11b in vivo. These results indicate that activation of T-lymphocytes is linked to eosinophil activation in nasal allergy.

  18. Eosinophil-induced liver injury: an experimental model using IL-5 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, K; Maeda, T; Tominaga, A; Watanabe, Y; Miyazaki, E; Enzan, H; Akisawa, N; Iwasaki, S; Saibara, T; Onishi, S

    2001-02-01

    In certain liver diseases, activated eosinophils are considered to be important effector cells in addition to T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. No experimental model, however, has been developed for in vivo analysis of the cytotoxic mechanisms. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) transgenic mice (C3H/HeN-TgN(IL-5)Imeg), which exhibit marked eosinophilia without liver injury, were injected once with 25 microg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally. The mice were sacrificed weekly and eosinophilic injuries were assessed microscopically. To clarify the role of Kupffer cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the liver injury, gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) and anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody were administrated before the LPS injection. Two weeks after injection, transgenic mice exhibited marked infiltration of eosinophils and extensive lobular necrosis. Transmigration of eosinophils through vascular endothelium and degranulation of eosinophil cytotoxic granules in inflamed areas were observed. These eosinophilic injuries were transient, but liver-specific. Pre-administration of GdCl3 and anti-TNF-alpha markedly reduced the hepatic inflammation, suggesting that LPS-activated Kupffer cells play a key role in producing the cytotoxicity of eosinophils by releasing TNF-alpha. We have established an experimental model of eosinophil-induced liver injury using IL-5 transgenic mice. Since this model is simple and highly reproducible, it will be useful for analysis of in vivo cytotoxic mechanisms of eosinophils.

  19. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  20. Anti-allergic properties of the bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum: inhibition of eosinophil activation and influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Gomes, Gleice S; Zanon, Cristiane; Chedier, Luciana M; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Frutuoso, Válber S; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Weller, Peter F; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2005-12-01

    New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases can be aided by the development of agents capable of regulating eosinophilic leukocytes. Here, we evaluated the anti-allergic properties of a crude extract of the Brazilian bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum, focusing on its effects on allergic eosinophilia. By studying allergic pleurisy in actively sensitized C57Bl/6 mice, we observed that pretreatment with N. procerum (2 mg/kg; i.p.) reduced pleural eosinophil influx triggered by allergen challenge. N. procerum was also able to reduce lipid body numbers found within infiltrating eosinophils, indicating that N. procerum in vivo is able to affect both migration and activation of eosinophils. Consistently, pretreatment with N. procerum blocked pleural eosinophil influx triggered by PAF or eotaxin, key mediators of the development of allergic pleural eosinophilia. The effect of N. procerum was not restricted to eosinophils, since N. procerum also inhibited pleural neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx. Of note, N. procerum failed to alter the acute allergic reaction, characterized by mast cell degranulation, oedema, and cysteinyl leukotriene release. N. procerum also had direct effects on murine eosinophils, since it inhibited both PAF- and eotaxin-induced eosinophil chemotaxis on an in vitro chemotactic assay. Therefore, N. procerum may be a promising anti-allergic therapy, inasmuch as it presents potent anti-eosinophil activity.

  1. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  2. Metformin attenuates the exacerbation of the allergic eosinophilic inflammation in high fat-diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ciarallo Calixto

    Full Text Available A positive relationship between obesity and asthma has been well documented. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator metformin reverses obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR and inhibits different types of inflammatory responses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin on the exacerbation of allergic eosinophilic inflammation in obese mice. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed for 10 weeks with high-fat diet (HFD to induce obesity. The cell infiltration and inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and lung tissue were evaluated at 48 h after ovalbumin (OVA challenge. HFD obese mice displayed peripheral IR that was fully reversed by metformin (300 mg/kg/day, two weeks. OVA-challenge resulted in higher influx of total cell and eosinophils in lung tissue of obese mice compared with lean group. As opposed, the cell number in BAL fluid of obese mice was reduced compared with lean group. Metformin significantly reduced the tissue eosinophil infiltration and prevented the reduction of cell counts in BAL fluid. In obese mice, greater levels of eotaxin, TNF-α and NOx, together with increased iNOS protein expression were observed, all of which were normalized by metformin. In addition, metformin nearly abrogated the binding of NF-κB subunit p65 to the iNOS promoter gene in lung tissue of obese mice. Lower levels of phosphorylated AMPK and its downstream target acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC were found in lung tissue of obese mice, which were restored by metformin. In separate experiments, the selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (20 mg/kg, 3 weeks and the anti-TNF-α mAb (2 mg/kg significantly attenuated the aggravation of eosinophilic inflammation in obese mice. In conclusion, metformin inhibits the TNF-α-induced inflammatory signaling and NF-κB-mediated iNOS expression in lung tissue of obese mice. Metformin may be a good pharmacological strategy to control the asthma exacerbation in obese individuals.

  3. Absolute pitch--electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, A; Granot, R; Pratt, H

    1994-02-01

    People who have the ability to label or to produce notes without any reference are considered to possess Absolute Pitch (AP). Others, who need a reference in order to identify the notes, possess Relative Pitch (RP). The AP ability is assumed to reflect a unique, language-like representation of non-lexical musical notes in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine this assumption by comparing Event Related Potentials (ERP) of musicians with and without AP, to lexical and non-lexical representation of musical material. Subjects were eighteen young adult musicians. Seven were AP and eleven RP. Auditory stimuli, presented through earphones, were piano notes (non-lexical) or a voice saying the note's name (lexical). Visual stimuli, presented on a computer display were note symbols (non-lexical) or letters (lexical). Subjects performed a number of tasks, combining the two modalities (visual and auditory) and stimulus types (lexical and non-lexical), and reaction times (RT), performance accuracy and evoked potentials were recorded. The tasks forced the subjects to transfer mental representations of musical material from one mode to another. Our most important findings were the differences, between groups, in the scalp distribution of P300 amplitudes. We conclude that absolute pitch possessors use the same internal language as relative pitch possessors, when possible, but the distribution of the underlying brain activity is different between AP and RP subjects.

  4. Absolute MR thermometry using nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Roel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Crielaard, Bart J; Ippel, Johannes H; Boelens, Rolf; Bakker, Chris J G; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-01-01

    Accurate time-resolved temperature mapping is crucial for the safe use of hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery. We here propose a magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping method in which drug delivery systems serve not only to improve tumor targeting, but also as an accurate and absolute nano-thermometer. This method is based on the temperature-dependent chemical shift difference between water protons and the protons in different groups of drug delivery systems. We show that the chemical shift of the protons in the ethylene oxide group in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is temperature-independent, whereas the proton resonance of water decreases with increasing temperature. The frequency difference between both resonances is linear and does not depend on pH and physiological salt conditions. In addition, we show that the proton resonance of the methyl group in N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) is temperature-independent. Therefore, PEGylated liposomes, polymeric mPEG-b-pHPMAm-Lac2 micelles and HPMA copolymers can provide a temperature-independent reference frequency for absolute magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry. Subsequently, we show that multigradient echo MR imaging with PEGylated liposomes in situ allows accurate, time-resolved temperature mapping. In conclusion, nanocarrier materials may serve as highly versatile tools for tumor-targeted drug delivery, acting not only as hyperthermia-responsive drug delivery systems, but also as accurate and precise nano-thermometers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Diagnostic Algorithm for Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Initially Diagnosed as Lumbar Disc Hernia or Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Personal Experience and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kosei; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Kota; Sato, Masaki; Arino, Yusuke; Mikami, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare systemic vasculitis and is difficult to diagnose. EGPA has a number of symptoms including peripheral dysesthesia caused by mononeuropathy multiplex, which is similar to radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis. Therefore, EGPA patients with mononeuropathy multiplex often visit orthopedic clinics, but orthopedic doctors and spine neurosurgeons have limited experience in diagnosing EGPA because of its rarity. We report a consecutive series of patients who were initially diagnosed as having lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis by at least 2 medical institutions from March 2006 to April 2013 but whose final diagnosis was EGPA. All patients had past histories of asthma or eosinophilic pneumonia, and four out of five had peripheral edema. Laboratory data showed abnormally increased eosinophil counts, and nerve conduction studies of all patients revealed axonal damage patterns. All patients recovered from paralysis to a functional level after high-dose steroid treatment. We shortened the duration of diagnosis from 49 days to one day by adopting a diagnostic algorithm after experiencing the first case.

  6. Chronic rhinitis: Effects of local corticosteroids on eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursulović Dejan D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestation of chronic rhinitis is due to local release of mediators from inflammatory cells. Eosinophil leukocytes are important in pathogenesis of nasal hypersensitivity as well as nasal hyperreactivity [1,2]. The aim of the study was to follow-up the effect of local corticosteroid treatment on a number of eosinophils in nasal secretion of patients with chronic rhinitis. The study was prospective and controlled. A total number of 88 subjects was included in the study. Patients with chronic rhinitis who were treated with local corticosteroids (63 constituted the experimental group (37 with isolated allergic rhinitis, 10 with isolated nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis, 10 with allergic rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis and 6 with nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis. There were 25 patients with chronic rhinitis in the control group (18 with iso- lated allergic rhinitis, 2 with isolated nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis, 3 with allergic rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis, and 2 with nonallergic noninfective, hyperreactive rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis. During the treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate aqueous nasal spray (daily dose was 400 micrograms during 6 weeks for isolated rhinitis and 6 months for associated forms of rhinitis, control examinations were regularly performed. The first control was after one week the second after six weeks, the third after three months and the fourth after six months. The same control was carried out in the control group of patients who were without therapy. Cytological examination of nasal secretions included brush method of collecting secretions, staining smears with Leishman's stain and light microscopic scrutinising of nasal smear magnified up to 1000 times. The results of the study demonstrated the highly significant decrease in the number of eosinophils after the therapy in patients with isolated

  7. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piraki, MA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively on differential white blood cell (WBC count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.Methods Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes active and passive recovery from an exhaustive exercise session. A WBC’s (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basohils, and eosinophils count was done on all of these samples.This exercise protocol was based on the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Stress Test until feeling excessive fatigue followed by AR (first group, and RR (second group.Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney test were used for descriptive and statistical analysis on collected raw data. Statistical significance in this analysis was set at P ≤ 0.05.ResultsA session of exhaustive exercise increased the number of WBCs (except for eosinophils with a statistical significant differences of (P0.05.ConclusionThe results show a session of exhaustive exercise increases the blood leukocytes, except for eosinophils. Also, taking 15 minutes recovery (AR or RR has no effect on athlete's WBC count. It means the type of recovery has no special and different effect on athlete's WBC count. In fact, if there are any changes in WBC count during or after exhaustive exercise, they are not due to the type of 15 minutes recovery. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study after completing the AR and RR, number of the blood leukocytes was over their basal level.Keywords: Active Recovery, Passive Recovery, White Blood Cell Count, Athletes.

  8. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  9. The natural history and complications of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic disease limited to the esophagus and has a persistent or spontaneously fluctuating course. So far it does not seem to limit life expectancy, but it often substantially impairs the quality of life. To date, there has been no association with malignant conditions, but there is concern that the chronic, uncontrolled inflammation will evoke irreversible structural alterations of the esophagus, leading to tissue fibrosis, stricture formation, and impaired function. This esophageal remodeling may result in several disease-inherent and procedure-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalized morphea/eosinophilic fasciitis overlap after epoxy exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren H. Chan, MS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalized morphea is associated with epoxy resin vapors and is characterized by the development of lesions shortly after exposure. Morphea presenting along with eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, or morphea/EF overlap, is rare and an indicator of poor prognosis and resistance to treatment. Here we present a case of generalized morphea/EF overlap linked to epoxy exposure. Our patient received multiple therapies—ultraviolet A1 phototherapy, prednisone, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and rituximab—none of which led to a significant response. The refractory nature of this disease warrants vigilance in its association with epoxy exposure.

  11. "Absolute" sterility and "absolute" freedom from particle contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J Z

    1998-01-01

    Until the recent past, sterility of an injectable product was only discussed in absolute terms. Any description of sterility other than as an absolute could simply not be envisioned. While dealing in absolute yes/no statements is philosophically satisfying, these yes/no statements can't accommodate all real world scientific problems. Among these problems is the sterility problems faced in the mass production of injectable compounds. Many descriptions of procedures employed to achieve sterility in parenteral production batches were reported in the literature. The theoretical framework that could unite the widespread observations and practices into practical methodology was missing until recently. Production line control of the sterility of injectable products was essentially based on gut evaluations. The present achievement of rational, production line control of product sterility is based on the recognition that product sterility could not be simply regarded as a sharply edged yes/no affair. The present rational control is based on the fact that the sterility of a product is determined by the degree of contamination in the product prior to sterilization and to the parameters of the sterilization process. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. The essential laboratory measurements on which this conclusion was based is due to Pflug (1-3). He assembled a theoretical framework, based on experimental data, that characterizes the sterility achieved in an injectable product with a single number. The end result of the sterilization process is now described as a probabalistic reduction of the initial contamination. As in many disciplines, the ability to achieve an objective evaluation of this important attribute provided the basis for scientific analysis, improved control and thus improved production and reduced cost. An equivalent framework is essential for the communication and

  12. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  13. T-cell count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... count URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003516.htm T-cell count To use the sharing features on this ... as hepatitis or mononucleosis Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to: Acute viral infections Aging Cancer Immune system diseases, such as HIV/AIDS ...

  14. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  15. Neutron event counting circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B.J.; Maitis, W.

    1986-01-01

    A circuit is described for counting particles emitted by a particle-emitting material. The circuit consists of: means responsive to emitted particles for generating sensed particle pulses; first counting means for counting the sensed particle pulses; means responsive to the sensed particle pulses for generating window pulses, the window pulse generating means being further operative to generate window pulse of predetermined maximum time duration in response to each sensed particle pulse which occurs during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; means for generating a second pulse in response to each sensed particle pulse occurring during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; and second counting means for counting the second pulses

  16. Applied carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lovely; Khandelwal, Deepak; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate counting or "carb counting" is a meal planning technique for persons with diabetes for managing blood glucose levels by tracking the grams of carbohydrate consumed at meals. With better patient education and awareness, carb counting has become an important step in diabetes management. People with all types of diabetes can be benefited with this approach via improved glycaemic control and quality of life. In the first part of this review basic principles of carbohydrate counting, its application in clinical practice and exchange lists pertaining primarily to South Asian populations have been discussed. Advanced carb counting involving equations which help in better understanding of insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio and insulin dose adjustment are also included in this review.

  17. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  18. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, MK; Caldwell, JM; Wang, YH; Chaplin, DD; Lee, EH; Jang, MH; Woo, SY; Seoh, JY; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, ME

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double–deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3–deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer’s patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t–positive (ROR-γt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell–activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β–deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA+ cells and ROR-γt+ ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  19. Staphylococcus aureus induces eosinophil cell death mediated by α-hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lynne R; Graham, Kirstie J; Connolly, John; Anwar, Sadia; Ridley, Robert; Sabroe, Ian; Foster, Simon J; Whyte, Moira K B

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, exacerbates allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyps and asthma, which are characterized by tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophils, via their destructive granule contents, can cause significant tissue damage, resulting in inflammation and further recruitment of inflammatory cells. We hypothesised that the relationship between S. aureus and eosinophils may contribute to disease pathology. We found that supernatants from S. aureus (SH1000 strain) cultures cause rapid and profound eosinophil necrosis, resulting in dramatic cell loss within 2 hours. This is in marked contrast to neutrophil granulocytes where no significant cell death was observed (at equivalent dilutions). Supernatants prepared from a strain deficient in the accessory gene regulator (agr) that produces reduced levels of many important virulence factors, including the abundantly produced α-hemolysin (Hla), failed to induce eosinophil death. The role of Hla in mediating eosinophil death was investigated using both an Hla deficient SH1000-modified strain, which did not induce eosinophil death, and purified Hla, which induced concentration-dependent eosinophil death via both apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that S. aureus Hla induces aberrant eosinophil cell death in vitro and that this may increase tissue injury in allergic disease.

  20. Eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) levels in commercial human urinary preparations of glycoprotein hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF; Hovenga, H; de Bruijn, HWA; Beintema, JJ

    Eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) is a ubiquitous human ribonuclease, occurring not only in eosinophils, but also in many tissues and body fluids. It may be a contaminant of commercial human urinary preparations of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and other glycoprotein hormones. Here we describe the

  1. Pyloric obstruction due to massive eosinophilic infiltration in a young adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Alexandros O; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Psalla, Dimitra; Soubasis, Nectarios; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-11-01

    A 16-month-old dog was presented with chronic vomiting, anorexia, progressive weight loss, and melena. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a massive pyloric eosinophilic infiltration leading to pyloric obstruction that was treated successfully with pylorectomy. This is a novel clinical presentation of eosinophilic gastritis and highlights the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis for pyloric obstruction.

  2. Regulation of Spontaneous Eosinophil Apoptosis—A Neglected Area of Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinja Ilmarinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the airways in most phenotypes. Eosinophils are inflammatory cells that require an external survival-prolonging stimulus such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interleukin (IL-5, or IL-3 for survival. In their absence, eosinophils are programmed to die by spontaneous apoptosis in a few days. Eosinophil apoptosis can be accelerated by Fas ligation or by pharmacological agents such as glucocorticoids. Evidence exists for the relevance of these survival-prolonging and pro-apoptotic agents in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in inflamed airways. Much less is known about the physiological significance and mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis even though it forms the basis of regulation of eosinophil longevity by pathophysiological factors and pharmacological agents. This review concentrates on discussing the mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis compared to those of glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis. We aim to answer the question whether the external apoptotic stimuli only augment the ongoing pathway of spontaneous apoptosis or truly activate a specific pathway.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus induces eosinophil cell death mediated by α-hemolysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne R Prince

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, exacerbates allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyps and asthma, which are characterized by tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophils, via their destructive granule contents, can cause significant tissue damage, resulting in inflammation and further recruitment of inflammatory cells. We hypothesised that the relationship between S. aureus and eosinophils may contribute to disease pathology. We found that supernatants from S. aureus (SH1000 strain cultures cause rapid and profound eosinophil necrosis, resulting in dramatic cell loss within 2 hours. This is in marked contrast to neutrophil granulocytes where no significant cell death was observed (at equivalent dilutions. Supernatants prepared from a strain deficient in the accessory gene regulator (agr that produces reduced levels of many important virulence factors, including the abundantly produced α-hemolysin (Hla, failed to induce eosinophil death. The role of Hla in mediating eosinophil death was investigated using both an Hla deficient SH1000-modified strain, which did not induce eosinophil death, and purified Hla, which induced concentration-dependent eosinophil death via both apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that S. aureus Hla induces aberrant eosinophil cell death in vitro and that this may increase tissue injury in allergic disease.

  4. Role of Environmental Factors in the Development of Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slae, Mordechai; Persad, Rabin; Leung, Aldrich Jing-Tao; Gabr, Raniah; Brocks, Dion; Huynh, Hien Quoc

    2015-11-01

    Despite accumulating data on the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis, not much is known about risk factors for the development of the disease. The role of factors such as smoking, breastfeeding, early antibiotic exposure and other factors that have been associated with other allergic diseases has not been well studied in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. To explore the role of environmental and medication exposures in the development of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study, utilizing a parent and child questionnaire and medical chart review. Urine cotinine levels, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were obtained as objective evidence for smoking exposure. One hundred and two children with eosinophilic esophagitis and 167 controls were recruited. The controls were mainly diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorders (33%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (29%). Food allergy, specifically for peanuts and tree nuts, and allergy to pollen, tree, and grass were significantly higher among eosinophilic esophagitis children. Smoking exposure, both primary and secondary, was not associated with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis when compared to controls (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.58-1.59). Furthermore, early smoking exposure in the first year of life was higher among controls. Common accepted risk factors for allergy and atopy, such as breastfeeding practices, antibiotics exposure, animals' exposure, and others, were not found to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis in our study. Common risk factors in other allergic and atopic conditions were not found to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis.

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, D.; Cianferoni, A.; Spergel, J. M.; Aceves, S.; Holbreich, M.; Venter, C.; Rothenberg, M. E.; Terreehorst, I.; Muraro, A.; Lucendo, A. J.; Schoepfer, A.; Straumann, A.; Simon, H.-U.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. EoE is frequently associated with concomitant atopic diseases and immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to food allergens in

  6. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...

  7. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies in eosinophils: Central roles in eicosanoid generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F Weller

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies are non-membrane bound, lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions that form in diverse cell types. Characteristically, lipid body numbers increase when eosinophils and other leukocytes are participating in inflammatory processes. Moreover, lipid bodies are numerous in other sites active in eicosanoid formation, such as the amnion epithelium at parturition. Our interests in lipid bodies relate to the roles that these structures play in arachidonate metabolism by eosinophils and other leukocytes involved in inflammation. Findings indicate that lipid bodies in these leukocytes can function as intracellular domains that are both depots of esterified arachidonate and sites at which regulated enzymatic events relevant to arachidonate metabolism can occur. Lipid bodies are discrete intracellular structures whose formation is specifically inducible early, whose increased numbers correlate with the 'priming' responses of leukocytes to form enhanced amounts of both cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids and whose inhibition of formation correlates with reduced synthesis of these eicosanoids. Inhibition of lipid body formation represents a novel pharmacologic target to block the formation of eicosanoid mediators of inflammation.

  8. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassom, D.L.; Loegering, D.A.; Gleich, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131 I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  9. The role of periostin in eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hisanori; Matsubara, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuo; Izuhara, Kenji; Shirasaki, Takashi; Abe, Takahisa; Takeda, Ikuko; Shinkawa, Hideichi

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the localization of periostin in middle ear specimens from patients with eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) and from a newly constructed animal model for EOM. Periostin-positive immunostaining was observed in the middle ear sections obtained from the EOM patients. Immunoreactivity for periostin was also seen in the animal model. These results suggest that periostin plays an important role in subepithelial fibrosis in the middle ear in EOM. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of periostin in the middle ear of EOM patients and an animal model. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses for periostin were carried out in the middle ear specimens of six EOM patients with/without asthma. An animal model of EOM was constructed by intraperitoneal and topical sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). Histological and immunocytochemical analyses for periostin were also performed in this model. Immunoreactivities for periostin were observed in the basement membrane and extracellular matrix of the middle ear sections obtained from all EOM patients with/without asthma. In the animal model, eosinophil infiltration and middle ear mucosa thickness were observed. Moreover, periostin-positive immunostaining was shown in the extracellular matrix of the middle ear mucosa on the side topically boosted by OVA.

  10. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP. In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring.

  11. Update on basic and clinical aspects of eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-08-01

    The identification of a distinct syndrome, designated eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), with its own clinical and histopathological characteristics, was first described in the early 1990s. Meanwhile intense research has uncovered many molecular, immunological and clinical aspects of this chronic-inflammatory disorder. This article focuses exclusively on basic and clinical insights of EoE gathered during the last few years. Regarding aetiopathogenesis it has become clear that EoE is a food-triggered disease with milk and wheat as the dominant culprit food categories. However, it is still debated whether a disturbed mucosal integrity allowing allergens to cross the mucosal barrier, or changes in wheat and milk manufacturing might induce these inflammatory responses. Furthermore, basic science and clinical studies have accordingly confirmed that a chronic eosinophilic inflammation leads to a remodelling of the oesophagus with micro- and macro-morphological alterations, ending in a strictured oesophagus with impaired function. Fortunately, long-term therapeutic trials, using either topical corticosteroids or dietary allergen avoidance, have demonstrated that this sequela can be prevented or even reversed. This finding is of clinical relevance as it supports the initiation of a consistent anti-inflammatory therapy. Nevertheless, EoE is still an enigmatic disease and the long list of unanswered questions will certainly stimulate further research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  13. Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-β and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood. Objective In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines. Methods Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-β and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays. Results The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-β and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-β and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release. Conclusions Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23496774

  14. High accuracy absolute distance metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Bas L.; Bhattacharya, Nandini; Verlaan, Ad L.; Braat, Joseph J. M.

    2017-11-01

    One of ESA's future missions is the Darwin Space Interferometer, which aims to detect planets around nearby stars using optical aperture synthesis with free-flying telescopes. Since this involves interfering white (infra-red) light over large distances, the mission is not possible without a complex metrology system that monitors various speeds, distances and angles between the satellites. One of its sub-systems should measure absolute distances with an accuracy of around 70 micrometer over distances up to 250 meter. To enable such measurements, we are investigating a technique called frequency sweeping interferometry, in which a single laser is swept over a large known frequency range. Central to our approach is the use of a very stable, high finesse Fabry-Ṕerot cavity, to which the laser is stabilized at the endpoints of the frequency sweep. We will discuss the optical set-up, the control system that controls the fast sweeping, the calibration and the data analysis. We tested the system using long fibers and achieved a repeatability of 50 micrometers at a distance of 55 meters. We conclude with some recommendations for further improvements and the adaption for use in space.

  15. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  16. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  17. On the absolute measure of Beta activities; Sobre la medida absoluta de actividades Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-07-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The measurements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  18. Absolute activity determinations on large volume geological samples independent of self-absorption effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measuring the absolute activity of large volume samples by γ-spectroscopy independent of self-absorption effects using Ge detectors. The method yields accurate matrix independent results at the expense of replicative counting of the unknown sample. (orig./HP)

  19. Four-part leukocyte differential count based on sheathless microflow cytometer and fluorescent dye assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wendian; Guo, Luke; Kasdan, Harvey; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2013-04-07

    Leukocyte differential count is one of the most frequently ordered clinical tests in hospitals. This paper reports a point-of-care test for the leukocyte count by using a microflow cytometer and a fluorescent dye assay. The dye assay relied on fluorescent detection alone to count leukocytes in blood and to identify leukocyte subtypes. By combining the fluorescent assay with a sheathless microflow design, the proposed method achieved a minimal sample volume by eliminating excessive dilution and sheath flow. In this paper, a four-part leukocyte differential count including lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil was demonstrated, and the whole test consumed only a small amount of blood (5 μL) and reagents (68 μL in total). The merits of minimal sample volume, long reagent shelf life and portable instrument made this method optimal for point-of-care applications.

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 64K ...

  2. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  3. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  5. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ... Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe ...

  8. The glucocorticoid RU24858 does not distinguish between transrepression and transactivation in primary human eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianzhi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids are used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis is considered to be one of the main mechanisms behind the anti-asthmatic effect of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid binding to its receptor (GR can have a dual effect on gene transcription. Activated GR can activate transcription (transactivation, or by interacting with other transcription factors such as NF-κB suppress transcription (transrepression. RU24858 has been reported to transrepress but to have little or no transactivation capability in other cell types. The dissociated properties of RU24858 have not been previously studied in non-malignant human cells. As the eosinophils have a very short lifetime and many of the modern molecular biological methods cannot be used, a "dissociated steroid" would be a valuable tool to evaluate the mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in human eosinophils. The aim of this study was to elucidate the ability of RU24858 to activate and repress gene expression in human eosinophils in order to see whether it is a dissociated steroid in human eosinophils. Methods Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated under sterile conditions and cultured in the presence and/or absence RU24858. For comparison, dexamethasone and mometasone were used. We measured chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. Apoptosis was measured by DNA fragmentation and confirmed by morphological analysis. Results RU24858 (1 μM increased CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression on eosinophils to a similar extent as mometasone (1 μM and dexamethasone (1 μM. Like dexamethasone and mometasone, RU24858 did suppress IL-8 and MCP-1 production in eosinophils. RU24858 also increased spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis to a similar degree as dexamethasone and mometasone, but unlike dexamethasone and mometasone it did not reverse IL-5- or GM

  9. Effects of eosinophilic oesophagitis on quality of life in an adult UK population: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, R; Alexakis, C; Farmer, A D; Ainley, J; Chhaya, V; Hayat, J O; Poullis, A; Kang, J-Y

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated esophageal disease, characterized by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil predominant inflammation. Current evidence for an adverse impact on quality of life (QoL) is conflicting and there are no data from a UK population regarding QoL. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional observational study using the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Hospital Dysphagia/Odynophagia Questionnaire, and the EoE Adult Quality of Life Questionnaire to assess QoL and severity of dysphagia in EoE patients, compared to age and gender matched healthy control subjects. Data were also collected on comorbidity and medication use. Eighty-eight subjects were recruited (44 patients). Patients had higher rates of antihistamine and topical (swallowed) corticosteroid use. Physical QoL did not differ between patients and controls, although patients did report a statistically significant lower mental QoL, with small absolute magnitude of difference. Patients reported higher dysphagia scores and these were negatively correlated with both physical and mental QoL. Higher rates of dysphagia and medication use in patients may among other things account for lower mental QoL. However, a higher rate of dysphagia in patients is not associated with a reduced physical QoL. Our findings are of clinical value, particularly when a new diagnosis of EoE is made, as clinicians can reassure patients that their general physical health should not be greatly affected by the diagnosis. Moreover, it may also be useful for patients to be aware that EoE may have an impact on their mental health, but this effect is likely to be small. We therefore advocate education and reassurance in this respect for all patients at diagnosis. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  10. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis as a Stenosing Lesion in the Subglottis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Keogh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subglottic Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis (EAF is an extremely rare disease of an elusive aetiology. It is chronically progressive benign condition that causes narrowing of the subglottic region leading to dysphonia and airway compromise. The diagnosis is historical and imaging is nonspecific. We report a case xc of 56-year-old lady referred to our institution with globus sensation, hoarseness, and mild stridor. Incidental subglottic mass was found at time of diagnostic microlaryngoscopy and biopsy confirmed subglottic EAF. All laboratory investigations were unremarkable. Lesion was removed with laryngeal microdebrider and three courses of intravenous dexamethasone were administered. Patient’s postoperative period was uneventful and had remained disease free for 1 year. To date, no consensus has been reached on the optimal treatment of subglottic EAF. We recommend regular follow-up to detect early recurrence.

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: an Emerging Clinicopathologic Disease of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophililc esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease characterized clinically by dysphagia and food impaction in adults and nonspecific symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children, and histologically by large numbers of eosinophils in the proximal and distal esophageal epithelium. Importantly, these symptoms and histologic abnormalities appear to be unresponsive to proton pump inhibition. Recent clinical and basic studies suggest an allergic etiology but the precise allergen remains unknown and is likely unique for each patient. Endoscopic features suggest ongoing inflammation and range from linear furrowing with whitish exudation to long-segment stricture formation, to a fragile, crepe paper–like mucosa that is easily split open. Treatments include nutritional restrictions, medical management with topical steroids, and, in stenotic circumstances, esophageal dilation. The long-term outcome is still not certain. PMID:28289340

  12. Case report 424: Eosinophilic granuloma of the acromion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.; Betz, R.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1987-01-01

    The case has been presented of a unifocal lesion of eosinophilic granuloma in the acromion of a 16-year-old young man. The use of a special technique radiologically in outlining lesions of the acromion was described. Of interest was the fact that the patient appeared at the Temple University Section for Sports Medicine and Science upon experiencing pain following a fishing expedition. In this connection, the frequency of injuries of the shoulder on various Temple University athletic teams was discussed. The value of an isotope scan in establishing a diagnosis was considered and the relationship of the lesion to Hand-Schueller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease was noted. Treatment also was considered. (orig./MG)

  13. Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, Lieve; Houf, Kurt; Geldhof, Peter; De Preter, Katleen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Ducatelle, Richard; Chiers, Koen

    2013-11-08

    It has been suggested that Sarcocystis species are associated with bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). To date, parasite identification in this myopathy has been based on morphological techniques. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify Sarcocystis species inside lesions of BEM. Histologically, BEM lesions of 97 condemned carcasses were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species. Intralesional and extralesional cysts were collected using laser capture microdissection and the species was determined with a PCR-based technique based on 18S rDNA. Intralesional sarcocysts or remnants were found in BEM lesions in 28% of the carcasses. The majority (82%) of intralesional Sarcocystis species were found to be S. hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cysteine Protease Secreted by Paragonimus westermani Attenuates Effector Functions of Human Eosinophils Stimulated with Immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myeong Heon; Kita, Hirohito; Park, Hae Young; Seoh, Ju Young

    2001-01-01

    An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated surface, such as that found on helminth parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for eosinophil activation. The cysteine proteases secreted by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play an important role in evasion of the immune response by degrading the host immunoglobulins. In this study, we investigated whether cysteine proteases in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM), which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, could modify effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with IgG. We coated 96-well plates with human IgG in the absence or presence of the ESP produced by PwNEM. When eosinophils were incubated in the wells coated with IgG in the presence of the ESP, eosinophil degranulation and superoxide production were significantly reduced compared with results for cells incubated in wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production was dose dependent and was significantly abolished by pretreatment of the ESP with heat. These findings suggest that the cysteine proteases secreted by PwNEM attenuate both activation and degranulation of eosinophils stimulated with IgG. Thus, the cysteine proteases produced by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play crucial roles in evasion of IgG-dependent eosinophil helminthotoxicity and in reduction of eosinophil-associated tissue inflammation during the migratory period. PMID:11179333

  15. The activity of medicinal plants and secondary metabolites on eosinophilic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2010-10-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are present in several body compartments and in the blood at relatively low numbers under normal conditions. However, an increase in the number of eosinophils, in the blood or in the tissues, is observed in allergic or parasitic disorders. Although some progress has been made in understanding the development of eosinophil-mediated inflammation in allergic and parasitic diseases, the discovery of new compounds to control eosinophilia has lagged behind other advances. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are the basis for many drugs currently used to treat pathologic conditions, including eosinophilic diseases. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated that plant extracts and secondary metabolites can reduce eosinophilia and eosinophil recruitment in different experimental animal models. In this review, we summarize these studies and describe the anti-eosinophilic activity of various plant extracts, such as Ginkgo biloba, Allium cepa, and Lafoensia pacari, as well as those of secondary metabolites (compounds isolated from plant extracts), such as quercetin and ellagic acid. In addition, we highlight the medical potential of these plant-derived compounds for treating eosinophil-mediated inflammation, such as asthma and allergy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eosinophil Cationic Protein, Carotid Plaque, and Incidence of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Johannes; Söderholm, Martin; Borné, Yan; Nilsson, Jan; Persson, Margaretha; Östling, Gerd; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) is a marker of eosinophil activity and degranulation, which has been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between ECP, carotid plaque, and incidence of stroke in a prospective population-based cohort. The subjects participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study between 1991 and 1994. A total of 4706 subjects with no history of stroke were included (40% men; mean age, 57.5 years). Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound of the right carotid artery. Incidence of stroke was followed up during a mean period of 16.5 years in relation to plasma ECP levels. Subjects in the third tertile (versus first tertile) of ECP tended to have higher prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio: 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.003-1.39; P =0.044 after multivariate adjustments). A total of 258 subjects were diagnosed with ischemic stroke (IS) during follow-up. ECP was associated with increased incidence of IS after risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.18; for third versus first tertile; P =0.007). High ECP was associated with increased risk of IS in subjects with carotid plaque. The risk factor-adjusted hazard ratio for IS was 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.63) in subjects with carotid plaque and ECP in the top tertile, compared with those without plaque and ECP in the first or second tertiles. High ECP is associated with increased incidence of IS. The association between ECP and IS was also present in the subgroup with carotid plaque. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils.

  19. Responsiveness to oral prednisolone in severe asthma is related to the degree of eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A R; Marshall, R P; Warnock, L C; Bolton, S; Hastie, A; Symon, F; Hargadon, B; Marshall, H; Richardson, M; Brightling, C E; Haldar, P; Milone, R; Chalk, P; Williamson, R; Panettieri, R; Knowles, R; Bleecker, E R; Wardlaw, A J

    2017-07-01

    Patients with severe asthma appear relatively corticosteroid resistant. Corticosteroid responsiveness is closely related to the degree of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The extent to which eosinophilic airway inflammation in severe asthma responds to treatment with systemic corticosteroids is not clear. To relate the physiological and inflammatory response to systemic corticosteroids in asthma to disease severity and the baseline extent of eosinophilic inflammation. Patients with mild/moderate and severe asthma were investigated before and after 2 weeks of oral prednisolone (Clintrials.gov NCT00331058 and NCT00327197). We pooled the results from two studies with common protocols. The US study contained two independent centres and the UK one independent centre. The effect of oral corticosteroids on FEV 1 , Pc20, airway inflammation and serum cytokines was investigated. Baseline measurements were compared with healthy subjects. Thirty-two mild/moderate asthmatics, 50 severe asthmatics and 35 healthy subjects took part. At baseline, both groups of asthmatics had a lower FEV 1 and Pc20 and increased eosinophilic inflammation compared to healthy subjects. The severe group had a lower FEV 1 and more eosinophilic inflammation compared to mild/moderate asthmatics. Oral prednisolone caused a similar degree of suppression of eosinophilic inflammation in all compartments in both groups of asthmatics. There were small improvements in FEV 1 and Pc20 for both mild/ moderate and severe asthmatics with a correlation between the baseline eosinophilic inflammation and the change in FEV 1 . There was a ~50% reduction in the serum concentration of CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL22 (MDC), CCL17 (TARC), CCL-2 (MCP-1) and CCL-13 (MCP-4) in both asthma groups after oral corticosteroids. Disease severity does not influence the response to systemic corticosteroids. The study does not therefore support the concept that severe asthma is associated with corticosteroid resistance. Only baseline

  20. [Fibro-inflammatory polyp with eosinophilic infiltration. Apropos of 3 cases of gastric polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin-Bertho, R; Dauge, M C; Toublanc, M; Grossin, M; Marche, C; Bocquet, L

    1987-01-01

    We report three cases of inflammatory fibroid polyp of the stomach (Helwig's pseudo-tumour) and record 127 patients in the literature. The anatomo-clinical features of such a disease are analysed and the larger outline of eosinophilic infiltrations of the gastro intestinal tract are described. Most of the authors class the gastric nodular eosinophilic granuloma as the Helwig's pseudo-tumour, but they are not so unanimous for the exact relationship between inflammatory fibroid polyp and the eosinophilic gastroenteritis. For Helwig, they are two distinct conditions, but for others, they belong to the same anatomo-clinical entity, with a broad diversity of morphological features.

  1. Polyostotic eosinophilic granuloma of the jaws treated by chemotherapy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, A C; Cabral, M G; Noce Dos Santos, C W; Janini, M E R; Pulcheri, W A

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is classified as a Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Although considered a rare pathology, up to 20% of all cases occur in the jaw bones, and radiographically may mimic odontogenic cysts or benign and malignant tumours. Different protocols have been suggested in the literature for treating eosinophilic granuloma. We report a case of polyostotic eosinophilic granuloma in a 34-year-old man showing ill defined mandibular and palatal radiolucencies. Due to the presence of multiple jaw lesions the treatment choice was chemotherapy. The clinical and radiographic feature are described, as well as treatment, complications and patient's follow-up.

  2. [Functions of eosinophil granulocytes: from anti-parasite immunity to anti-tumoral potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Monique; Legrand, Fanny

    2009-02-01

    Eosinophils have long been considered simply as effectors of adaptive immune responses during parasitic infections and inflammatory processes. Their role in allergic manifestations and mucosal responses is mediated by membrane receptors that allow them to interact with IgE and IgA antibodies. The recent demonstration that human eosinophils express innate immune receptors suggests that they may also play a role in antitumoral immune surveillance. Experimental evidence shows that human eosinophils have tumoricidal potential, in synergy with other effector cells, notably by releasing cytotoxic molecules.

  3. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid......Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  4. Hematemesis as Initial Presentation in a 10-Week-Old Infant with Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation.

  5. Absoluteness of subword inequality is undecidable

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Shinnosuke

    2011-01-01

    In a given word, one can count the number of occurrences of other words as a scattered subword. These counts can be “added” and/or “multiplied.” A subword history gives an instruction of what words to be counted and how these counts to be added and multiplied with other counts or integer constants, and hence, determines its unique value in a given word. Mateescu, Salomaa, and Yu asked: “is it decidable whether the value of a given subword history is non-negative in all words over a given alph...

  6. Differential Leucocyte Count and Total Colony Count Changes in Heat Stressed Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan D. EL Shoukary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explain the role of additives in alleviation of the negative effect of heat stress on differential leucocytes count, heterophil / lymphocytic ratio with especial studies on the microbial count of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum. A total of 270 day-old (Ross308 broiler chickens randomly divided into 6 groups, which were kept under elevated temperature (34-36◦C and feed diet containing 1% Nigella Sativa (G2 or a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride (0.3% KCL+ 0.5% NaHCO3 (G3 or 2% coriander seed (G4 or 0.03% Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin (G5 or 250 mg of Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C (G6 for 6 weeks. The previous parameters were recorded after slaughtering to take microbial sample and collecting blood parameters. The results explained that, there was a significant increase lymphocyte percentage in case of G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6. while, there was significant decreases in Heterophil percentage, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L, eosinophils percentage, monocytes percentage, jejunum total colony count and caecum total colony in case of (G2, G3, G4, G5, (G6, G2, G3, G4, G5, (G6, G3, (G5; G2, (G3; G2 and (G2, G4 respectively in compared with control group (P<0.05. It could be concluded that black seed and coriander seed have a positive effect on heat stress broiler diet.

  7. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  8. Absolutely summing multilinear operators: a Panorama | Pellegrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has a twofold purpose: to present an overview of the theory of absolutely summing operators and its different generalizations for the multilinear setting, and to sketch the beginning of a research project related to an objective search of “perfect” multilinear extensions of the ideal of absolutely summing operators.

  9. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The accurate estimation of noise variance in an image is the first important stage ... lung image was lung image was developed. developed. developed. The development of mean of median absolute derivation technique development of mean of median absolute .... that are non-real numbers during initial processing.

  10. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  11. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  12. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  13. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  14. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an Adolescent With Mental Retardation and Pica Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Hsueh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis is a rare disorder and is most commonly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are accidentally infected when they ingest raw snails or vegetables contaminated with the parasite larvae. Because of the improvement in sanitary food handling practices, the occurrence of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis has been decreasing in Taiwan in recent decades. The common symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis are severe headache, neck stiffness, paresthesia, vomiting, nausea, and fever. Acute urinary retention is a rare presentation. We report a case of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis in an intellectually disabled patient who presented with acute urinary retention without any other meningeal signs. The patient received supportive treatment with corticosteroid therapy and was discharged and received urinary rehabilitation at home.

  16. EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

  17. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) InfectionJoleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  18. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  19. Reduction of Eosinophils in Small Airways by Inhaled Steroids is Insufficient in Patients with Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: It was speculated that inhaled CFC-BDP and DP-FP might deposit mainly in large airways and fail to fully reach small airways, consequently allowing eosinophilic inflammation to continue in small airways.

  20. Eosinophilic funiculitis initially diagnosed as irreducible inguinal hernia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yamada

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Eosinophilic funiculitis is very rare; only three cases have been reported to date. We should always consider unusual causes of groin masses during a surgical approach to hernia-like lesions.

  1. Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with acute renal insufficiency accompanied by eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohama, Daigoro; Hoshino, Junichi; Sumida, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Eiko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sawa, Naoki; Takemoto, Fumi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hara, Shigeko; Ohashi, Kenichi; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2012-01-01

    We encountered an unusual and rare case of 59-year-old woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) showing myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-related acute renal insufficiency accompanied by eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis. To date, reports in English of CSS presenting with rapidly progressive/acute renal insufficiency and biopsy-proven renal lesions have been uncommon. Here, we discuss this unusual case and review the previously reported CSS cases. The complication of eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis in CSS cases with acute renal insufficiency might be higher than generally thought. Furthermore, the presence of eosinophilic infiltration and eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis might be associated with the good renal outcome in CSS patients.

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 414 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to make your opinion count. Sign in 117 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to ... Duration: 4:50. Saskatchewan Health Authority - Saskatoon area 2,010,512 views 4:50 Handwashing Gangnam Style - ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 671 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  6. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  8. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 741 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 269 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 460 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 269 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  14. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  16. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Ditch the ads. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 931 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 552 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  19. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  20. Thermal unfolding of eosinophil cationic protein/ribonuclease 3: A nonreversible process

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Zoran; Buzón, Víctor; Ribó, Marc; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Vilanova, Maria; Cuchillo, Claudi M.; Cladera, Josep; Nogués, M. Victòria

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)/ribonuclease 3 is a member of the RNase A superfamily involved in inflammatory processes mediated by eosinophils. ECP is bactericidal, helminthotoxic, and cytotoxic to tracheal epithelium cells and to several mammalian cell lines although its RNase activity is low. We studied the thermal stability of ECP by fourth-derivative UV absorbance spectra, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T 1/2 val...

  1. T-Helper Type 2 Cells Direct Antigen-Induced Eosinophilic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminuma, Osamu; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kitamura, Noriko; Saeki, Mayumi; Hiroi, Takachika; Mori, Akio

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation in combination with immunoglobulin E (IgE) production is a characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis. Although activated T-helper type (Th) 2 cells play critical roles in the local accumulation and activation of eosinophils, whether they induce eosinophilic skin inflammation, independent of the IgE-mediated pathway has been unclear. To address the functional role of T cells in allergic skin diseases, we herein transferred Th1/Th2-differentiated or naive DO11.10 T cells into unprimed BALB/c mice. Ovalbumin-specific Th2 cells, as well as eosinophils, accumulated in the skin upon antigen challenge, despite the absence of antigen-specific IgE. Neither antigen-specific Th1 nor naive T cells induced eosinophil accumulation, although Th1 cells by themselves migrated into the skin. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and eotaxin were specifically produced in the skin of antigen-challenged, Th2 cell-transferred mice, whereas interferon (IFN)-γ and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were preferentially produced in Th1 cells-transferred mice. Production of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and MCP-3 was enhanced by both Th1 and Th2 cells. The accumulation of eosinophils and Th2 cells in the skin was suppressed by both dexamethasone and FK506, indicating an essential role of Th2 cells in eosinophil recruitment. We conclude that Th2 cells can induce eosinophilic infiltration into the skin in the absence of antigen-specific IgE. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease.

  2. Prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis: Estimates from a national administrative database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T.; Martin, Christopher F.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is becoming increasingly more common, but the prevalence of other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis in the U.S.. Methods We used the IMS Health LifeLink™, PharMetrics Plus™Claims Database, data representative of a U.S. national commercially-insured population containing medical and pharmaceutical claims for >75million individuals. We restricted our sample to patients age 0–64 with continuous enrollment between 7/1/2009–6/30/2011. We identified cases of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis as defined by ≥1 instance of the ICD-9 codes 535.70, 558.41, and 558.42, respectively. We calculated the prevalence of the codes in the database and then standardized the estimates to the U.S. population by age and sex. Results The standardized estimated prevalences of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis were 6.3/100,000, 8.4/100,000, and 3.3/100,000, respectively. The prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was highest among children age gastritis was more prevalent among older age groups. We observed no age differences for eosinophilic colitis. Among affected patients there was a high proportion of co-existing allergic conditions, 38.5% for eosinophilic gastritis, 45.6% for gastroenteritis, and 41.8% for colitis. Concomitant allergic disease was most commonly identified in pediatric patients. Conclusions The prevalence of non-EoE EGIDs remains rare in the U.S., with less than 50,000 total patients affected. There appears to be a female predominance, as well as a high co-occurrence of atopic comorbidities. PMID:25988554

  3. Th9 cells elicit eosinophil-independent bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Mayumi; Kaminuma, Osamu; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kitamura, Noriko; Mori, Akio; Hiroi, Takachika

    2016-09-01

    Airway accumulation of eosinophils and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are prominent features of bronchial asthma, though the contribution of eosinophils to the development of BHR is controversial. Similar to Th2 cell-mediated pathology, Th9 cells, characterized by IL-9-producing activity, have been demonstrated to induce airway eosinophilia and BHR. In this study, we investigated the role of eosinophils in Th9-mediated BHR by employing Th9 cell-transferred murine airway inflammation model. Ovalbumin (OVA)-specific Th2 and Th9 cells were differentiated from CD4(+) T cells of DO11.10/RAG-2(-/-) mice in vitro and cytokine-producing activity of those cells was examined. BALB/c mice were adoptively transferred with Th2 or Th9 cells and challenged with OVA. Then, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine were determined. Both in Th2 and Th9 cell-transferred mice, substantial accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs and BHR were induced by challenge with specific antigen. Nevertheless, an essential and dispensable role of eosinophils in Th2- and Th9-mediated BHR, respectively, was demonstrated by employing eosinophil-deficient mice. The neutralization of IL-9 as well as deficiency of IL-10 in the donor cells did not affect Th9-mediated BHR. In contrast to Th2-mediated and eosinophil-dependent BHR, Th9 could induce BHR independently from eosinophils and its characteristic cytokines, IL-9 and IL-10. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a young girl – long term remission under Montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rump Lars C

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are an emerging disease entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. Oral steroids can be still considered as first line treatment. Unfortunately relapses are quite common. Usually long term low-dose prednisone or immunosuppressive therapy is required, which is especially problematic in young patients. Thus a reliable steroid sparing agent with low side effects suitable for long term use is needed. There are strong hints to a similar pathophysiology of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders to that of asthma. Indeed leukotriene D4 plays an important role in the recruitment of eosinophils into the intestinal tissue causing damage. This patho-mechanism provides the rationale for the treatment with a leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist. Recently there have been first reports about successful short term use of Montelukast in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Case presentation We report the case of a 17 year old girl with a long history of severe abdominal complaints leading to several hospitalizations in the past. Mimicking the picture of an intestinal tuberculosis she received an anti mycobacterial treatment without any success. Marked eosinophilia in blood, ascites and tissue samples of the intestinal tract finally lead to the diagnosis eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Tapering off prednisone caused another severe episode of abdominal pain. At that point leukotriene antagonist Montelukast was started at a dose of 10 mg once daily. Steroids could be tapered off completely within six weeks. The patient has been free of symptoms for over two years by now. Routine examinations, blood tests and endoscopy have rendered regular results. So far no side effects were noted. Conclusion Here report about successful long term remission of eosinophilic gastroenteritis under Montelukast. Further randomized control trials are required to asses the full benefits of

  5. TasselNet: counting maize tassels in the wild via local counts regression network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhuang, Bohan; Shen, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    performance, with a mean absolute error of 6.6 and a mean squared error of 9.6 averaged over 8 test sequences. TasselNet can achieve robust in-field counting of maize tassels with a relatively high degree of accuracy. Our experimental evaluations also suggest several good practices for practitioners working on maize-tassel-like counting problems. It is worth noting that, though the counting errors have been greatly reduced by TasselNet, in-field counting of maize tassels remains an open and unsolved problem.

  6. TasselNet: counting maize tassels in the wild via local counts regression network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lu

    2017-11-01

    margins and achieves the overall best counting performance, with a mean absolute error of 6.6 and a mean squared error of 9.6 averaged over 8 test sequences. Conclusions TasselNet can achieve robust in-field counting of maize tassels with a relatively high degree of accuracy. Our experimental evaluations also suggest several good practices for practitioners working on maize-tassel-like counting problems. It is worth noting that, though the counting errors have been greatly reduced by TasselNet, in-field counting of maize tassels remains an open and unsolved problem.

  7. Can umbilical cord blood counts substitute venous blood counts done in the first six hours of life in term neonates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Nath

    2014-01-01

    Materials & Methods: This retrospective, one-year study included full-term neonates with conditions that can be predicted before birth (infection in the infant of a mother with prolonged rupture of membranes, Rh negative mothers′ infant, Intra-uterine growth retardation, transient tachypnoea ofnewborn following caesarean section or at birth (birth asphyxia. Umbilical cord blood hemoglobin, total and differential leukocyte counts and platelet counts were compared with the same parameters obtainedfrom venous blood drawn from neonates within six hours of birth. Results: A total of 49 neonates were eligible and included. The mean (s.d. values of parameters for cord blood were 15.49 gm/dL (3.36 for hemoglobin; 12695.26/dL (6181.49 for total leukocyte count; Ploymorphs 48.61% (15.97; Lymphocytes 39.46% (15.83; Eosinophils 4.17% (2.2 and Monocytes 4.7% (2.27 while mean platelet count was 254.4 × 103/dL (91.5. The same parameters for venous blood were mean hemoglobin of15.78 gm/dl (2.76; TLC13373.47/dL (6499.16; Ploymorphs50.04% (14.45;Lymphocytes41.08% (15.26; Eosinophils 4.14% (2.2 and Monocytes 4.7% (2.19 while mean platelet count in venous blood was 265.76 × 103/dL (88.54. There was no significant difference between the cord blood value and the venous blood value of any of the above hematological parameters. Conclusions: This study shows that there is no difference in the hematological parameters tested in cord blood or venous blood collected within six hours of birth in full-term neonates. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding and evaluate the benefits to neonates after which cord blood testing can routinely substitute venous blood testing for these hematological parameters in neonates with conditions as described in this study.

  8. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained...... by reducing the impacts from construction by 89%, use phase energy consumption by 80%, and the living area by 60%.......Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors...

  9. An experimental study of inner ear injury in an animal model of eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Hisanori; Kurose, Akira; Nakagawa, Takashi; Takahata, Junko; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-03-01

    As the periods of intratympanic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) to the middle ear became longer, marked eosinophil infiltration in the perilymphatic space was observed. Moreover severe morphological damage of the organ of Corti was observed in the 28-day antigen-stimulation side. These results indicate that eosinophilic inflammation occurred in the inner ear and caused profound hearing loss. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the inner ear damage in a new animal model of eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) which we recently constructed. We constructed the animal model of EOM by intraperitoneal and intratympanic injection of OVA. Infiltrating cells and the inner ear damage were examined by histological study. In the inner ear, a few eosinophils were seen in the scala tympani of the organ of Corti and the dilation of capillaries of the stria vascularis was observed in the 7-day stimulation side. In the 14-day antigen stimulation side, some eosinophils and macrophages were seen in not only the scala tympani but also the scala vestibule. In the 28-day antigen-stimulation side, severe morphological damage of the organ of Corti and many eosinophils, red blood cells, and plasma cells infiltrating the perilymph were observed.

  10. Immunohistological analysis of eotaxin and RANTES in the model animal of eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naomi; Matsubara, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Hisanori; Miura, Tomoya

    2017-05-01

    The most crucial clinical problem of Eosinophilic Otitis Media (EOM) is sensorineural hearing loss. A previous report revealed that repeated antigen stimulation of middle ear causes eosinophilic inflammation not only in the middle ear but also in the inner ear. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of eosinophil infiltration to the inner ear in the animal model of EOM. Continuous OVA stimulation to the middle ear of guinea pigs was performed for 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Histological observation was made for eosinophil infiltration and morphological change of the inner ear. Immunostaining for eotaxin and RANTES was performed to study immunoreactivity of those chemokines. In the 7-day stimulation side, a few eosinophils were found in the scala tympani, without obvious morphological damage of the inner ear. Moreover, immunoreactivity of both eotaxin and RANTES was significantly higher in the OVA stimulation sides than control sides. For both eotaxin and RANTES, the number of immunopositive cells was significantly increased in the 14-day stimulation side over the 7-day stimulation side. Eotaxin and RANTES seem to play some important roles for the eosinophil infiltration in the middle and inner ear of model animal of EOM.

  11. Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2008-09-01

    Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria.

  12. Heightened systemic levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in pulmonary tuberculosis and reversal following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moideen, Kadar; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Babu, Subash

    2018-04-09

    Granulocytes are activated during tuberculosis (TB) infection and act as immune effector cells and granulocyte responses are implicated in TB pathogenesis. Plasma levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins provide an indirect measure of degranulation. In this study, we wanted to examine the levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and to compare them with the levels in latent TB (LTB) individuals. Hence, we measured the plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase, and proteinase-3; major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in these individuals. Finally, we also measured the levels of all of these parameters in PTB individuals following anti-tuberculosis (ATT) treatment. Our data reveal that PTB individuals are characterized by significantly higher plasma levels of MPO, elastase, human proteinase 3 as well as MBP and EDN in comparison to LTB individuals. Our data also reveal that ATT resulted in reversal of all of these changes, indicating an association with TB disease. Finally, our data show that the systemic levels of MPO and proteinase-3 can significantly discriminate PTB from LTB individuals. Thus, our data suggest that neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins could play a potential role in the innate immune response and therefore, the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Gastro-oesophageal reflux, eosinophilic airway inflammation and chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Adalberto; Faro, Vicenta; Cobeta, Ignacio; Royuela, Ana; Molyneux, Ian; Morice, Alyn H

    2011-08-01

    Patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation (EAI) often show a therapeutic response to corticosteroids. Non-invasive methods of diagnosing EAI are potentially useful in guiding therapy, particularly in conditions such as chronic cough, for which corticosteroids may not be the first-line treatment. The value of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) in the diagnosis of EAI was prospectively investigated in a cohort of 116 patients with chronic cough of varying aetiology. An optimum cut-off value was derived for differentiating between EAI and non-EAI causes of chronic cough. As the diagnosis was gastro-oesophageal reflux in 70 patients (60.3% of the total), the possible relationship between ENO and EAI in the presence or absence of reflux was subsequently investigated. The optimum value of ENO for differentiating EAI (32% of patients) from non-EAI causes of cough was 33 parts per billion (sensitivity 60.5%, specificity 84.6%). In the subgroup of patients with reflux, ENO was highly specific for the diagnosis of EAI (sensitivity 66%, specificity 100%). Conversely, in the patients without reflux, ENO did not discriminate between cough due to EAI or other causes (sensitivity 100%, specificity 28.9%). These results suggest that the presence or absence of reflux should be taken into consideration when interpreting ENO measurements in the diagnosis of chronic cough associated with EAI. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A relevant entity for the otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górriz-Gil, Carmen; Villarreal, Ithzel M; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Magaz, Marta; García-Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognised pathologic entity whose prevalence has risen significantly since it was first described. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for different medical specialties, among which ENT specialists play an important role. Clinical suspicion in a patient with recurrent food impaction or a child with eating disorders and history of hypersensitivity constitutes the first warning sign of a possible EE. The purpose of this review is to highlight EE as a possible differential diagnosis in patients with deglutition disorders and describe the possible clinical symptoms that should alert the ENT specialist to perform appropriate diagnostic tests and procedures. The transnasal esophagoscopy, performed in-office by the ENT, is ideal for reducing possible underdiagnosed cases. Given the fact that an ENT specialist will evaluate a great many patients with deglutition disorders, it is paramount for possible EE cases to be suspected and recognised so that a correct multidisciplinary approach involving not only ENT specialists but also paediatricians, gastroenterologists, allergologists and pathologists can be established. Identifying the dietary component responsible for the esophageal inflammation and removing that food from the patient's diet is the key in the treatment of this immune-mediated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of malignant plasma cell proliferation by eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina W Wong

    Full Text Available The biology of the malignant plasma cells (PCs in multiple myeloma (MM is highly influenced by the bone marrow (BM microenvironment in which they reside. More specifically, BM stromal cells (SCs are known to interact with MM cells to promote MM cell survival and proliferation. By contrast, it is unclear if innate immune cells within this same space also actively participate in the pathology of MM. Our study shows for the first time that eosinophils (Eos can contribute to the biology of MM by enhancing the proliferation of some malignant PCs. We first demonstrate that PCs and Eos can be found in close proximity in the BM. In culture, Eos were found to augment MM cell proliferation that is predominantly mediated through a soluble factor(s. Fractionation of cell-free supernatants and neutralization studies demonstrated that this activity is independent of Eos-derived microparticles and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, respectively. Using a multicellular in vitro system designed to resemble the native MM niche, SCs and Eos were shown to have non-redundant roles in their support of MM cell growth. Whereas SCs induce MM cell proliferation predominantly through the secretion of IL-6, Eos stimulate growth of these malignant cells via an IL-6-independent mechanism. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time a role for Eos in the pathology of MM and suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting these cells may be beneficial.

  16. Rapid Growing Eosinophilic Granuloma in Skull after Minor Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ji; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2015-04-01

    The authors present a case of rapidly progressing eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the skull without hemorrhage after minor trauma. A 6-year-old boy presented with a soft mass on the midline of his forehead. He had a surgery for EG 19 months ago. One month earlier, computed tomography (CT) and bone scans were performed to evaluate the possible recurrence of EG, and there was no evidence of recurrence in CT. However, a slightly increased uptake in the bone scan was noted on the midline of the forehead. A rapid growing mass developed in a new spot after a minor trauma 7 days before the patient arrived at the clinic. His physical examination was unremarkable, except for a non-tender, soft, and immobile mass. A plain skull X-ray and CT showed a lytic bony defect on the midline of the frontal bone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 1.4 cm sized enhancing mass. Surgical resection and cranioplasty were done. The role of trauma in the development of EG is unclear. However, our case suggests that minor trauma is an aggravating factor for EG formation. Careful observation with regular follow-up is necessary in patients with EG after minor trauma.

  17. What's new in the diagnosis and therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Hruz, Petr

    2009-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus. Novel aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of EoE are discussed in this review. Development of diagnostic guidelines consisting of symptoms as well as endoscopic and histopathologic criteria has improved the awareness of clinicians and the diagnosing of EoE. The clinically challenging discrimination of EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease has become more obvious and has evoked the need for more individualized therapy options. Today, most patients with EoE can be treated successfully with topical corticosteroids. However, no convincing alternative treatment strategies exist for corticosteroid-refractory or corticosteroid-dependent patients. Interestingly, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the eotaxin-3 gene has been linked to increased disease susceptibility for EoE. EoE is an emerging esophageal disease. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder would improve the clinical recognition and diagnostic ability and ultimately provide patients with more optimal treatment options.

  18. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V10.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2006 March 14 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  19. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V11.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2007 April 2 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  20. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V12.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2008 April 20 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  1. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set tabulates the IAU-adopted absolute V magnitude and slope parameter for all numbered asteroids as of the given stop date. The data set is updated yearly.

  2. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2005 April 7 batch of Minor Planet Circulars.

  3. ASTEROID ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absolute magnitudes and slopes, mostly IAU-adopted with exceptions noted, for all asteroids numbered as of the 2004 April 15 batch of Minor Planet Circulars

  4. Improvement Of The Absolute Activity Determination Technique Of '125I In The Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; German, U.; Alfassi, Z.

    1999-01-01

    A method for absolute determination of the activity of a 125 I source based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo-peak is given in the literature. We had shown in previous works, that this method, within certain limitations, diminishes the geometry dependence of the activity determination for 125 I sources and for measuring the uptake of 125 I in human thyroid. In the present work we present a farther improvement of the accuracy of the absolute determination method

  5. Development of the absolute standardization apparatus for radon-222 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juncheng; Yang, Zhijie; Wang, Liyuan; Li, Zexi; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Haoran; Yuan, Daqing

    2018-04-01

    A defined solid angle counting apparatus for radon-222 activity absolute measurement is presented. Two home-made vacuum sealed radium-226 sources with radioactivity of 500kBq and 3MBq are used to minimize the impact from gas impurities. The defined solid angle is calculated using precisely measured geometrical parameters by several algorithms. The result from Monte Carlo simulation agrees with results obtained by other methods within the estimated uncertainty limit. Alpha particle's scattering behavior in the measurement chamber and collimator is simulated by the geant4 code and a total scattering alpha particle ratio of 0.23% as well as a relative uncertainty contribution to activity measurement of 0.02% to 0.09% are estimated. A typical total combined standard uncertainty of 0.28% is evaluated for the radon activity primary measurement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life......The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  7. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as an infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  8. Absolutely uniform illumination of laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Absolutely uniform illumination of spherical laser fusion pellets is possible when the energy deposition from a single laser beam is given by a simple cos 2 theta distribution. Conditions can be derived for which the laser beam targeting angles allow this absolute illumination uniformity. Configurations based upon the cube and higher order Platonic solids satisfy the constraints, as well as infinite class of other less symmetric configurations

  9. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  10. Six billion and counting

    OpenAIRE

    Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin M.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 global population surpassed 6 billion people, and this number rises by about 70-80 million people each year. "Six Billion and Counting" examines the consequences of continuing population growth for the world's resource systems and for national and global food security. Leisinger, Schmitt, and Pandya-Lorch offer here a sober analysis of a complex and alarming situation. They assess the progress the world has made in controlling population growth and point to the areas where future diff...

  11. Fragments of approximate counting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L. A.; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

  12. Counting conformal correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Petr; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2018-02-01

    We introduce simple group-theoretic techniques for classifying conformallyinvariant tensor structures. With them, we classify tensor structures of general n-point functions of non-conserved operators, and n ≥ 4-point functions of general conserved currents, with or without permutation symmetries, and in any spacetime dimension d. Our techniques are useful for bootstrap applications. The rules we derive simultaneously count tensor structures for flat-space scattering amplitudes in d + 1 dimensions.

  13. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B. [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  14. Salbutamol delays human eosinophil apoptosis via a cAMP-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Parkkonen, Jouni; Ilmarinen-Salo, Pinja; Giembycz, Mark A; Moilanen, Eeva

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophils play a major role in asthma. One described mechanism leading to the impaired clearance of these cells from the lung is the delay in their programmed cell death (apoptosis). β(2)-Adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to prolong survival and delay apoptosis of eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms, especially the role of cAMP pathway, in the prolongation of human eosinophil survival by a selective β(2)-agonist salbutamol. Isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils were cultured in the absence or presence of a β(2)-agonist salbutamol and the indicated antagonists/inhibitors under sterile conditions. Apoptosis was measured by using the relative DNA fragmentation assay and Annexin-V binding. Salbutamol prolonged survival of human eosinophils and it was inhibited by a β-receptor antagonist propranolol and mimicked by cell-permeant cAMP analogues dibutyryl- and 8-bromo-cAMP. Pharmacological inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (SQ-22,536) and protein kinase A (Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS) antagonized the effects of salbutamol. The survival-prolonging action of salbutamol was potentiated by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (EC(50) for the salbutamol effect was 13.6 ± 4.0 and 8.1 ± 3.1 nM in the absence and presence of rolipram, respectively; p=0.0142, n=10). In contrast, inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channels by apamin, charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin or paxilline did not affect the ability of salbutamol to prolong eosinophil survival. Taken together, the present results suggest that salbutamol at clinically relevant concentrations decreases apoptosis in human eosinophils by activating the cannonical β(2)-receptor-adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of number of cigarettes smoked per day on red blood cell, lecocyte and platelet count in adult Indian male smokers – A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Anil Sherke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cigarette smoking are fatal. Present study was done to compare cell counts of blood in males smoking different number of cigarettes per day and non smokers of Hyderabad city. 150 consenting subjects of which 30 controls (non-smokers and 120 cases (smokers were studied. Smokers were divided into four groups based on number of cigarettes smoked per day. Blood samples processed using Hematology analyser (ABX Micros60®, HORIBA, Kyoto, Japan. The smokers had significantly different red blood cell counts (p<0.0001, white blood cells counts (p<0.0001 including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. This effect was significant irrespective of the number of cigarettes. There was no significant change in the percentage of basophils and platelet counts. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hematological cell counts and these counts changed significantly with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  16. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  17. Absolute left ventricular volume by a non-invasive esophageal transmission measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.H.; Siegel, J.A.; Denenberg, B.; Malmud, L.S.; Spann, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for determining absolute left ventricular volumes during routine clinical gated blood pool imaging is presented. The technique is geometry independent and is the first of its kind to correct for tissue attenuation by utilizing an in vivo point source. An orally administered gelatin capsule containing Tc-99m is used for this purpose. Serial images are obtained as the capsule transits the esophagus. The transmission factor is then determined by dividing the capsule count rate in the region of the left ventricle by the capsule counts recorded in air prior to administration. Thus, experimentally determined transmission factors are directly determined for each patient

  18. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  19. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Further information regarding the patients’ clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment were obtained through chart reviews and patient telephone interviews. The mean age of the patients at symptom onset was 30 years. All patients complained of dysphagia, 81% had a history of bolus obstruction, 43% had a history of asthma and 70% had a history of environmental allergies. Thirty-three per cent had a family history of asthma, while 52% had a family history of food or seasonal allergies. The most common endoscopic findings were rings and/or corrugations, which were found in 63% of patients. Swallowed fluticasone therapy resulted in symptom resolution in 74% of patients; however, 79% of these patients relapsed after discontinuing fluticasone therapy and required repeat treatments. Esophageal dilation was complication free and resulted in improvement in 80% of patients. However, 83% of those reporting improvement relapsed within one year. The clinical and endoscopic findings were similar to those found in the literature, with most patients requiring ongoing, repeated therapies. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of treatment modalities ideally suited to patients with EE.

  20. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  1. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  2. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  3. [Non allergic simple eosinophilic pneumonia--Löffler syndrome--a case report study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-Jevtović, Ivana; Tomović, Miroslav S; Mojsilović, Slavica; Petrović, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Löffler syndrome is an acute, pneumonia of unknown ethiology. This disease is not often associated with bronchial asthma. In its asymptomatic form, this disease is reversible, transient, self-limited with no requests for specific therapy regimen. In the symptomatic form, as well as during its progression, treatment with steroids is very effective. Furthermore, in both acute eosinophilic and idiopathic chronic eosinophilic form, this kind of therapy ensures survival. The case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman was presented with 2-month history of low grade fever, shortness of breath, cough and reduced exercise tolerance. Although she had an allergic accident on insects in history, non allergy reactions as well as an obstructive disease with that kind of origin were not detected on admission. The diagnosis of simple eosinophilic pneumonia (SEP) (Löffler's syndrome) was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy and by sternal testing. The peripheral blood eosinophilia with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates on X ray chest radiography were observed during clinical examination. Biopsy specimen of the lung parenchym showed changes associated with Löffler's syndrome. The diagnosis was, also, confirmed according to the radiographic findings of unilateral migratory infiltrates consistent pneumonia. Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS) has to be considered in this differential diagnosis. Frequently, this disease has extrinsic bronchial asthma with eosinophilic pneumonia in history: asthma is often associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In the reported case, treatment with steroids resulted in a marked clinical improvement compared to nonsteroid therapy.

  4. The effect of omalizumab on eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryś-Lipińska, Izabela; Molińska, Katarzyna; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab - an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children from Western Saudi Arabia: Relative Frequency, Clinical, Pathological, Endoscopic, and Immunological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is an evolving allergic disease with an accelerated incidence. The purpose of this study was to delineate the relative frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EE in children from western Saudi Arabia. Methods. Children with EE were studied retrospectively between October 2002 and December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and International Medical Center. Results. The relative frequency of EE was 0.85% of 2127 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed during the study period. Eighteen patients were identified with EE. The median age was 8.6 years (range, 1.5–18 years. Thirteen (72.2% were males. Dysphagia and vomiting were the most common symptoms. Ten (55.6% children had history of atopy. Testing for food allergy by skin prick test was positive in 11 (61.1%. The most common endoscopic abnormalities were mucosal longitudinal furrow and loss of vascular pattern followed by patchy specks and strictures. The histopathological findings included increased intraepithelial eosinophils, eosinophilic degranulation, lamina propria fibrosis, and eosinophilic microabscesses. Treatment was initiated by swallowed topical corticosteroids in 12 (66.7% and oral prednisolone in 6 (33% patients, followed by low dose of topical corticosteroids and dietary elimination. Conclusions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an uncommon but evolving problem. A high index of suspicion is required for early identifications and intervention to avoid possible complications.

  6. Molecular cloning of the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: A member of the ribonuclease gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.F.; Tenen, D.G.; Ackerman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated a 725-base-pair cDNA clone for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a distinct cationic protein of the eosinophil's large specific granule known primarily for its ability to induce ataxia, paralysis, and central nervous system cellular degeneration in experimental animals (Gordon phenomenon). The open reading frame encodes a 134-amino acid mature polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa and a 27-residue amino-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence. The sequence of the mature polypeptide is identical to that reported for human urinary ribonuclease, and to the amino-terminal sequence of human liver ribonuclease; the cDNA encodes a tryptophan in position 7. Both EDN and the related granule protein, eosinophil cationic protein, have ribonucleolytic activity; sequence similarities among EDN, eosinophil cationic protein, ribonucleases from liver, urine, and pancreas, and angiogenin define a ribonuclease multigene family. mRNA encoding EDN was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells and was up-regulated in cells induced toward eosinophilic differentiation with B-cell growth factor 2/interleukin 5 and toward neutrophilic differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide. EDN mRNA was detected in mature neutrophils even though EDN-like neurotoxic activity is not found neutrophil extracts. These results suggest that neutrophils contain a protein that is closely related or identical to EDN

  7. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rossana C.N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  8. Saiboku-to, a Kampo herbal medicine, inhibits LTC4 release from eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hirai

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Saiboku-to (TJ-96, a traditional Kampo herbal formation, has been used in the treatment of bronchial asthma in Japan as an anti-allergy herbal medicine. We investigated the effect of TJ-96 on leukotriene (LTC4 release from eosinophils and basophils isolated from healthy volunteers. Pre-incubation of eosinophils with TJ-96 inhibited ionophore- or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP-induced LTC4 generation by eosinophils in a dose-dependent fashion. The TJ-96 was more potent in the release by ionophore (IC50 = 60 mg/mL than the release induced by FMLP (IC50 = 300 mg/mL. Maximal inhibition was observed when eosinophils were pretreated with TJ-96 for 5 min. Although TJ-96 at high concentrations inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils, inhibition of IgE-mediated LTC4 release was not statistically significant. The potent inhibitory activity was found in the extract of Glycyrrhiza root, one of the herbal components of TJ-96, but the inhibitory effects were not due to either glycyrrhizin or liquiritin, the main elements of the Glycyrrhiza root. These results raise the possibility that the clinical efficacy of TJ-96 is derived, at least in part, from its potent inhibitory effect on LTC4 release from eosinophils.

  9. Effect of the KTP laser in inferior turbinate surgery on eosinophil influx in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusakul, Supinda; Choktaweekarn, Thitima; Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Phannaso, Chuntima; Aeumjaturapat, Songklot

    2011-02-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are first-line medications for moderate to severe allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients who have had nasal congestion for many years often develop inferior turbinate (IT) hypertrophy. Some patients are refractory to INCS yet decline to receive allergen-specific immunotherapy. IT reduction is then indicated. There have been very few studies evaluating the allergic biomarker changes after IT reduction in AR. This study aimed to determine the effect of potassium titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser IT surgery on eosinophil influx after challenge with dust mites. A randomized prospective controlled study. Tertiary academic rhinology clinic. Thirty-five house dust mite AR patients were randomly assigned to receive either INCS or KTP laser IT surgery. On the first visit, 2 nasal lavages prior to and 6 hours after challenge with Dermatophagiodes pteronyssinus were performed before receiving treatment. On the second visit, 3 months after treatment, the same procedures were repeated. No antiallergic medications were allowed for 2 weeks before each visit. Net changes in eosinophil numbers in the lavages were compared at baseline and 3 months after treatment and between the 2 treatments. Treatment with KTP laser IT surgery resulted in a significant reduction in eosinophil influx after nasal challenge (P = .013), whereas such a reduction was not shown in the control. However, the net changes in the percentage of eosinophils were not different between the 2 groups at either visit. KTP laser IT surgery reduces eosinophil influx after nasal challenge in perennial AR.

  10. Cutoff point for exhaled nitric oxide corresponding to 3% sputum eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel Rivera, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; de Esteban Chocarro, B; Cambra, K

    2015-01-01

    The eosinophilic asthma phenotype (sputum eosinophils 3%) indicates a good response to corticosteroids and T(H)2 immunomodulators. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is rapidly measured by portable devices, and although it is not a selective marker of eosinophilic inflammation, several studies have demonstrated a strong correlation with it. We investigated which FeNO value was the best fit with 3% sputum eosinophils in asthma patients. We included 129 consecutive, nonsmoking asthmatics who underwent skin tests, FeNO quantification (NIOX MINO), spirometry, and induced sputum analysis and completed the Asthma Control Test questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and logistic regression analysis was performed. Symptoms were detected more frequently in the eosinophilic asthma group, as were higher airway obstruction and sensitivity to hypertonic saline. The FeNO cutoff point of 21 ppb was the best fit with 3% sputum eosinophilia. This value behaved better among corticosteroid-naïve patients (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 58%; positive predictive value, 86%; negative predictive value, 88%) than among those receiving corticosteroids (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 25%; positive predictive value, 74%; negative predictive value, 33%). FeNO ≥ 21 ppb is associated with airway eosinophilia. In corticosteroid-naïve patients, FeNO < 21 ppb enables us to rule out airway eosinophilia.

  11. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  12. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  13. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  14. Comparison of absolute neutrophil to CD4 lymphocyte values as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.5 x 109/L is therefore obviously not appropriate for people of negroid descent whose lower reference limit is ANC 1.3 x 109/L.6,7 Neutropenia remains the most common predisposing factor to infections in cancer pa- tients.1,8,9 The accepted definition of neutropenia is an absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1.5 x 109/L,8 though ...

  15. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  16. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Piraki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Exercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively on differential white blood cell (WBC count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.

    Methods

    Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes active and passive recovery from an exhaustive exercise session. A WBC’s (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basohils, and eosinophils count was done on all of these samples.

    This exercise protocol was based on the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Stress Test until feeling excessive fatigue followed by AR (first group, and RR (second group.Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney test were used for descriptive and statistical analysis on collected raw data. Statistical significance in this analysis was set at P ≤ 0.05.

    Results

    A session of exhaustive exercise increased the number of WBCs (except for eosinophils with a statistical significant differences of (P<0.05. A Comparison of the changes before and after workout, showed no statistical significant difference. Also, a 15 minute AR and RR, didn't alter WBCs count (all P>0.05.

    Conclusion

    The results show a session of exhaustive exercise increases the blood leukocytes, except for eosinophils. Also, taking 15 minutes recovery (AR or RR has no effect on athlete's WBC count. It means the type of recovery has no special and different effect on athlete's WBC count. In fact, if there are any changes in WBC count during or after exhaustive exercise, they are not due to the type of 15 minutes recovery. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study after completing the AR and RR, number of the blood

  17. Photon counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuby, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review of the various photon counting systems, used in astronomy, at optical wavelengths. Technological differences between available devices are introduced according to the processes applied to these photoelectrons (multiplication and/or acceleration), and their impact targets (phosphors, photodetectors, resistive or conductive anodes...). Two detection processes are involved: threshold discrimination above noise for most types of devices, and analog measurement for systems using resistive and wedge-and-strip anodes. Devices currently used for astronomical observations are presented, and their performance characteristics. These devices are: photomultipliers, which are monopixel detectors, using multiplication with dynodes; images intensifiers cameras, most frequently read with CCDs; analog devices with resistive or wedge-and-strip anodes, behind microchannel plates (MCP); Digicons, using direct electronic bombardment; the MAMA detector, with coincidence anodes behind MCP; and then the PAPA detector using masks encoding readout. Dead time effects, which define the dynamic range are presented with some details. Finally, because of the improvement of low level readout noise devices (CCDs), the field of application of the photon counting techniques confines to the blue and the UV part of the spectrum, at low signal to noise ratios [fr

  18. Differential leucokocyte counts in ''dourado'', Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840, from the Mogi-Guaçu River, Pirassununga, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranzani-Paiva M. J. T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From August, 1996 to December, 1997, 293 of ''dourado'' specimens, Salminus maxillosus (Valencienes, 1840, of various sizes, were caught in Mogi-Guaçu River, Emas Falls, for hematologic studies. Total weight (Wt in g and length (Lt in cm were taken for each individual animal. Smears were prepared from blood samples and utilized for differential leukocyte counts (lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, special granulocytic cell and immature cells. The mean percentages of leukocytes were determined according to sex and stage of gonadal maturation (immature, in maturation, mature, spent and resting. Significant differences between male and female occurred only for the special granulocytic cell. In analyzing the leukocyte profile during gonadal development, only female showed significant differences in mean percentages of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils.

  19. Improved accuracy for label-free absolute quantification of proteome by combining the Absolute Protein EXpression profiling algorithm and summed tandem mass spectrometric total ion current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Shan, Yichu; Qu, Yanyan; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Huiming; Liu, Jianxi; Zhang, Shen; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-01-07

    Proteome scale absolute quantification is fundamental for the quantitative understanding of an organism. The unsatisfactory accuracy for protein abundance estimation of current algorithms has been partially improved by the Absolute Protein EXpression profiling (APEX) algorithm, which implements the prior expectations of peptides' appearances in the calculation of protein abundances. However, the abundance feature (AF) in APEX is the spectral count (SC); an AF suffers from a narrow dynamic range, thus, unsatisfactory accuracy. Therefore, we adopted another tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) level AF called Summed MS/MS Total ion current (SMT), which cumulates the MS/MS fragment intensities rather than simply counting the MS/MS spectra, to surmount this particular deficiency. The combination of APEX and SMT (abbreviated as APEX-SMT) is capable of improving the accuracy of absolute quantification by reducing the average relative deviation by ~55-85% compared to that of APEX, through a series of tests on the Universal Proteomics Standard sample with a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude (UPS2). The algorithm could also be used for relative quantification. When applied to the relative quantification of a publicly available benchmark dataset, APEX-SMT could provide comparable accuracy to APEX. All these results suggest that APEX-SMT is a promising alternative to APEX for proteome quantification.

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis after esophageal atresia: is there an association? Case presentation and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ramon R; Heij, Hugo A; van der Voorn, J Patrick; Kneepkens, C M Frank

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new condition resulting in dysphagia or symptoms resembling gastroesophageal reflux disease, symptoms that also are common in patients with a history of esophageal atresia. We present 2 patients with persistent dysphagia after repair of esophageal atresia that was caused by EoE. Although the exact etiology and pathogenesis of EoE remain unclear, it is now generally accepted that it is the result of a T-helper cell 2-type immune response with a crucial role for the eosinophil-specific chemotaxis factor eotaxin 3 and eosinophils. Because there are genetic similarities between esophageal atresia and EoE, we speculate that patients with esophageal atresia are at increased risk for developing EoE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.