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Sample records for absolute configuration determination

  1. Absolute configuration determination using enantiomeric pairs of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Danielle S; Spivak, David A

    2014-03-07

    A new method for determination of absolute configuration (AC) is demonstrated using an enantiomeric pair of molecularly imprinted polymers, referred to as "DuoMIPs". The ratio of HPLC capacity factors (k') for the analyte on each of the DuoMIPs is defined as the γ factor and can be used to determine AC when above 1.2. A mnemonic based on the complementary binding geometry of the DuoMIPs was used to aid in understanding and prediction of AC.

  2. The use of X-ray crystallography to determine absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, H D; Bernardinelli, G

    2008-05-15

    Essential background on the determination of absolute configuration by way of single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is presented. The use and limitations of an internal chiral reference are described. The physical model underlying the Flack parameter is explained. Absolute structure and absolute configuration are defined and their similarities and differences are highlighted. The necessary conditions on the Flack parameter for satisfactory absolute-structure determination are detailed. The symmetry and purity conditions for absolute-configuration determination are discussed. The physical basis of resonant scattering is briefly presented and the insights obtained from a complete derivation of a Bijvoet intensity ratio by way of the mean-square Friedel difference are exposed. The requirements on least-squares refinement are emphasized. The topics of right-handed axes, XRD intensity measurement, software, crystal-structure evaluation, errors in crystal structures, and compatibility of data in their relation to absolute-configuration determination are described. Characterization of the compounds and crystals by the physicochemical measurement of optical rotation, CD spectra, and enantioselective chromatography are presented. Some simple and some complex examples of absolute-configuration determination using combined XRD and CD measurements, using XRD and enantioselective chromatography, and in multiply-twinned crystals clarify the technique. The review concludes with comments on absolute-configuration determination from light-atom structures.

  3. Determination of absolute configuration of natural products: theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism as a tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of absolute configuration (AC) is one of the most challenging features in the structure elucidation of chiral natural products, especially those with complex structures. With revolutionary advancements in the area of quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopy over the pa...

  4. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guang Ming [Dali University, Dali (China)

    2010-08-15

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods.

  5. Determination of absolute configuration using heavy atom based co-crystallization method: Halogen atom effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Fan, Xiaowu; Ding, Qiaoce; Mei, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Heavy atom (chloride, bromide, and iodide) based co-crystals for determination of absolute configuration (AC) for chiral molecules were synthesized and evaluated. Co-crystals of cholestanol and L-ascorbic acid were analysed and the effects and potential benefits of varying the heavy atom are discussed. Changing the halogen atoms (chloride, bromide, or iodide) affects the co-crystal formation, X-ray absorption, and anomalous dispersion, and hence the ability to determine AC.

  6. Isolation and determination of absolute configurations of insect-produced methyl-branched hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Jan E; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2015-01-27

    Although the effects of stereochemistry have been studied extensively for volatile insect pheromones, little is known about the effects of chirality in the nonvolatile methyl-branched hydrocarbons (MBCHs) used by many insects as contact pheromones. MBCHs generally contain one or more chiral centers and so two or more stereoisomeric forms are possible for each structure. However, it is not known whether insects biosynthesize these molecules in high stereoisomeric purity, nor is it known whether insects can distinguish the different stereoisomeric forms of MBCHs. This knowledge gap is due in part to the lack of methods for isolating individual MBCHs from the complex cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends of insects, as well as the difficulty in determining the absolute configurations of the isolated MBCHs. To address these deficiencies, we report a straightforward method for the isolation of individual cuticular hydrocarbons from the complex CHC blend. The method was used to isolate 36 pure MBCHs from 20 species in nine insect orders. The absolute stereochemistries of the purified MBCHs then were determined by digital polarimetry. The absolute configurations of all of the isolated MBCHs were determined to be (R) by comparison with a library of synthesized, enantiomerically pure standards, suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways used to construct MBCHs are highly conserved within the Insecta. The development of a straightforward method for isolation of specific CHCs will enable determination of their functional roles by providing pure compounds for bioassays.

  7. Determination of absolute configuration of chiral molecules using vibrational optical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanan; Wang, Bo; Dukor, Rina K; Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-07-01

    Determination of the absolute handedness, known as absolute configuration (AC), of chiral molecules is an important step in any field related to chirality, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. Vibrational optical activity (VOA) has become a powerful tool for the determination of the AC of chiral molecules in the solution state after nearly forty years of evolution. VOA offers a novel alternative, or supplement, to X-ray crystallography, permitting AC determinations on neat liquid, oil, and solution samples without the need to grow single crystals of the pure chiral sample molecules as required for X-ray analysis. By comparing the sign and intensity of the measured VOA spectrum with the corresponding ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculated VOA spectrum of a chosen configuration, one can unambiguously assign the AC of a chiral molecule. Comparing measured VOA spectra with calculated VOA spectra of all the conformers can also provide solution-state conformational populations. VOA consists of infrared vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA). Currently, VCD is used routinely by researchers in a variety of backgrounds, including molecular chirality, asymmetric synthesis, chiral catalysis, drug screening, pharmacology, and natural products. Although the application of ROA in AC determination lags behind that of VCD, with the recent implementation of ROA subroutines in commercial quantum chemistry software, ROA will in the future complement VCD for AC determination. In this review, the basic principles of the application of VCD to the determination of absolute configuration in chiral molecules are described. The steps required for VCD spectral measurement and calculation are outlined, followed by brief descriptions of recently published papers reporting the determination of AC in small organic, pharmaceutical, and natural product molecules.

  8. a Chiral Tagging Strategy for Determining Absolute Configuration and Enantiomeric Excess by Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Patterson, David; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; West, Channing; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of three wave mixing rotational spectroscopy by Patterson, Schnell, and Doyle [1,2] has expanded applications of molecular rotational spectroscopy into the field of chiral analysis. Chiral analysis of a molecule is the quantitative measurement of the relative abundances of all stereoisomers of the molecule and these include both diastereomers (with distinct molecular rotational spectra) and enantiomers (with equivalent molecular rotational spectra). This work adapts a common strategy in chiral analysis of enantiomers to molecular rotational spectroscopy. A "chiral tag" is attached to the molecule of interest by making a weakly bound complex in a pulsed jet expansion. When this tag molecule is enantiopure, it will create diastereomeric complexes with the two enantiomers of the molecule being analyzed and these can be differentiated by molecule rotational spectroscopy. Identifying the structure of this complex, with knowledge of the absolute configuration of the tag, establishes the absolute configuration of the molecule of interest. Furthermore, the diastereomer complex spectra can be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of the sample. The ability to perform chiral analysis will be illustrated by a study of solketal using propylene oxide as the tag. The possibility of using current methods of quantum chemistry to assign a specific structure to the chiral tag complex will be discussed. Finally, chiral tag rotational spectroscopy offers a "gold standard" method for determining the absolute configuration of the molecule through determination of the substitution structure of the complex. When this measurement is possible, rotational spectroscopy can deliver a quantitative three dimensional structure of the molecule with correct stereochemistry as the analysis output. [1] David Patterson, Melanie Schnell, John M. Doyle, Nature 497, 475 (2013). [2] David Patterson, John M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 023008 (2013).

  9. Disesquiterpene and sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula pseudalliacea, and determination of their absolute configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Dara; Salehi, Peyman; Reza Gohari, Ahmad; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Kaiser, Marcel; Hamburger, Matthias; Reza Khavasi, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad

    2012-06-01

    The first disesquiterpene coumarin, sanandajin, five sesquiterpene coumarins, kamolonol acetate, fekrynol acetate, ethyl galbanate, methyl galbanate, farnesiferol B, and a sesquiterpene, aristolone, were isolated from a n-hexane extract of Ferula pseudalliacea roots. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESIMS data, and kamolonol acetate was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration of compounds was established by comparison of experimental and simulated ECD spectra using time dependence density function theory (TDDFT). In vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain was determined. sanandajin, kamolonol acetate and methyl galbanate showed moderate antiplasmodial activity, with IC(50) values of 2.6, 16.1 and 7.1 μM, respectively.

  10. Determination of the absolute configurations at stereogenic centers in the presence of axial chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Jeirath, Neha; Kurtán, Tibor; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Krohn, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Cephalochromin, a homodimeric naphthpyranone natural product, contains both axial chirality due to the hindered rotation along the biaryl axis and central chirality due to the C-2, C-2' stereogenic centers of the fused pyranone ring. For determining the absolute configurations (ACs) of central chirality elements, different chiroptical spectroscopic methods, namely vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and optical rotation (OR), have been used. From these experimental data, in conjunction with corresponding quantum chemical predictions at B3LYP/6-311G* level, it is found that the ECD spectra of cephalochromin are dominated by its axial chirality and are not suitable to distinguish the (aS,2S,2'S) and (aS,2R,2'R) diastereomers and hence to determine the ACs of the central chirality elements. OR signs also did not distinguish the (aS,2S,2'S) and (aS,2R,2'R) diastereomers. On other hand, VCD spectrum of cephalochromin exhibited separate spectral features attributable to axial chirality and stereogenic centers, thereby allowing the determination of both types of chirality elements. This is the first investigation demonstrating that, because of vibrations specific to the studied stereogenic centers, VCD spectroscopy can be used to simultaneously determine the ACs of axial and central chirality elements whenever other chiroptical methods (ECD and OR) fail to report on them.

  11. Cooperative use of VCD and XRD for the determination of tetrahydrobenzoisoquinolines absolute configuration: a reliable proof of memory of chirality and retention of configuration in enediyne rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shovan; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Campolo, Damien; Giorgi, Michel; Bertrand, Michéle P; Nechab, Malek

    2013-12-01

    The absolute configurations (AC) of azaheterocylic compounds resulting from the cascade rearrangement of enediynes involving only light atoms were unambiguously assigned by the joint use of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and copper radiation single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). These AC determinations proved that the rearrangements of enediynes proceeded with memory of chirality and retention of configuration.

  12. Direct Determination of Absolute Configuration of Methyl-Substituted Phenyloxiranes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Lassen, Peter Rygaard; Johannessen, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    obtained from quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid exchange correlation functional with 6-31++G**, aug-cc-pVDZ, or aug-cc-pVTZ basis set) and related to the physical structure of the compounds. The absolute configuration could be established directly in each case...... by comparing experimental and theoretical spectra. In addition, we have been able to document the changes that occur both in structures and in the VA and VCD spectra due to substituent effects on the oxirane ring....

  13. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+)-neopentyl-1-d alcohol by neutron and x-ray diffraction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.S.H.; Stevens, R.C.; Bau, R. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Mosher, H.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Koetzle, T.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1994-12-20

    The absolute configuration of (+)-neopentyl-1-d alcohol, prepared by the reduction of 2,2-dimethylpropanol-1-d by actively fermenting yeast, has been determined to be S by neutron diffraction. The neutron study was carried out on the phthalate half ester of neopentyl-1-d alcohol, crystallized as its strychnine salt. The absolute configuration of the (-)-strychninium cation was first determined by an x-ray anomalous dispersion study of its iodide salt. The chiral skeleton of strychnine then served as a reference from which the absolute configuration of the -O-CHD-C(CH[sub 3])[sub 3] group of neopentyl phthalate was determined. Difference Fourier maps calculated from the neutron data showed unambiguously that the -O-CHD-C(CH[sub 3])[sub 3] groups of both independent molecules in the unit cell had the S configuration. This work proves conclusively that the yeast system reduces aldehydes by delivering hydrogen to the re face of the carbonyl group. Crystallographic details: (-)-strychninium (+)-neopentyl-1-d phthalate, space group P2[sub 1] (monoclinic), a = 18.564(6) [angstrom], b = 7.713(2) [angstrom], c = 23.361(8) [angstrom], [beta] = 94.18(4)[degrees], V = 3336.0(5) [angstrom][sup 3], Z = 2 (T = 100 K). Final agreement factors are R(F) = 0.073 for 2768 reflections collected at room temperature (x-ray analysis) and R(F) = 0.144 for 960 reflections collected at 100 K (neutron analysis). 49 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Determining the absolute configuration of (+)-mefloquine HCl, the side-effect-reducing enantiomer of the antimalaria drug Lariam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuel; Sun, Han; Rogne, Per; Scriba, Gerhard K E; Griesinger, Christian; Kuhn, Lars T; Reinscheid, Uwe M

    2012-02-15

    Even though the important antimalaria drug rac-erythro-mefloquine HCl has been on the market as Lariam for decades, the absolute configurations of its enantiomers have not been determined conclusively. This is needed, since the (-) enantiomer is believed to cause adverse side effects in malaria treatment resulting from binding to the adenosine receptor in the human brain. Since there are conflicting assignments based on enantioselective synthesis and anomalous X-ray diffraction, we determined the absolute configuration using a combination of NMR, optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy together with density functional theory calculations. First, structural models of erythro-mefloquine HCl compatible with NMR-derived (3)J(HH) scalar couplings, (15)N chemical shifts, rotational Overhauser effects, and residual dipolar couplings were constructed. Second, we calculated ORD and CD spectra of the structural models and compared the calculated data with the experimental values. The experimental results for (-)-erythro-mefloquine HCl matched our calculated chiroptical data for the 11R,12S model. Accordingly, we conclude that the assignment of 11R,12S to (-)-erythro-mefloquine HCl is correct.

  15. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR-4a,6-dihydroxy-4,4,7,11b-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodecahydrophenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furanoditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclohexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å. An intramolecular C—H...O interaction generates an S(6 ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. C...O [3.306 (2–3.347 (2 Å] short contacts and C—H...π interactions also occur.

  16. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations in determining absolute configuration and E/Z isomers of conjugated oximes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Joanna E; Frelek, Jadwiga

    2017-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in stereochemical studies of α,β-unsaturated oximes, with particular emphasis on determination of E and Z geometry of the oxime double bond. As models for this study, O-phenyl and O-triphenylmethyl (trityl) oximes of 4-hydroxy-2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one were selected. These model compounds differ in both absolute configuration at C4 carbon atom and E-Z configuration of the oxime double bond. The basic dichroic technique applied was electronic circular dichroism (ECD) assisted by quantum-chemical calculations and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) for selected cases. Such an approach enabled effective implementation of both goals. Thus, we were able to associate the signs of Cotton effects in the range of 190-240 nm with the absolute configuration at C4 and within 240-300 nm with the E- or Z-geometry of the oxime double bond. Within this work, optical activity of the protecting trityl group was also studied towards formation of the propeller-shaped conformations by using the same combined CD/DFT methodology. As shown, the helical structure of the trityl group has a considerable influence on the ECD spectra. However, the MPM and PMP conformers of the trityl group are in fact almost equally populated in the conformational equilibrium, making it impossible to distinguish them. On the other hand, rotamers of the hydroxyl group at C4 show a decisive impact on the VCD spectra in both phenoxy and trityl oximes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A vibrational circular dichroism approach to the determination of the absolute configurations of flavorous 5-substituted-2(5H)-furanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Atsufumi; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro; Miura, Nobuaki; Emura, Makoto; Monde, Kenji

    2011-04-25

    Sotolon (1) and maple furanone (2) are naturally occurring chiral furanones. These 5-substituted-2(5H)-furanones are industrially significant aroma compounds due to their characteristic organoleptic properties and extraordinarily low odor thresholds. Each enantiomer of 1 and 2 was successfully obtained by preparative enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed as (R)-(-)-1 and (S)-(+)-1 by adopting the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) approach. The absolute configuration of 2, which has remained ambiguous since its discovery in 1957, was determined as (R)-(+)-2 and (S)-(-)-2 for the first time by the VCD technique. Surprisingly, the signs of the optical rotation of 2 are opposite of those of 1 regardless of their identical absolute configurations. This observation emphasizes the risk in absolute configurational assignments based on comparison of optical rotation signs of similar structures. Odor evaluation of the enantiomers of 2 revealed different odor intensities.

  18. A new compound from liquid fermentation broth of Armillaria mellea and the determination of its absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Chao; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Zheng, Li-Hua; Bao, Yong-Li; Wu, Yin; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Yan-Xin; Sun, Ying; Li, Yu-Xin

    2013-01-01

    A new 2,5-diketopiperazine, (R)-2-(2-(furan-2-yl)-oxoethyl)-octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, and seven known compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of liquid fermentation broth of Armillaria mellea. The structures of the isolated compounds were established from NMR and HR-MS data. The absolute configuration of the new compound was established by comparing the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum with the calculated ECD data.

  19. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  20. Structural determination of molecular stereochemistry using VCD spectroscopy and a conformational code: absolute configuration and solution conformation of a chiral liquid pesticide, (R)-(+)-malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi; Nafie, Laurence A; Dukor, Rina K

    2009-01-01

    The absolute configuration and solution conformation of (R)-(+)-malathion were determined by using vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy and a fragment-conformational search with a recently published conformational code. The determination of molecular stereochemistry was carried out without a conformational search using molecular mechanics calculations. Density functional theory calculations of the fragments of (R)-malathion, ethyl propionate, (R)-ethyl 2-(methylthio)propanoate, (R)-diethyl 2-(methylthio)succinate, and O,O,S-trimethyl phosphorodithioate were carried out, and the principal conformational features of the fragments were profiled. This fragment-conformational search reduces the time needed for the selection of the predominant conformations for (R)-malathion and significantly improves the accuracy of the determination of absolute configuration.

  1. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of (±-Mandelic Acid-d5, Optical Resolution, and Absolute Configuration Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of (±-mandelic acid-d5 was developed. The racemic mixture was resolved by diastereomeric salt formation using 1-phenylethylamine enantiomers as resolving agents. At each step, the resolution process was checked by determining mandelic acid-d5 enantiomer ee values directly on fractional crystallized diastereomeric salts by chiral capillary electrophoresis analysis. Highly enriched (−- and (+-mandelic acid-d5 (95% and 90% ee, resp. were obtained and their absolute configurations—R and S, respectively—were determined by correlation of the (−-mandelic acid-d5 circular dichroism spectrum to the (R-mandelic acid one.

  2. Resolution and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Twisted Bis-Lactam Analogue of Troger's Base: A Comparative Spectroscopic and Computational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rúnarsson, Ögmundur Vidar; Benkhäuser, Christian; Christensen, Niels Johan;

    2015-01-01

    /6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The absolute configuration of (+)-2 was also determined to (R,R)-2 by anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) in a chiral space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) using Cu-irradiation resulting in a very low Flack parameter of -0.06(3), despite the heaviest element being an oxygen atom, thus...

  3. Determination of the absolute configuration of perylene quinone-derived mycotoxins by measurement and calculation of electronic circular dichroism spectra and specific rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlech, Joachim; Fleck, Stefanie C; Metzler, Manfred; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S

    2014-09-01

    Altertoxins I-III, alterlosins I and II, alteichin (alterperylenol), stemphyltoxins I-IV, stemphyperylenol, stemphytriol, 7-epi-8-hydroxyaltertoxin I, and 6-epi-stemphytriol are mycotoxins derived from perylene quinone, for which the absolute configuration was not known. Electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were calculated for these compounds and compared with measured spectra of altertoxins I-III, alteichin, and stemphyltoxin III and with reported Cotton effects. Specific rotations were calculated and compared with reported specific rotations. The absolute configuration of all the toxins, except for stemphyltoxin IV, could thus be determined. The validity of the assignment was high whenever reported ECD data were available for comparison, and the validity was lower when the assignment was based only on the comparison of calculated and reported specific rotations. ECD spectra are intrinsically different for toxins with a biphenyl substructure and for toxins derived from dihydroanthracene.

  4. Use of Sm(III)-{1,2-propanediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetra(alpha,alpha-dideuterioacetate)} complex for NMR determination of absolute configuration of each alpha-amino acid in peptide hydrolysate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Kenji; Fujioka, Mika; Kabuto, Kuninobu; Sasaki, Yoichi

    2008-10-28

    (1)H NMR analyses of individual alpha-amino acids in their mixture were simultaneously conducted in the presence of Sm-(pdta-d(8)) in water: high regularity, promising for direct simultaneous determination of absolute configurations of each alpha-amino acids in peptide hydrolysate mixtures, was observed between absolute configuration and the induced shifts.

  5. Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.

  6. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Nyasol and Hinokiresinol via Synthesis and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...

  7. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Nyasol and Hinokiresinol via Synthesis and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...

  8. Absolute configuration of an axially chiral sulfonate determined from its optical rotatory dispersion, electronic circular dichroism, and vibrational circular dichroism spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Cody L; Raghavan, Vijay; Smuts, Jonathan P; Armstrong, Daniel W; Polavarapu, Prasad L

    2017-11-01

    The absolute configuration (AC) of an axially chiral sulfonate (aCSO), 3,5-dimethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-(naphthalen-1-yl)benzenesulfonate (labeled as aCSO5), was investigated using optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopies. All three methods led to the same conclusion and the AC of aCSO5 is reliably determined to be (-)-(aR, aR), or conversely (+)-(aS, aS). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and the determination of the absolute configuration of all isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Paulina

    2015-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid, a new type of organophosphorus compound possessing two stereogenic centers, was investigated. Racemic 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid was synthesized and hydrolyzed using four bacterial species as biocatalysts. In all cases the reaction was more or less stereoselective and isomers bearing a phosphorus atom with an (SP)-configuration were hydrolyzed preferentially. The observed (1)H and (31)P NMR chemical shifts of Mosher esters of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid were correlated with the configurations of both stereogenic centers of all four stereoisomers.

  10. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  11. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-10-05

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), VCD exciton coupling, and X-ray determination of the absolute configuration of an α,β-unsaturated germacranolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castellanos, Mariano; Bucio, María A; Hernández-Barragán, Angelina; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Cuevas, Gabriel; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2015-03-01

    The absolute configuration of was deduced by vibrational circular dichroism together with the evaluation of the Flack and Hooft X-ray parameters. Vibrational circular dichroism exciton coupling, using the carbonyl group signals, confirmed the absolute configuration of . In addition, sodium borohydride reduction of the 11,13-double bond of 6-epi-desacetyllaurenobiolide () yields an almost equimolecular mixture of C11 epimers, while reduction of the same double bond of 6-epi-laurenobiolide () provided almost exclusively the (11S) diastereoisomer . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    2000-02-24

    [structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.

  14. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-02-01

    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  15. Determination of absolute configuration of an isopimarane-type diterpenoid by experimental and theoretical electronic circular dichroism and vibrational circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hui; Huang, Chao; Huang, Jian; Wang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Tie-Min

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stereochemistry of a new isopimarane-type diterpenoid isolated from the Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl, Callicapene M3, was studied by experimental electronic circular dichroism and vibrational circular dichroism with the aid of TDDFT theoretical calculations. The good consistence between the experimental and simulated circular dichroism has clearly confirmed the absolute configuration of the title compound as (4S, 5S, 9S, 10S, 13S, 14S)-14α-hydroxy-7,15-isopimaradien-18-oic acid.

  16. Synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of (−-(5R,6Z-dendrolasin-5-acetate from the nudibranch Hypselodoris jacksoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wayan Mudianta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A small sample of (−-(5R,6Z-dendrolasin-5-acetate, which was fully characterized by 2D NMR studies, was isolated from the nudibranch Hypselodoris jacksoni, along with the sesquiterpenes (+-agassizin, (−-furodysinin, (−-euryfuran, (−-dehydroherbadysidolide and (+-pallescensone. A synthetic sample ([α]D −8.7 of the new metabolite was prepared by [1,2]-Wittig rearrangement of a geranylfuryl ether followed by acetylation of purified alcohol isomers. The absolute configuration at C-5 was established as R by the analysis of MPA ester derivatives of (Z-5-hydroxydendrolasin obtained by preparative enantioselective HPLC.

  17. (E)-4-methyl-1-tributylstannyl-oct-1-en-6-yn-3-ol: circular dichroism measurement and determination of the absolute configuration by quantum-chemical CD calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshina, E.N.; Raabe, G.; Fleischhauer, J.; Kramp, G.J.; Gais, H.J. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2004-07-01

    The chiroptical properties of the diastereomeric alcohols (E)-(3S,4S)-4-methyl-1-tributylstannyl-oct-1-en-6-yn-3-ol ((S,S)-3) and (E)-(3R,4S)-4-methyl-1-tributylstannyl-oct-1-en-6-yn-3-ols ((R,S)-3) have been studied experimentally as well as by quantum-chemical calculations. The structures of 20 conformers of each isomer, which were found to represent local minima at the MNDO level, have been optimized with density functional theory (DFT). Based on these geometries the excitation energies and oscillator as well as rotational strengths have been calculated using a time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method. The CD spectra of the compounds were then obtained as superposition of Boltzmann-weighted spectra for each of the structures. By comparison of the calculated and the experimental CD spectra the absolute configurations have been assigned to the investigated compounds. (orig.)

  18. (E)-4-Methyl-1-tributylstannyl-oct-1-en-6-yn-3-ol: Circular Dichroism Measurement and Determination of the Absolute Configuration by Quantum-chemical CD Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshina, E. N.; Raabe, G.; Fleischhauer, J.; Kramp, G. J.; Gais, H.-J.

    2004-03-01

    The chiroptical properties of the diastereomeric alcohols (E)-(3S,4S)-4-methyl-1-tributylstannyloct- 1-en-6-yn-3-ol ((S,S)-) and (E)-(3R,4S)-4-methyl-1-tributylstannyl-oct-1-en-6-yn-3-ols ((R,S)- 3) have been studied experimentally as well as by quantum-chemical calculations. The structures of 20 conformers of each isomer, which were found to represent local minima at the MNDO level, have been optimized with density functional theory (DFT). Based on these geometries the excitation energies and oscillator as well as rotational strengths have been calculated using a time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) method. The CD spectra of the compounds were then obtained as superposition of Boltzmann-weighted spectra for each of the structures. By comparison of the calculated and the experimental CD spectra the absolute configurations have been assigned to the investigated compounds.

  19. Development of Several New Reactions and Their Application to the Total Synthesis of Biologically Active Natural Products :Synthesis of Linderol A and Determination of Its Absolute Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunsaku Ohta

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Linderol A (1), a monoterpene-polyketide, was isolated in 1995 from the fresh bark of Lindera umbellata (Lauraceae), and its absolute structure was not determined[1]. It was also reported potent inhibitory activity of 1 on the melanin biosynthesis of the cultured B-16 melanoma cells[1]. See Fig. 1. On the other hand,we reported in 1995 an interesting multi-tandem reaction of coumarin derivatives (2; W = electron withdrawing group) by treatment with CH2 = S(O)Me2 to yield stereoselectively a tricyclic 2-substituted cyclopenta [ b ] benzofuran-3-ol derivative (4) via a cyclopropane intermediate (3) (Scheme 1)[2].

  20. Central-to-axial chirality transfer revealed by liquid crystals: a combined experimental and computational approach for the determination of absolute configuration of carboxylic acids with an α chirality centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pieraccini, Silvia; Rosini, Carlo; Superchi, Stefano; Spada, Gian Piero

    2011-10-01

    The conversion into 6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine (DAZ) N-protected amides is a viable route for the determination of the absolute configuration of chiral 2-substituted carboxylic acids. The biphenyl moiety of DAZ, besides being a probe of chirality for the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, makes these systems suitable for configuration assignment by exploiting the chirality amplification which occurs in nematic liquid crystals. To assess the reliability of the liquid crystal method in detecting the absolute stereochemistry of chiral amides bound to a biphenyl group, we measured the helical twisting power of a series of DAZ-N-protected amides and compared these data with the results obtained from ECD measurements. We will show that the liquid crystal method, corroborated by HTP predictions, is trustworthy with our biphenyl derivatives, even when ECD spectra are ambiguous for the presence of aryl moieties displaying strong UV absorptions in the same range of the biphenyl chromophore.

  1. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P;

    2000-01-01

    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  3. Absolute configuration of labdane diterpenoids from Physalis nicandroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Emma; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L; Romero, Yunuen; Martínez, Mahinda

    2015-02-27

    A mixture of the new epimeric labdenetriols 1 and 2 was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis nicandroides. The structures of 1 and 2, including their absolute configurations, were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, together with the X-ray diffraction analysis of acetonide 3 and chemical correlation with (-)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8α,15-diol (6), whose absolute configuration was also confirmed by X-ray analysis of its dibromo derivative 7. The epimeric labdenediols 8 and 9, the known labdanes 6 and 11, and the acylsucroses 12 and 13 were also isolated. Labdanes 6 and 11 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities in the induced ear edema model.

  4. Redetermination and absolute configuration of pruniflorone M monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title xanthone known as pruniflorone M (systematic name: (2R-5,10-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-1,1-dimethyl-1H-furo[2,3-c]xanthen-6-one, crystallized in a monohydrate form, C18H16O6·H2O. It was isolated from the green fruits of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum. The structure of the title compound has been reported previously [Boonnak et al. (2010. Aust. J. Chem. 63, 1550–1556], but we report here the absolute configuration determined using Cu Kα radiation. There are two crystallograpically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ slightly in the bond angles. The hydroxymethyl substituents at position 2 of the furan rings of both pruniflorone M molecules adopt R configurations. In both molecules, the three rings of the xanthone skeleton are approximately coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0124 (2 Å for one molecule and 0.0289 (2 Å for the other, and the furan ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules of pruniflorone M and water are linked into a two-dimensional network by O—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions. The crystal structure is further consolidated by π–π interactions with centroid–centroid distances in the range 3.5987 (13–3.7498 (14 Å. Short C...C [3.378 (3 Å] and O...O [2.918 (3 Å] contacts are also observed.

  5. Vibrational Circular Dichroism Absolute Configuration of 9,12-Cyclomulin-13-ol, a Diterpene from Azorella and Laretia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marcelo A; San-Martín, Aurelio; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The absolute configuration of the diterpenoid 9,12-cyclomulin-13-ol (1), a constituent of Azorella and Laretia species, has been established by vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. The obtained normal diterpene absolute configuration confirms that of azorellanol (2), which was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  6. Novel approach to determining the absolute configurations at the C3-positions of various types of sterols based on an induced circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshio; Taniguchi, Yuka; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Ozeki, Minoru; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Node, Manabu; Yamashita, Masayuki; Hosoi, Shinzo

    2012-10-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the 2,2'-binaphthyl ester derived from Δ(5)-sterols showed not bisignate CD but diagnostic CD bands at around 210 and 240 nm. These bands might be attributable to an interaction between an olefinic chromophore and a binaphthyl one. Various types of unsaturated sterols were thus derivatized followed by complete hydrogenation, to give saturated sterols. As a result, CD spectra of the binaphthyl derivatives of the saturated sterols showed bisignate curves centered at 240 nm (3S(β): positive chirality; 3R(α): negative one). This suggested a straightforward and practical method for discriminating the absolute stereogenic center at the C-3 positions of sterols based on an induced CD. This finding should contribute significantly to the analysis of metabolites of various types of sterols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilização de RMN de ¹H na determinação da configuração absoluta de álcoois Utilization of ¹H NMR in the determination of absolute configuration of alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizeth L. Barreiros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the determination of absolute configuration of primary and secondary alcohols by ¹H NMR spectroscopy, using the Mosher method. This method consists in the derivatization of an alcohol possessig unknown absolute configuration with one or both enantiomers of an auxiliary reagent. The resulting diastereoisomer spectra are registered and compared, and the chemical shift differences (DdR,S = deltaR - deltaS are measured. The determination of the absolute configuration of the alcohol molecule is based on the correlation between its chiral center and the auxiliary reagent's chiral center. Therefore, the determination of the absolute configuration depends on aromatic ring shielding effects on the substituents of the alcohol as evidenced by the ¹H NMR spectrum.

  8. Total synthesis and absolute configuration of avenolide, extracellular factor in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Miho; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Arima, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kiyoko T; Kitani, Shigeru; Nihira, Takuya; Ikeda, Haruo; Nagamitsu, Tohru

    2011-12-01

    The first total synthesis of extracellular factor, "Avenolide", in Streptomyces avermitilis has been achieved using a convergent approach. The stereogenic centers in two key segments were installed using Sharpless epoxidation and dihydroxylation. This synthetic study allowed the determination of the absolute configuration of avenolide as 4S,10R, and yielded important information on its structure-activity relationship.

  9. Asymmetric 1,4-Additions to 5-Alkoxy-2(5H)-furanones Enantioselective Synthesis and Absolute Configuration Determination of β-Amino-γ-butyrolactones and Amino Diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, B. de; Bolhuis, F. van; Feringa, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    The synthesis of enantiomerically pure β-amino-γ-butyrolactones via asymmetric conjugate addition of various amines to 5-menthyloxy-2(5H)-furanone is described. This route provides access to new multifunctional homochiral building blocks. The absolute configuration of the β-amino-γ-butyrolactones is

  10. Redetermined structure, intermolecular interactions and absolute configuration of royleanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title diterpenoid, C20H28O3, {systematic name: (4bS,8aS-3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octahydrophenanthrene-1,4-dione} is confirmed [Eugster et al. (1993. Private communication (refcode HACGUN. CCDC, Union Road, Cambridge] and its packing is now described. Its absolute structure was established by refinement against data collected with Cu radiation: the two stereogenic centres both have S configurations. One cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation whereas the other cyclohexane ring is in a half-chair conformation and the benzoquinone ring is slightly twisted. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(5 ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains along [010] by O—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions. The packing also features C...O [3.131 (3 Å] short contacts.

  11. Absolute configuration of vouacapen-5α-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H30O2, {systematic name: (4aR,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR-4,4,7,11b-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodecahydrophenanthro[3,2-b]furan-4a-ol}, is a cassane furanoditerpene which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The absolute configurations at positions 4a, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, S, R, S and R, respectively. The molecule has four-fused rings consisting of two cyclohexane rings, one cyclohexene ring and one furan ring. The cyclohexane and cyclohexene rings are trans-fused. Two cyclohexane rings are in chair conformations, while the cyclohexene ring is in an envelope conformation. In the crystal structure, the molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a zigzag chain along the a axis. A short O...O contact [3.0398 (14 Å] is also present.

  12. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Stephan, E-mail: lotze@amolf.nl; Versluis, Jan [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bakker, Huib J., E-mail: bakker@amolf.nl [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  13. Crystal structures, circular dichroism spectra and absolute configurations of some ?-ascorbic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittine, Karlo; Gazivoda, Tatjana; Markuš, Marko; Mrvoš-Sermek, Draginja; Hergold-Brundić, Antonija; Cetina, Mario; Žiher, Dinko; Gabelica, Vesna; Mintas, Mladen; Raić-Malić, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Chiral 2,3-O,O-dibenzyl ethers of L-ascorbic acid with 4-(5,6-epoxy)- (4) and 6-O-tosyl- (8) functional groups were studied by X-ray crystallography and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The stereostructure of 2,3-O,O-dibenzyl-5,6-isopropylidene-L-ascorbic acid (6) and 8 was determined by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Comparison of the CD-spectra of 4 and 8 with the CD-spectra of their synthetic precursors (2-3, 5-7) and L-ascorbic acid (1) itself, as well as crystal structures of 6 and 8 permitted to deduce the absolute configuration of 4. Thus, the chiral atoms C-4 and C-5 in 4 have R and S configurations, which is consistent with the configuration of 1.

  14. Crystallization of an achiral cyclohexanone ethylene ketal in enantiomorphs and determination of the absolute structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Sara; Tejedor, Rosa M; Uriel, Santiago; Serrano, José Luis; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2010-06-16

    The achiral 4-methoxy-4-(p-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanone ethylene ketal (1) resolves spontaneously. The crystal structure is solved in chiral spatial group P2(1). Because compound 1 is composed of only light atoms (C, H, O) it is not possible to determine its absolute structure configuration. An efficient procedure for the absolute structure configuration determination of flexible molecules containing only light atoms is proposed, based on the combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state VCD, and DFT calculations.

  15. ABSOLUTE CONFIGURATION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ENANTIOMERS OF CFTR INHIBITOR BPO-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David S; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Battula, Sailaja; Yao, Chenjuan; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Fettinger, James C; Kurth, Mark J; Verkman, A S

    2013-05-01

    We previously reported benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione (BPO) inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel and showed their efficacy in a model of polycystic kidney disease. Here, we separated the enantiomers of lead compound BPO-27, (1), which contains a single chiral center, and determined their absolute configuration, activity and metabolic stability. Following separation by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography, the R enantiomer, as determined by x-ray crystallography, inhibited CFTR chloride conductance with IC50 ~ 4 nM, while S enantiomer was inactive. In vitro metabolic stability in hepatic microsomes showed both enantiomers as stable, with <5 % metabolism in 4 h. Following bolus interperitoneal administration in mice, serum (R)-1 decayed with t1/2 ~ 1.6 h and gave sustained therapeutic concentrations in kidney.

  16. Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation.

  17. Picrotoxane sesquiterpenoids from the stems of Dendrobium nobile and their absolute configurations and angiogenesis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chun-Wang; He, Yu-Lin; Peng, Cheng; Ding, Xing-Jie; Guo, Li; Xiong, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Five picrotoxane sesquiterpenoids belonging to the unusual dendrobine-type (1 and 4) and the picrotoxinin-type (2, 3, and 5) were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses and physical properties. Compound 1 was a new dendrobine analogue. Although the planar structure of 2 and 3 had been reported, their absolute configurations were first determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and circular dichroism. Compound 2 exhibited angiogenesis effect against sunitinib-induced damage on intersegmental blood vessels in Tg (flk1: EGFP) and Tg (fli1: nEGFP) transgenic zebrafish at concentrations of 3.13, 6.25, 12.50, and 25.00μM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assignment of the absolute configuration of hepatoprotective highly oxygenated triterpenoids using X-ray, ECD, NMR J-based configurational analysis and HSQC overlay experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jiabao; Pandey, Pankaj; Chen, Jiabao; Fronczek, Frank R; Parnham, Stuart; Qi, Xinzhu; Doerksen, Robert J; Ferreira, Daneel; Sun, Hua; Li, Shuai; Hamann, Mark T

    2017-09-14

    The plants of the genus Kadsura are widely distributed in China, South Korea, and Japan. Their roots and stems are traditionally used to treat blood diseases and pain. The main bioactive constituents of Kadsura longipedunculata comprise highly oxygenated triterpenoids. Schiartane-type nortriterpenoids showed anti-HIV, anti-HBV, and cytotoxic bioactivities. For such compounds, the absolute configuration influences the bioactivities, and hence its unambiguous determination is essential. In this work, the absolute configurations of three highly oxygenated schiartane-type nortriterpenoids were unequivocally assigned using X-ray, ECD, and J-based configuration analysis and HSQC overlay data. The ethanol extract of Kadsura longipedunculata Finet et Gagnep was purified by column chromatography using silica, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS as substrates. To help assign the absolute configuration of schiartane-type nortriterpenoids, X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experiment compared to ab initio computed data, DP4+ analysis, HSQC overlay, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis were carried out. Hetero- and homo-nuclear coupling constants were extracted from HETLOC experiments. Three new highly oxygenated triterpenoids, micrandilactone I (1), micrandilactone J (2), and 22, 23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) were isolated. Their 2D structures were solved using NMR and HRESIMS data and their absolute configurations were elucidated using X-ray diffraction analysis, ECD experimental results compared to ab initio computed spectra, HSQC overlay, DP4 plus, NOESY, and J-based configuration analysis. Micrandilactone I (1) and 22, 23-di-epi-micrandilactone J (3) showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells with cell survival rates of 53.0 and 50.2%, respectively, at 10μM (bicyclol, 49.0%), while micrandilactone J (2) was inactive. This is the first comprehensive stereochemical assignment of a non-crystalline schiartane-type nortriterpenoid like 3

  19. Structure and absolute configuration of helosides A and B, new saponins from Chamaelirium luteum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of Chamaelirium luteum roots led to the isolation of two new steroidal saponins, helosides A and B, that contain a previously unreported aglycone, helogenin. Their structures and absolute configuration were elucidated through MS-MS, NMR, chemical degradation, and X-ray crystallography....

  20. Fluorinated porphyrin tweezer: a powerful reporter of absolute configuration for erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyong; Tanasova, Marina; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak

    2008-02-13

    A general and sensitive nonempirical protocol to determine the absolute configurations of erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines is reported. Binding of diols to the porphyrin tweezer system is greatly enhanced by increasing the Lewis acidity of the metalloporphyrin. Supramolecular complexes formed between the porphyrin tweezer host and chiral substrates exhibited exciton-coupled bisignate CD spectra with predictable signs based on the substituents on the chiral center. The working model suggests that the observed helicity of the porphyrin tweezer is dictated via steric differentiation experienced by the porphyrin ring bound to each chiral center. A variety of erythro and threo substrates were investigated to verify this chiroptical method. Their absolute configurations were unequivocally determined, and thus a general mnemonic is provided for the assignment of chirality.

  1. Absolute configuration of falcarinol (9Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol) from Pastinaca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell, Mireia; Sheehy, Emile; Evans, Paul; Brunton, Nigel; Valverde, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Falcarinol (9Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol; (1) is a polyacetylene commonly found in several plant families. The absolute configuration of naturally occurring 1 is not clear and contradictory results have been reported in the literature. Determination of the absolute configuration of 1 from Pastinaca sativa L. was carried out. Isolation of 95% pure 1 was performed via successive fractionation and preparative-HPLC. A racemic mixture comprised of 3R-1 and 3S-1 was synthesized in order to confirm the absolute configuration of the isolated natural product using chiral HPLC. Based on a combination of chiral HPLC and specific rotation, 1 present in P. saliva was found to have a 3R absolute configuration (i.e. (3R, 9Z)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol).

  2. Absolute configurations of phytotoxic inuloxins B and C based on experimental and computational analysis of chiroptical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Marco; Santoro, Ernesto; Petrovic, Ana G; Cimmino, Alessio; Koshoubu, Jun; Evidente, Antonio; Berova, Nina; Superchi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    The absolute configuration of phytotoxins inuloxins B and C, produced by Inula viscosa, and with potential herbicidal activity for the management of parasitic plants, has been determined by Time-dependent density functional theory computational prediction of electronic circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion spectra. The inuloxin B has been converted to its 5-O-acetyl derivative, which due to its more constrained conformational features facilitated the computational analysis of its chiroptical properties. The analysis based on experimental and computed data led to assignment of absolute configuration to naturally occurring (+)-inuloxin B and (-)-inuloxin C as (7R,8R,10S,11S) and (5S,7S,8S,10S), respectively.

  3. Elucidation of the absolute configuration of rhizopine by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography and vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Alain; Dunkle, Melissa; Bahar, Masoud; Bultinck, Patrick; Herrebout, Wouter; Sandra, Pat

    2015-07-01

    The absolute configuration of rhizopine, an opine-like natural product present in nitrogen-fixing nodules of alfalfa infected by rhizobia, is elucidated using a combination of state-of-the-art analytical and semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy. A synthetic peracetylated racemate was fractionated into its enantiomers and subjected to absolute configuration analysis revealing that natural rhizopine exists as a single enantiomer. The stereochemistry of non-derivatized natural rhizopine corresponds to (1R,2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-4-amino-6-methoxycyclohexane-1,2,3,5-tetraol. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Relative Stereochemistry and Absolute Configuration of Farinosin, a Eudesmanolide From Encelia farinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alfredo R; Sánchez-Castellanos, Mariano; Pérez-Hernández, Nury; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring eudesmanolide farinosin () is now fully characterized for the first time despite its original isolation almost half a century ago. The early assumed relative stereochemistry and absolute configuration were confirmed by vibrational circular dichroism together with evaluation of the Hooft X-ray parameters. The molecular conformation is very similar in the gas stage and in the solid state. Chirality 28:415-419, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Absolute Configuration of (+)-(а-Hydroxybenzyl)phenylphosphinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡觉晓; 周正洪; 唐除痴; 王宏根

    2002-01-01

    The title compound (+)-((-hydroxybenzyl)phenylphosphinic acid (C13H13O3P, Mr = 248.20) has been synthesized and characterized by 31P NMR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis at 293(2) K indicates that the compound belongs to monoclinic system, space group C2 with cell parameters: a = 23.560(8), b = 6.947(2), c = 7.854(3) (A。), β = 91.273(6)°, V = 1285.2(7) (A。)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.283 g/cm3, F(000) = 520 and ((MoK() = 0.207 mm-1. The number of independent reflections amounts to 1991, of which 1507 are observed reflections. The crystal structure has been determined by direct methods (SHELXL-97). The structure parameters are refined by full-matrix least-squares on F2 to R = 0.0437 and wR = 0.0893. The flack x parameter is - 0.0001. The absolute configuration of the (-carbon in the title compound is S.

  6. Clarification of anomalous chiroptical behaviour and determination of the absolute configuration of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-5 H-2,3-benzodiazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassy, Elemér; Ács, Mária; Tóth, Gábor; Simon, Kálmán; Láng, Tibor; Ladányi, L.; Párkányi, L.

    1986-09-01

    An optically active hydrogen bromide salt of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-5 H-2,3-benzodiazepine has been prepared and the R5 configuration studied by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The crystals are triclinic with space group P1, with two molecules in a unit cell of dimensions a = 10.798(1), b = 12.669(1) and c = 8.681(1) Å, and α = 97.15(1), β = 99.36(1) and γ = 68.74(1)°. The anomalous chiroptical behaviour is explained on the basis of the chiral interactions between the optically active conformers.

  7. Absolute configurations of phytotoxins seiricardine A and inuloxin A obtained by chiroptical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ernesto; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Petrovic, Ana G; Cimmino, Alessio; Koshoubu, Jun; Evidente, Antonio; Berova, Nina; Superchi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The absolute configuration (AC) of the plant phytotoxin inuloxin A, produced by Inula viscosa, and of the fungal phytotoxin seiricardine A, obtained from Seiridium fungi, pathogen for cypress, has been determined by experimental measurements and theoretical simulations of chiroptical properties of three related methods, namely, Optical Rotatory Dispersion (ORD), Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD), and Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD). Computational prediction by Density Functional Theory (DFT) of VCD spectra and by Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) of ORD and ECD spectra allowed to assign (7R,8R,10S) AC to naturally occurring (+)-inuloxin A. In the case of compound (-)-seiricardine A, which lacks useful for the analysis UV-Vis absorption, and thus provides a hardly detectable ECD spectrum and quite low ORD values, an introduction of a suitable chromophore by chemical derivatization was performed. The corresponding derivative, 2-O-p-bromobenzoate ester, gave rise to an intense ECD spectrum and higher ORD and VCD values. The comparison of computed spectra with the experimental ones allowed to assign (1S,2R,3aS,4S,5R,7aS) AC to (-)-2-O-p-bromobenzoate ester of seiricardine A and then to (-)-seiricardine A. This study further supports a recent trend of concerted application of more than a single chiroptical technique toward an unambiguous assignment of AC of flexible and complex natural products. Moreover, the use of chemical derivatization, with insertion of suitable chromophoric moieties has allowed to treat also UV-Vis transparent molecules by ECD and ORD spectroscopies.

  8. Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of chiral reagents for the derivatization of optically-active amines and alcohols for the purpose of determining their enantiomeric purity or absolute configuration is a tool used by many chemists. Among the techniques used, Mosher's amide and Mosher's ester analyses are among the most reliable and one of the most often used. Despite this,…

  9. Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of chiral reagents for the derivatization of optically-active amines and alcohols for the purpose of determining their enantiomeric purity or absolute configuration is a tool used by many chemists. Among the techniques used, Mosher's amide and Mosher's ester analyses are among the most reliable and one of the most often used. Despite this,…

  10. Absolute Configuration Assignment of a Paraconic Acid Derivative via Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meninno, Sara; Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Guglielmo; Lattanzi, Alessandra; Zanasi, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Density functional theory calculation of the vibrational circular dichroism spectrum was used to assign the absolute configuration of an all-carbon quaternary β-stereocenter of a γ-butyrolactone recently synthesized through an asymmetric organocatalytic tandem aldol/lactonization sequence. Comparison with the experimental spectrum is satisfactory, on account of the fact that spectroscopic features are weak due to the presence of multiple conformers. As a result, the (R) absolute configuration was assigned to the (+) optical isomer.

  11. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Ginkgolide B Characterized by IR- and VCD Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Højmark; Christensen, N.J.; Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and calculated (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) vibrational Circular dichroism (VCD) and IR spectra are compared, illustrating that the structure and absolute configuration of ginkgolide B (GB) may be characterized directly in solution. A conformational search for GB using MacroModel and subsequent......, displaying different intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Differences between measured and calculated IR and VCD spectra for GB at certain wavenumbers are rationalized in terms of interactions with solvent, intermolecular GB-GB interactions, and the potential presence of more than one conformer....... This is the first detailed investigation of the spectroscopic fingerprint region (850-1300 cm(-1)) of the natural product GB employing infrared absorption and VCD spectroscopy. Chirality 22:217-223, 2010....

  12. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Absolute Configuration of(+)-O-Phenyl Cyclophosphorodiamidate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何可; 周正洪; 李康应; 赵国锋; 唐除痴; 王宏根

    2003-01-01

    The title compound, (+)-O-phenyl cyclophosphorodiamidate (C28H33N2O2P, Mr = 460.53), has been synthesized and characterized by 31P NMR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis at 273(2) K indicates that it belongs to orthorhombic system, space group P212121 with a = 11.518(4), b = 13.449(4), c = 16.539(5)(A°), V = 2562(1)(A°)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.194 g/cm3, F(000) = 984 and μ(MoKα) = 0.134 mm-1. The structure parameters were refined by full-matrix least-squares on F2 to R = 0.0459 and wR = 0.0640. The flack x parameter is 0.03(10), and the absolute configuration of the phosphorus atom in the title compound is S.

  13. New ursane triterpenoids from Salvia urmiensis Bunge: Absolute configuration and anti-proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farimani, Mahdi Moridi; Bahadori, Mir Babak; Koulaei, Sheyda Ahmadi; Salehi, Peyman; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Khavasi, Hamid Reza; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Two new triterpenoids, urmiensolide B (1) and urmiensic acid (2), with rare carbon skeletons together with three known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia urmiensis Bunge, an endemic species of Iran. The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS, and in the case of 2 and 3, their structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration of 2 was established by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The new compounds were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against A549 and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 2.8 and 1.6 μM against MCF-7 cells, respectively.

  14. Miniature high-throughput chemosensing of yield, ee, and absolute configuration from crude reaction mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Keith W.; Zhang, Peng; Wolf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimentation (HTE) has emerged as a widely used technology that accelerates discovery and optimization processes with parallel small-scale reaction setups. A high-throughput screening (HTS) method capable of comprehensive analysis of crude asymmetric reaction mixtures (eliminating product derivatization or isolation) would provide transformative impact by matching the pace of HTE. We report how spontaneous in situ construction of stereodynamic metal probes from readily available, inexpensive starting materials can be applied to chiroptical chemosensing of the total amount, enantiomeric excess (ee), and absolute configuration of a wide variety of amines, diamines, amino alcohols, amino acids, carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy acids, and diols. This advance and HTS potential are highlighted with the analysis of 1 mg of crude reaction mixtures of a catalytic asymmetric reaction. This operationally simple assay uses a robust mix-and-measure protocol, is amenable to microscale platforms and automation, and provides critical time efficiency and sustainability advantages over traditional serial methods. PMID:26933684

  15. Reliable HPLC separation, vibrational circular dichroism spectra, and absolute configurations of isoborneol enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui-Qi; Fan, Jun; Tan, Qi; Guo, Dong; Chen, Tao; He, Ru-Jian; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Wei-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Resolution of chiral compounds has played an important role in the pharmaceutical field, involving detailed studies of pharmacokinetics, physiological, toxicological, and metabolic activities of enantiomers. Herein, a reliable method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an optical rotation detector was developed to separate isoborneol enantiomers. A cellulose tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-coated chiral stationary phase showed the best separation performance for isoborneol enantiomers in the normal phase among four polysaccharide chiral packings. The effects of alcoholic modifiers and column temperature were studied in detail. Resolution of the isoborneol racemate displayed a downward trend along with an increase in the content of ethanol and column temperature, indicating that less ethanol in the mobile phase and lower temperature were favorable to this process. Moreover, two isoborneol enantiomers were obtained via a semipreparative chiral HPLC technique under optimum conditions, and further characterized by analytical HPLC, and experimental and calculated vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, respectively. The solution VCD spectrum of the first-eluted component was consistent with the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculated pattern based on the SSS configuration, indicating that this enantiomer should be (1S, 2S, 4S)-(+)-isoborneol. Briefly, these results have provided reliable information to establish a method for analysis, preparative separation, and absolute configuration of chiral compounds without typical chromophoric groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The absolute configuration of (+)-oxopropaline D by theoretical calculation of specific rotation and asymmetric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, Takeshi; Fukui, Miyako; Hata, Toshiyuki; Choshi, Tominari; Nobuhiro, Junko; Ono, Yukio; Hibino, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    The specific optical rotations of (R)-oxopropaline D calculated by two ab initio MO methods were +52+/-31 degrees and +61+/-29 degrees, respectively, and (+)-oxopropaline D (3) was presumed to have an R-configuration. On the basis of this theoretical result, the reaction of 1-litio-beta-carboline with (R)-glyceraldehyde acetonide followed by oxidation with MnO(2) gave (R)-oxopropaline D acetonide (4a), which was consistent with the previously synthesized (+)-oxopropaline D acetonide (4) in all respects. From the results of theoretical calculations and the experimental synthesis, we determined that natural (+)-oxopropaline D (3) has an R-configuration.

  17. Determination of absolute adsorption in highly ordered porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Florian O.

    2009-06-01

    Recently developed Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are the materials with the highest intrinsic surface areas to date and their discovery increased the research activity in the field of microporous adsorption materials significantly. In this contribution, a generic method of analysis for volumetrically measured adsorption isotherms is presented that separates absolute adsorption from excess adsorption to the best possible degree by representing the absolute adsorption isotherm by a superposition of in respect to pressure strictly monotonously increasing fitting function. The procedure allows to determine the heat of adsorption at constant gas uptake via implicitly defined quantities. The method was applied to adsorption data of hydrogen on MOF-5 ranging from 40 K to 200 K. Methane adsorption on MOF-5 was used to demonstrate that the common practice of neglecting the difference between excess and absolute adsorption leads to erroneously increased heat of adsorption values at high coverages and temperatures.

  18. Sex pheromone of the oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii: Structural characterization and absolute configuration of an unusual functionalized cyclobutane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Jacques; Guerrero, Angel; Ducrot, Paul-Henri; Boyer, François-Didier; Gieselmann, Mary; Roelofs, Wendell

    1998-01-01

    The sex pheromone emitted by the female oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera, Diaspididae), has been isolated and characterized as (1R,2S)-cis-2-isopropenyl-1-(4′-methyl-4′-penten-1′-yl)cyclobutaneethanol acetate by using advanced MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as a variety of microderivatization sequences. The structure has been confirmed by stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of the four possible stereoisomers. The absolute configuration has been determined by comparison of the activity of the cis (1S,2R) and (1R,2S) enantiomers with that exhibited by the natural material in greenhouse bioassays and field tests. The structure of this sesquiterpenoid pheromone is new in the coccids and in the pheromone field in general. PMID:9707567

  19. Absolute Configurations and NO Inhibitory Activities of Terpenoids from Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ji, Feifei; Kang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Li, Shen; Jin, Da-Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-06-24

    Curcuma longa L., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb and has been used as a spice and a pigment in the food industry. In the ongoing search for inhibitory reagents of NO production and survey of the chemical composition of natural vegetable foods, the chemical constituents of C. longa used as spice were investigated. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 2 new terpenoids and 14 known analogues. Their structures were established on the basis of the extensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by comparison of the calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among them, compound 1 is a rare norditerpene with an ent-labdane skeleton, and 2 is a skeletally novel sesquiterpene having an eight-membered ring. All of the compounds were found to possess NO inhibitory activities in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The discovery of two new compounds in this chemical investigation further disclosed the chemical composition of C. longa used a food spice, and the bioassay implied that the natural food spice C. longa, containing terpenoids with NO inhibitory activities, may be potentially promotive to human health.

  20. Redetermined structure, inter-molecular inter-actions and absolute configuration of royleanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Salae, Abdul Wahab; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul; Karalai, Chatchanok

    2011-05-01

    The structure of the title diterpenoid, C(20)H(28)O(3), {systematic name: (4bS,8aS)-3-hy-droxy-2-isopropyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octa-hydro-phenanthrene-1,4-dione} is confirmed [Eugster et al. (1993 ▶). Private communication (refcode HACGUN). CCDC, Union Road, Cambridge] and its packing is now described. Its absolute structure was established by refinement against data collected with Cu radiation: the two stereogenic centres both have S configurations. One cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation whereas the other cyclo-hexane ring is in a half-chair conformation and the benzoquinone ring is slightly twisted. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(5) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains along [010] by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. The packing also features C⋯O [3.131 (3) Å] short contacts.

  1. Total Synthesis, Structure Revision, and Absolute Configuration of (−)-Brevenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Ebine, Makoto; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Sasaki, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Total synthesis of structure 1 originally proposed for brevenal, a nontoxic polycyclic ether natural product isolated from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, was accomplished. The key features of the synthesis involved (i) convergent assembly of the pentacyclic polyether skeleton based on our developed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling chemistry and (ii) stereoselective construction of the multi-substituted (E,E)-dienal side chain by using copper(I) thiophen-2-carboxylate (CuTC)-promoted modified Stille coupling. The disparity of NMR spectra between the synthetic material and the natural product required a revision of the proposed structure. Detailed spectroscopic comparison of synthetic 1 with natural brevenal, coupled with the postulated biosynthetic pathway for marine polyether natural products, suggested that the natural product was most likely represented by 2, the C26 epimer of the proposed structure 1. The revised structure was finally validated by completing the first total synthesis of (−)-2, which also unambiguously established the absolute configuration of the natural product. PMID:17177450

  2. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  3. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  4. Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, Roman; Císařová, Ivana

    Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.

  5. Enantiomeric high-performance liquid chromatography resolution and absolute configuration of 6β-benzoyloxy-3α-tropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marcelo A; González, Natalia; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    The absolute configuration of the naturally occurring isomers of 6β-benzoyloxy-3α-tropanol (1) has been established by the combined use of chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with electronic circular dichroism detection and optical rotation detection. For this purpose (±)-1, prepared in two steps from racemic 6-hydroxytropinone (4), was subjected to chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with electronic circular dichroism and optical rotation detection allowing the online measurement of both chiroptical properties for each enantiomer, which in turn were compared with the corresponding values obtained from density functional theory calculations. In an independent approach, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography separation using an automatic fraction collector, yielded an enantiopure sample of OR (+)-1 whose vibrational circular dichroism spectrum allowed its absolute configuration assignment when the bands in the 1100-950 cm(-1) region were compared with those of the enantiomers of esters derived from 3α,6β-tropanediol. In addition, an enantiomerically enriched sample of 4, instead of OR (±)-4, was used for the same transformation sequence, whose high-performance liquid chromatography follow-up allowed their spectroscopic correlation. All evidences lead to the OR (+)-(1S,3R,5S,6R) and OR (-)-(1R,3S,5R,6S) absolute configurations, from where it follows that samples of 1 isolated from Knightia strobilina and Erythroxylum zambesiacum have the OR (+)-(1S,3R,5S,6R) absolute configuration, while the sample obtained from E. rotundifolium has the OR (-)-(1R,3S,5R,6S) absolute configuration.

  6. Automatic section thickness determination using an absolute gradient focus function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elozory, D T; Kramer, K A; Chaudhuri, B; Bonam, O P; Goldgof, D B; Hall, L O; Mouton, P R

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of microstructures using computerized stereology systems is an essential tool in many disciplines of bioscience research. Section thickness determination in current nonautomated approaches requires manual location of upper and lower surfaces of tissue sections. In contrast to conventional autofocus functions that locate the optimally focused optical plane using the global maximum on a focus curve, this study identified by two sharp 'knees' on the focus curve as the transition from unfocused to focused optical planes. Analysis of 14 grey-scale focus functions showed, the thresholded absolute gradient function, was best for finding detectable bends that closely correspond to the bounding optical planes at the upper and lower tissue surfaces. Modifications to this function generated four novel functions that outperformed the original. The 'modified absolute gradient count' function outperformed all others with an average error of 0.56 μm on a test set of images similar to the training set; and, an average error of 0.39 μm on a test set comprised of images captured from a different case, that is, different staining methods on a different brain region from a different subject rat. We describe a novel algorithm that allows for automatic section thickness determination based on just out-of-focus planes, a prerequisite for fully automatic computerized stereology.

  7. Exciton Coupling in Circular Dichroic Spectroscopy as a Tool for Establishing the Absolute Configuration of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Esters of Allylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, A.; Cornett, Claus; Christensen, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    alpha-beta-Unsaturated esters of allylic alcohols have been shown to exhibit exciton coupling by circular dichroic spectroscopy. This coupling permits the establishment of the absolute configuration. The method was used to prove the absolute configuration at C-2 of archangelolide. Detailed NMR sp...

  8. Absolute configuration and crystal packing for three chiral drugs prone to spontaneous resolution: Guaifenesin, methocarbamol and mephenesin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Krivolapov, Dmitry B.; Pashagin, Alexander V.; Litvinov, Igor A.

    2009-02-01

    Popular chiral drugs, guaifenesin, methocarbamol, and mephenesin were investigated by single-crystal X-ray analysis both for enantiopure and racemic samples. The absolute configurations for all substances were established through Flack parameter method. The conglomerate-forming nature for the compounds was confirmed by equivalence of crystal characteristics of enantiopure and racemic samples. The molecular structures and crystal packing details were evaluated and compared with one another for all three investigated substances.

  9. 槐庶尺蛾性信息素腺体EAG活性成分绝对构型的鉴定%Determination of the absolute configuration of an EAG active component in the sex pheromone gland of Semiothisa cinerearia Bremer et Grey ( Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥波; 王鸿斌; 张真

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese scholar tree looper,Semiothisa cinerearia Bremer et Grey (Lepidoptera:Geometridae),is the major defoliator of the Chinese scholar tree Sophora japonica L.in China.The elucidation of the absolute chemical structure of the sex pheromone component of S.cinerearia may provide a potential chemical for the pest control against the S.cinerearia infestations in the urban area.In this study,two sex pheromone gland compounds,i.e.,(6Z,9Z)-6,9-cis-3,4-epoxy-heptadecadiene (6Z,9Z-cis-3,4-epoxy-17:H) and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene (3Z,6Z,9Z-17:H),were detected in a 100:4.8 ± 1.3 ratio (N =12) during analyses of solvent extracts from virgin female S.cinerearia (2 - 3 d old) by comparison of their gas chromatography (GC) retention time and mass spectra (MS) with those of synthetic standards.Furthermore,the absolute configuration of 6Z,9Z-cis-3,4-epoxy-17:H in the sex pheromone gland of S.cinerearia was determined as (6Z,9Z)-3R,4S-epoxy-heptadecadiene by using a chiral capillary column ( CycloSil-B,30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm film) GC under the optimized oven temperature program.The mixture of the two synthetic enantiomers of 6Z,9Z-3R,4S-epoxy-17:H and 6Z,9Z-3S,4R-epoxy-17:H in a ratio of 1.28∶1 was injected into the female extracts,and thus the ratio was changed to 1.55∶ 1.Based on this analysis,the absolute configuration of the gland component 6Z,9Z-cis-3,4-epoxy-17:H was further confirmed as 3R,4S.It is anticipated that control of S.cinerearia infestation with enantiomerically pure materials will be much more effective.%槐庶尺蛾Semiothisa cinerearia Bremer et Grey(鳞翅目:尺蛾科)是我国北方国槐Sophora japonicaL.上的重要食叶害虫.本研究的主要目的是阐明槐庶尺蛾性信息素成分化学结构的绝对构型,为在城市地区环境友好地防控槐庶尺蛾的为害提供一种新方法.经与标准品比较气相色谱保留时间和质谱特征离子,从槐庶尺蛾处女雌蛾(2-3日龄)性信息素腺体溶

  10. Revision of the absolute configurations of bethosides B and C and their aglycone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Hayes, Patricia Y; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of the steroidal saponins bethosides B and C was previously assigned as (22R,25R) on the basis of work that employed Horeau's method. Our studies of helosides A and B created doubt about both the original assignment and consequently our conclusion that relied upon it...

  11. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  12. The crystal structure and absolute configuration of the antitumor platinum complex trans(OH)-Pt(OH)2(malonato)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, M; Hirose, J; Noji, M; Lee, K I; Saito, R; Kidani, Y

    1992-04-01

    The absolute configuration of the anti-tumor complex trans(OH)-Pt(OH)2(malonato)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine) was determined by X-ray anomalous scattering technique. The final unit cell was monoclinic, space group P2(1) with a = 9.142 A, b = 7.788 A, c = 11.946 A, beta = 96.48 degrees, Z = 2. The crystal structure was determined by direct method and difference Fourier synthesis, and refined to R = 0.025 and Rw = 0.033 based on 2768 independent reflections. The platinum atom has roughly octahedral coordination. The cyclohexane ring has the expected chair configuration, with two amino groups in equatorial positions while the malonato ligand, in contrast, shows a boat conformation for six membered Pt O-C-C-C-O ring.

  13. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by {sup 1}H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Francisco A. da C.; Mendes, Maricleide P. de L.; Fonseca, Neuracy C. da, E-mail: fandrade@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-06-15

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH{sub 2}-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  14. NMR assignment of the absolute configuration of C-25 in furostanol steroidal saponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Piacente, Sonia; De Voss, James J

    2012-01-01

    solvents led to conflicting assignments of stereochemistry. An experimental survey revealed that, while the chemical shifts of H(2)-26 exhibit a dependence on C-25 configuration, it is less pronounced in methanol-d4 than pyridine-d5 solvent, and thus the general rule derived for pyridine-d5 fails when NMR...

  15. One more chiral drug prone to spontaneous resolution: Binary phase diagram, absolute configuration, and crystal packing of bevantolol hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhin, Alexander A.

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous resolution of cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocker bevantolol hydrochloride1·HCl was established by IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and by single crystal X-ray analysis both for enantiopure and racemic samples. The absolute configuration of 1·HCl was evaluated through Flack parameter method. The molecular structure and crystal packing details were evaluated; the symmetry independent fragment of the P1 unit cell consists of two molecules which have almost identical spatial arrangement, but differ sufficiently in the nature of nitrogen atoms: quaternary form in one case and free amine form in the other.

  16. Assignment of the absolute configuration of P-chiral 5' mRNA cap analogues containing phosphorothioate moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Zuberek, Joanna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic cleavage of the P-chiral diastereoisomers of the 5' mRNA cap analogue bearing phosphorothioate moiety in alfa position of 5',5'-triphosphate bridge (m(7)Gppp(S)G D1 and D2) was performed by human Decapping Scavenger (DcpS) enzyme. Analysis of the degradation products allowed to estimate the absolute configuration at the asymmetric phosphorus atoms in examined compounds via correlation with the R(P) and S(P) diastereoisomers of guanosine 5'-O-(1-thiodiphosphate) (GDPalphaS).

  17. Absolute activity determination of CaWO{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, Andrea; Ertl, Andreas; Guetlein, Achim; Lanfranchi, Jean-Come; Potzel, Walter; Roth, Sabine; Simon, Daniel; Scholl, Stephan; Sivers, Moritz von; Strauss, Raimund; Wawoczny, Stephan; Willers, Michael; Wuestrich, Marc; Zoeller, Andreas [TU Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, E15, Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The direct Dark Matter search experiment CRESST uses CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for possible WIMP recoils. A particle interaction in the crystal produces phonons as well as scintillation light. As the light signal is dependent on the kind of interacting particle, a particle discrimination on an event-by-event basis is feasible. The observed background is mainly due to intrinsic radioactive impurities of the CaWO{sub 4} target. An activity of this intrinsic contamination can be determined with the investigation of α-decays in the crystal. Up to now, CaWO{sub 4} crystals were produced by suppliers in Russia and Ukraine. Since 2011 we are able to grow CaWO{sub 4} crystals in a Czochralski furnace installed in the crystal laboratory of TU Munich, which has the advantage to better meet the requirements of CRESST and to ensure the availability of CaWO{sub 4} crystals for the successive future multi-material experiment EURECA. To check the radiopurity, first self-grown crystals were investigated in test measurements. In this talk we will present the results for absolute α-activities of self-grown crystals and compare them to α-activities of the crystals installed in the last CRESST run (Run32).

  18. Absolute configurations of fungal and plant metabolites by chiroptical methods. ORD, ECD, and VCD studies on phyllostin, scytolide, and oxysporone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Santoro, Ernesto; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Troselj, Pavle; Petrovic, Ana G; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio; Berova, Nina

    2013-04-26

    The absolute configuration (AC) of the bioactive metabolites phyllostin (1) and scytolide (2), two hexahydro-1,4-benzodioxines produced by Phyllosticta cirsii, and oxysporone (3), a dihydrofuropyranone recently isolated from a strain of Diplodia africana, has been assigned by computational analysis of their optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Computational prediction of ORD, ECD, and VCD allowed us to assign (3S,4aR,8S,8aR) AC to naturally occurring (-)-1, while (4aR,8S,8aR) AC was assigned to (-)-2 employing only ECD and VCD, because in this case ORD analysis turned out to be unsuitable for AC assignment. Theoretical prediction of both ORD and ECD spectra of 3 led to assignment of (4S,5R,6R) AC to (+)-3. In this case a satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated VCD spectra was obtained only after taking into account solvent effects. This study shows that in the case of flexible and complex natural products only a concerted application of more than a single chiroptical technique permits unambiguous assignment of absolute configuration.

  19. Absolute configuration of anti-HIV-1 agent (-)-concentricolide: total synthesis of (+)-(R)-concentricolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2011-05-20

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-(R)-concentricolide, the enantiomer of an anti-HIV-1 agent isolated from Daldinia concentrica, from 2-iodophenol in 7 steps reveals the (S)-configuration for the natural form of the furanophthalide. The key features include an anionic ortho-Fries rearrangement to furnish 3-iodosalicylamide, facile construction of the benzofuran system employing the tandem Sonogashira coupling annulation reaction, directed ortho metalation to introduce a propanoyl group, as well as CBS reduction, establishing the stereocenter enantioselectively.

  20. Enantioselective semi-preparative HPLC separation of PCB metabolites and their absolute structures determined by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, H.P.; Larsson, C.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Hoffmann, F.; Froeba, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Bergmann, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The present paper represents a first result of an ongoing systematic study of atropisomeric methylsulfonyl, methylthionyl, hydroxy, and methoxy metabolites of environmentally most relevant PCBs. This involves semi-preparative enantioselective HPLC separation to obtain pure atropisomers from synthesized PCB metabolite standards, their configuration estimation using the electronic circular dichroism (UV-CD) method and the determination / confirmation of these absolute configurations applying the combined vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) / ab initio approach. The following substances have been investigated: 4-HO-, 4-MeO-, 4-MeS-, 4-MeSO2-, 3-MeS- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149.

  1. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P

    2010-01-01

    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  2. (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-adenallene: synthesis, absolute configuration, enantioselectivity of antiretroviral effect, and enzymic deamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megati, S; Goren, Z; Silverton, J V; Orlina, J; Nishimura, H; Shirasaki, T; Mitsuya, H; Zemlicka, J

    1992-10-30

    Synthesis of optically pure (-)- and (+)-adenallene 2 and 3 is described. Racemic adenallene (1a) was subjected to deamination with adenosine deaminase monitored by HPLC using a Chiralcel CA-1 column to give (-)-adenallene (2) and (+)-hypoxallene (4). The latter compound was converted to acetate 5. The reaction of 5 with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride and pyridine followed by ammonolysis furnished acetate 6 or (+)-adenallene (3) depending on the solvent used in the last step. Acetate 5 was smoothly transformed to the 6-chloro derivative 7, but an attempted ammonolysis led only to racemization and decomposition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction established the R-configuration of (-)-enantiomer 2. The latter forms a pseudosymmetric dimer in the lattice with the adenine moiety in an anti-like conformation. The torsional angles of the allenic bonds show departures from 90 degrees (91 and 97 degrees, respectively) and rotameric preference of the hydroxymethyl groups is different in both molecules of the dimer. The R-enantiomer 2 inhibited the replication and cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in ATH8 cell culture with an IC50 of 5.8 microM, whereas the S-enantiomer 3 was less active (IC50 > 200 microM). The enantioselectivity of the anti-HIV effect is significantly lower than that of 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine. Kinetics of deamination of R- and S-enantiomers 2 and 3 catalyzed by adenosine deaminase gave the following parameters: Km values of S-form 3 and R-form 2 were 0.41 and 0.52 mM with Vmax being 530 and 18.5 mumol/min, respectively [corrected]. Again,, a much lower level of enantioselectivity of deamination was observed than that of D- and L-adenosine. These results indicate (i) different enantioselectivity of enantiomers 2 and 3 as HIV inhibitors and adenosine deaminase substrates and (ii) both R- and S-enantiomers 2 and 3 can function as nucleoside analogues with varied enantioselectivity for different enzymes or receptors.

  3. Absolute Configuration of (-)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid: Stereochemistry of Soy Isoflavone Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We have elucidated stereochemistry of (-)-2-HPPA. Determination of (R)-2-HPPA stereochemistry also provided stereochemical information of genistein metabolism. Considering the stereochemistry of 2-HPPA, the precursor of (R)-2-HPPA should be (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Besides, it is clear that only (S)-dihydrogenistein is the possible precursor of (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Therefore, genistein metabolism is suggested to follow the same stereochemical pathway like daidzein. Biotransformation of natural products by human intestinal bacteria has recently drawn a significant interest, due to the emerging strong correlation between gut microbiota and human health. Microbial metabolism of natural products by intestinal bacteria in small intestine and colon proceeds the phase I and II xenobiotic metabolisms in the liver. The metabolites were found to exhibit different biological activities, and affect human etiology. For example, many beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols in human health are attributed to the microbial metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria and the modulation of gut microbiota composition.

  4. Biocatalytic preparation and absolute configuration of enantiomerically pure fungistatic anti-2-benzylindane derivatives. Study of the detoxification mechanism by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Rivilla, Cristina; Aleu, Josefina; Grande Benito, Manuel; Collado, Isidro G

    2010-08-21

    Enantiomerically pure 2-benzylindane derivatives were prepared using biocatalytic methods and their absolute configuration determined. (1R,2S)-2-Benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2) and (S)-2-benzylindan-1-one ((S)-3) were produced by fermenting baker's yeast. Lipase-mediated esterifications and hydrolysis of the corresponding racemic substrates gave rise to the enantiopure compounds (1S,2R)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1S,2R)-2) and (1R,2S)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2), respectively. The antifungal activity of these products against two strains of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea was tested. The metabolism of anti-(+/-)-2-benzylindan-1-ol (anti-(+/-)-2) by B. cinerea as part of the fungal detoxification mechanism is also described and revealed interesting differences in the genome of both strains.

  5. Fast, computer supported experimental determination of absolute zero temperature at school

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Antoni T.; Bogacz, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    A concept of absolute temperature is discussed and a simple method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented - based on gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and computer data acquisition system Coach. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air and extrapolating it to zero pressure it is possible to obtain a reasonable value of absolute zero temperature. It is a convincing and straightforward method to enhance understanding the concept of temperature and suppor...

  6. Using absolute gravimeter data to determine vertical gravity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The position versus time data from a free-fall absolute gravimeter can be used to estimate the vertical gravity gradient in addition to the gravity value itself. Hipkin has reported success in estimating the vertical gradient value using a data set of unusually good quality. This paper explores techniques that may be applicable to a broader class of data that may be contaminated with "system response" errors of larger magnitude than were evident in the data used by Hipkin. This system response function is usually modelled as a sum of exponentially decaying sinusoidal components. The technique employed here involves combining the x0, v0 and g parameters from all the drops made during a site occupation into a single least-squares solution, and including the value of the vertical gradient and the coefficients of system response function in the same solution. The resulting non-linear equations must be solved iteratively and convergence presents some difficulties. Sparse matrix techniques are used to make the least-squares problem computationally tractable.

  7. Chiral resolution and absolute configuration of the enantiomers of the psychoactive "designer drug" 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaki; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C

    2015-04-01

    Illicit rac-MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), manufactured in clandestine labs, has become widely abused for its cocaine-like stimulant properties. It has recently been found as one of the toxic materials in the so-called "bath salts," producing, among other effects, psychosis and tachycardia in humans when introduced by any of the several routes of administration (e.g., intravenous, oral, etc.). The considerable toxicity of this "designer drug" probably resides in one of the enantiomers of the racemate. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of the enantiomers of rac-MDPV to determine their activity, we improved the known synthesis of rac-MDPV and found chemical resolving agents, (+)- and (-)-2'-bromotetranilic acid, that gave the MDPV enantiomers in >96% enantiomeric excess as determined by (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. The absolute stereochemistry of these enantiomers was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  8. Chemoenzymatic approach to optically active 4-hydroxy-5-alkylcyclopent-2-en-1-one derivatives: an application of a combined circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations to assignment of absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelek, Jadwiga; Karchier, Michał; Madej, Daria; Michalak, Karol; Różański, Paweł; Wicha, Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    A series of representative optically active derivatives of 4-hydroxy-5-alkylcyclopent-2-en-1-one were prepared from the respective 2-furyl methyl carbinols via the Piancatelli rearrangement followed by the enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemates. Applicability of chiroptical methods (experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism [ECD] and vibrational circular dichroism [VCD] spectra) to determine the absolute configuration of both stereogenic centers in 4-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one was demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that the concurrent application of ECD and VCD spectroscopy can be used for the determination of the configuration of two stereogenic centers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Bustos-Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4, 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5, 10-benzoyloxythymol (6 and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7. In addition, (8S-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1, together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2 and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3 were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the 1H and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1–7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  10. Absolute configuration-dependent epoxide formation from isoflavan-4-ol stereoisomers by biphenyl dioxygenase of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain KF707.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jiyoung; Kang, Su-Il; Won, Dongho; Kim, Mihyang; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kang, Suk-Woo; Um, Byung-Hun; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Kanaly, Robert A; Han, Jaehong; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2011-03-01

    Biphenyl dioxygenase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain KF707 expressed in Escherichia coli was found to exhibit monooxygenase activity toward four stereoisomers of isoflavan-4-ol. LC-MS and LC-NMR analyses of the metabolites revealed that the corresponding epoxides formed between C2' and C3' on the B-ring of each isoflavan-4-ol substrate were the sole products. The relative reactivity of the stereoisomers was found to be in the order: (3S,4S)-cis-isoflavan-4-ol > (3R,4S)-trans-isoflavan-4-ol > (3S,4R)-trans-isoflavan-4-ol > (3R,4R)-cis-isoflavan-4-ol and this likely depended upon the absolute configuration of the 4-OH group on the isoflavanols, as explained by an enzyme-substrate docking study. The epoxides produced from isoflavan-4-ols by P. pseudoalcaligenes strain KF707 were further abiotically transformed into pterocarpan, the molecular structure of which is commonly found as part of plant-protective phytoalexins, such as maackiain from Cicer arietinum and medicarpin from Medicago sativa.

  11. Direct assignment of the absolute configuration of a distinct class of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites at phosphorus by M-GOESY nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Andrzej; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Bull, Thomas E; Dixon, Ann M; Freedberg, Darón I; Beaucage, Serge L

    2002-02-20

    The determination of the absolute configuration of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites at phosphorus toward the synthesis of P-stereodifined phosphorothioated oligodeoxyribonucleotides is easily accomplished with computer-assisted molecular modeling and M-GOESY NMR spectroscopy. Specifically, computer-modeling diasteromeric phosphoramidite 3 has identifed a proximal (2.55 A) through-space interaction between benzylic H-5 and sugar H-2' ', which can predictably be detected by M-GOESY NMR in SP-3 but not in RP-3 because of being too distant (5.85 A). Consistent with computer-assisted modeling predictions, M-GOESY NMR spectra of SP-3 and RP-3 revealed NOE signals generated from nuclei near the selectively excited H-2' ' that are common to both SP-3 and RP-3, namely those of H-2', H-4', H-3', and H-1'. In addition, a diagnostic NOE signal at 5.5 ppm (benzylic H-5) is, as predicted, only detected in SP-3 and thus provides an unequivocal assessment of the configuration of the diastereomer at phosphorus. M-GOESY NMR data also confirm that the condensation of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites with base-activated nucleosidic or nucleotidic 5'-hydroxyls proceeds via a single nucleophilic event.

  12. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  13. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  14. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  15. Determining Absolute Polarization of Ultracold Neutrons in the UCNA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Eric; UCNA Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The UCNA experiment uses the decay of trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the angular correlation A between the emitted electron's momentum and the direction of the neutron's spin. For a precision measurement of A, a similarly precise determination of the equilibrium neutron polarization is required. By utilizing UCN, transport through a large (7T) B field provides 100 % polarization, and a spin flipper allows state selection during loading phases. This spin flipper also measures the equilibrium polarization of the UCN population present in the spectrometer, after each hour-long beta-counting cycle. By including a neutron reflecting shutter the leading uncertainty in polarimetry measurements prior to 2011, resulting from the residual background population, was reduced to near zero. However, this modification also introduces new systematic corrections, requiring new run types to quantify. Among these corrections are effects from the spin flipper efficiency, spectral velocity conditioning, and depolarization feeding. We will review the analytic underpinning for these contributions, discuss additional measurements required to quantify these parameters, and present a Monte-Carlo analysis to determine the corrected depolarized fraction, and associated uncertainty. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  16. Selective polymer materials: absolute determination of their sorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusch, Michael; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2001-02-01

    Several types of selective materials are frequently used in chemical sensors such as natural antibodies, synthetic host substances (calixarenes, cyclodextrines, etc.) molecularly imprinted materials, or conventional polymers. For a systematic development of those materials, their sorption behavior for interesting analyte substances and potentially interfering compounds has to be thoroughly characterized, which can be a time-consuming and error-prone task. Moreover, using the respective sensor principle itself for this characterization an exact relation between the sensor signal and the underlying partition coefficient or sorption isotherm can often not be obtained. In this paper, we present an automated method for the direct determination of polymer/water partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds that consists of an automated fluid handling system, a dedicated partitioning cell and a purge-and-trap gas chromatography (PT-GC) unit. The main application of this novel system is the characterization of layer materials for infrared evanescent wave spectroscopic (IR-EWS) sensors, however an extension to other problems is conceivable. The whole experimental procedure comprising calibration of the GC system, preparation of test solutions, analyte partitioning, sample analysis, as well as the necessary cleaning steps is performed automatically under computer control. Hence, this system can be operated unattendedly, yielding a reasonable throughput with comparatively low expenditure of human labor.

  17. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  18. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  19. Determination of absolute stereochemistry, total synthesis, and evaluation of peptides from the myxomycete Physarum melleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, Shuwa; Arai, Midori A; Li, Xiaofan; Ishibashi, Masami

    2008-01-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of melleumin A (1) and B (2), novel peptide compounds isolated from the myxomycete Physarum melleum, was determined by synthesis of their segments and by a modified Mosher's method. Total synthesis of melleumin B (2) was achieved by a stereoselective method, which provided further evidence for all the absolute stereochemistries of melleumin B (2). The Wnt signal inhibitory activities of 2 and its 10R-epimer 19 were evaluated. Compound 19 showed moderate inhibition of Wnt signal transcription, which suggests that melleumin analogues might be useful as Wnt signal inhibitors.

  20. Metrological activity determination of 133Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R. L.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; de Veras, E. V.; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O. L.

    2016-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. 133Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods don't calibrate 133Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes 133Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  1. Metrological activity determination of {sup 133}Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.L. da; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O.L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: candida@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. {sup 133}Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods do not calibrate {sup 133}Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes {sup 133}Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  2. Can the analyte-triggered asymmetric autocatalytic Soai reaction serve as a universal analytical tool for measuring enantiopurity and assigning absolute configuration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christopher J; Zawatzky, Kerstin; Makarov, Alexey A; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Arimasa; Soai, Kenso

    2016-12-20

    An investigation is reported on the use of the autocatalytic enantioselective Soai reaction, known to be influenced by the presence of a wide variety of chiral materials, as a generic tool for measuring the enantiopurity and absolute configuration of any substance. Good generality for the reaction across a small group of test analytes was observed, consistent with literature reports suggesting a diversity of compound types that can influence the stereochemical outcome of this reaction. Some trends in the absolute sense of stereochemical enrichment were noted, suggesting the possible utility of the approach for assigning absolute configuration to unknown compounds, by analogy to closely related species with known outcomes. Considerable variation was observed in the triggering strength of different enantiopure materials, an undesirable characteristic when dealing with mixtures containing minor impurities with strong triggering strength in the presence of major components with weak triggering strength. A strong tendency of the reaction toward an 'all or none' type of behavior makes the reaction most sensitive for detecting enantioenrichment close to zero. Consequently, the ability to discern modest from excellent enantioselectivity was relatively poor. While these properties limit the ability to obtain precise enantiopurity measurements in a simple single addition experiment, prospects may exist for more complex experimental setups that may potentially offer improved performance.

  3. Absolute determination of cross sections for resonant Raman scattering on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Ulm, Gerhard; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2006-07-01

    We studied the resonant Raman scattering of x rays in the vicinity of the K absorption edge of silicon. The investigation was carried out at the plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation of the PTB laboratory at BESSY II in Berlin. Cross sections were determined absolutely for a wide energy range of incident photons with small relative uncertainties employing calibrated instrumentation avoiding any reference samples. The experimentally determined values differ clearly from the theoretical ones found in the literature.

  4. The final power calibration of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor for various configurations obtained from the measurements of the absolute average neutron flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre Fonseca Povoa da, E-mail: alexandre.povoa@mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Mura, Luiz Ernesto Credidio; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Betti, Flavio; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of neutron activation foils is a widely spread technique applied to obtain nuclear parameters then comparing the results with those calculated using specific methodologies and available nuclear data. By irradiation of activation foils and subsequent measurement of its induced activity, it is possible to determine the neutron flux at the position of irradiation. The power level during operation of the reactor is a parameter which is directly proportional to the average neutron flux throughout the core. The objective of this work is to gather data from irradiation of gold foils symmetrically placed along a cylindrically configured core which presents only a small excess reactivity in order to derive the power generated throughout the spatial thermal and epithermal neutron flux distribution over the core of the IPEN/MB-01 Nuclear Reactor, eventually lending to a proper calibration of its nuclear channels. The foils are fixed in a Lucite plate then irradiated with and without cadmium sheaths so as to obtain the absolute thermal and epithermal neutron flux. The correlation between the average power neutron flux resulting from the gold foils irradiation, and the average power digitally indicated by the nuclear channel number 6, allows for the calibration of the nuclear channels of the reactor. The reactor power level obtained by thermal neutron flux mapping was (74.65 ± 2.45) watts to a mean counting per seconds of 37881 cps to nuclear channel number 10 a pulse detector, and 0.719.10{sup -5} ampere to nuclear linear channel number 6 (a non-compensated ionization chamber). (author)

  5. Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

    2012-03-01

    Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  7. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of homochiral polymeric S-malato molybdate(VI): toward the potentially stereospecific formation and absolute configuration of iron-molybdenum cofactor in nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Yan, Wen-Bin; Wan, Hui-Lin; Tsai, Khi-Rui

    2002-06-07

    Reaction of sodium or potassium molybdate and excess malic acid in a wide range of pH values (pH 4.0-7.0) resulted in the isolation of two cis-dioxo-bis(malato)-Mo(VI) complexes, viz. Na(3)[MoO(2)H(S-mal)(2)] and K(3)[MoO(2)H(S-mal)(2)].H(2)O (H(3)mal=malic acid). The sodium complex is also characterized by an X-ray structure analysis, showing that the mononuclear Mo units are linked together via very strong symmetric CO(2)...H... O(2)C-hydrogen bond [2.432(5) A], forming a polymeric chain. The molybdenum atoms are quasi-octahedrally coordinated by two cis-oxo groups and two bidentate malate ligands via its alkoxy and alpha-carboxyl groups, while the beta-carboxylic and carboxylate groups remain uncomplexed, as the coordination of vicinal carboxylate and alkoxide of homocitrate in FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase. The absolute configuration of the metal center in this S-malato complex is assigned as Lambda and the homochirality within the chain is established as a homochiral form ...Lambda(S)-Lambda(S)-Lambda(S)-Lambda(S)... . It is proposed that the chiral configuration of the metal center in wild-type FeMo-co biosynthesis might be induced by the early coordination of the chiral R-homocitric acid, while a mixture of raceme might be obtained in the biosynthesis of NifV(-) FeMo-cofactor. The absolute configuration of wild-type FeMo-cofactor is assigned as Delta(R).

  9. (RS)-Propranolol: enantioseparation by HPLC using newly synthesized (S)-levofloxacin-based reagent, absolute configuration of diastereomers and recovery of native enantiomers by detagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwera, Shiv; Bhushan, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Diastereomers of (RS)-propranolol were synthesized using (S)-levofloxacin-based new chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs). Levofloxacin was chosen as the pure (S)-enantiomer for its high molar absorptivity (εo  ∼ 24000) and availability at a low price. Its -COOH group had N-hydroxysuccinimide and N-hydroxybenzotriazole, which acted as good leaving groups during nucleophilic substitution by the amino group of the racemic (RS)-propranolol; the CDRs were characterized by UV, IR, (1) H-NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur fundamental elemental components analyser (CHNS). Diastereomers were separated quantitatively using open column chromatography; absolute configuration of the diastereomers was established and the reagent moiety was detagged under microwave-assisted acidic conditions. (S)- and (R)-propranolol as pure enantiomers and (S)-levofloxacin were separated, isolated and characterized. Optimized lowest-energy structures of the diastereomers were developed using Gaussian 09 Rev. A.02 program and hybrid density functional B3LYP with 6-31G* basis set (based on density functional theory) for explanation of elution order and configuration. In addition, RP HPLC conditions for separation of diastereomers were optimized with respect to pH, concentration of buffer, flow rate of mobile phase and nature of organic modifier. HPLC separation method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. With the systematic application of various analytical techniques, absolute configuration of the diastereomers (and the native enantiomers) of (RS)-propranolol was established. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chiral Separation of Spiro-compounds and Determination Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ya; GUO Jing-jing; LIU Xiu-ming; WEI Rong-bao

    2008-01-01

    Chiral spirocyclic compounds have attracted the attention of scholars and scientists owing to their potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry as either active pharmaceutical ingredients,catalysts in synthesizing active enantiomers,or as surface modifiers on silica particles to resolve entantiomers,In this study,five spiro compounds of 3,9-diphenyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane(1),3,9-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane(2),3,9-(4-methylphenyl)-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane(3),4,4'-(2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]undecane-3,9-diyl)dibenzoie acid(4) and 3,9-di(4-formyl-phenyl)-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-spiro[5.5]-undecane(5) were synthesized by grinding pentaerythritol with benzaldehyde,4-methoxybenzaldehyde,4-methylbenzaldehyde,4-carboxybenzaldehyde or terephthalaldehyde monoacetal in the presence of InBr3 under solvent-free conditions,A normal phase HPLC method was successfully developed to resolve entantiomers of compounds 1-5 on a chiral column,Specific optical rotation of R or S entantiomers(1) was determined and the corresponding configurations were proposed based on Lowe's rule.

  11. Absolute determination of radiation bursts and of proportional counters space charge effect through the influence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, I. J.; Mayer, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    When proportional counters are employed in charge integration mode to determine the magnitude of a radiation pulse, so intense that individual detection events take place in a time too short to produce individual output pulses, mostly in pulsed neutron sources, the strong build-up of positive space charge reduces the electric multiplication factor of the proportional detector. Under such conditions the ensuing measurement underestimates the amount of radiation that interacted with the detector. If the geometric characteristics, the filling gas pressure and the voltage applied to that detector are known, it becomes possible to apply an analytical correction method to the measurement. In this article we present a method that allows to determine the absolute value of the detected radiation burst without the need to know the characteristics of the employed detectors. It is necessary to employ more than one detector, taking advantage of the Influence Method. The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015 [1,2]). Its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016 [3]) and the extension for multiple detectors in (Rios and Mayer 2016 [4]).

  12. Qualitative Analysis of the Helical Electronic Energy of Inherently Chiral Calix[4]arenes: An Approach to Effectively Assign Their Absolute Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For all microhelices on aromatic rings of inherently chiral calix[4]arene, an expression was derived from one approximation and one hypothesis on the basis of the electron-on-a-helix model of Tinoco and Woody as follows: 1/E = μ (H − K Δα2 , where μ = 1 for the right-handed microhelix and μ = −1 for the left-handed microhelix; and H and K are constant and greater than zero. The expression correlates microhelical electronic energy (E with the atom polarizability difference (Δα on both microhelix ends, which intuitively and clearly shows the impact of helical substituent polarizability on helical electronic energy. The case analysis almost entirely proves that the qualitative analysis of the helical electronic energy of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes with the expression is scientific and can be used to effectively assign their absolute configuration

  13. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reported that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP-derived valine (DHP-valine adducts that upon reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC formed four DHP-valine-PITC adduct isomers. In this study, we report the absolute configuration and stability of DHP-valine and DHP-valine-PITC adducts, and the mechanism of interconversion between DHP-valine-PITC adducts.

  14. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 20β-Hydroxyprednisolone, a Biotransformed Product of Predinisolone by the Marine Endophytic Fungus Penicilium lapidosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory drug predinisolone (1 was reduced to 20β-hydroxyprednisolone (2 by the marine endophytic fungus Penicilium lapidosum isolated from an alga. The structural elucidation of 2 was achieved by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, IR data. Although, 2 is a known compound previously obtained through microbial transformation, the data provided failed to prove the C20 stereochemistry. To solve this issue, DFT and TD-DFT calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP/6–31+G (d,p level of theory in gas and solvent phase. The absolute configuration of C20 was eventually assigned by combining experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra and 3JHH chemical coupling constants.

  15. Carotenoids and related polyenes, part 12. First total synthesis and absolute configuration of 3'-deoxycapsanthin and 3,4-didehydroxy-3'-deoxycapsanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Yumiko; Chary, Mahankhali Venu; Wada, Akimori

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis of 3'-deoxycapsanthin (1) and 3,4-didehydroxy-3'-deoxycapsanthin (2), carotenoids of paprika, has been achieved by employing Lewis acid-promoted regio- and stereoselective rearrangement of the C(15)-epoxy dienal 5a. The absolute stereochemistry of the newly formed C-5 chiral center of rearrangement product 6a was determined to be (R) from its alternative synthesis derived from (+)-(R)-camphonanic acid (11).

  16. Time dependent corrections to absolute gravity determinations in the establishment of modern gravity control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykowski, Przemyslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of modern gravity control with the use of exclusively absolute method of gravity determination has significant advantages as compared to the one established mostly with relative gravity measurements (e.g. accuracy, time efficiency). The newly modernized gravity control in Poland consists of 28 fundamental stations (laboratory) and 168 base stations (PBOG14 - located in the field). Gravity at the fundamental stations was surveyed with the FG5-230 gravimeter of the Warsaw University of Technology, and at the base stations - with the A10-020 gravimeter of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. This work concerns absolute gravity determinations at the base stations. Although free of common relative measurement errors (e.g. instrumental drift) and effects of network adjustment, absolute gravity determinations for the establishment of gravity control require advanced corrections due to time dependent factors, i.e. tidal and ocean loading corrections, atmospheric corrections and hydrological corrections that were not taken into account when establishing the previous gravity control in Poland. Currently available services and software allow to determine high accuracy and high temporal resolution corrections for atmospheric (based on digital weather models, e.g. ECMWF) and hydrological (based on hydrological models, e.g. GLDAS/Noah) gravitational and loading effects. These corrections are mostly used for processing observations with Superconducting Gravimeters in the Global Geodynamics Project. For the area of Poland the atmospheric correction based on weather models can differ from standard atmospheric correction by even ±2 µGal. The hydrological model shows the annual variability of ±8 µGal. In addition the standard tidal correction may differ from the one obtained from the local tidal model (based on tidal observations). Such difference at Borowa Gora Observatory reaches the level of ±1.5 µGal. Overall the sum of atmospheric and

  17. Experimental determination of the absolute infrared absorption intensities of formyl radical HCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazantsev, Sergey V; Tyurin, Daniil A; Feldman, Vladimir I

    2017-12-05

    Formyl radical HCO is an important reactive intermediate in combustion, atmospheric and extraterrestrial chemistry. Like in the case of other transients, the lack of knowledge of the absolute IR intensities limits the quantitative spectroscopic studies on this species. We report the first experimental determination of the absorption intensities for the fundamental vibrational bands of HCO. The measurements have been performed using matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy. Determination of the values was based on the repeated photodissociation and thermal recovery of the HCO radical using the known value of the absorption coefficient of CO. The experimentally determined values (93.2±6.0, 67.2±4.5, and 109.2±6.6kmmol(-1) for the ν1, ν2, and ν3 modes, respectively) have been compared to the calculated IR intensities obtained by DFT and UCCSD(T) computations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of optimal period of absolute encoders with single track cyclic gray code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 朱衡君

    2008-01-01

    Low cost and miniaturized rotary encoders are important in automatic and precise production. Presented here is a code called Single Track Cyclic Gray Code (STCGC) that is an image etched on a single circular track of a rotary encoder disk read by a group of even spread reading heads to provide a unique codeword for every angular position and features such that every two adjacent words differ in exactly one component, thus avoiding coarse error. The existing construction or combination methods are helpful but not sufficient in determining the period of the STCGC of large word length and the theoretical approach needs further development to extend the word length. Three principles, such as the seed combination, short code removal and ergodicity examination were put forward that suffice determination of the optimal period for such absolute rotary encoders using STCGC with even spread heads. The optimal periods of STCGC in 3 through 29 bit length were determined and listed.

  19. Applied Circular Dichroism: A Facile Spectroscopic Tool for Configurational Assignment and Determination of Enantiopurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macduff O. Okuom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine if electronic circular dichroism (ECD is a good tool for the qualitative evaluation of absolute configuration and enantiopurity in the absence of chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ECD studies were performed on several prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs. Cotton effects (CE were observed for both S and R isomers between 200 and 300 nm. For the drugs examined in this study, the S isomers showed a negative CE, while the R isomers displayed a positive CE. The ECD spectra of both enantiomers were nearly mirror images, with the amplitude proportional to the enantiopurity. Plotting the differential extinction coefficient (Δε versus enantiopurity at the wavelength of maximum amplitude yielded linear standard curves with coefficients of determination (R2 greater than 97% for both isomers in all cases. As expected, Equate, Advil, and Motrin, each containing a racemic mixture of ibuprofen, yielded no chiroptical signal. ECD spectra of Suphedrine and Sudafed revealed that each of them is rich in 1S,2S-pseudoephedrine, while the analysis of Equate vapor inhaler is rich in R-methamphetamine.

  20. Determination of Absolute Plate Spacing for the Fabry-Perot Subassembly of the Thermosphere Imager for Global Observations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Task 1: rad test AD7746 component for failure dosage for use in GEO Task 2: Algorithm for determining absolute plate spacing of the TIGO Fabry-Perot plates,...

  1. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  2. Crystal structure and absolute configuration of (3aS,4S,5R,7aR-2,2,7-trimethyl-3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydro-1,3-benzodioxole-4,5-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Macías

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The absolute configuration of the title compound, C10H16O4, determined as 3aS,4S,5R,7aR on the basis of the synthetic pathway, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The molecule contains a five- and a six-membered ring that adopt twisted and envelope conformations, respectively. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the rings is 76.80 (11° as a result of their cis-fusion. In the crystal, molecules are linked by two pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are further connected by weaker C—H...O interactions along [100], creating (001 sheets that interact only by weak van der Waals forces.

  3. Assignment of the absolute configuration of (+)-diplopyrone, the main phytotoxin produced by Diplodia mutila, the pathogen of the cork oak decline, by a nonempirical analysis of its chiroptical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Egidio; Maddau, Lucia; Spanu, Emanuela; Evidente, Antonio; Rosini, Carlo

    2005-01-07

    The nonempirical assignment of the absolute configuration of (+)-diplopyrone, the main phytotoxin of Diplodia mutila, i.e., an endophytic fungus, widespread in Sardinian oak forests, and considered one of the main causes of cork oak decline, has been approached by two different methods: (a) the exciton analysis of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum and (b) the ab initio calculation of the optical rotatory power. Both methods indicate that (+)-diplopyrone is 6-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2,4a(S),6(R),8a(S)-tetrahydropyrano[3,2-b]pyran-2-one, so the stereostructure of this important biomolecule is safely determined for the first time. A comparison of advantages and limitations of the two methods of analysis is also presented.

  4. Accounting for Convective Blue-Shifts in the Determination of Absolute Stellar Radial Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, C Allende; Ramírez, I; Ludwig, H -G; Asplund, M

    2009-01-01

    For late-type non-active stars, gravitational redshifts and convective blueshifts are the main source of biases in the determination of radial velocities. If ignored, these effects can introduce systematic errors of the order of ~ 0.5 km/s. We demonstrate that three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of solar surface convection can be used to predict the convective blue-shifts of weak spectral lines in solar-like stars to ~ 0.070 km/s. Using accurate trigonometric parallaxes and stellar evolution models, the gravitational redshifts can be constrained with a similar uncertainty, leading to absolute radial velocities accurate to better than ~ 0.1 km/s.

  5. Determination of the absolute chirality of tellurium using resonant diffraction with circularly polarized x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Collins, S P; Lovesey, S W; Matsumami, M; Moriwaki, T; Shin, S

    2010-03-31

    Many proteins, sugars and pharmaceuticals crystallize into two forms that are mirror images of each other (enantiomers) like our right and left hands. Tellurium is one enantiomer having a space group pair, P3(1)21 (right-handed screw) and P3(2)21 (left-handed screw). X-ray diffraction with dispersion correction terms has been playing an important role in determining the handedness of enantiomers for a long time. However, this approach is not applicable for an elemental crystal such as tellurium or selenium. We have demonstrated that positive and negative circularly polarized x-rays at the resonant energy of tellurium can be used to absolutely distinguish right from left tellurium. This method is applicable to chiral motifs that occur in biomolecules, liquid crystals, ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics, multiferroics, etc.

  6. Absolute configuration of (+)-pinoresinol 4-O-[6''-O-galloyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, macarangiosides E, and F isolated from the leaves of Macaranga tanarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazunari; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Takeda, Yoshio

    2009-07-01

    A lignan glucoside, (+)-pinoresinol 4-O-[6''-O-galloyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and two megastigmane glucosides, named macarangiosides E and F (2,3), together with 15 known compounds (4-18) were isolated from leaves of Macaranga tanarius (L.) Müll.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. In addition, the absolute stereochemistry of macarangiosides B and C isolated previously from the same plant was also determined for the first time. Compounds 1 and 2 were galloylated on glucose and possessed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity.

  7. Accurate determination of the absolute phase and temporal-pulse phase of few-cycle laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Ke-Yu; Gong Shang-Qing; Niu Yue-Ping; Li Ru-Xin; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2007-01-01

    A Fourier analysis method is used to accurately determine not only the absolute phase but also the temporalpulse phase of an isolated few-cycle (chirped) laser pulse. This method is independent of the pulse shape and can fully characterize the light wave even though only a few samples per optical cycle are available. It paves the way for investigating the absolute phase-dependent extreme nonlinear optics, and the evolutions of the absolute phase and the temporal-pulse phase of few-cycle laser pulses.

  8. Iminolactones as tools for inversion of the absolute configuration of α-amino acids and as inhibitors of cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christina Mernøe; Chow, Hsiao-Qing; Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Frydenvang, Karla; Liu, Huizhen; Franzyk, Henrik; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2016-05-23

    A library of iminolactones was prepared by esterification of several 2-hydroxyketones with a number of N-protected d- and l-α-amino acids. Some of the hydroxyketones were of terpenoid origin while others were obtained via synthesis. After N-deprotection of the intermediate esters, the free amines spontaneously underwent condensation with the ketone to form iminolactones. Esters of (1S,2S,5S)-2-hydroxypinan-3-one with both d- and l-α-amino acids were partially epimerized at the α-carbon atom to give a diastereomeric ester mixture. Only iminolactones of l-amino acids were formed after cyclization of (1S,2S,5S)-2-hydroxypinan-3-one, and correspondingly only d-amino acid iminolactones were formed after reaction with (1R,2R,5R)-2-hydroxypinan-3-one. The protocol thus enables inversion of the absolute configuration of amino acids. Some members of the prepared library of iminolactones displayed significant anti-proliferative effects toward three cancer cell lines (EL4, MCF7, PC3) with insignificant effect on non-malign cell lines (McCoy, MCF10A, NIH3T3). Thus, iminolactones appear to be potential lead structures for preparation of drugs selectively affecting proliferation of malign cell lines.

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Absolute Configuration and Antitumor Activity of the Enantiomers of 5-Bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethylpyridine-3-sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixu Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyridinesulfonamide is an important fragment which has a wide range of applications in novel drugs. R- and S-isomers of 5-bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethylpyridine-3-sulfonamide have been synthesized, and the stereostructures have been researched. Single crystals of both compounds were obtained for X-ray analysis, and the absolute configurations (ACs have been further confirmed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD, optical rotation (OR and quantum chemical calculations. The crystal structures and calculated geometries were extremely similar, which permitted a comparison of the relative reliabilities of ACs obtained by ECD analyses and theoretical simulation. In addition, the effect of stereochemistry on the PI3Kα kinase and anticancer activity were investigated. Compounds 10a and 10b inhibit the activity of PI3Kα kinase with IC50 values of 1.08 and 2.69 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding modes of R- and S-isomers.

  10. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  11. Synthesis and absolute configuration of a new 3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline-type alkaloid, 3,4-dehydro-5(S)-5-carboxystrictosidine, isolated from Peruvian Uña de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Mariko; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Aimi, Norio

    2002-10-01

    The structure including the absolute configuration of a new glucoalkaloid, 3,4-dehydro-5(S)-5-carboxystrictosidine, isolated from Peruvian Uña de Gato (Cat's Claw, original plant: Uncaria tomentosa), was confirmed by synthesis starting from secologanin and L-tryptophan.

  12. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    CERN Document Server

    Almenara, J M; Bonfils, X; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  13. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  14. The high-precision videometrics methods to determining absolute vertical benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    The mobile measurement equipment plays an important role in engineering measurement tasks and its measuring device is fixed with the vehicle platform. Therefore, how to correct the measured error in time that caused by swayed platform is a basic problem. Videometrics has its inherent advantages in solving this problem. First of all, videometrics technology is non-contact measurement, which has no effect on the target's structural characteristics and motion characteristics. Secondly, videometrics technology has high precision especially for surface targets and linear targets in the field of view. Thirdly, videometrics technology has the advantages of automatic, real-time and dynamic. This paper is mainly for mobile theodolite.etc that works under the environment of absolute vertical benchmark and proposed two high-precision methods to determine vertical benchmark: Direct-Extracting, which is based on the intersection of plats under the help of two cameras; Benchmark-Transformation, which gets the vertical benchmark by reconstructing the level-plat. Two methods both have the precision of under 10 seconds by digital simulation and physical experiments. The methods proposed by this paper have significance both on the theory and application.

  15. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-lundurine B and determination of its absolute stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masaya; Arai, Shigeru; Nishida, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    A total synthesis of the Kopsia tenuis alkaloid (-)-lundurine B has been achieved. A quaternary chiral carbon has been created by an asymmetric deprotonation using a symmetric spiro cyclohexanone intermediate with a chiral lithium amide. The hexacyclic skeleton was sequentially constructed through metal-mediated reactions. The absolute stereochemistry of intermediate 5 has been unambiguously established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. This is the first description of the absolute stereochemistry of Kopsia tenuis alkaloids based on chemical synthesis.

  16. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  17. Determination of the absolute binding free energies of HIV-1 protease inhibitors using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Son Tung; Nguyen, Minh Tung; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2017-05-01

    The absolute binding free energy of an inhibitor to HIV-1 Protease (PR) was determined throughout evaluation of the non-bonded interaction energy difference between the two bound and unbound states of the inhibitor and surrounding molecules by the fast pulling of ligand (FPL) process using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. The calculated free energy difference terms help clarifying the nature of the binding. Theoretical binding affinities are in good correlation with experimental data, with R = 0.89. The paradigm used is able to rank two inhibitors having the maximum difference of ∼1.5 kcal/mol in absolute binding free energies.

  18. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron tempe

  19. Baseline configuration for GNSS attitude determination with an analytical least-squares solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Guobin; Xu, Tianhe; Wang, Qianxin

    2016-12-01

    The GNSS attitude determination using carrier phase measurements with 4 antennas is studied on condition that the integer ambiguities have been resolved. The solution to the nonlinear least-squares is often obtained iteratively, however an analytical solution can exist for specific baseline configurations. The main aim of this work is to design this class of configurations. Both single and double difference measurements are treated which refer to the dedicated and non-dedicated receivers respectively. More realistic error models are employed in which the correlations between different measurements are given full consideration. The desired configurations are worked out. The configurations are rotation and scale equivariant and can be applied to both the dedicated and non-dedicated receivers. For these configurations, the analytical and optimal solution for the attitude is also given together with its error variance-covariance matrix.

  20. Using star tracks to determine the absolute pointing of the Fluorescence Detector telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Donato, Cinzia; Sanchez, Federico; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; Santander, Marcos; Natl.Tech.U., San Rafael; Camin, Daniel; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; Garcia, Beatriz; /Natl.; Grassi, Valerio; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2005-05-01

    To accurately reconstruct a shower axis from the Fluorescence Detector data it is essential to establish with high precision the absolute pointing of the telescopes. To d that they calculate the absolute pointing of a telescope using sky background data acquired during regular data taking periods. The method is based on the knowledge of bright star's coordinates that provide a reliable and stable coordinate system. it can be used to check the absolute telescope's pointing and its long-term stability during the whole life of the project, estimated in 20 years. They have analyzed background data taken from January to October 2004 to determine the absolute pointing of the 12 telescopes installed both in Los Leones and Coihueco. The method is based on the determination of the mean-time of the variance signal left by a star traversing a PMT's photocathode which is compared with the mean-time obtained by simulating the track of that star on the same pixel.

  1. Determination of collagen fibril size via absolute measurements of second-harmonic generation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Aimé, Carole; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2014-09-01

    The quantification of collagen fibril size is a major issue for the investigation of pathological disorders associated with structural defects of the extracellular matrix. Second-harmonic generation microscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the macromolecular organization of collagen in unstained biological tissues. Nevertheless, due to the complex coherent building of this nonlinear optical signal, it has never been used to measure fibril diameter so far. Here we report absolute measurements of second-harmonic signals from isolated fibrils down to 30 nm diameter, via implementation of correlative second-harmonic-electron microscopy. Moreover, using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the high sensitivity of this technique originates from the parallel alignment of collagen triple helices within fibrils and the subsequent constructive interferences of second-harmonic radiations. Finally, we use these absolute measurements as a calibration for ex vivo quantification of fibril diameter in the Descemet’s membrane of a diabetic rat cornea.

  2. A methodology for determining radiation form factors applied to particular plane-sphere configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Armando Durán Peralta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The form factor must be calculated when designing ovens and mechanisms heating or cooling systems by radiation, leading to determining heat transfer by radiation between surfaces which are at different temperatures. Heat transfer texts generally deduce and show the equation for obtaining the form factor between two surfaces which exchange heat by radiation for very simple configurations, but do not show how slightly more complex geometries and configurations are calculated. Many students who have studied heat transfer have the impression that form factors are calculated without any difficulty. Other students ask why the texts do not show how to calculate the form factor for slightly more complex configurations or for those which are more real. This document tries to answer these disquietudes as well as presenting a calculation strategy for purely pedagogical ends which can be applied to more complex configurations.

  3. A Method for Absolute Determination of the Surface Areal Density of Functional Groups in Organic Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyegeun; Son, Jin Gyeong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To develop a methodology for absolute determination of the surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectroscopy was utilized to provide references for calibration of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) intensities. By using the MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR techniques, we were able to analyze the organic thin film of a Ru dye compound (C{sub 58}H{sub 86}O{sub 8}N{sub 8}S{sub 2}Ru), which consists of one Ru atom and various stoichiometric functional groups. From the MEIS analysis, the absolute surface areal density of Ru atoms (or Ru dye molecules) was determined. The surface areal densities of stoichiometric functional groups in the Ru dye compound were used as references for the calibration of XPS and FT-IR intensities for each functional group. The complementary use of MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR to determine the absolute surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films will be useful for more reliable development of applications based on organic thin films in areas such as flexible displays, solar cells, organic sensors, biomaterials, and biochips.

  4. Optical parameters Determination for absolute luminosity and total cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalier, Sophie

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims at measuring the absolute luminosity for the ATLAS experiment with an incertitude down to 2-3 \\% and the total elastic cross section. The luminosity is related to the number of events, the highest the luminosity, the highest the number of events. This is, then, an important quantity for colliders like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). LHC is made of two beams circulating in two different beam pipes and colliding at four interaction points where the four physics experiments are located (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb). ALFA detectors inserted into Roman Pots (RPs), have been placed around ATLAS at 240 m distance from the collision point (IP1) after six quadrupoles magnets and two dipoles defining the ALFA beam line which is part of the LHC ring.The detectors are made of scintillating optics fibers to catch elastic protons generated at IP1. These protons are tracked through the LHC magnets beam line which needs to be optimized in terms of optics parameters. We call high β optics, ...

  5. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band.

  6. Absolute masses and radii determination in multiplanetary systems without stellar models

    CERN Document Server

    Almenara, J M; Mardling, R; Barros, S C C; Damiani, C; Bruno, G; Bonfils, X; Deleuil, M

    2015-01-01

    The masses and radii of extrasolar planets are key observables for understanding their interior, formation and evolution. While transit photometry and Doppler spectroscopy are used to measure the radii and masses respectively of planets relative to those of their host star, estimates for the true values of these quantities rely on theoretical models of the host star which are known to suffer from systematic differences with observations. When a system is composed of more than two bodies, extra information is contained in the transit photometry and radial velocity data. Velocity information (finite speed-of-light, Doppler) is needed to break the Newtonian $MR^{-3}$ degeneracy. We performed a photodynamical modelling of the two-planet transiting system Kepler-117 using all photometric and spectroscopic data available. We demonstrate how absolute masses and radii of single-star planetary systems can be obtained without resorting to stellar models. Limited by the precision of available radial velocities (38 $ms^{...

  7. Total Syntheses of (+)-Grandilodine C and (+)-Lapidilectine B and Determination of their Absolute Stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masaya; Arai, Shigeru; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Enantioselective total syntheses of the Kopsia alkaloids (+)-grandilodine C and (+)-lapidilectine B were accomplished. A key intermediate, spirodiketone, was synthesized in 3 steps and converted into the chiral enone by enantioselective deprotonation followed by oxidation with up to 76 % ee. Lactone formation was achieved through stereoselective vinylation followed by allylation and ozonolysis. The total synthesis of (+)-grandilodine C was achieved by palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination and ring-closing metathesis to give 8- and 5-membered heterocycles, respectively. Selective reduction of a lactam carbonyl gave (+)-lapidilectine B. The absolute stereochemistry of both natural products was thereby confirmed. These syntheses enable the scalable preparation of the above alkaloids for biological studies.

  8. Absolute Determination of Optical Constants by a Direct Physical Modeling of Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, H; Toth, J; Tokesi, K; Ding, Z J

    2016-01-01

    We present an absolute extraction method of optical constants of metal from the measured reflection electron energy loss (REELS) spectra by using the recently developed reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The method is based on a direct physical modeling of electron elastic and electron inelastic scattering near the surface region where the surface excitation becomes important to fully describe the spectrum loss feature intensity in relative to the elastic peak intensity. An optimization procedure of oscillator parameters appeared in the energy loss function (ELF) for describing electron inelastic scattering due to the bulk- and surface-excitations was performed with the simulated annealing method by a successive comparison between the measured and Monte Carlo simulated REELS spectra. The ELF and corresponding optical constants of Fe were obtained from the REELS spectra measured at incident energies of 1000, 2000 and 3000 eV. The validity of the present optical data has been verified with the f- and ps-sum r...

  9. Absolute determination of the gelling point of gelatin under quasi-thermodynamic equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Franco; Alberini, Ivana; Ferreyra, María G; Rintoul, Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic studies on phase transformation of biopolymers in solution are useful to understand their nature and to evaluate their technological potentials. Thermodynamic studies should be conducted avoiding time-related phenomena. This condition is not easily achieved in hydrophilic biopolymers. In this contribution, the simultaneous effects of pH, salt concentration, and cooling rate (Cr) on the folding from random coil to triple helical collagen-like structures of gelatin were systematically studied. The phase transformation temperature at the absolute invariant condition of Cr = 0 °C/min (T(T)Cr=0) ) is introduced as a conceptual parameter to study phase transformations in biopolymers under quasi-thermodynamic equilibrium and avoiding interferences coming from time-related phenomena. Experimental phase diagrams obtained at different Cr are presented. The T(T)(Cr=0) compared with pH and TT(Cr=0) compared with [NaCl] diagram allowed to explore the transformation process at Cr = 0 °C/min. The results were explained by electrostatic interactions between the biopolymers and its solvation milieu.

  10. Luminosity measurement method for the LHC: Event selection and absolute luminosity determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasny, M.W., E-mail: krasny@lpnhep.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, Pierre and Marie Curie University, CNRS-IN2P3, Tour 33, RdC, 4, pl. Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Chwastowski, J. [Institute of Teleinformatics, Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Kraków (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Cyz, A.; Słowikowski, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2013-11-21

    In our earlier papers Krasny et al. [1,2] have proposed a new luminosity measurement method which uses lepton pairs produced in peripheral collisions of the LHC beam particles, and identified the requirements for a new, specialized luminosity detector which is indispensable for their efficient on-line selection. In this paper we use the base-line detector model, with no precise timing capabilities, to evaluate the statistical and systematic accuracy of the method. We propose the complete event selection procedure and demonstrate that it allows to collect a sufficiently large sample of e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs to achieve a better than 1% statistical accuracy of the luminosity measurement over less than one-month-long running time intervals. We argue that the absolute luminosity measurement systematic errors can be kept below 1%. The proposed method can be directly applied to the LHC running periods for which the machine instantaneous luminosity does not exceed the L=10{sup 33}s{sup −1}cm{sup −2} value. Two ways extending the method to the large pile-up periods corresponding to higher instantaneous luminosities are proposed.

  11. A Determination Method of the Restoration Configuration Considering Many Connections of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Sugaya, Shuhei

    In the field of electrical power system, various approaches, such as utilization of renewable energy, loss reduction, and so on, have been taken to reduce CO2 emission. So as to work toward this goal, the total number of distributed generators (DGs) using renewable energy connected into 6.6kV distribution system has been increasing rapidly. However, when a fault occurs such as distribution line faults and bank faults, DGs connecting outage sections are disconnected simultaneously. Since the output of DGs influences feeder current and node voltage of distribution system, it is necessary to determine the optimal system configuration considering simultaneous disconnection and reconnection of DGs. In this paper, the authors propose a computation method to determine the optimal restoration configuration considering many connections of DGs. The feature of determined restoration configurations is prevention of the violation of operational constraints by disconnection and reconnection of DGs. Numerical simulations are carried out for a real scale distribution system model with 4 distribution substations, 72 distribution feeders, 252 sectionalizing switches (configuration candidates are 2252) and 23.2MW DGs (which is 14% of total load) in order to examine the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Correlation as a determinant of configurational entropy in supramolecular and protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenley, Andrew T; Killian, Benjamin J; Hnizdo, Vladimir; Fedorowicz, Adam; Sharp, Dan S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-06-19

    For biomolecules in solution, changes in configurational entropy are thought to contribute substantially to the free energies of processes like binding and conformational change. In principle, the configurational entropy can be strongly affected by pairwise and higher-order correlations among conformational degrees of freedom. However, the literature offers mixed perspectives regarding the contributions that changes in correlations make to changes in configurational entropy for such processes. Here we take advantage of powerful techniques for simulation and entropy analysis to carry out rigorous in silico studies of correlation in binding and conformational changes. In particular, we apply information-theoretic expansions of the configurational entropy to well-sampled molecular dynamics simulations of a model host-guest system and the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The results bear on the interpretation of NMR data, as they indicate that changes in correlation are important determinants of entropy changes for biologically relevant processes and that changes in correlation may either balance or reinforce changes in first-order entropy. The results also highlight the importance of main-chain torsions as contributors to changes in protein configurational entropy. As simulation techniques grow in power, the mathematical techniques used here will offer new opportunities to answer challenging questions about complex molecular systems.

  13. Direct determination of absolute configuration: a vibrational circular dichroism study on dimethyl-substituted phenyloxiranes synthesized by Shi epoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Lassen, Peter Rygaard; Tanner, David Ackland;

    2008-01-01

    The three possible dimethylsubstituted phenyloxiranes (cis, trans and geminal) were synthesized in both racemic (mCPBA) and enantiomerically enriched forms (Shi epoxidation) and subjected to a vibrational circular dichroism study. The experimental spectra were compared to theoretical spectra obta...

  14. Determination of the Stable Slope Configuration of Oval-Shaped Furrow Pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Nai-long; ZHANG Shi-xiong

    2004-01-01

    The space effects of oval-shaped furrow pit slopes were analyzed by the elastic mechanics principle. The interaction of limit equilibrium slope angle, friction coefficient, cohesion and horizontal radius of oval-shaped furrow pits has been derived. The oval trumpet-like rock mass is homogeneous and elastic while only loadedby its dead weight. The interaction indicates that the deeper an oval-shaped furrow pit is excavated, the greater thelimit equilibrium slope angle. Both the theory base for reducing stripping waste rock in an oval- shaped furrow pitand the basic way to determine the configuration of a stable slope were developed from the mentioned interaction.The theory includes the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes. Compared with the configuration deter-mined by traditional theory of slope stability, a great quantity of stripping waste rock can be reduced by that deter-mined in this paper under stable conditions.

  15. Atom-chip-based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Sven; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity with a quantum gravimeter based on an atom chip. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal [1]. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates [2], as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties that will allow to overcome the current limitations in the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technology offers the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We present a lab-based prototype that uses the atom chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serves as inertial reference inside the vacuum [3]. With this setup, it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal. All steps are pursued on a baseline of 1 cm right below the atom chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will target for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz [4]. The device will be characterized in cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor and finally employed in a campaign to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the

  16. A simple method for the absolute determination of uranium enrichment by high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korob, R.O. [Unidad de Actividad Radioquimica y Quimica de las Radiaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15 Partido de Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: korob@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Blasiyh Nuno, G.A. [Unidad de Actividad Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15 Partido de Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    A simple method for the determination of uranium enrichment using high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry is presented in this paper. The method relies solely on the {gamma}-ray emission probabilities of {sup 235}U and {sup 234m}Pa, and an iterative procedure for the least squares fit of a polynomial to a set of experimentally determined data. To ensure the reliability of the {sup 234m}Pa {gamma}-ray emission probabilities employed, a new determination of these probabilities was carried out using a combination of {gamma} spectrometry and Cerenkov counting of a purified {sup 234}Th solution. Using these new data, a maximum difference of {approx}5% has been found between the experimental and declared uranium enrichment in a set of solid and liquid samples containing uranium compounds.

  17. An Absolute Method for Determination of Thermal Conductivities of Thermal Insulators by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenXuelin

    1996-01-01

    Microcalorimetry was developed to determine thermal conductivities(λ)of thermal insulators with hollow cylindrical shapes,A special device of speciment with resistance threads wrapped on its surface and electric heater placed in its hole was designed to meet the needs of determining λwithout using standard substances to calibrate the instrument.A formula for calculating the value of λwas derived.By heating in the hole and on the surface of the specimen respectively,the values of λ can be obtained conveniently by this technique.The method was tested with teflon,plexiglass,quartz glass and p[olyethylene.The experimental values of λfor the four substances agree well with the literatures ones.Error analysis was also made on the experimental data.It was founr that the main factors affecting values of λare:(1) The errore of determining the values of heat cumulated in specimen and materials in the space around it and (2) the errore of determining the values of inner and outer radii of cylindrical specimen.λ

  18. Determining the Clinical Utility of an Absolute Procalcitonin Value for Predicting a Positive Culture Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarini, Erica M; DeMott, Joshua; Patel, Gourang; Lat, Ishaq

    2017-05-01

    Various procalcitonin ranges have been established to guide antimicrobial therapy; however, there are no data that establish whether the initial procalcitonin value can determine the likelihood of a positive culture result. This study aimed to establish if the initial procalcitonin value, on clinical presentation, has a positive predictive value for any positive culture result. This was a retrospective study of 813 medical intensive care unit patients. Data collected included patient demographics, procalcitonin assay results, sources of infection, culture results, and lengths of stay. Patients were excluded if they were immunocompromised. The primary outcome of this study was to determine a procalcitonin value that would predict any positive culture. Secondary outcomes included the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for procalcitonin. After exclusions, a total of 519 patient charts were reviewed to determine the impact of the initial procalcitonin value on culture positivity. In our analyses, the receiver operating characteristic values were 0.62 for all cultures, 0.49 for pulmonary infections, 0.43 for urinary tract infections, and 0.78 for bacteremia. A procalcitonin value of 3.61 ng/ml was determined to be the threshold value for a positive blood culture result (prevalence, 4%). For bacteremia, the sensitivity of procalcitonin was 75%, the specificity was 72%, the positive predictive value was 20%, and the negative predictive value was 97%. Procalcitonin was a poor predictor of culture positivity. An initial procalcitonin value of less than 3.61 ng/ml may be useful in predicting whether bacteremia is absent. Procalcitonin should not be used as the only predictor for determining initiation of antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. An absolute determination of the 14O ( β+) Fermi decay Q-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. E.; Naylor, H.; Barker, P. H.; Lovelock, D. M. J.; Smythe, R. M.

    1981-10-01

    The threshold energy for the reaction 14N(p, n) 14O has been determined to be 6353.02±0.08keV, yielding a corresponding energy release of 1808.25±0.10keV for the superallowed 14O decay. Using recent half-life values an ƒ Rt- value of 3084.4±1.1 s. is obtained for this decay.

  20. Determination of buckling in the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor in cylindrical configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini; Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Aredes, Vitor Ottoni; Silva, Alexandre F. Povoa da; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos; Mura, Luis Felipe L.; Jerez, Rogerio, E-mail: rtpurgato@ipen.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the key parameters in reactor physics is the buckling of a reactor core. It is related to important parameters such as reaction rates, nuclear power operation, fuel burning, among others. In a critical reactor, the buckling depends on the geometric and material characteristics of the reactor core. This paper presents the results of experimental buckling in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts, it is a versatile nuclear facility which allows the simulation of all the characteristics of a large nuclear power reactor and ideal for this type of measurement. We conducted a mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor and thereby determined the total buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for an hour. Then, the activation of the fuel rods was measured by gamma spectrometry on a rod scanner HPGe detector. We analyzed the gamma photons of the {sup 239}Np (276,6 keV) for neutron capture and the {sup 143}Ce (293,3 keV) for fission on both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U, respectively. We analyzed the axial and radial directions. Other measurements were performed using wires and gold foils in the radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The results showed that the cylindrical configuration compared to standard rectangular configuration of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor has a higher neutron economy, since in this configuration there is less leakage of neutrons. The Buckling Total obtained from the three methods was 95.84 ± 2.67 m{sup -2}. (author)

  1. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-03-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is "ideal". Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This study

  2. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  3. Absolute neutrino mass update

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.

  4. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  5. Determination of the absolute jet energy scale in the DOe calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G.A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M.M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Signore, K. Del; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Loreto, G. Di; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L.V.; Dugad, S.R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D. E-mail: daniel@fnal.gov; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A.N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T.L.; II, R.J. Genik; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P.I.; GonzalezSolis, J.L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N.J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K.S.; Hall, R.E.; Hanlet, P. [and others

    1999-03-21

    The DOe detector is used to study pp-bar collisions at the 1800 and 630 GeV center-of-mass energies available at the Fermilab Tevatron. To measure jets, the detector uses a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. Understanding the jet energy calibration is not only crucial for precision tests of QCD, but also for the measurement of particle masses and the determination of physics backgrounds associated with new phenomena. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets observed with the DOe detector at the two pp-bar center-of-mass energies in the transverse energy and pseudorapidity range E{sub T}>8 GeV and vertical bar {eta} vertical bar <3.

  6. Determination of the absolute jet energy scale in the DØ calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; , R. J. Genik, II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; GonzálezSolís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L. T.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V. D.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1999-03-01

    The DØ detector is used to study pp¯ collisions at the 1800 and 630 GeV center-of-mass energies available at the Fermilab Tevatron. To measure jets, the detector uses a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. Understanding the jet energy calibration is not only crucial for precision tests of QCD, but also for the measurement of particle masses and the determination of physics backgrounds associated with new phenomena. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets observed with the DØ detector at the two pp¯ center-of-mass energies in the transverse energy and pseudorapidity range ET>8 GeV and | η|<3.

  7. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  8. A novel setup for the determination of absolute cross sections for low-energy electron induced strand breaks in oligonucleotides - The effect of the radiosensitizer 5-fluorouracil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackwitz, Jenny; Ranković, Miloš Lj.; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.; Bald, Ilko

    2017-02-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in DNA radiation damage. Here we present a method to quantify LEE induced strand breakage in well-defined oligonucleotide single strands in terms of absolute cross sections. An LEE irradiation setup covering electron energies Measurements are presented for 10.0 and 5.5 eV for different oligonucleotide targets. The determination of absolute strand break cross sections is performed by atomic force microscopy analysis. An accurate fluence determination ensures small margins of error of the determined absolute single strand break cross sections σ SSB . In this way, the influence of sequence modification with the radiosensitive 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is studied using an absolute and relative data analysis. We demonstrate an increase in the strand break yields of 5FU containing oligonucleotides by a factor of 1.5 to 1.6 compared with non-modified oligonucleotide sequences when irradiated with 10 eV electrons.

  9. Comparison of available measurements of the absolute air-fluorescence yield and determination of its global average value

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results of the absolute air-fluorescence yield are given very often in different units (photons/MeV or photons/m) and for different wavelength intervals. In this work we present a comparison of available results normalized to its value in photons/MeV for the 337 nm band at 1013 hPa and 293 K. The conversion of photons/m to photons/MeV requires an accurate determination of the energy deposited by the electrons in the field of view of the experimental set-up. We have calculated the energy deposition for each experiment by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation and the results have been compared with those assumed or calculated by the authors. As a result, corrections to the reported fluorescence yields are proposed. These corrections improve the compatibility between measurements in such a way that a reliable average value with uncertainty at the level of 5% is obtained.

  10. Absolute rate constant determinations for the deactivation of O/1D/ by time resolved decay of O/1D/ yields O/3P/ emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. A.; Sadowski, C. M.; Schiff, H. I.; Howard, C. J.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Jennings, D. A.; Streit, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the deactivation of O(1D) atoms by some atmospheric gases have been determined by observing the time-resolved emission of O(1D) at 630 nm. O(1D) atoms were produced by the dissociation of ozone via repetitive laser pulses at 266 nm. Absolute rate constants for the relaxation of O(1D) at 298 K are reported for N2, O2, CO2, O3, H2, D2, CH4, HCl, NH3, H2O, N2O, and Ne. The results obtained are compared with previous relative and absolute measurements reported in the literature.

  11. Determination of Coordination Configuration of Rare Earth Ionswith Aminoacids in Solutions with Cooperative Vibronic Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The use of cooperative vibronic spectroscopy to measure coordination numbers of the ligands surrounding rare earth ions in solutions was proposed and demonstrated. It is shown that the time-resolved cooperative vibronic spectroscopy is a very useful technique for the determination of the ligand type and ligand number for different coordination groups. Coordination configuration of arginine with Tb3+ in solutions with different pH values was studied. It demonstrates that the carboxyl of arginine can replace H2O to coordinate with Tb3+ and the coordination number of carboxyl increases with the increase of pH value of the solutions.

  12. Study on determination of the stable slope configuration for deep open pit mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-long ZHU; Shi-xiong ZHANG; Shu-yu YUE

    2008-01-01

    The space effects of deep pit slope are analyzed by an elastic mechanics principle.The interaction among the critical slide angle,the friction coefficient,the cohesion,and the horizontal radius of the deep pits is derived in this paper.It indicates that the deeper the pit is excavated,the greater the critical slide angle is.Both the theory for reducing stripping waste rock in deep pit and the approach to determining the configuration of the stable slope are developed from the interaction.The theory in this paper comprises the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes and is suitable for analyzing that of deep pit.

  13. The spatial relations between stimulus and response determine an absolute visuo-haptic calibration in pantomime-grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Pantomime-grasps entail a response to an area adjacent to (i.e., spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp), or previously occupied by (i.e., no-target pantomime-grasp) a target. Previous work has reported that pantomime-grasps differ kinematically from naturalistic grasps (i.e., grasping a physical target object) - a result taken to evince that pantomime-grasps are perception-based and mediated via relative visual information. However, such actions differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former precludes haptic feedback related to a target's absolute size. The current study provides four experiments examining whether experimenter-induced haptic feedback influences the information mediating spatially dissociated and no-target pantomime-grasps. Just-noticeable-difference scores were computed to determine whether grasps adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical properties of Weber's law. Spatially dissociated pantomime-grasps performed with haptic feedback adhered to Weber's law (Experiments 1-3), whereas their no-target pantomime-grasp counterparts violated the law (Experiment 4). Accordingly, we propose that the top-down demands of decoupling stimulus-response relations in spatially dissociated pantomime-grasping renders aperture shaping via a visual percept that is not directly influenced by the integration of haptic feedback. In turn, the decreased top-down demands of no-target pantomime-grasps allows haptic feedback to serve as a reliable sensory resource supporting an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Absolute parameter determination in low-mass eclipsing binaries - Radiative parameters for BH Vir, ZZ UMA and CR CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R.; Reglero, V.; Garcia, M.; Fabregat, J.; Bravo, A.; Suso, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new uvby and H-beta monitoring program of low mass eclipsing binaries is currently being carried out in the framework of a 5-yr observational program which also involves radial velocity determinations. The scope of this work is to provide very accurate absolute astrophysical parameters: mass, radius, and effective temperatures, for main-sequence late-type stars. One of the main goals is to improve the mass-luminosity relation in the low and intermediate mass range. A second objective is to perform accurate tests of the most recent grids of evolutionary models. This program is complementary to that currently being implemented by the Copenhagen group. In this contribution we present the photometric preliminary results obtained for three of the systems included in our long-term survey: BH Vir, ZZ UMa, and CR Cas for which primary eclipses have been observed. Particular attention is paid to the determination of reddening, distances, and radiative properties. A more detailed study will be carried out when the light curves and radial velocity measurements are completed.

  15. Absolute geomagnetic intensity determinations on Formative potsherds (1400-700 BC) from the Oaxaca Valley, Southwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétronille, Marie; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Carvallo, Claire; Hueda-Tanabe, Yuki

    2012-11-01

    New Thellier-Coe archeointensity determinations have been measured on 15 potsherds from the Oaxaca Valley belonging to three of the four Formative Periods (Pre-Classical) of Mesoamerica, spanning 1400-700 BC. Seven of these are considered to be reliable and indicate a geomagnetic field strength of about 30 μT. This value is some 75% of the present geomagnetic field strength but is in agreement with the absolute intensities predicted from global models for this time and location, and consistent with coeval published determinations. These data thus provide significant evidence for the geomagnetic field strength in an area and for a time that was previously poorly constrained, thus providing an important contribution towards establishing a local master curve for the last 3500 yr. When established, such a curve would be a useful dating tool and also enable establishing for field strength correlations with climatic events and civilization evolutions in a region that is particularly strong in archeological and geological features. Such potential is examined for aridity events, although such observations can only be considered tentative at this stage.

  16. Configural frequency analysis as a method of determining patients' preferred decision-making roles in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeffert Sabine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies examined factors in promoting a patient preference for active participation in treatment decision making with only modest success. The purpose of this study was to identify types of patients wishing to participate in treatment decisions as well as those wishing to play a completely active or passive role based on a Germany-wide survey of dialysis patients; using a prediction typal analysis method that defines types as configurations of categories belonging to different attributes and takes particularly higher order interactions between variables into account. Methods After randomly splitting the original patient sample into two halves, an exploratory prediction configural frequency analysis (CFA was performed on one-half of the sample (n = 1969 and the identified types were considered as hypotheses for an inferential prediction CFA for the second half (n = 1914. 144 possible prediction types were tested by using five predictor variables and control preferences as criterion. An α-adjustment (0.05 for multiple testing was performed by the Holm procedure. Results 21 possible prediction types were identified as hypotheses in the exploratory prediction CFA; four patient types were confirmed in the confirmatory prediction CFA: patients preferring a passive role show low information seeking preference, above average trust in their physician, perceive their physician's participatory decision-making (PDM-style positive, have a lower educational level, and are 56-75 years old (Type 1; p 76 years old (Type 2; p p p Conclusions The method prediction configural frequency analysis was newly introduced to the research field of patient participation and could demonstrate how a particular control preference role is determined by an association of five variables.

  17. Determination of Spatial Configuration of an Underwater Swarm with Minimum Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro dell'Erba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the extension of work presented at the IARP Conference “Bio inspired robotics” held in Frascati (Italy, 14 May 2014. The subject is the localization problem of an underwater swarm of autonomous underwater robots (AUV, in the frame of the HARNESS project; by localization, we mean the relative swarm configuration, i.e., the geometrical shape of the group. The result is achieved by using the signals that the robots exchange. The swarm is organized by rules and conceived to perform tasks, ranging from environmental monitoring to terrorism-attack surveillance. Two methods of determining the shape of the swarm, both based on trilateration calculation, are proposed. The first method focuses on the robot's speed. In this case, we use our knowledge of the speeds and distances between the machines, while the second method considers only distances and the orientation angles of the robots. Unlike a trilateration problem, we do not know the position of the beacons and this renders the problem a difficult one. Moreover, we have very few data. More than one step of motion is needed to resolve the multiple solutions found, owing to the symmetries of the system and optimization process of one or more objective functions leading to the final configuration. We subsequently checked our algorithm using a simulator taking into account random errors affecting the measurements.

  18. Determination of Spatial Configuration of an Underwater Swarm with Minimum Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro dell'Erba

    2015-07-01

    Two methods of determining the shape of the swarm, both based on trilateration calculation, are proposed. The first method focuses on the robot's speed. In this case, we use our knowledge of the speeds and distances between the machines, while the second method considers only distances and the orientation angles of the robots. Unlike a trilateration problem, we do not know the position of the beacons and this renders the problem a difficult one. Moreover, we have very few data. More than one step of motion is needed to resolve the multiple solutions found, owing to the symmetries of the system and optimization process of one or more objective functions leading to the final configuration. We subsequently checked our algorithm using a simulator taking into account random errors affecting the measurements.

  19. Automatic twin vessel recrystallizer. Effective purification of acetaminophen by successive automatic recrystallization and absolute determination of purity by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Osamu

    2011-01-24

    I describe an interchangeable twin vessel (J, N) automatic glass recrystallizer that eliminates the time-consuming recovery and recycling of crystals for repeated recrystallization. The sample goes in the dissolution vessel J containing a magnetic stir-bar K; J is clamped to the upper joint H of recrystallizer body D. Empty crystallization vessel N is clamped to the lower joint M. Pure solvent is delivered to the dissolution vessel and the crystallization vessel via the head of the condenser A. Crystallization vessel is heated (P). The dissolution reservoir is stirred and heated by the solvent vapor (F). Continuous outflow of filtrate E out of J keeps N at a stable boiling temperature. This results in efficient dissolution, evaporation and separation of pure crystals Q. Pure solvent in the dissolution reservoir is recovered by suction. Empty dissolution and crystallization vessels are detached. Stirrer magnet is transferred to the crystallization vessel and the role of the vessels are then reversed. Evacuating mother liquor out of the upper twin vessel, the apparatus unit is ready for the next automatic recrystallization by refilling twin vessels with pure solvent. We show successive automatic recrystallization of acetaminophen from diethyl ether obtaining acetaminophen of higher melting temperatures than USP and JP reference standards by 8× automatic recrystallization, 96% yield at each stage. Also, I demonstrate a novel approach to the determination of absolute purity by combining the successive automatic recrystallization with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement requiring no reference standards. This involves the measurement of the criterial melting temperature T(0) corresponding to the 100% pure material and quantitative ΔT in DSC based on the van't Hoff law of melting point depression. The purity of six commercial acetaminophen samples and reference standards and an eight times recrystallized product evaluated were 98.8 mol%, 97.9 mol%, 99

  20. Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, K; Verhoeven; Verleye

    2009-01-01

    Absolute abundances (concentrations) of dinoflagellate cysts are often determined through the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing. An inter-laboratory calibration exercise was set up in order to test the comparability of results obt...

  1. Determination of absolute proper motion of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue for distances between 200 and 500 pc from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, R.; de Biasi, M. S.

    We present a kinematical study of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue position and proper motions up to magnitud V=16.0, for distances between 200 and 500 pc from the Sun. We determined absolute proper motions and membership of the following open clusters: NGC 752, IC 348, Collinder 132, Allesi 3 and Stephenson 1. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. A methodology to determine the optimum WRF-ARW configuration over Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Ignasi; Domingo-Dalmau, Anna; Picanyol, Miquel; Arasa, Raúl; Ángeles González-Serrano, M.°

    2016-04-01

    There is an inherent uncertainty in NWP modelling results. The objective of this study is to present a methodology to find the optimum Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) configuration which reduces this uncertainty. The project is located over a coastal region in Andalusia (South Spain). Different dynamical (diffusion and damping options) and physical (microphysics, long- and short-wave radiation, cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes) configurations have been tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the model. We have also studied the influence of different vertical levels distributions as well as the impact of different high resolution elevation (ASTER and SRTM) and land use (CLC2006 and CCI-LC) data inputs. Finally, we have realized experiments using 3-dimensional variation data assimilation. Each configuration has been modelled for four chosen months in 2014. Each month selected belongs to a different season. The best configuration has been selected using the results from a numerical deterministic validation (RMSE,MB,MAGE). The optimum configuration is the one which reduces the uncertainty in all the meteorological variables evaluated. The optimum configuration obtained has been validated using a two years period (2012 and 2013). We have done a numerical deterministic validation and also a categorical validation for the wind speed using the Beaufort scale as categories. A significant reduction in the model uncertainty is found comparing the results of the final configuration and the results of WRF default configuration.

  3. A novel method to determine the electron temperature and density from the absolute intensity of line and continuum emission: application to atmospheric microwave induced Ar plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanova, E.; Palomares, J. M.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2009-08-01

    An absolute intensity measurement (AIM) technique is presented that combines the absolute measurements of the line and the continuum emitted by strongly ionizing argon plasmas. AIM is an iterative combination of the absolute line intensity-collisional radiative model (ALI-CRM) and the absolute continuum intensity (ACI) method. The basis of ALI-CRM is that the excitation temperature T13 determined by the method of ALI is transformed into the electron temperature Te using a CRM. This gives Te as a weak function of electron density ne. The ACI method is based on the absolute value of the continuum radiation and determines the electron density in a way that depends on Te. The iterative combination gives ne and Te. As a case study the AIM method is applied to plasmas created by torche à injection axiale (TIA) at atmospheric pressure and fixed frequency at 2.45 GHz. The standard operating settings are a gas flow of 1 slm and a power of 800 W; the measurements have been performed at a position of 1 mm above the nozzle. With AIM we found an electron temperature of 1.2 eV and electron density values around 1021 m-3. There is not much dependence of these values on the plasma control parameters (power and gas flow). From the error analysis we can conclude that the determination of Te is within 7% and thus rather accurate but comparison with other studies shows strong deviations. The ne determination comes with an error of 40% but is in reasonable agreement with other experimental results.

  4. Determination of configuration matrix element and outer synchronization among networks with different topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ling; Liu, Shuo; Li, Gang; Zhao, Guannan; Gu, Jiajia; Tian, Jing; Wang, Zhouyang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we research the outer synchronization among discrete networks with different topologies. Based on Lyapunov theorem, a novel synchronization technique is designed. Further, the control inputs of the networks and the adaptive laws of configuration matrix element are obtained. In the end, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the synchronization technique. It is found that the designed control input of the networks ensures the convergence of the errors among the networks to zero. And the designed adaptive law of configuration matrix element can replace effectively configuration matrix element in networks.

  5. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  6. Configuration and racemization determination of cysteine residues in peptides by chiral derivatization and HPLC: application to oxytocin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, S; Szókán, G; Khlafulla, A M; Almás, M; Kiss, C; Rill, A; Schön, I

    2001-06-01

    An improved RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of the configuration and stereochemical purity of cysteine residues in peptides. The method consists of oxidation of cysteine and cystine residues to cysteic acid, followed by hydrolysis and pre-column chiral derivatization with Val-Marfey's reagent.

  7. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  8. Measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction and determination of absolute value of V(ub) with tagged B mesons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-11-24

    We report a measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction based on 211 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector. We use samples of B0 and B+ mesons tagged by a second B meson reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic decay and combine the results assuming isospin symmetry to obtain B(B(0)-->pi- l+ nu) = (1.33+/-0.17stat+/-0.11syst) x 10(-4). We determine the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element absolute value V(ub) by combining the partial branching fractions measured in ranges of the momentum transfer squared and theoretical calculations of the form factor. Using a recent lattice QCD calculation, we find absolute value V(ub) = (4.5+/-0.5stat+/-0.3syst(+0.7) -0.5FF x 10(-3), where the last error is due to the normalization of the form factor.

  9. Absolute laser based in-situ determination of HCl in the reaction chamber of combustion processes and gasification processes; Absolute laserbasierte in situ Bestimmung von HCI im Reaktionsraum von Verbrennungs- und Vergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortwein, P.; Woiwode, W.; Gisi, M.; Ebert, V.; Wagner, S. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisch Chemisches Institut; Eberhard, M.; Kolb, T. [ITC-TAB, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The release of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an important parameter for the industrial processes of combustion and gasification. This parameter has to be determined for the active monitoring till to the ppm range. On basis of a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting laser (VCSEL) with 1,742 nm a new TDLAS spectrometer for the absolute in situ determination of hydrochloric acid during the processes of combustion and gasification was developed and used for a calibration-free absorption measurement of the HCl R3 line with minimal transversal sensitivity to the disturbing species CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In an extractive application with a 10 cm long gas cell, an optical dissolution of 10{sup -}4 and a detection limit of 240 ppb . m at a time resolution of 12.5 s can be achieved. In the case of a time resolution of 1 s, the application of the spectrometer in the case of in-situ measurements in a biomass combustion (T = 900 C, p = 1 bar, L = 36 cm) resulted in an optical dissolution of 1.9 . 10{sup -}4. This corresponds to a detection limit of 9 ppm . m and a signal-noise ratio of 25: 1. First in-situ measurements in an air flow gasifier (T = 1,100 C, p = 1 bar, L = 28 cm) supply an optical dissolution of 2.3 . 10{sup -}4 and a detection limit of 13 ppm . m.

  10. SU-E-T-49: Automatic Beam Angle Determination for Lung IMRT Planning Using a Beam Configuration Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, L; Yin, F; Sheng, Y; Wu, Q J. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ge, Y [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States); Li, Y [The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, Chongqing (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To present a technique to automatically determine beam angle configurations for lung IMRT planning based on the patient-specific anatomy and tumor geometry. Methods: The relationship between individual patient anatomy and proper beam configurations was learned from high quality clinical plans in three steps. First, a beam configuration atlas was obtained by classifying 60 lung IMRT plans into 6 beam configuration clusters based on a dissimilarity measure defined between different beam configurations. A beam configuration template was extracted from each cluster to form an atlas. Second, a beam efficiency index map (EI map) was constructed to characterize the geometry of the tumor relative to the lungs, the body and other OARs along each candidate beam direction. Finally, the EI maps of the clinical cases and the cluster assignments of their beam configurations were paired to train a Bayesian classification model. This technique was validated by leave-one-out cross validation with 16 cases randomly selected from the original dataset. An IMRT plan (autobeam plan) for each test case was generated using the beam configuration template according to the cluster assignment given by the model and was compared with the corresponding clinical plan. Results: The dosimetric parameters (mean±S.D. in percentage of prescription dose) in the auto-beam plans and in the clinical plans, respectively, and the p-values by a paired ttest (in parenthesis) are: lung Dmean: 16.3±9.3, 18.6±7.4 (0.48), esophagus Dmean: 28.4±18, 30.7±19.3 (0.02), Heart Dmean: 21.5±17.5,21.1±17.2 (0.76), Spinal Cord D2%: 48±23, 51.2±21.8 (0.01), PTV dose homogeneity (D2%–D99%): 22±27.4, 20.4±12.8 (0.10).The dose reductions by the autobeam plans in esophagus Dmean and cord D02 are statistically significant but the differences (<4%) may not be clinically significant. The other dosimetric parameters are not statistically different. Conclusion: Plans generated by the automatic beam angle

  11. JT-60 configuration parameters for feedback control determined by regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Makoto; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ninomiya, Hiromasa

    1991-12-01

    The stepwise regression procedure was applied to obtain measurement formulas for equilibrium parameters used in the feedback control of JT-60. This procedure automatically selects variables necessary for the measurements, and selects a set of variables which are not likely to be picked up by physical considerations. Regression equations with stable and small multicollinearity were obtained and it was experimentally confirmed that the measurement formulas obtained through this procedure were accurate enough to be applicable to the feedback control of plasma configurations in JT-60.

  12. Optical factors determined by the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement of absolute coagulation rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shenghua; Liu, Jie; Sun, Zhiwei

    2006-12-01

    Turbidity measurement for the absolute coagulation rate constants of suspensions has been extensively adopted because of its simplicity and easy implementation. A key factor in deriving the rate constant from experimental data is how to theoretically evaluate the so-called optical factor involved in calculating the extinction cross section of doublets formed during aggregation. In a previous paper, we have shown that compared with other theoretical approaches, the T-matrix method provides a robust solution to this problem and is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology, as well as increasing measurement accuracy. This paper will provide a more comprehensive discussion of the physical insight for using the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement and associated technical details. In particular, the importance of ensuring the correct value for the refractive indices for colloidal particles and the surrounding medium used in the calculation is addressed, because the indices generally vary with the wavelength of the incident light. The comparison of calculated results with experiments shows that the T-matrix method can correctly calculate optical factors even for large particles, whereas other existing theories cannot. In addition, the data of the optical factor calculated by the T-matrix method for a range of particle radii and incident light wavelengths are listed.

  13. Comment on the Paper "Absolute Motion Determined from Michelson- Type Experiments in Optical Media" by V. P. Dmitriyev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarti, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    Alternative explanations to the Michelson-Morley experiment exist and continue to be produced. In the current paper, we will correct a recently published paper concerning a reenactment of the famous experiment. The author of the paper in cause claims the presence of a non-null result though he did not run any experiment himself. Dmitriyev bases his paper on a paper by Demjanov that has already been retracted by the journal where he originally published (V. V. Demjanov, Phys. Lett. A 374, 1110 (2010)). Our paper is organized as follows: in the background section we will give the correct expressions for the relativistic light speed in arbitrary media as opposed to the incorrect ones given in V. P. Dmitriyev, Z. Naturforsch. 66a, 228 (2011). We will follow by explaining the correct equations of the Michelson-Morley experiment in a refractive medium with n > 1, and we will outline the errors in V. P. Dmitriyev, Z. Naturforsch. 66a, 228 (2011). The non-mainstream claims of detecting `absolute motion' are refuted by both theoretical and experimental data.

  14. Configurational coordinate diagram of Ni{sup 2+} doped silver halide crystals, as determined by optical and luminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakosky-Neuberger, I., E-mail: yifat_z2@hotmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shafir, I.; Nagli, L.; Katzir, A. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-08-15

    Optical and luminescence measurements were carried out on Ni{sup 2+} doped silver halide crystals. The configurational coordinates of the ground and the first excited states made it possible to explain the important optical properties, such as the Stokes shift between the ground and excited states, the broadening of the bands with temperature and the thermal quenching. Determining the configurational coordinate diagram of the ground and first excited states is the first step for the design and fabrication of solid state and fiber lasers which are based on Ni{sup 2+} doped silver halides and which operate in the middle infrared. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical and luminescence measurements were carried out on Ni{sup 2+} doped silver halide crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Configurational coordinates of the ground and the first excited state were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties of Ni{sup 2+} doped silver halide crystals can be obtained from the configurational coordinate diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No emission signal was found above 220 K.

  15. Configuration of redox gradient determines magnetotactic polarity of the marine bacteria MO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Jia; Chen, Chuanfang; Li, Ying; Song, Tao; Wu, Long-Fei

    2010-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are capable of aligning and swimming along the geomagnetic field lines; such a behaviour is called magnetotaxis. Previous studies reported that bacteria in the northern hemisphere migrate preferentially towards the North Pole of the Earth's magnetic field (north-seeking, NS), whereas those in the southern hemisphere swim towards the South Pole (south-seeking, SS). The orientated swimming is thought to guide bacteria migrating downward to the favourable microaerobic or anaerobic regions in stratified water column or sediments. Recent identification of SS populations in northern hemisphere challenged the model of the adaptive value of magnetotaxis. To seek explanation for the apparent discrepancy, we analysed magnetotaxis polarity of axenic cultures under simulated growth conditions in hypomagnetic, northern-hemisphere-like or southern-hemisphere-like magnetic fields. We found that NS and SS cells could obviously coexist in hypomagnetic field and even, when the oxidation-reduction gradient configuration is suitable, in the geomagnetic field. These results reveal the selectivity of the redox gradient configuration on magnetotactic polarity of the cells and reconcile the discrepancy of the early reports.

  16. Evolutionary algorithm based configuration interaction approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    A stochastic configuration interaction method based on evolutionary algorithm is designed as an affordable approximation to full configuration interaction (FCI). The algorithm comprises of initiation, propagation and termination steps, where the propagation step is performed with cloning, mutation and cross-over, taking inspiration from genetic algorithm. We have tested its accuracy in 1D Hubbard problem and a molecular system (symmetric bond breaking of water molecule). We have tested two different fitness functions based on energy of the determinants and the CI coefficients of determinants. We find that the absolute value of CI coefficients is a more suitable fitness function when combined with a fixed selection scheme.

  17. Determination of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137} and absolute beta activities in First Cycle Supernatent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmholz, H.R.

    1954-03-15

    This report discusses procedures have been established for determining the absolute activities of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137}, and gross beta in First Cycle Supernatant. These procedures are also valid for other samples such as scavenged Radioactive Waste (RAW), the primary restriction being that the age of the material be at least 250 days so that any Sr{sup 89} activity (53 day half-life) is negligible. With the exception of the gross beta analysis the results are believed to be accurate to within 10%.

  18. Are sap flow measurements useful for determining water use of fruit orchards, when absolute values are important?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, NJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of accurate figures for orchard water use is critical for improved irrigation scheduling and for the issuing of water licenses. Under- or over estimations can have serious implications for production and water resources in water...

  19. Correlations among experimental and theoretical NMR data to determine the absolute stereochemistry of darcyribeirine, a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelieri, Náuvia Maria; Ferreira, Thiago Resende; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Alcântara, Antônio Flávio de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Darcyribeirine (1) is a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora. Stereochemistry of 1 was previously proposed based on 1D (coupling constant data) and 2D (NOESY correlations) NMR techniques, having been established a configuration 3R, 15S, and 20R (isomer 1a). Stereoisomers of 1 (i.e., 1a-1h) can be grouped into four sets of enantiomers. Carbon chemical shifts and hydrogen coupling constants were calculated using BLYP/6-31G* theory level for the eight isomers of 1. Calculated NMR data of 1a-1h were correlated with the corresponding experimental data of 1. The best correlations between theoretical and experimental carbon chemical shift data were obtained for the set of enantiomers 1e/1f to structures in the gaseous phase and considering solvent effects (using PCM and explicit models). Similar results were obtained when the same procedure was performed to correlations between theoretical and experimental coupling constant data. Finally, optical rotation calculations indicate 1e as its absolute stereochemistry. Orbital population analysis indicates that the hydrogen bonding between N-H of 1e and DMSO is due to contributions of its frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals, mainly LUMO+1, LUMO+2, and LUMO+3.

  20. Absolute determination of power density in the VVER-1000 mock-up on the LR-0 research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košt'ál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Milčák, Ján

    2013-08-01

    The work presents a detailed comparison of calculated and experimentally determined net peak areas of selected fission products gamma lines. The fission products were induced during a 2.5 h irradiation on the power level of 9.5 W in selected fuel pins of the VVER-1000 Mock-Up. The calculations were done with deterministic and stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods. The effects of different nuclear data libraries used for calculations are discussed as well. The Net Peak Area (NPA) may be used for the determination of fission density across the mock-up. This fission density is practically identical to power density.

  1. Chiral hydroxy phosphonates: synthesis, configuration and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-03-31

    Published data on the synthesis, absolute configurations and biological properties of chiral hydroxy phosphonates are generalised and described systematically. Examples of asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy phosphonates by the phospho-aldol reaction, reduction of keto phosphonates, chemo-enzymatic approach, and so on are discussed. Methods for determination of the optical purity and absolute configuration of hydroxy phosphonates using modification by chiral reagents, NMR, circular dichroism, GLC and HPLC on columns with chiral sorbents are considered. The significance of hydroxy phosphonates as promising compounds for the development of new drugs and bioregulators is demonstrated.

  2. Chiral hydroxy phosphonates: synthesis, configuration and biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I.

    2006-03-01

    Published data on the synthesis, absolute configurations and biological properties of chiral hydroxy phosphonates are generalised and described systematically. Examples of asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy phosphonates by the phospho-aldol reaction, reduction of keto phosphonates, chemo-enzymatic approach, and so on are discussed. Methods for determination of the optical purity and absolute configuration of hydroxy phosphonates using modification by chiral reagents, NMR, circular dichroism, GLC and HPLC on columns with chiral sorbents are considered. The significance of hydroxy phosphonates as promising compounds for the development of new drugs and bioregulators is demonstrated.

  3. Determination of critical assembly absolute power using post-irradiation activation measurement of week-lived fission products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Milčák, Ján; Rypar, Vojtěch; Koleška, Michal

    2014-07-01

    The work presents a detailed comparison of calculated and experimentally determined net peak areas of longer-living fission products after 100 h irradiation on a reactor with power of ~630 W and several days cooling. Specifically the nuclides studied are (140)Ba, (103)Ru, (131)I, (141)Ce, (95)Zr. The good agreement between the calculated and measured net peak areas, which is better than in determination using short lived (92)Sr, is reported. The experiment was conducted on the VVER-1000 mock-up installed on the LR-0 reactor. The Monte Carlo approach has been used for calculations. The influence of different data libraries on results of calculation is discussed as well.

  4. A whole rock absolute paleointensity determination of dacites from the Duffer Formation (ca. 3.467 Ga) of the Pilbara Craton, Australia: An impossible task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Krasa, David; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted a whole-rock type magnetic and absolute paleointensity determination of the red dacite of the Duffer Formation from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The age of the dated rock unit is 3467 ± 5 Ma (95% confidence). Vector analyses results of the step-wise alternating field demagnetization (NRM up to 100 mT) and thermal demagnetization (from NRM up to 650 °C) yield three components of magnetization. Curie point determinations indicate three characteristic temperatures, one at 150-200 °C, a second one at ∼450 °C and a third one at ∼580 °C. Magnetic grain-size experiments were performed on small specimens with a variable field translation balance (VFTB). The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that the NRM is carried by low-coercivity grains that are associated with a magnetite fraction as is shown by the high-temperature component with blocking temperatures above 450 °C and up to at least 580 °C. The ratios of the hysteresis parameters plotted as a modified Day diagram show that most grain sizes are scattered within the Single Domain (SD) and the Superparamagnetic and Single Domain SP-SD domain ranges. In addition to the rock magnetic experiments we have performed absolute paleointensity experiments on the samples using the modified Thellier-Coe double heating method to determine the paleointensities. Partial-TRM (p-TRM) checks were performed systematically to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50 °C between room temperature and 590 °C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope of Arai diagrams. Our paleointensity results indicate that the paleofield obtained was ∼6.4 ± 0.68 (N = 11) micro-Teslas with a Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) of 1.51 ± 0.81 × 1022 Am2, from a medium-to high-temperature component ranging from 300 to 590 °C that has been interpreted to be the oldest magnetization yet recorded in paleomagnetic studies of the Duffer Formation. The

  5. Absolute paleointensity determinations by using of conventional double-heating and multispecimen approaches on a Pliocene lava flow sequence from the Lesser Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Caccavari, Ana; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Morales, Juan; Solano, Miguel Cervantes; Vashakidze, Goga; Huaiyu, He; Vegas, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    We report 28 successful Thellier type absolute geomagnetic paleointensity determinations from a Pleistocene lava sequence composed of 39 successive flows in the Djavakheti Highland (Lesser Caucasus, Georgia). Additionally, multispecimen technique provided the estimation of geomagnetic field strength for 12 independent cooling units. Paleointensity studies were performed using both Thellier type double heating and multispecimen techniques. Samples selection was mainly based on uni-vectorial remanent magnetization, thermal stability and domain size of the samples. Flow-mean Thellier paleointensity values range from 16.3 ± 5.2 to 71.0 ± 0.3 μT, while intensities obtained using multispecimen approach vary from17.2 ± 2.3 to 69.3 ± 7.9 μT. One of the flows is located near a possible discontinuity in the sequence and yields a rather low Thellier absolute intensity (16.3 ± 5.2) suggesting a transitional regime and the onset of the Matuyama-Olduvai polarity transition, which does not appear on the directional record. Multispecimen paleointensities from the same flow, however, yield higher, close to present day values which makes untenable the hypothesis of occurrence of transitional field. Thus the whole sequence was emplaced in a short time between the Olduvai chron and 1.73 ± 0.03 Ma, as suggested by available radiometric and paleomagnetic data (Caccavari et al., 2014).

  6. The determination of the absolute bioavailability for drug substances with long elimination half-lives (with PC-programs for the method of truncated areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnand, H P

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the methods for the determination of the absolute bioavailability for drug substances with long elimination half-lives. All methods depend on the assumption of linear pharmacokinetics. Emphasis is laid on Urso and Aarons' regression method of truncated areas-under-the-curve (AUC) to obtain estimates of the absolute bioavailability, F, and the absorption rate constant, ka, without obeying the otherwise general rule of following blood or plasma levels for at least three times the terminal half-life. It is shown by simulation when the linear and when the logarithmic trapezoidal rule is to be used for the calculation of the AUC. Two PC-programs for the regression method of truncated areas are presented: one program (SIMF&KA.EXE) simulates, based on tentative pharmacokinetic parameters, whether a blood sampling scheme, together with the precision of the analytical assay, is adequate to obtain accurate and precise estimates of F and ka; the method is insensitive to large variations in the tentative value of the elimination half-life. The other program (ESTF&KA.EXE) provides estimates of F and ka, with standard deviations of the estimates, from empirical data.

  7. Noise exposure in gold miners: utilising audiogram configuration to determine hearing handicap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vermaas, RL

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available controlled study, Audiology. 1988;27:164. 2. Schow, R. L., & Gatehouse, S. Fundamental Issues in Self-Assessment of Hearing, Ear & Hearing. 1990;11(5) Supplement. 3. Ringdahl, A., Eriksson-Mangold, M. & Andersson, G. Psychometric Evaluation.../American Academy of Otolaryngology Formula for Determination of Hearing Handicap. Audiology.1983; 22:313. 29. Newman, C. W., Weinstein, B. E., Jacobson, G. P. & Hug, G. A. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults: Psychometric Adequacy and Audiometric...

  8. Determination of the absolute 32S/34S ratio of IAEA-S-1 reference material and V-CDT sulfur isotope standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁悌平; 白瑞梅; 李延河; 万德芳; 邹晓秋; 张青莲

    1999-01-01

    The absolute 32S/34S ratios of IAEA-S-1 reference material and V-CDT standard are determined. For cross-checking, two sets of synthetic isotope mixtures are prepared from high purity 32S and 34S-enriched materials in different forms: the first set is prepared from BaSO4 whereas the second is prepared from Ag2S. The sulfur isotope analyses are done by using SF6 method with a MAT-251 EM mass spectrometer. The resulting 32S/34S ratio of IAEAS-1 reference material is 22.656 4±0. 006 0, and that of V-CDT is 22. 649 6±0. 006 0.

  9. On the opportunity of spectroscopic determination of absolute atomic densities in non-equilibrium plasmas from measured relative intensities within resonance multiplets distorted by self-absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, B P

    2007-01-01

    The opportunities of the application of the recently proposed approach in optical emission spectroscopy of non-equilibrium plasmas have been studied. The approach consists of several methods of the determination of {\\em absolute} particle densities of atoms from measured {\\em relative} intensities within resonance multiplets distorted by self-absorption. All available spectroscopic data concerning resonance spectral lines of atoms having multiplet ground states from boron up to gallium were analyzed. It is found that in the case of C, O, F, S and Cl atoms an application of the methods needs VUV technique, while densities of B, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Ga atoms may be obtained by means of the intensity measurements in UV and visible parts of emission spectra suitable for ordinary spectrometers used for optical diagnostics and monitoring of non-equilibrium plasmas including industrial plasma technologies.

  10. Excretion of the principal urinary metabolites of phenytoin and absolute oral bioavailability determined by use of a stable isotope in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Theresa; Cloyd, James C; Goel, Varun; Brundage, Richard C; Marino, Susan E; Leppik, Ilo E; Remmel, Rory P

    2011-02-01

    The anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (PHT) were discovered in 1938. Since then, it has been one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is slowly absorbed, extensively plasma protein-bound, exhibits a nonlinear, concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile, and has a narrow therapeutic range. We determined PHT bioavailability during steady-state therapy by 1) measurement of the two principal deconjugated PHT urinary metabolites, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-5-phenylhydantoin (DHD); and 2) direct determination of absolute bioavailability after simultaneous administration of an oral formulation and parenteral stable-labeled PHT (SL-PHT). Urinary metabolites were quantified by an isocratic HPLC-NI-APCI-MS method. The urinary dose recovery was calculated by dividing the molar recovery of the major PHT urinary metabolites by the molar dose received. Urinary metabolite recovery was surprisingly low, 35.4% ± 15.7% in younger patients (age 21-49 years old) and 32.9% ± 15.0% in patients aged 65 to 93 years. Absolute bioavailability was 86.4% ± 19.4% and 92.5% ± 25.2%, respectively. A weak, but significant, Spearman rank correlation was observed between urinary metabolite recovery and oral bioavailability (P = 0.00924, R = 0.166). This weak correlation may be the result of variability in urinary versus biliary-fecal excretion of p-HPPH glucuronide. This study demonstrates that daily PHT oral absorption exhibits wide interpatient variability, which may account for fluctuations in PHT concentration over time.

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. Determination of the absolute LHC luminosity with photon-photon collisions during the pPb run rate at 5.02TeV with CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbiyik, Melike; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Metwaly, Alaa; Ulrich, Ralf [Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics (IEKP), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Di-muon production in photon-photon collisions is a benchmark process that allow for the precise determination of the luminosity at LHC. In Particular in collisions, where at least one of the nuclei is a lead nucleus, the photon fluxes are large enough to make efficient use of it. CMS has, for example, measured the total inelastic proton-lead cross-section by detecting activity in the forward calorimeters. For this measurement the luminosity determination is based on van der Meer scans, which is cross checked here with di-muons. In this analysis di-muon production during the pPb run in 2013 is measured and the absolute LHC luminosity determined. The exclusivity of di-muon photoproduction events is determined from the number of charged tracks and additional hits in the calorimeters. In particular the theforward calorimeters CASTOR and ZDC are very useful for this purpose. The efficiency of the trigger event selection and reconstruction is studied in detail.

  13. Absolute TDLAS based in-situ determination of acetylene concentration profiles in laminar cross-flow flames; Absolute TDLAS basierte in Situ Messung von Acetylen Konzentrationsprofilen in laminaren Gegenstromflammen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S.; Raith, P.; Klein, M.; Ebert, V. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut

    2009-07-01

    A system for the quantitative, local dissolved, sampling-free and calibration-free in-situ measurement of acetylene in a flame environment by means of the direct Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. Using a fibre-coupled Distributed Feedback Diode Lasers at a wavelength of 1,535 nm, spatially dissolved and absolute concentration profiles of acetylene in laminar, not premixed methane/air flames based on a modified Tsuji cross-flow burner could be measured. By adjustment of a multi line Voigt model to the spectrum measured by means TDLAS, optical resolutions of up to 1.10{sup -}4 (1{sigma}) in the flame (T up to 2,000 K) were obtained. Thus, temperature-dependent detection limits from 50 to 700 ppm acetylene at maximal concentrations of up to 1,200 ppm were obtained for the P17e line at 6,513 cm{sup -}1. Due to the DC engine supported shifting of the burner relative to the laser, spatially dissolved, absolute acetylene concentration profiles were measured along the flame with a spatial dissolution of 0.5 mm. Without further scaling or calibration, the TDLAS based vertical concentration profile of acetylene agrees well with the computed distribution of the acetylene concentration for the same flame at a comparable burner. Thus, these concentration data can be used for the validation of new models for the description of the chemiluminescence.

  14. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Farnsworth, Paul B., E-mail: paul_farnsworth@byu.edu [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s {sup 3}S{sub 1} metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and 0.011 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and 0.97 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges. - Highlights: • We determine He metastable number densities for four plasma types • The highest number densities were observed in a dielectric barrier discharge • No helium metastable atoms were observed downstream from the exits of glow discharges.

  15. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  16. Information configuration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauro Cesar Araujo; Mamede Lima-Marques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term "configuration information" has emerged in the works of Information Architecture; however, there isn’t a conceptualization of “configuration” within Information Architecture. Objective: The objective is propose a definition for "configuration" and "information configuration" within the Information Architecture discipline, and indicate a teleological corpus from configuration management that can be used as paxis in Information Architecture. Methodolo...

  17. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  18. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hopchev, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...

  1. Measurement of the absolute speed is possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey V.; Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

    2016-01-01

    One of popular problems, which  are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists.  Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in oth...

  2. To measure the absolute speed is possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey; Tokarevsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in other one, incl...

  3. Absolute bioavailability of evacetrapib in healthy subjects determined by simultaneous administration of oral evacetrapib and intravenous [(13) C8 ]-evacetrapib as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Ellen A; Aburub, Aktham; Ward, Chris; Hinds, Chris; Czeskis, Boris; Ruterbories, Kenneth; Suico, Jeffrey G; Royalty, Jane; Ortega, Demetrio; Pack, Brian W; Begum, Syeda L; Annes, William F; Lin, Qun; Small, David S

    2016-05-30

    This open-label, single-period study in healthy subjects estimated evacetrapib absolute bioavailability following simultaneous administration of a 130-mg evacetrapib oral dose and 4-h intravenous (IV) infusion of 175 µg [(13) C8 ]-evacetrapib as a tracer. Plasma samples collected through 168 h were analyzed for evacetrapib and [(13) C8 ]-evacetrapib using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates following oral and IV doses, including area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from zero to infinity (AUC[0-∞]) and to the last measureable concentration (AUC[0-tlast ]), were calculated. Bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of least-squares geometric mean of dose-normalized AUC (oral : IV) and corresponding 90% confidence interval (CI). Bioavailability of evacetrapib was 44.8% (90% CI: 42.2-47.6%) for AUC(0-∞) and 44.3% (90% CI: 41.8-46.9%) for AUC(0-tlast ). Evacetrapib was well tolerated with no reports of clinically significant safety assessment findings. This is among the first studies to estimate absolute bioavailability using simultaneous administration of an unlabeled oral dose with a (13) C-labeled IV microdose tracer at about 1/1000(th) the oral dose, with measurement in the pg/mL range. This approach is beneficial for poorly soluble drugs, does not require additional toxicology studies, does not change oral dose pharmacokinetics, and ultimately gives researchers another tool to evaluate absolute bioavailability.

  4. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  5. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  6. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schneider, Uwe [University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  7. Absolute biological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  8. Relative and Absolute Stereochemistry of Diacarperoxides: Antimalarial Norditerpene Endoperoxides from Marine Sponge Diacarnus megaspinorhabdosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Five new norditerpene endoperoxides, named diacarperoxides H–L (1–5, and a new norditerpene diol, called diacardiol B (6, were isolated from the South China Sea sponge, Diacarnus megaspinorhabdosa. Their structures, including conformations and absolute configurations, were determined by using spectroscopic analyses, computational approaches and chemical degradation. Diacarperoxides H–J (1–3 showed some interesting stereochemical issues, as well as antimalarial activity.

  9. Determination of the absolute photoionization cross sections of CH3 and I produced from a pyrolysis source, by combined synchrotron and vacuum ultraviolet laser studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Bérenger; Vieira Mendes, Luiz A; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Douin, Stéphane; Garcia, Gustavo; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Cunha de Miranda, Barbara K; Alcaraz, Christian; Carrasco, Nathalie; Pernot, Pascal; Gauyacq, Dolores

    2010-03-11

    A pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion has been used to produce the CH3 radical from two precursors, iodomethane CH3I and nitromethane CH3NO2. The relative ionization yield of CH3 has been recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron Radiation source in the range 9.0-11.6 eV, and its ionization threshold has been modeled by taking into account the vibrational and rotational temperature of the radical in the molecular beam. The relative photoionization yield has been normalized to an absolute cross section scale at a fixed wavelength (118.2 nm, sigma(i)(CH3) = 6.7(-1.8)(+2.4) Mb, 95% confidence interval) in an independent laboratory experiment using the same pyrolysis source, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser, and a carefully calibrated detection chain. The resulting absolute cross section curve is in good agreement with the recently published measurements by Taatjes et al., although with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. The absolute photoionization cross section of CH3I at 118.2 nm has also been measured to be sigma(i)(CH3I) = (48.2 +/- 7.9) Mb, in good agreement with previous electron impact measurements. Finally, the photoionization yield of the iodine atom in its ground state 2P(3/2) has been recorded using the synchrotron source and calibrated for the first time on an absolute cross section scale from our fixed 118.2 nm laser measurement, sigma(i)(I2P(3/2)) = 74(-23)(+33) Mb (95% confidence interval). The ionization curve of atomic iodine is in good agreement, although with slight variations, with the earlier relative ionization yield measured by Berkowitz et al. and is also compared to an earlier calculation of the iodine cross section by Robicheaux and Greene. It is demonstrated that, in the range of pyrolysis temperature used in this work, all the ionization cross sections are temperature-independent. Systematic care has been taken to include all uncertainty sources contributing to the final confidence intervals for the reported results.

  10. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  11. Dependence of proton beam polarization on ion source transition configurations; Determination de la polarisation du faisceau de protons pour les quatre configurations des transitions de la source d`ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J.; Ausset, P.; Ball, J.; Beauvais, P.Y.; Bedfer, Y.; Chamouard, P.A.; Fontaine, J.M.; Kunne, R.; Lagniel, J.M.; Sans, J.L. [Laboratoire National Saturne - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Allgower, Ch.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Spinka, H.M. [ANL-HEP, Argonne (United States); Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Demiere, Ph.; Rapin, D.; Teglia, A. [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire; Janout, Z. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Popov, A.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A. [Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable anomalies were observed in recorded pp elastic scattering spin dependent data at several proton beam energies at SATURNE II. These results suggested that the discrepancies are related to the polarized ion source. In order to understand the observed effects, the proton beam polarizations for each ion source state were determined separately. Convenient procedures, allowing to determine the beam polarization from a beam-line polarimeter are presented. Two distinct experiments are necessary for this purpose. In the first one the LEFT-RIGHT instrumental asymmetry of the beam polarimeter arms is determined. In the second one this correction factor is applied to asymmetries measured with the beam from the polarized ion source in different polarization states. Both experiments determined the scattering asymmetries for all four polarized source states as functions of different source parameters. The measurements were carried out at the proton beam kinetic energy 0.80 GeV, where the pp elastic scattering analyzing power is at its maximum. Results show that the so called `unpolarized states` of the source are polarized, whereas the absolute values of the beam polarizations in `polarized states` are equal. It was observed that the hexapole lens of the ion source provides some beam polarization in the absence of any transition. The beam polarization as function of the hexapole current, of the transition efficiencies and of the rotation solenoid current has been studied. It is also shown, how one way obtain a strictly unpolarized beam using the polarized source only. The results obtained with the SATURNE II ion source HYPERION may be also valid for other accelerators and sources. (authors) 10 refs.

  12. Optimisation of spectrometric gamma-gamma probe configuration using very low radioactivity sources for lead and zinc grade determination in borehole logging

    CERN Document Server

    Asfahani, J

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of spectrometric backscattered gamma-gamma well logging measurements to predict lead and zinc metal equivalent content is demonstrated. A centralised tool employing a gamma-ray source of very low radioactivity (1.8 MBq) is used. The logging tool is tested using sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Ba and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs sources with a 37 mm (diameter)x75 mm NaI (TI) scintillation detector. Five source-to-detector configurations were analysed for 18 geophysical models, 13 of which had a borehole diameter of 130 mm and the other 5 had a borehole diameter of 160 mm. Regression analysis on the laboratory logging data for each configuration in order to establish the calibration equation for a lead (Pb) and zinc metal equivalent (ZME) prediction is carried out. The optimum configuration for the logging probe using a sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Ba source was determined to be 52 mm source-to-detector spacing. This configuration gives the best results for both Pb and ZME grade. The rms deviations for Pb and ZME were 0.33 and ...

  13. Structure-activity relationship study of selective excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) inhibitor 2-amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl)-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (UCPH-101) and absolute configurational assignment using infrared and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy in combination with ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tri H V; Shim, Irene; Bohr, Henrik; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Birgitte; Jensen, Anders A; Bunch, Lennart

    2012-06-14

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play essential roles in regulating the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the mammalian central nervous system. To date, five subtypes have been identified, named EAAT1-5 in humans, and GLAST, GLT-1, EAAC1, EAAT4, and EAAT5 in rodents, respectively. In this paper, we present the design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of seven 7-N-substituted analogues of UCPH-101/102. Analogue 9 inhibited EAAT1 in the micromolar range (IC(50) value 20 μM), whereas analogues 8 and 10 were inactive (IC(50) values >100 μM). The diastereomeric pairs 11a/11b and 12a/12b were separated by HPLC and the absolute configuration assigned by VCD technique in combination with ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. Analogues 11a (RS-isomer) and 12b (RR-isomer) inhibited EAAT1 (IC(50) values 5.5 and 3.8 μM, respectively), whereas analogues 11b (SS-isomer) and 12a (SR-isomer) failed to inhibit EAAT1 uptake (IC(50) values >300 μM).

  14. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...

  15. Hypertext Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2016-01-01

    , links, interactive processes, and time scalings, and that the hypertext configuration is a major but not sole source of the messiness of big data. The notion of hypertext will be revalidated, placed at the center of the interpretation of networked digital media, and used in the analysis of the fast...

  16. Effect of total and pair configurational entropy in determining dynamics of supercooled liquids over a range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Atreyee; Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Sastry, Srikanth; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a study of supercooled liquids interacting with the Lennard Jones potential and the corresponding purely repulsive (Weeks-Chandler-Andersen) potential, over a range of densities and temperatures, in order to understand the origin of their different dynamics in spite of their structures being similar. Using the configurational entropy as the thermodynamic marker via the Adam Gibbs relation, we show that the difference in the dynamics of these two systems at low temperatures can be explained from thermodynamics. At higher densities both the thermodynamical and dynamical difference between these model systems decrease, which is quantitatively demonstrated in this paper by calculating different parameters. The study also reveals the origin of the difference in pair entropy despite the similarity in the structure. Although the maximum difference in structure is obtained in the partial radial distribution function of the B type of particles, the rdf of AA pairs and AB pairs gives rise to the differences in the entropy and dynamics. This work supports the observation made in an earlier study [A. Banerjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 225701 (2014)] and shows that they are generic in nature, independent of density.

  17. Determination of Delta m(d) and absolute calibration of flavor taggers for the Delta m(s) analysis, in fully reconstructed decays at the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jonatan Piedra [University of Cantabria, (Spain). Inst. of Physics

    2005-04-21

    The new trigger processor, the Silicon Vertex Tracking (SVT), has dramatically improved the B physics capabilities of the upgraded CDF II Detector; for the first time in a hadron collider, the SVT has enabled the access to non-lepton-triggered B meson decays. Within the new available range of decay modes, the B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$π+ signature is of paramount importance in the measurement of the Δms mixing frequency. The analysis reported here is a step towards the measurement of this frequency; two where our goals: carrying out the absolute calibration of the opposite side flavor taggers, used in the Δms measurement; and measuring the B$0\\atop{d}$ mixing frequency in a B → Dπ sample, establishing the feasibility of the mixing measurement in this sample whose decay-length is strongly biased by the selective SVT trigger. We analyze a total integrated luminosity of 355 pb-1 collected with the CDF II Detector. By triggering on muons, using the conventional di-muon trigger; or displaced tracks, using the SVT trigger, we gather a sample rich in bottom and charm mesons.

  18. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  19. Hypertext Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2016-01-01

    , links, interactive processes, and time scalings, and that the hypertext configuration is a major but not sole source of the messiness of big data. The notion of hypertext will be revalidated, placed at the center of the interpretation of networked digital media, and used in the analysis of the fast......The article presents a conceptual framework for distinguishing different sorts of heterogeneous digital materials. The hypothesis is that a wide range of heterogeneous data resources can be characterized and classified due to their particular configurations of hypertext features such as scripts......-growing amounts of heterogeneous digital collections, assemblages, and corpora. The introduction summarizes the wider background of a fast-changing data landscape....

  20. Execution of novel explicit RKARMS(4,4 technique in determining initial configurations of extra-solar protoplanets formed by disk instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Chandra Paul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of a novel embedded Runge–Kutta fourth order four stage arithmetic root mean square technique to determine initial configurations of extra-solar protoplanets formed by gravitational instability is the main goal of this present paper. A general mathematical framework for the introduced numerical technique is described in addition to error estimation description. It is noticed that the numerical outputs through the employed novel RKARMS(4,4 method are found to be more effective and efficient in comparison with the results obtained by the classical Runge–Kutta technique.

  1. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  2. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, Lana; Gaspar, Clara; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat; Neufeld, Niko

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) will handle the monitoring, configuration and operation of all the LHCb experimental equipment. All parameters required to configure electronics equipment under the control of the ECS will reside in a configuration database. The database will contain two kinds of information: 1.\tConfiguration properties about devices such as hardware addresses, geographical location, and operational parameters associated with particular running modes (dynamic properties). 2.\tConnectivity between devices : this consists of describing the output and input connections of a device (static properties). The representation of these data using tables must be complete so that it can provide all the required information to the ECS and must cater for all the subsystems. The design should also guarantee a fast response time, even if a query results in a large volume of data being loaded from the database into the ECS. To fulfil these constraints, we apply the following methodology: Determine from the d...

  3. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  4. Determining Chiral Configuration of Diamines via Contact Angle Measurements on Enantioselective Alanine-Appended Benzene-Tricarboxamide Gelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Ho; Kim, Ka Young; Ahn, Ahreum; Choi, Myong Yong; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2016-06-08

    Spectroscopic techniques exist that may discern between enantiomers and assess chiral purity. A nonspectroscopic approach that may be directly observed could provide numerous benefits. Using chiral alanine-appended benzene-tricarboxamide gelators, we reveal a methanol gel system that is capable of providing visual discrimination between enantiomers of various diamines. Specifically, gelation is induced by supramolecular nanofiber assembly resulting from interaction between a chiral gelator and a diamine of opposing chirality (i.e., a heterochiral system). Upon further implementing the chiral gelator in electrospun fibers as solid state films, we revealed enantioselective surface wetting properties that allowed for determining chirality through contact angle measurements. While these two approaches of observable gelation and surface wetting offer nonspectroscopic approaches, we also find that the supramolecular nanofiber assembly was able to enhance the induced circular dichroism signal resulting from addition of chiral diamines, allowing precise quantification of their enantiomeric purity.

  5. Absolutely Indecomposable Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Göbel, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    A module is called absolutely indecomposable if it is directly indecomposable in every generic extension of the universe. We want to show the existence of large abelian groups that are absolutely indecomposable. This will follow from a more general result about R-modules over a large class of commutative rings R with endomorphism ring R which remains the same when passing to a generic extension of the universe. It turns out that `large' in this context has the precise meaning, namely being smaller then the first omega-Erdos cardinal defined below. We will first apply result on large rigid trees with a similar property established by Shelah in 1982, and will prove the existence of related ` R_omega-modules' (R-modules with countably many distinguished submodules) and finally pass to R-modules. The passage through R_omega-modules has the great advantage that the proofs become very transparent essentially using a few `linear algebra' arguments accessible also for graduate students. The result gives a new constru...

  6. Absolute polarimetry at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, H; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Eyser, K O; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Saitô, N; Stephenson, E; Sviridia, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A

    2007-01-01

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features \\textit{proton-proton} elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power $A_N$ of this process has allowed us to achieve $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} =4.2%$ in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of $A...

  7. Comparison of various hours living fission products for absolute power density determination in VVER-1000 mock up in LR-0 reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Koleška, Michal; Rypar, Vojtěch; Milčák, Ján

    2015-11-01

    Measuring power level of zero power reactor is a quite difficult task. Due to the absence of measurable cooling media heating, it is necessary to employ a different method. The gamma-ray spectroscopy of fission products induced within reactor operation is one of possible ways of power determination. The method is based on the proportionality between fission product buildup and released power. The (92)Sr fission product was previously preferred as nuclide for LR-0 power determination for short-time irradiation experiments. This work aims to find more appropriate candidates, because the (92)Sr, however suitable, has a short half-life, which limits the maximal measurable amount of fuel pins within a single irradiation batch. The comparison of various isotopes is realized for (92)Sr, (97)Zr, (135)I, (91)Sr, and (88)Kr. The comparison between calculated and experimentally determined (C/E-1 values) net peak areas is assessed for these fission products. Experimental results show that studied fission products, except (88)Kr, are in comparable agreement with (92)Sr results. Since (91)Sr has notably higher half-life than (92)Sr, (91)Sr seems to be more appropriate marker in experiments with a large number of measured fuel pins.

  8. 月见草油γ-亚麻酸绝对含量的测定%Determination of absolute content of γ-linolenic acid in evening primrose oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春静; 陈月坤; 刘荣荣; 陈洪涛

    2012-01-01

    采用内标法对月见草油γ-亚麻酸绝对含量进行测定,将月见草油中的脂肪酸甘油酯甲酯化转化为脂肪酸甲酯进行气相色谱分析,从而得出月见草油的γ-亚麻酸绝对含量.采用这种方法测得的结果比传统的简易酯化法和外标法更准确,更直接.%The absolute content of γ - linolenic acid in evening promrose oil were determined by internal standard method. The glycerol esters of fatty acids in evening primrose oil was esterified into fatty acid methyl esters,and tested by GC, then the absolute content of y -linolenic acid in evening primrose oil was obtained. The result obtained by this method was more accurate and direct than that of the traditional simple esterification method and external standard method.

  9. Influence of physical and chemical properties of HTSXT-FTIR samples on the quality of prediction models developed to determine absolute concentrations of total proteins, carbohydrates and triglycerides: a preliminary study on the determination of their absolute concentrations in fresh microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano León, Esteban; Coat, Rémy; Moutel, Benjamin; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Gonçalves, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Absolute concentrations of total macromolecules (triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates) in microorganisms can be rapidly measured by FTIR spectroscopy, but caution is needed to avoid non-specific experimental bias. Here, we assess the limits within which this approach can be used on model solutions of macromolecules of interest. We used the Bruker HTSXT-FTIR system. Our results show that the solid deposits obtained after the sampling procedure present physical and chemical properties that influence the quality of the absolute concentration prediction models (univariate and multivariate). The accuracy of the models was degraded by a factor of 2 or 3 outside the recommended concentration interval of 0.5-35 µg spot(-1). Change occurred notably in the sample hydrogen bond network, which could, however, be controlled using an internal probe (pseudohalide anion). We also demonstrate that for aqueous solutions, accurate prediction of total carbohydrate quantities (in glucose equivalent) could not be made unless a constant amount of protein was added to the model solution (BSA). The results of the prediction model for more complex solutions, here with two components: glucose and BSA, were very encouraging, suggesting that this FTIR approach could be used as a rapid quantification method for mixtures of molecules of interest, provided the limits of use of the HTSXT-FTIR method are precisely known and respected. This last finding opens the way to direct quantification of total molecules of interest in more complex matrices.

  10. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were...

  11. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  12. Multimode Surface Functional Group Determination: Combining Steady-State and Time-Resolved Fluorescence with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Absorption Measurements for Absolute Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tobias; Dietrich, Paul M; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Rurack, Knut

    2016-01-19

    The quantitative determination of surface functional groups is approached in a straightforward laboratory-based method with high reliability. The application of a multimode BODIPY-type fluorescence, photometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) label allows estimation of the labeling ratio, i.e., the ratio of functional groups carrying a label after reaction, from the elemental ratios of nitrogen and fluorine. The amount of label on the surface is quantified with UV/vis spectrophotometry based on the molar absorption coefficient as molecular property. The investigated surfaces with varying density are prepared by codeposition of 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and cyanoethyltriethoxysilane (CETES) from vapor. These surfaces show high functional group densities that result in significant fluorescence quenching of surface-bound labels. Since alternative quantification of the label on the surface is available through XPS and photometry, a novel method to quantitatively account for fluorescence quenching based on fluorescence lifetime (τ) measurements is shown. Due to the complex distribution of τ on high-density surfaces, the stretched exponential (or Kohlrausch) function is required to determine representative mean lifetimes. The approach is extended to a commercial Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) label, clearly revealing the problems that arise from such charged labels used in conjunction with silane surfaces.

  13. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  14. Calculating vibrational spectra without determining excited eigenstates: Solving the complex linear equations of damped response theory for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtliebsen, Ian H; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-10-07

    It is demonstrated how vibrational IR and Raman spectra can be calculated from damped response functions using anharmonic vibrational wave function calculations, without determining the potentially very many eigenstates of the system. We present an implementation for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster, and describe how the complex equations can be solved using iterative techniques employing only real trial vectors and real matrix-vector transformations. Using this algorithm, arbitrary frequency intervals can be scanned independent of the number of excited states. Sample calculations are presented for the IR-spectrum of water, Raman spectra of pyridine and a pyridine-silver complex, as well as for the infra-red spectrum of oxazole, and vibrational corrections to the polarizability of formaldehyde.

  15. 对绑架罪中绝对确定法定刑条款的思考%Thoughts on Clauses of Absolute Determinate Statutory Punishment in Kidnapping Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨诗韵

    2013-01-01

    China’s criminal law stipulates that “causing the death of the kidnapped person” and“killing the kidnapped person” will be sentenced to death. Such kind of absolute determinate statutory punishment meets the requirements of punishment by law, which is conducive to judicial consistency. However, causing the death of the kidnapped person”and“killing the kidnapped person”contain different situations respectively. They are different from each other and their subjective malignance and social perniciousness, etc.. According to the principle of suiting penalty to crime and criminal responsibility, the same statutory punishment shouldn’t be taken. Therefore, absolute determinate statutory punishment in kidnapping crime should be revised by giving certain discretion to judges in order to realize judicial justice better.%  我国刑法在绑架罪中规定,绑架“致使被绑架人死亡”和“杀害被绑架人”处死刑。这种绝对确定的法定刑符合罪刑法定的要求,有利于司法的一致性。但是,绑架“致使被绑架人死亡”和“杀害被绑架人”分别包含不同情形,二者相互之间及其不同情形的主观恶性和社会危害性等不尽相同,根据罪责刑相适应原则,不应当采取完全相同的法定刑。绑架罪中绝对确定法定刑应当进行修改,赋予法官一定的自由裁量权,从而更好地实现司法正义。

  16. Stereochemical configuration and selective excitation of the chiral molecule halothane

    CERN Document Server

    Pitzer, Martin; Burzynski, Phillip; Weller, Miriam; Metz, Daniel; Neff, Jonathan; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Williams, Joshua B; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Berger, Robert; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    X-ray single-photon ionization and fragmentation of the chiral molecule halothane (CHBrClCF${}_{3}$) from a racemic mixture have been investigated using the COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique. Two important facets related to the core ionization of this species are examined: Firstly, the distinction of enantiomers (mirror isomers) and the determination of absolute configuration on a single-molecule level by four-body Coulomb explosion; secondly, the interplay of site-selective excitation and fragmentation patterns. These results are easily transferrable to other molecular species and show the wealth of features

  17. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  18. Determining Absolute Zero in the Kitchen Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Robert; Siegel, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate Charles's Law of Ideal Gases by creating a constant-pressure thermometer from materials that can be found in the kitchen. Discusses the underlying mathematical relationships and a step-by-step description of the experiment. (MDH)

  19. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  20. Deployment dynamics of a simplified spinning IKAROS solar sail via absolute coordinate based method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhao; Qiang Tian; Hai-Yan Hu

    2013-01-01

    The spinning solar sail of large scale has been well developed in recent years.Such a solar sail can be considered as a rigid-flexible multibody system mainly composed of a spinning central rigid hub,a number of flexible thin tethers,sail membranes,and tip masses.A simplified interplanetary kite-craft accelerated by radiation of the Sun (IKAROS) model is established in this study by using the absolute-coordinate-based (ACB) method that combines the natural coordinate formulation (NCF) describing the central rigid hub and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) describing flexible parts.The initial configuration of the system in the second-stage deployment is determined through both dynamic and static analyses.The huge set of stiff equations of system dynamics is solved by using the generalized-alpha method,and thus the deployment dynamics of the system can be well understood.

  1. Structure determination of symmetric homo-oligomers by a complete search of symmetry configuration space, using NMR restraints and van der Waals packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Shobha; Yan, Anthony K; Chou, James J; Donald, Bruce R; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2006-10-01

    Structural studies of symmetric homo-oligomers provide mechanistic insights into their roles in essential biological processes, including cell signaling and cellular regulation. This paper presents a novel algorithm for homo-oligomeric structure determination, given the subunit structure, that is both complete, in that it evaluates all possible conformations, and data-driven, in that it evaluates conformations separately for consistency with experimental data and for quality of packing. Completeness ensures that the algorithm does not miss the native conformation, and being data-driven enables it to assess the structural precision possible from data alone. Our algorithm performs a branch-and-bound search in the symmetry configuration space, the space of symmetry axis parameters (positions and orientations) defining all possible C(n) homo-oligomeric complexes for a given subunit structure. It eliminates those symmetry axes inconsistent with intersubunit nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) distance restraints and then identifies conformations representing any consistent, well-packed structure to within a user-defined similarity level. For the human phospholamban pentamer in dodecylphosphocholine micelles, using the structure of one subunit determined from a subset of the experimental NMR data, our algorithm identifies a diverse set of complex structures consistent with the nine intersubunit NOE restraints. The distribution of determined structures provides an objective characterization of structural uncertainty: backbone RMSD to the previously determined structure ranges from 1.07 to 8.85 A, and variance in backbone atomic coordinates is an average of 12.32 A(2). Incorporating vdW packing reduces structural diversity to a maximum backbone RMSD of 6.24 A and an average backbone variance of 6.80 A(2). By comparing data consistency and packing quality under different assumptions of oligomeric number, our algorithm identifies the pentamer as the most likely oligomeric state

  2. Notes on absolute Hodge classes

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, François

    2011-01-01

    We survey the theory of absolute Hodge classes. The notes include a full proof of Deligne's theorem on absolute Hodge classes on abelian varieties as well as a discussion of other topics, such as the field of definition of Hodge loci and the Kuga-Satake construction.

  3. Transition from core-shell to Janus chemical configuration for bimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Cyril; Li, Z. L.; Yuan, Jun; Alloyeau, Damien; Nelayah, Jaysen; Bochicchio, Davide; Ferrando, Riccardo; Ricolleau, Christian

    2012-05-01

    In order to determine the possibilities to control the chemical configuration of bimetallic nanoparticles, we have considered CuAg nanoparticles synthesized by a physical route as a model in this study. The synthesis was made by pulsed laser deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions, via a sequential deposition procedure. We show that the temperature of the substrate and the absolute quantity of Ag in a particle are the main parameters that drive the chemical configuration. To explain the transition from a core-shell configuration to a Janus configuration as a function of Ag quantity, we have conducted density-functional theory calculations and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the stability of this system. The results are presented together with the experimental observations.

  4. Absolute structure determination of compounds with axial and planar chirality using the crystalline sponge method† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of sample preparation and crystallographic analysis. CCDC 1051799, 1051800, 1051618, 1051619, 1043948 and 1043949. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01681a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shota; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Hoshino, Manabu; Sato, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of compounds with axial and planar chirality is successfully determined by the crystalline sponge method without crystallization or derivatization of the compounds. This method is applied to absolute structure determination in the asymmetric synthesis of unique compounds with axial and planar chirality. PMID:28706719

  5. High-precision Absolute Coordinate Measurement using Frequency Scanned Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tianxiang; Riles, Keith; Li, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report high-precision absolute position measurement performed with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI). We reported previously on measurement of absolute distance with FSI [1]. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision of 2-dimensional measurements is better than 1 micron, and in 3-dimensional measurements, the precision on X and Y is confirmed to be below 1 micron, while the confirmed precision on Z is about 2 microns, where the confirmation is limited by the lower precision of the moving stage in Z direction.

  6. Enantiomeric HPLC resolution and absolute stereochemistry assignment of a new poligamain derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolozzi, M; Royo, V; Pereira, A C; Silva, M L A; Silva, R; Cunha, W R; Vaconcelos, K; Cass, Q B; Martins, C H G; Bastos, J K; Varchi, G; Guerrini, A; Bertucci, C

    2013-03-05

    A new aryltetralin lignan derivative, 1, was obtained by reacting dimethyl succinate and piperonal, furnishing the lactone 4-(3',4'-methylenedioxybenzyl)-4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, which was reacted once again with piperonal and LDA to give the dibenzylbutirolactone 7-hydroxyhinokinin. The cyclization of 7-hydroxyhinokinin into polygamain occurred in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid. The reduction of the furanic ring of polygamain was done by its reaction with DIBAL in THF, furnishing the diol functionalized lignin derivative 1 as single diastereomer. The enantiomeric fractions of 1 were obtained by preparative enantioselective HPLC. The absolute stereochemistry was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An all-trans relative configuration was determined by NMR on the bases of ¹H coupling constants and nuclear Overhauser effect (n.O.e.) experiments. The absolute configuration at C1 was assigned on the basis of the ECD sign at 296 nm by comparison to the ECD spectra of structural analogues with defined stereochemistry. The assignment of the absolute configuration was confirmed by applying the exciton chirality method to the well-defined ECD couplets at 285 and 200 nm allied to the two electronic transitions L(b) and B(b) of the aromatic moieties, respectively. Rac-1 and its enantiomeric isomers were evaluated against important bacteria responsible for dental caries. The best results obtained for the (1R,2S,3S) isomer were against Streptococcus mutans (250 μM), Streptococcus salivarius (250 μM), Streptococcus sobrinus (280 μM) and Streptococcus mitis (280 μM). The (1S,2R,3R) isomer was active only against Streptococcus sanguinis (280 μM). The enantiomeric mixture was less active than the (1R,2S,3S) isomer.

  7. Redetermining CEBAF's Absolute Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tong; Jlab Marathon Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    With the upgrade of the Jefferson Lab accelerator (CEBAF) from 6 GeV max energy to 12 GeV, all the dipole magnets in the machine were refurbished. Most of them were switched from open c-shaped to closed h-shaped by adding extra iron. With these upgraded magnets, the energy calibration of the accelerator needed to be redetermined. We will show how an extra external dipole, which is run in series with those in the machine, helps us cross check the current in the magnets as well as precisely map out the integral field for any machine setting. Using knowledge of the relative performance of the dipoles as well as the bend angle into the Hall, has allowed us to already determine a 4th pass 7 GeV beam to better than 7 MeV. In the future, we will use g-2 spin precession as a second independent energy determination. This work is supported by Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 (JLab).

  8. Absolute Stereochemistry of the β-Hydroxy Acid Unit in Hantupeptins and Trungapeptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Ding, Gary Chi Ying; Teo, Yong Chua; Tan, Lik Tong

    2016-01-01

    The β-hydroxy/amino acid unit is a common structural feature of many bioactive marine cyanobacterial depsipeptides. In this study, the absolute stereochemistry of the β-hydroxy acid moieties in hantupeptins and trungapeptins were determined through their synthesis and HPLC analysis of the Mosher ester derivatives. Synthesis of two3-hydroxy-2-methyloctanoic acid (Hmoa) stereoisomers, (2S,3R)-Hmoa and (2S,3S)-Hmoa, were achieved using diastereoselective asymmetric method and the retention times of all four Hmoa isomers were established indirectly by RPLC-MS analysis of their Mosher ester derivative standards. Based on the retention times of the standards, the absolute configuration of the Hmoa unit in hantupeptin C (3) and trungapeptin C (6) was assigned as (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)-Hmoa, respectively. The use of the Mosher's reagents, coupled with HPLC analysis, provided a viable alternative to the absolute stereochemical determination of β-hydroxy acid units in depsipeptides.

  9. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  10. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

  11. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  12. Absoluteness or relativity of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the case study of absoluteness or relativity of morals. The questions are in a new way comprehended: Can exist absolute morals? Is how its content? Is necessary it for humanity? Is moral personality absolute value? Does justify the purpose of means? It is substantiated, that reflecting about the problem of absoluteness or relativity of morals, one ought not to be abstracted from the religion ­ billions of people find in it the basis of their morals. Accumulated ethical experience is infinitely rich and diverse in humanity: it includes and the proclaimed prophets godly revelations, and the brilliant enlightenment of secular philosophers. Are analyzed such concepts, as morals, absolute morals, relativity, moral rigorizm, moral personality, formal ethics. The specific character of the moral relativity, which proclaims historicity and changeability of standards and standards of human behavior, is established. Moral rigorizm is understood as the principle, according to which the man must act only from the considerations of moral debt, whereas all other external motivations (interest, happiness, friendship, etc have no moral value. Is shown the priority significance of the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, in which strong idealizations and abstractions of the ethics of moral rigorizma are substituted by the weaker ­ more realistic and more humane. In the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, as in the life, moral estimations completely can be and in the overwhelming majority of the cases are relative.

  13. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  14. Significance of absolute energy scale for physics at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng-Dong; MO Xiao-Hu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of absolute energy calibration on BESⅢ physics are discussed in detail,which mainly involve the effects on τ mass measurement,cross section scan measurement,and generic error determination in other measurements.

  15. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  16. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  17. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  18. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  19. GC-MS Determination of Restricted Ingredients in Beeswax Absolute%气相色谱-质谱法测定蜂蜡净油中限用成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世娟; 冒德寿; 蔡炳彪; 李智宇; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    A method for determination of restricted ingredients in beeswax absolute by GC-MS was proposed.The sample was dissolved with mixed solvent of CH2Cl2-CHCl3(1+1),separated on two chromatographic columns with different polarity,and determined by MS under select ion monitoring(SIM) mode.Ninety-six components were identified,among which the coumarin and mossoia lactone were included to restricted ingredients.Linearity ranges between values of peak area and mass concentration of 7 restricted ingredients,including benzoic alcohol,cinnamic alcohol,coumarin,mossoia lactone,benzyl benzoate,benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate,were obtained in the same range of 0.08-80 mg·L-1,with detection limit(3S/N) in the range of 0.01-0.23 mg·kg-1.Values of recovery found by standard addition method were in the range of 86%-101%,with RSD′s(n=6) less than 4.0%.%提出了气相色谱-质谱法测定蜂蜡净油中限用成分含量的方法。样品经二氯甲烷-三氯甲烷(1+1)混合溶剂溶解,采用不同极性的两根色谱柱分离后,选择离子监测模式下质谱法进行测定。共鉴定出96种化合物,其中香豆素和马索亚内酯是禁用成分。苯甲醇、肉桂醇、香豆素、马索亚内酯、苯甲酸苄酯、水杨酸苄酯和肉桂酸苄酯等7种限用物质的质量浓度在0.08~80mg.L-1范围内呈线性关系,检出限(3S/N)在0.01~0.23mg.kg-1之间。样品加标回收率在86%~101%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)小于4.0%。

  20. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  1. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  2. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  3. Electrochemical systems configured to harvest heat energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Ghasemi, Hadi; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-31

    Electrochemical systems for harvesting heat energy, and associated electrochemical cells and methods, are generally described. The electrochemical cells can be configured, in certain cases, such that at least a portion of the regeneration of the first electrochemically active material is driven by a change in temperature of the electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cells can be configured to include a first electrochemically active material and a second electrochemically active material, and, in some cases, the absolute value of the difference between the first thermogalvanic coefficient of the first electrochemically active material and the second thermogalvanic coefficient of the second electrochemically active material is at least about 0.5 millivolts/Kelvin.

  4. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  5. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  6. Validation of a single-platform, volumetric, CD45-assisted PanLeucogating Auto40 flow cytometer to determine the absolute number and percentages of CD4 T cells in resource-constrained settings using Cameroonian patients' samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Mion, Stefano; Sagnia, Bertrand; Bélec, Laurent

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the single-platform, volumetric, CD45-assisted PanLeucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd., Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom) for CD4 T cell numeration, compared to the reference FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Results of absolute counts and percentages of CD4 T cells by Auto40 and FACSCalibur of 234 tripotassium EDTA (K3-EDTA)-blood samples from 146 adults and 88 children (aged from 18 months to 5 years), living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.97 and r(2) = 0.98, respectively). The mean absolute bias and relative bias between Apogee Auto40 and FACSCalibur absolute CD4 T cell counts were +9.6 cells/μl, with limits of agreement from -251 to 270 cells/μl, and +4.1%, with limits of agreement from -16.1 to 24.4%, respectively. The mean absolute bias and relative bias between Apogee Auto40 and FACSCalibur CD4 T cell results expressed as percentages were +0.05% CD4 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.03 to 0.41), with limits of agreement from -6.0 to 5.9% CD4, and +1.0%, with limits of agreement from -32.3 to 34.4%, respectively. The Auto40 counting allowed identification of the majority of adults with CD4 T cell counts below 200 cells/μl (sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 98%) or below 350 cells/μl (sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 98%) and of children with CD4 T cell counts below 750 cells/μl (sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 98%) or below 25% CD4(+) (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 99%). The Auto40 analyzer is a reliable alternative flow cytometer for CD4 T lymphocyte enumeration to be used in routine immunological monitoring according to the WHO recommendations for HIV-infected adults as well as children living in resource-constrained settings.

  7. Determining Favorable Binding Configurations of the Anti-Cancer Drug Ellipticine to the KV11.1 Potassium Channel V-VI Transmembrane Domain Through Autodock Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Dawn; Gentile, Saverio; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2011-10-01

    Ellipticines such as 9-methoxy-N-2-methylellipticinium acetate (MMEA) and 9-hydroxy-N-2-methylellipticinium acetate (NMEA, Celiptium ) are antineoplastic drugs that exert their selective cytotoxicity against leukemia and endometrial carcinoma. Ellipticine's action is also related to severe physical side effects, but the link between undesired effects and pharmacological application is not well understood. We investigated the binding of Ellipticine derivatives with the Kv11.1 potassium ion channel using Autodock and revealed that hydroxyellipticinium derivatives provide binding configurations with Kv11.1, but the energy, location and estimated dissociation constant varied. The binding energy is as follows: Chloroceliptium (-6.60 kcal/mol) > Celiptium (- 6.37 kcal/mol) > Methoxyceliptium (- 6.20 kcal/mol) > Datelliptium (-6.08 kcal/mol). Autodock simulations demonstrate that binding affinity is high at opposing ends of the channel and low within the channel interior. These favorable binding configurations suggest that Ellipticine derivatives may bridge among end subunits of the channel and potentially inhibit the flow of ions.

  8. Absolute neutrino masses physics beyond SM, double beta decay and cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Absolute neutrino masses provide a key to physics beyond the standard model. We discuss the impact of absolute neutrinos masses on physics beyond the standard model, the experimental possibilities to determine absolute neutrinos masses, and the intriguing connection with the Z-burst model for extreme-energy cosmic rays.

  9. SIM Configuration Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10 m baseline Michelson interferometer. Planned for launch in 2005 aboard a Delta III launch vehicle, or equivalent, its primary objective is to measure the positions of stars and other celestial objects with an unprecedented accuracy of 4 micro arc seconds. With such an instrument, tremendous advancement can be expected in our understanding of stellar and galactic dynamics. Using triangulation from opposite sides of the orbit around the sun (i.e. by using parallax) one can measure the distance to any observable object in our galaxy. By directly measuring the orbital wobble of nearby stars, the mass and orbit of planets can be determined over a wide range of parameters. The distribution of velocity within nearby galaxies will be measurable. Observations of these and other objects will improve the calibration of distance estimators by more than an order of magnitude. This will permit a much better determination of the Hubble Constant as well as improving our overall understanding of the evolution of the universe. SIM has undergone several transformations, especially over the past year and a half since the start of Phase A. During this phase of a project, it is desirable to perform system-level trade studies, so the substantial evolution of the design that has occurred is quite appropriate. Part of the trade-off process has addressed two major underlying architectures: SIM Classic; and Son of SIM. The difference between these two architectures is related to the overall arrangement of the optical elements and the associated metrology system. Several different configurations have been developed for each architecture. Each configuration is the result of design choices that are influenced by many competing considerations. Some of the more important aspects will be discussed. The Space Interferometry Mission has some extremely challenging goals: millikelvin thermal stability, nanometer stabilization of optics

  10. HLT configuration management system

    CERN Document Server

    Daponte, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger (HLT) is implemented running a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on thousands of CPUs. The CMS software is written mostly in C++, using Python as its configuration language through an embedded CPython interpreter. The configuration of each process is made up of hundreds of modules, organized in sequences and paths. As an example, the HLT configurations used for 2011 data taking comprised over 2200 different modules, organized in more than 400 independent trigger paths. The complexity of the HLT configurations and the large number of configuration produced require the design of a suitable data management system. The present work describes the designed solution to manage the considerable number of configurations developed and to assist the editing of new configurations. The system is required to be remotely accessible and OS-independent as well as easly maintainable easy to use. To meet these requirements a three-layers architecture has been choose...

  11. 2$^{+}$ anomaly and configurational isospin polarization of $^{136}$Te

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to perform a Coulomb excitation experiment on beams of radioactive ions of $^{136}$Te delivered by HIE-ISOLDE impinging on a $^{58}$Ni target. Scattered particles will be detected by a DSSSD detector and $\\gamma$-rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The proposed Configurational Isospin Polarization (CIP) of the two lowest 2$^+$ states will be determined by measuring the E2 excitation yield distribution to them. The expected proton-dominated one-phonon character of the second excited 2$^+$ state of $^{136}$Te will be tested on the basis of absolute electromagnetic matrix elements from the observed Coulomb excitation cross sections. Complementary lifetime information on this predominant 2$^+_{1,ms}$ state will be extracted using the differential DSAM technique. The experiment will clarify to what extent CIP is responsible for the 2$^+$ anomaly in $^{136}$Te.

  12. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  13. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  14. Linearized Euler Equations for the Determination of Scattering Matrices for Orifice and Perforated Plate Configurations in the High Mach Number Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schulze

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of a plane acoustic wave and a sheared flow is numerically investigated for simple orifice and perforated plate configurations in an isolated, non-resonant environment for Mach numbers up to choked conditions in the holes. Analytical derivations found in the literature are not valid in this regime due to restrictions to low Mach numbers and incompressible conditions. To allow for a systematic and detailed parameter study, a low-cost hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamic/Computational Aeroacoustic (CFD/CAA methodology is used. For the CFD simulations, a standard k–ϵ Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model is employed, while the CAA simulations are based on frequency space transformed linearized Euler equations (LEE, which are discretized in a stabilized Finite Element method. Simulation times in the order of seconds per frequency allow for a detailed parameter study. From the application of the Multi Microphone Method together with the two-source location procedure, acoustic scattering matrices are calculated and compared to experimental findings showing very good agreement. The scattering properties are presented in the form of scattering matrices for a frequency range of 500–1500 Hz.

  15. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...... method of data analysis. Findings - A comprehensive literature review and analysis resulted in a list of business model process configurations systematically organized under five classification groups, namely, revenue model; value proposition; value configuration; target customers, and strategic...

  16. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  17. Synthesis of the Enantiomers of Tedanalactam and the First Total Synthesis and Configurational Assignment of (+)-Piplaroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ibañez, Julio; Xochicale-Santana, Leonardo; Quintero, Leticia; Fuentes, Lilia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2016-04-22

    Highlighting the recently established methodology for the direct synthesis of glycidic amides from tertiary allyl amines, the synthesis of the enantiomers of tedanalactam were completed in two steps from the corresponding chiral dihydropiperidine. Additionally, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of piplaroxide were obtained from their respective tedanalactam precursor, and the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring (+)-piplaroxide was determined. The present approach represents not only the shortest synthesis of (-)-tedanalactam but also the first total synthesis of (+)-piplaroxide, a repellent against the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes.

  18. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  19. Ringed accretion disks: equilibrium configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the General Relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can be then determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We pr...

  20. Airport Configuration Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Airport configuration is a primary factor in various airport characteristics such as arrival and departure capacities and terminal area traffic patterns. These...

  1. CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-11-18

    ''The Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' prescribes an approach to the methodology for performing postclosure criticality analyses within the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An essential component of the methodology is the ''Configuration Generator Model for In-Package Criticality'' that provides a tool to evaluate the probabilities of degraded configurations achieving a critical state. The configuration generator model is a risk-informed, performance-based process for evaluating the criticality potential of degraded configurations in the monitored geologic repository. The method uses event tree methods to define configuration classes derived from criticality scenarios and to identify configuration class characteristics (parameters, ranges, etc.). The probabilities of achieving the various configuration classes are derived in part from probability density functions for degradation parameters. The NRC has issued ''Safety Evaluation Report for Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, Revision 0''. That report contained 28 open items that required resolution through additional documentation. Of the 28 open items, numbers 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, and 19 were concerned with a previously proposed software approach to the configuration generator methodology and, in particular, the k{sub eff} regression analysis associated with the methodology. However, the use of a k{sub eff} regression analysis is not part of the current configuration generator methodology and, thus, the referenced open items are no longer considered applicable and will not be further addressed.

  2. Ansible configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Ansible Configuration Management"" is a step-by-step tutorial that teaches the use of Ansible for configuring Linux machines.This book is intended for anyone looking to understand the basics of Ansible. It is expected that you will have some experience of how to set up and configure Linux machines. In parts of the book we cover configuration files of BIND, MySQL, and other Linux daemons, therefore a working knowledge of these would be helpful but are certainly not required.

  3. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  4. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  5. Detection of DBD-carbamoyl amino acids in amino acid sequence and D/L configuration determination of peptides with fluorogenic Edman reagent 7-[(N,N-dimethylamino)sulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Matsunaga, H; Toriba, A; Santa, T; Fukushima, T; Imai, K

    1999-06-01

    A method for amino acid sequence and D/L configuration identification of peptides by using fluorogenic Edman reagent 7-[(N, N-dimethylamino)sulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl isothiocyanate (DBD-NCS) has been developed. This method was based on the Edman degradation principle with some modifications. A peptide or protein was coupled with DBD-NCS under basic conditions and then cyclized/cleaved to produce DBD-thiazolinone (TZ) derivative by BF3, a Lewis acid, which could significantly suppress the amino acid racemization. The liberated DBD-TZ amino acid was hydrolyzed to DBD-thiocarbamoyl (TC) amino acid under a weakly acidic condition and then oxidized by NaNO2/H+ to DBD-carbamoyl (CA) amino acid which was a stable and had a strong fluorescence intensity. The individual DBD-CA amino acids were separated on a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for amino acid sequencing and their enantiomers were resolved on a chiral stationary-phase HPLC for identifying their D/L configurations. Combination of the two HPLC systems, the amino acid sequence and D/L configuration of peptides could be determined. This method will be useful for searching D-amino-acid-containing peptides in animals.

  6. Absolute stereostructures of olibanumols A, B, C, H, I, and J from olibanum, gum-resin of Boswellia carterii, and inhibitors of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Morikawa, Toshio; Oominami, Hideo; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2009-09-01

    Three new monoterpenes, olibanumols A (1), B (2), and C (3), and three new triterpenes, olibanumols H (4), I (5), and J (6), were isolated from olibanum, the exuded gum-resin from Boswellia carterii BIRDW. Their structures including the absolute configuration were determined by chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents, olibanumols A (1), H (4), and I (5), and isofouquierol (12) exhibited nitric oxide production inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

  7. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Waugh, C J; Séguin, F H; Sio, H; Sinenian, N; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Hohenberger, M; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Yeamans, C B; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Bionta, R M; Talison, B; Casey, D T; Landen, O L; Moran, M J; Zacharias, R A; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ∼1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  8. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance to the determination of the configuration of glycoside bond%核磁共振法在苷键构型确定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴月湖; 华会明; 李占林; 陈刚

    2011-01-01

    天然苷类化合物结构测定过程中核磁共振是测定苷键构型的重要方法.利用端基质子的偶合常数和端基碳的化学位移值判断苷键构型是最常用的方法,但有些糖不适用这种方法,而需要借助13CNMR谱数据分析确定苷键构型.本文通过归纳文献数据,总结利用1H NMR和13C NMR谱的特征判断各种常见单糖苷键构型的方法.%In the structural determination of natural glycosides, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an important approach in determining the configuration of glycoside bond. The test of coupling constant of the anomeric proton and chemical shift of the anomeric carbon are two common methods, but these methods are not suitable for some sugars. For those sugars, detailed 13C NMR analysis is an altemative choice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of 1H and 13C NMR data of the common monosaccharides published in the literatures, in order to search an approach to determine the configuration of glycoside bond.

  9. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  10. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  11. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Glen Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  12. The Sagnac-configured fiber optic calorimeter: An investigation of an improved non-destructive methodology for determining the thermal power output of heat-producing nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Stephen Carlton

    An essential component in an ever-expanding global nuclear economy is the nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. Accurate accounting of these materials helps to insure the safe handling and disposal of them and the accurate monitoring of these materials can help prevent their diversion. A particularly useful and important NDA technique has proven to be isothermal calorimetry. With state-of-the-art calorimeters, heat rates as low as a few milliwatts can be measured, which correspond to approximately one gram of plutonium or one milligram of tritium; two materials of particular interest. In addition, calorimetry is relatively insensitive to the matrix of the sample. This work reports on the development of a calorimeter technique based on fiber optics, which can greatly increase the sensitivity of the calorimeter compared with present day devices. Specifically, this device uses an optical fiber configuration based on the Sagnac interferometer. Fundamentally, the optical fiber is replacing the resistive wire used in conventional calorimeters. The optical fiber is wrapped around two "thermels;" a reference and a sample thermel; the thermal sample to be measured is placed in the sample thermel. The light within the optical fiber of the sample arm experiences a change in phase due to the change in the index of refraction caused by the thermal load. When this light mixes with the light from the reference arm, a change in the light intensity results. An electro-optic receiver converts the time-varying light intensity to a time-varying voltage output. It is this voltage output that is stored and analyzed. A prototype fiber calorimeter has been built and proved capable of measuring heat loads in the microwatt regime. This sensitivity represents a factor of a one thousand-fold improvement over conventional calorimeters. This would allow plutonium samples as small as one milligram to be measured and microgram quantities of tritium. In addition, gram quantities of 93

  13. System Design of the ATLAS Absolute Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, Francis; Franz, Sebastien; Iwanski, W; Lundberg, B; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS absolute luminosity monitor is composed of 8 roman pots symmetrically located in the LHC tunnel. Each pot contains 23 multi anode photomultiplier tubes, and each one of those is fitted with a front-end assembly called PMF. A PMF provides the high voltage biasing of the tube, the frontend readout chip and the readout logic in a very compact arrangement. The 25 PMFs contained in one roman pot are connected to a motherboard used as an interface to the backend electronics. The system allows to configure the front-end electronics from the ATLAS detector control system and to transmit the luminosity data over Slink.

  14. Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.

  15. Subsets of configurations and canonical partition functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, J.; Bruckmann, F.; Kieburg, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We explain the physical nature of the subset solution to the sign problem in chiral random matrix theory: the subset sum over configurations is shown to project out the canonical determinant with zero quark charge from a given configuration. As the grand canonical chiral random matrix partition...

  16. Comparison between four dissimilar solar panel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, K.; Ali, U. A.; Yusuf, Ibrahim; Koko, A. D.; Bala, S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies on photovoltaic systems focused on how it operates and energy required in operating it. Little attention is paid on its configurations, modeling of mean time to system failure, availability, cost benefit and comparisons of parallel and series-parallel designs. In this research work, four system configurations were studied. Configuration I consists of two sub-components arranged in parallel with 24 V each, configuration II consists of four sub-components arranged logically in parallel with 12 V each, configuration III consists of four sub-components arranged in series-parallel with 8 V each, and configuration IV has six sub-components with 6 V each arranged in series-parallel. Comparative analysis was made using Chapman Kolmogorov's method. The derivation for explicit expression of mean time to system failure, steady state availability and cost benefit analysis were performed, based on the comparison. Ranking method was used to determine the optimal configuration of the systems. The results of analytical and numerical solutions of system availability and mean time to system failure were determined and it was found that configuration I is the optimal configuration.

  17. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on global value chain configuration, providing an overview of this topic. Specifically, we review the literature focusing on the concept of the global value chain and its activities, the decisions involved in its configuration, such as location, the governance...... modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  18. Absolutely separating quantum maps and channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, S. N.; Magadov, K. Yu; Jivulescu, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Absolutely separable states ϱ remain separable under arbitrary unitary transformations U\\varrho {U}\\dagger . By example of a three qubit system we show that in a multipartite scenario neither full separability implies bipartite absolute separability nor the reverse statement holds. The main goal of the paper is to analyze quantum maps resulting in absolutely separable output states. Such absolutely separating maps affect the states in a way, when no Hamiltonian dynamics can make them entangled afterwards. We study the general properties of absolutely separating maps and channels with respect to bipartitions and multipartitions and show that absolutely separating maps are not necessarily entanglement breaking. We examine the stability of absolutely separating maps under a tensor product and show that {{{Φ }}}\\otimes N is absolutely separating for any N if and only if Φ is the tracing map. Particular results are obtained for families of local unital multiqubit channels, global generalized Pauli channels, and combination of identity, transposition, and tracing maps acting on states of arbitrary dimension. We also study the interplay between local and global noise components in absolutely separating bipartite depolarizing maps and discuss the input states with high resistance to absolute separability.

  19. Hydrophobic interactions as key determinants to the KCa3.1 channel closed configuration. An analysis of KCa3.1 mutants constitutively active in zero Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Line; Klein, Hélène; Banderali, Umberto; Longpré-Lauzon, Ariane; Parent, Lucie; Sauvé, Rémy

    2009-01-02

    In this study we present evidence that residue Val282 in the S6 transmembrane segment of the calcium-activated KCa3.1 channel constitutes a key determinant of channel gating. A Gly scan of the S6 transmembrane segment first revealed that the substitutions A279G and V282G cause the channel to become constitutively active in zero Ca2+. Constitutive activity was not observed when residues extending from Cys276 to Ala286, other than Ala279 and Val282, were substituted to Gly. The accessibility of Cys engineered at Val275 deep in the channel cavity was next investigated for the ion-conducting V275C/V282G mutant and closed V275C channel in zero Ca2+ using Ag+ as probe. These experiments demonstrated that internal Ag+ ions have free access to the channel cavity independently of the channel conducting state, arguing against an activation gate located at the S6 segment C-terminal end. Experiments were also conducted where Val282 was substituted by residues differing in size and/or hydrophobicity. We found a strong correlation between constitutive activity in zero Ca2+ and the hydrophobic energy for side chain burial. Single channel recordings showed finally that constitutive activation in zero Ca2+ is better explained by a model where the channel is locked in a low conducting state with a high open probability rather than resulting from a change in the open/closed energy balance that would favor channel openings to a full conducting state in the absence of Ca2+. We conclude that hydrophobic interactions involving Val282 constitute key determinants to KCa3.1 gating by modulating the ion conducting state of the selectivity filter through an effect on the S6 transmembrane segment.

  20. Airport Configuration Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is presently poor knowledge throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) of the airport configurations currently in use at each airport. There is even less...

  1. Firewall Configuration Errors Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wool, Avishai

    2009-01-01

    The first quantitative evaluation of the quality of corporate firewall configurations appeared in 2004, based on Check Point FireWall-1 rule-sets. In general that survey indicated that corporate firewalls were often enforcing poorly written rule-sets, containing many mistakes. The goal of this work is to revisit the first survey. The current study is much larger. Moreover, for the first time, the study includes configurations from two major vendors. The study also introduce a novel "Firewall Complexity" (FC) measure, that applies to both types of firewalls. The findings of the current study indeed validate the 2004 study's main observations: firewalls are (still) poorly configured, and a rule-set's complexity is (still) positively correlated with the number of detected risk items. Thus we can conclude that, for well-configured firewalls, ``small is (still) beautiful''. However, unlike the 2004 study, we see no significant indication that later software versions have fewer errors (for both vendors).

  2. Drupal 8 configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Drupal 8 Configuration Management is intended for people who use Drupal 8 to build websites, whether you are a hobbyist using Drupal for the first time, a long-time Drupal site builder, or a professional web developer.

  3. ATLAS DAQ Configuration Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Alexandrov; A.Amorim; 等

    2001-01-01

    The configuration databases are an important part of the Trigger/DAQ system of the future ATLAS experiment .This paper describes their current status giving details of architecture,implementation,test results and plans for future work.

  4. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  5. Configuration by Modularisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riitahuhta, Asko; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    Globally operating companies have realized that locally customized products and services are today the prerequisite for the success. The capability or the paradigm to act locally in global markets is called Mass Customization [Victor 1997]. The prerequisite for Mass Customization is Configuration...... for the creation of a structured product family is presented and examples are given. The concepts of a novel Dynamic Modularisation method, Metrics for Modularisation and Design for Configurability are presented....

  6. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    on configuration systems in the shape of anecdotal reporting on the development of information systems that perhaps support the configuration task – perhaps not. Consequently, the definition of configuration has become ambiguous as different research groups defines configuration differently. This paper propose...... a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  7. Absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Klaus; Braun, Pierre-François; Karrai, Khaled

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a method for absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. A particularity of this technique is that a target distance is determined in absolute and is no longer limited to within an ambiguity range affecting usually multiple wavelength interferometers. We implemented the technique in a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot miniature fiber based interferometer. We used two diode lasers, both operating in the 1550 nm wavelength range. The wavelength difference is chosen to create a 25 μm long periodic beating interferometric pattern allowing a nanometer precise position measurement but limited to within an ambiguity range of 25 μm. The ambiguity is then eliminated by scanning one of the wavelengths over a small range (3.4 nm). We measured absolute distances in the sub-meter range and this with just few nanometer repeatability.

  8. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  9. Determination of the configuration of optimal slot liner (straight vs. keystone) for sand control in horizontal wells, pertaining to the unit of extra-heavy oil, district San Tome, eastern river basin of Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijada, W. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Exploration and Production; Oliveira, D. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviewed slotted liner designs and problems associated with the production of sand in horizontal wells. Laboratory tests were also conducted in order to investigate sand plugging mechanisms with different configurations of slotted liners. The tests involved passing oil through sand samples in order to determine the quantity of sand passing across the slot liner. The study showed that fewer pressure losses were produced when keystone-shaped slots were used. Anti-plugging properties in keystone slots were also observed. The study also demonstrated that changes in sand grain arrangements occur each time wells are stopped. It was concluded that reductions in horizontal well production may be caused by sand plugging. Slot sizes that maximize slot size ratio between the mouth and throat of the slot provide the best mechanism for preventing sand plugging. 3 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  10. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  11. Newton On Absolute Space A Commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    Newton seems to have stated a quantitative relationship between the position of a body in relative space and the position of the body in absolute space in the first scholium of his Principia. We show that if this suspected relationship is assumed to hold, it will dispel many errors and misrepresentations that have befallen Newton's ideas on absolute space.

  12. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  13. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  14. Configuration Control Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Beltramello, O

    In order to enable Technical Coordination to manage the detector configuration and to be aware of all changes in this configuration, a baseline of the envelopes has been created in April 2001. Fifteen system and multi-system envelope drawings have been approved and baselined. An EDMS file is associated with each approved envelope, which provides a list of the current known unsolved conflicts related to the envelope and a list of remaining drawing inconsistencies to be corrected. The envelope status with the associated drawings and EDMS file can be found on the web at this adress: http://atlasinfo.cern.ch/Atlas/TCOORD/Activities/Installation/Configuration/ Any modification in the baseline has to be requested via the Engineering Change Requests. The procedure can be found under: http://atlasinfo.cern.ch/Atlas/TCOORD/Activities/TcOffice/Quality/ECR/ TC will review all the systems envelopes in the near future and manage conflict resolution with the collaboration of the systems.

  15. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, L; Van Herwijnen, Eric; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb configuration database is to store information about all the controllable devices of the detector. The experiment's control system (that uses PVSS ) will configure, start up and monitor the detector from the information in the configuration database. The database will contain devices with their properties, connectivity and hierarchy. The ability to store and rapidly retrieve huge amounts of data, and the navigability between devices are important requirements. We have collected use cases to ensure the completeness of the design. Using the entity relationship modelling technique we describe the use cases as classes with attributes and links. We designed the schema for the tables using relational diagrams. This methodology has been applied to the TFC (switches) and DAQ system. Other parts of the detector will follow later. The database has been implemented using Oracle to benefit from central CERN database support. The project also foresees the creation of tools to populate, maintain, and co...

  16. ROE Fish Faunal Absolute Loss

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Reduction is based on the number of native species determined to be present as of 2015, compared with historical numbers documented prior to 1970. Data are displayed...

  17. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  18. Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Heradio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.

  19. Early School Dropout: Configurations and Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined behavioral, cognitive, and demographic factors associated with early school dropout in 475 seventh graders. Clusters of students most vulnerable to early school dropout were characterized by high levels of aggressiveness and low levels of academic performance. (RJC)

  20. The application and comparison of 97Zr and 92Sr in the absolute determination of the contribution of power density and cladding activation in a VVER-1000 Mock-Up on the LR-0 Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Milčák, Ján

    2014-02-01

    97Zr is a relatively high-yield fission product that can be used for zero reactor power determination. The technique is not widely used because in the case of reactors that use zirconium metal in the fuel cladding, it is not only a fission product but is also produced by activation. In an appropriately chosen time interval, results obtained using 97Zr can be compared to those of power determination performed using 92Sr. The knowledge of the ratio between fission-induced 97Zr and the portion of 97Zr activated in the cladding can be used not only for power-density determination but also as an important indication of fuel failures.

  1. Ansible configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for anyone who wants to learn Ansible starting from the basics. Some experience of how to set up and configure Linux machines and a working knowledge of BIND, MySQL, and other Linux daemons is expected.

  2. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  3. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  4. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  5. Determination of buckling and probability of leakage of neutron in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor in cylindrical configuration; Medida do buckling e da probabilidade de fuga de neutrons do nucleo do reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini

    2014-07-01

    One of the key parameters in reactor physics is the Buckling of a reactor core. It is related to important parameters such as reaction rates, nuclear power operation, fuel burning, among others. In a critical reactor, the Buckling depends on the geometric and material characteristics of the reactor core. This work presents the results of experimental Buckling in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts, it is a versatile nuclear facility which allows the simulation of all the characteristics of a large nuclear power reactor and ideal for this type of measurement. We conducted a mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor and thereby determined the total Buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for one hour. Then, the activity of the fuel rods was measured by gamma spectrometry on a rod scanner HPGe detector. We analyzed the gamma photons of the {sup 239}Np (276,6 keV) for neutron capture (n,γ) and the {sup 143}Ce (293,3 keV) for fission (n,f) on both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U, respectively. We analyzed the axial and radial directions. Other measurements were performed using wires and gold foils in the radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The Buckling Total obtained from the three methods by weighted mean is 96,55 ± 7,47 m{sup -2}. The goal is to obtain experimental values of a set of experimental data to allow one direct comparison with values calculated by the codes used in reactor physics CITATION and MCNP. (author)

  6. PROFIT – THE ABSOLUTE EXPRESSION OF PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of an economic unit is expressed through a system of indicators, because "no index or economic category can reflect the total, perfect, complex reality of economic phenomena or processes. Each expresses a side of concrete, essential details (indexes, but a full one (economic category. This system of indexes for profitability is characterized by a higher degree of consolidation, of reflection of the economic-financial results. They must be correlated to the other indexes of economic efficiency from the various subsystems that constitute the factors which determine the actual amount of profit and the rate of return. Each indicator has a certain form of expression according to the phenomena to which it refers. Thus, they can be expressed in relative sizes as medium sizes or indexes. They can also be expressed in physical, conventional or value units. The ability to develop monetary results can not be judged independently to the employed means for achieving them. Therefore, the profitability analysis is not limited to investigating its absolute indexes but also the relative ones, obtained by comparing the results to the means employed or consumed for developing the specific activity

  7. The Mauna Kea Observatories Near-Infrared Filter Set. III. Isophotal Wavelengths and Absolute Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Tokunaga, A T

    2005-01-01

    The isophotal wavelengths, flux densities, and AB magnitudes for Vega (alpha Lyr) are presented for the Mauna Kea Observatories near-infrared filter set. We show that the near-infrared absolute calibration for Vega determined by Cohen et al. and Megessier are consistent within the uncertainties, so that either absolute calibration may be used.

  8. Equilibrium Configuration of Φ4 Oscillatons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Alvarado, Susana; Becerril, Ricardo; Ureña-López, L. Arturo

    2010-07-01

    We search for equilibrium configurations of the (coupled) Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations for the case of a real scalar field endowed with a quartic self-interaction potential. The resulting solutions are the generalizations of the (massive) oscillating soliton stars, the so-called oscillatons. Among other parameters, we estimate the mass curve of the configurations, and determine their critical mass for different values of the quartic interaction.

  9. Modular small hydro configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  10. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  11. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  12. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  13. Polysoaps: Configurations and Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.

    1997-03-01

    Simple polymers are very long, flexible, linear molecules. Amphiphiles, soaps, are small molecules comprising of a part that prefers water over oil and a part that prefers oil over water. By combining the two we arrive at an interesting, little explored, class of materials: Polysoaps. These comprise of a water soluble backbone incorporating, at intervals, covalently bound amphiphilic monomers. In water, the polymerised amphiphiles aggregate into self assembled units known as micelles. This induces a dramatic modification of the spatial configurations of the polymers. What were featureless random coils now exhibit intramolecular, hierachial self organisation. Due to this self organisation it is necessary to modify the paradigms describing the large scale behaviour of these polymers: Their configurations, dimensions and elasticity. Understanding the behaviour of these polymers is of practical interest because of their wide range of industrial applications, ranging from cosmetics to paper coating. It is of fundamental interest because polysoaps are characterised by a rugged free energy landscape that is reminiscent of complex systems such as proteins and glasses. The talk concerns theoretical arguments regarding the following issues: (i) The design parameters that govern the spatial configurations of the polysoaps, (ii) The interaction between polysoaps and free amphiphiles, (iii) The effect of the intramolecular self organisation on the elasticity of the chains.

  14. The ALICE Configuration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccioli, M.; Carena, F.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Lechman, M.; Jusko, A.; Pinazza, O.; ALICE Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It includes 18 different sub-detectors and 5 online systems, each one made of many different components and developed by different teams inside the collaboration. The operation of a large experiment over several years to collect billions of events acquired in well defined conditions requires predictability and repeatability of the experiment configuration. The logistics of the operation is also a major issue and it is mandatory to reduce the size of the shift crew needed to operate the experiment. Appropriate software tools are therefore needed to automate daily operations. This ensures minimizing human errors and maximizing the data taking time. The ALICE Configuration Tool (ACT) is ALICE first step to achieve a high level of automation, implementing automatic configuration and calibration of the sub-detectors and online systems. This presentation describes the goals and architecture of the ACT, the web-based Human Interface and the commissioning performed before the start of the collisions. It also reports on the first experiences with real use in daily operations, and finally it presents the road-map for future developments.

  15. The risks of absolute medical confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, M A

    2013-03-01

    Some ethicists argue that patient confidentiality is absolute and thus should never be broken. I examine these arguments that when critically scrutinised, become porous. I will explore the concept of patient confidentiality and argue that although, this is a very important medical and bioethical issue, this needs to be wisely delivered to reduce third party harm or even detriment to the patient. The argument for absolute confidentiality is particularly weak when it comes to genetic information and inherited disease.

  16. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  17. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  18. Configuration Design of Product Service System for CNC Machine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqi Sheng; Tao Xu; Junyou Song

    2015-01-01

    Product service system is a combination of product and services to meet the customer requirements. Configuration design is the key process of product service system development. This paper studies the configuration design of product service system for CNC machine tools. The research explores the configuration design process of product service system development, analyzes the retrieval method of product service system schemes, determines the configuration sequence of product modules and servic...

  19. Optimized geometric configuration of active ring laser gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, John; Salloum, Tony

    2016-05-01

    We present a thorough derivation of the Sagnac effect for a ring laser gyroscope of any arbitrary polygonal configuration. We determine optimized alternative geometric configurations for the mirrors. The simulations incur the implementation of a lasing medium with the standard square system, triangular, pentagonal, and oblongated square configuration (diamond). Simulations of possible new geometric configurations are considered, as well as the possibility of adjusting the concavity of the mirrors.

  20. Sectorization and Configuration Transition in Airspace Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current airspace is sectorized according to some predefined rules that are not flexible. To facilitate utilizing the airspace more efficiently, methods to design sectors need to be promoted. In this paper, we propose an undirected graph cut-based approach that employs a memetic local search-embedded constrained evolution algorithm, NSGA-II, to generate nondominated airspace configurations. We also propose a new concave hull-based method to automatically depict sector boundaries. In addition, we also study the configuration transition problem. We define the similarity of the two different configurations and calculate their similarity with a bisection diagram and a minimum cost flow algorithm. We build a forward network to represent configuration transitions across several consecutive time periods and use multiobjective dynamic programming to determine a series of nondominated configuration links from the first period to the end. We test our approaches by simulation in high-altitude airspace controlled by Beijing Area Control Center. The results show that our sectorization method outperforms the current configuration in practice, providing a lower sector number, lower intersector flow, more balanced workload distribution among the different sectors, and no constraint violations, so that the proposed approach shows its significant potential as practical applications for dynamic airspace configuration.

  1. Host-Guest Assembly of a Molecular Reporter with Chiral Cyanohydrins for Assignment of Absolute Stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Hadi; Anyika, Mercy; Zhang, Jun; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak

    2016-06-27

    The absolute stereochemistry of cyanohydrins, derived from ketones and aldehydes, is obtained routinely, in a microscale and derivatization-free manner, upon their complexation with Zn-MAPOL, a zincated porphyrin host with a binding pocket comprised of a biphenol core. The host-guest complex leads to observable exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD), the sign of which is easily correlated to the absolute stereochemistry of the bound cyanohydrin. A working model, based on the ECCD signal of cyanohydrins with known configuration, is proposed.

  2. Assignment of absolute stereostructures through quantum mechanics electronic and vibrational circular dichroism calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Jiang, Nan; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of absolute configuration of chiral molecules including structurally complex natural products remains a challenging problem in organic chemistry. A reliable method for assigning the absolute stereostructure is to combine the experimental circular dichroism (CD) techniques such as electronic and vibrational CD (ECD and VCD), with quantum mechanics (QM) ECD and VCD calculations. The traditional QM methods as well as their continuing developments make them more applicable with accuracy. Taking some chiral natural products with diverse conformations as examples, this review describes the basic concepts and new developments of QM approaches for ECD and VCD calculations in solution and solid states.

  3. Absolute Cerebral Blood Flow Infarction Threshold for 3-Hour Ischemia Time Determined with CT Perfusion and 18F-FFMZ-PET Imaging in a Porcine Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Eric A; d'Esterre, Christopher D; Morrison, Laura B; Cockburn, Neil; Kovacs, Michael; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2016-01-01

    CT Perfusion (CTP) derived cerebral blood flow (CBF) thresholds have been proposed as the optimal parameter for distinguishing the infarct core prior to reperfusion. Previous threshold-derivation studies have been limited by uncertainties introduced by infarct expansion between the acute phase of stroke and follow-up imaging, or DWI lesion reversibility. In this study a model is proposed for determining infarction CBF thresholds at 3hr ischemia time by comparing contemporaneously acquired CTP derived CBF maps to 18F-FFMZ-PET imaging, with the objective of deriving a CBF threshold for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the brain of Duroc-Cross pigs (n = 11) through a burr hole in the skull. CTP images were acquired 10 and 30 minutes post ET-1 injection and then every 30 minutes for 150 minutes. 370 MBq of 18F-FFMZ was injected ~120 minutes post ET-1 injection and PET images were acquired for 25 minutes starting ~155-180 minutes post ET-1 injection. CBF maps from each CTP acquisition were co-registered and converted into a median CBF map. The median CBF map was co-registered to blood volume maps for vessel exclusion, an average CT image for grey/white matter segmentation, and 18F-FFMZ-PET images for infarct delineation. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were performed on infarcted and non-infarcted pixel CBF values for each animal that developed infarct. Six of the eleven animals developed infarction. The mean CBF value corresponding to the optimal operating point of the ROC curves for the 6 animals was 12.6 ± 2.8 mL·min-1·100g-1 for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. The porcine ET-1 model of cerebral ischemia is easier to implement then other large animal models of stroke, and performs similarly as long as CBF is monitored using CTP to prevent reperfusion.

  4. Absolute Cerebral Blood Flow Infarction Threshold for 3-Hour Ischemia Time Determined with CT Perfusion and 18F-FFMZ-PET Imaging in a Porcine Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Wright

    Full Text Available CT Perfusion (CTP derived cerebral blood flow (CBF thresholds have been proposed as the optimal parameter for distinguishing the infarct core prior to reperfusion. Previous threshold-derivation studies have been limited by uncertainties introduced by infarct expansion between the acute phase of stroke and follow-up imaging, or DWI lesion reversibility. In this study a model is proposed for determining infarction CBF thresholds at 3hr ischemia time by comparing contemporaneously acquired CTP derived CBF maps to 18F-FFMZ-PET imaging, with the objective of deriving a CBF threshold for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 was injected into the brain of Duroc-Cross pigs (n = 11 through a burr hole in the skull. CTP images were acquired 10 and 30 minutes post ET-1 injection and then every 30 minutes for 150 minutes. 370 MBq of 18F-FFMZ was injected ~120 minutes post ET-1 injection and PET images were acquired for 25 minutes starting ~155-180 minutes post ET-1 injection. CBF maps from each CTP acquisition were co-registered and converted into a median CBF map. The median CBF map was co-registered to blood volume maps for vessel exclusion, an average CT image for grey/white matter segmentation, and 18F-FFMZ-PET images for infarct delineation. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were performed on infarcted and non-infarcted pixel CBF values for each animal that developed infarct. Six of the eleven animals developed infarction. The mean CBF value corresponding to the optimal operating point of the ROC curves for the 6 animals was 12.6 ± 2.8 mL·min-1·100g-1 for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. The porcine ET-1 model of cerebral ischemia is easier to implement then other large animal models of stroke, and performs similarly as long as CBF is monitored using CTP to prevent reperfusion.

  5. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  6. Relative or Absolute Poverty Lines - A New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    1999-01-01

    When measuring poverty over time analysts must choose the value of the income elasticity of the poverty line, which essentially determines whether an absolute or relative poverty line is being used. The choice of this parameter is ultimately a value judgement but this paper suggests an approach which has some empirical basis. Borrowing from the life-style and deprivation approach to poverty various dimensions of poverty and deprivation are identified and the income elasticity of these items i...

  7. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  8. Electroweak Absolute, Meta-, and Thermal Stability in Neutrino Mass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Manfred; Radovčić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  9. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  10. Automatic Configuration in NTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin

    2003-01-01

    NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.

  11. Realization of a frequency standard at 778 nm: absolute frequency measurement of the 2S-8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium and determination of the Rydberg constant; Realisation d'un etalon de frequence a 778 nm: mesure absolue des frequences 2S-8S/D des atomes d'hydrogene et de deuterium et determination de la constante de rydberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvoir, B. de

    1996-12-15

    The purpose of this work is to design a 778 nm standard laser for performing an absolute measurement of 2S-8S/D frequencies of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. This frequency calibration is based on a 5S-5D two-photon transition of the rubidium atom. Metrological performance of this laser is 10 times as good as that of He-Ne laser calibrated on iodine. It has been shown that the passage of a laser radiation through an optic fiber does not deteriorate its metrological properties. 2S-8S/8D transitions have been excited in an atomic jet by a titanium-sapphire laser. Spurious effects can shift and broaden lines. In order to prevent these effects, a theoretical line has been shaped and adjusted on experimental signals. The frequency comparison between the excitation laser and the standard laser has led to the measurement of the absolute frequency of the line concerned. The value of the Rydberg constant has been deduced: R{sub {infinity}} = 109737.3156859 (10) cm{sup -1}. The comparison of experimental data between deuterium and hydrogen has allowed us to determine the value of the Lamb shift of the 2S state of deuterium: L(2S-2P) = 1059,230 (9) MHz.

  12. Risk factor modification and projections of absolute breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Elisabetta; Decarli, Adriano; Schairer, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Gail, Mitchell H

    2011-07-06

    Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer. Using data from a case-control study of women in Italy (2569 case patients and 2588 control subjects studied from June 1, 1991, to April 1, 1994) and incidence and mortality data from the Florence Registries, we developed a model to predict the absolute risk of breast cancer that included five non-modifiable risk factors (reproductive characteristics, education, occupational activity, family history, and biopsy history) and three modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, and body mass index). The model was validated using independent data, and the percent risk reduction was calculated in high-risk subgroups identified by use of the Lorenz curve. The model was reasonably well calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cancers = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.26), but the discriminatory accuracy was modest. The absolute risk reduction from exposure modifications was nearly proportional to the risk before modifying the risk factors and increased with age and risk projection time span. Mean 20-year reductions in absolute risk among women aged 65 years were 1.6% (95% CI = 0.9% to 2.3%) in the entire population, 3.2% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.8%) among women with a positive family history of breast cancer, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 6.8%) among women who accounted for the highest 10% of the total population risk, as determined from the Lorenz curve. These data give perspective on the potential reductions in absolute breast cancer risk from preventative strategies based on lifestyle changes. Our methods are also useful for calculating sample sizes required for trials to test lifestyle interventions.

  13. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  14. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  15. Tooling system configuration in FMSs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieco, A. [Universita degli Studi di Lecce (Italy); Semeraro, Q.; Tolio, T. [Facolta di Ingegneria, Milano (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The increasing competition has led to product differentiation, life cycle shortening and rapid changes in the demand. One of the possible technological answer to these productive problems is represented by flexible automation and particularly by flexible manufacturing systems, that thanks to their flexibility give the possibility to answer to the variability in the product demand with reduced production costs and with limited flow times. With the advent of computerized manufacturing facilities, in particular FMS, it has become clear that tooling is a major constraint which could potentially prevent these systems from exploiting their full flexibility. Indeed the productivity of a flexible manufacturing system highly depends on the occurrence of conflicts regarding tool usage. This is the reason why tool management has become in the last decade an area of increased research activity. In this paper we present an analytical formulation for the tooling configuration problem in a flexible manufacturing system. The formulation determines the copies number for each tool type in the system minimizing the average lack of time in the machining centers for lack of the necessary tool, under the constraint of an assigned total number of tools. The results of the proposed method have been compared with two models of configuration of the tooling system proposed in literature by means of simulations experiments. The results of the simulations have underlined a meaningful increase of the performance of the system for the proposed model.

  16. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  17. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  18. On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2014-01-01

    The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9+-2.0 ph/MeV for the band at 337 nm in dry air at 800 hPa and 293 K, in agreement with experimental values. We have also performed a critical analysis of available absolute measurements of the fluorescence yield with the assistance of our simulation. Corrections have been applied to some measurements to account for a bias in the evaluation of the energy deposition. Possible effects of other experimental aspects have also been discussed. From this analysis, we determined an average fluorescence yield of 7.04+-0.24 ph/MeV at the above conditions.

  19. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-04-15

    The annual ('01-'01) objective of this project is to data the fault activity for the presumed quaternary fault zones to the western part of the Ulsam fault system and southeastern coastal area near the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. Rb-Sr, K-Ar, OSL, C-14 and U-series disequilibrium methods were applied to the fault rocks, organic matter and quaternary formations collected from the Pyeonghae, Bogyeongsa, Yugyeri, Byegkye, Gacheon-1 and Joil outcrops of the Yangsan fault system, the Baenaegol outcrop of the Moryang fault system, the Susyongji(Madong-2), Singye, Hwalseongri, Ipsil and Wonwonsa outcrops of the Ulsan fault system and from quaternary marine terraces (Oryoo and Kwangseong sites) in the southeastern coastal area. The experimental procedure of the OSL SAR protocol was reexamined to get more reliable dating results.

  20. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 80-95 Ma, 70 Ma, 50 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Yangsan fault zone. The apparent K-Ar ages tend to be older than Rb-Sr ages, probably indicating the effect of excess radiogenic Ar, which will be furthur investigated by Ar-Ar method. The OSL SAR protocol using 220 .deg. C cut-heat yields reproducible and stratigraphically consistent OSL ages ranging from 71 ka to 48 ka for beach deposits of the marine terrace No 2. The apparent OSL ages for the marine terrace No 3 range from 92 ka to 61 ka. These ages constrain the minimum age of the platform considering the underestimation effect resulted from deposition underwater. Therefore we regard the formation age of the terrace No 3 as MIS(Marine Isotopic Stage) 5c or 5e. Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 40 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Ulsan fault zone. Relatively young (< 10 Ma) fault activities are recognized in the Oesa, Janghangri and Wonwonsa sites.

  1. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Koshima

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...

  2. Absolute-Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M_B -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.

  3. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  4. TWRS Configuration management program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, J.M.

    1996-06-03

    The TWRS Configuration Management Program Plan (CMPP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain consistency among requirements, product configuration, and product information for TWRS products during all life cycle phases. This CMPP will be used by TWRS management and configuration management personnel to establish and manage the technical and integrated baselines and controls and status changes to those baselines.

  5. Counterintuitive Behaviors in Configuration Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaofei; Robinson, Shadow

    2016-01-01

    By starting with a simple configurations of 2 neutrons in a single j shell we hare able to learn the effects of high lying configurations on physical properties such as nuclear magnetic g factors. Some counterintuitive results are found when both high lying spin orbit partners are allowed to admix with the basic configuration.

  6. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  7. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard; Seeberg, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism....

  8. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana,Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetic...

  9. Generation Favorable Institutional Configuration Regional Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zinovievna Solodilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical issues of creating an enabling business environment, which is the base platform for the successful development of entrepreneurship in the regions. Provides A definition of a favorable institutional configuration of the regional business environment, which refers to forms of implementing the basic institutions and other regional institutions, taking into account existing regional system of formal and informal interaction between economic actors. States that despite the measures taken, the landscape of the Russian business community in terms of regions, remains uneven, with different indices of investment and business attractiveness, there is differentiation in business conditions in the regions with similar natural and geographical conditions and resource potential, which is primarily determined by , differences in the institutional configuration of the regional business environment and quality of interaction among the business community of the region. Hypothesis about the impossibility of creating a favorable business environment, institutional configurations at the same time in all regions of the country, as well as its limited duration. Conducted theoretical and probabilistic analysis of the parameters of creating an enabling institutional configuration of the business environment in the Russian regions. Grounded approach whereby institutional configuration of regional business environment, may be subject to management and control actions through targeted by the regional authorities can accept the specified (favorable to the business community parameters. The necessity of planning and effective management of a favorable institutional configuration of the business environment by regional authorities to increase the period of its existence.

  10. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  11. Time Function and Absolute Black Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....

  12. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  13. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio

  14. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  15. Magnetoresistive sensor for absolute position detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A digital measurement principle for absolute position is decscribed. The position data is recorded serially into a single track of a hard-magnetic layer with the help of longitudinal saturation recording. Detection is possible by means of an array of sensor elements which can be made of a substrate.

  16. Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.

  17. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  18. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  19. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  20. Application of Configurators in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Shorter lead-time, improved quality of product specifications and better communication with customers and suppliers are benefits derived from the application of configurators. Configurators are knowledge-based IT-systems that can be applied to deal with product knowledge and to support different...... processes in a company. Traditionally, configurators have been used as an internal tool. In this paper focus will be on the application of configurators in a network of companies, and a procedure for developing product configurators in a network of companies will be presented. The aim is to present...... a structured guideline, tools and methods on how to successfully develop configurators in a network perspective. Findings presented in this paper are supported by research in a case company. The results from the empirical work show a huge potential for the application of configurators in networks of companies....

  1. Absolute distance measurement with micrometer accuracy using a Michelson interferometer and the iterative synthetic wavelength principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Gdeisat, Munther; Bezombes, Frederic; Qudeisat, Mohammad

    2012-02-27

    We present a novel system that can measure absolute distances of up to 300 mm with an uncertainty of the order of one micrometer, within a timeframe of 40 seconds. The proposed system uses a Michelson interferometer, a tunable laser, a wavelength meter and a computer for analysis. The principle of synthetic wave creation is used in a novel way in that the system employs an initial low precision estimate of the distance, obtained using a triangulation, or time-of-flight, laser system, or similar, and then iterates through a sequence of progressively smaller synthetic wavelengths until it reaches micrometer uncertainties in the determination of the distance. A further novel feature of the system is its use of Fourier transform phase analysis techniques to achieve sub-wavelength accuracy. This method has the major advantages of being relatively simple to realize, offering demonstrated high relative precisions better than 5 × 10(-5). Finally, the fact that this device does not require a continuous line-of-sight to the target as is the case with other configurations offers significant advantages.

  2. Aging, Counterfeiting Configuration Control (AC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-31

    relabeled fake microcircuit chips from overseas - threaten the reliability, safety, and performance of DoD systems. These systems are vulnerable... NASA , Raytheon internal, etc. Aging, Counterfeiting Configuration Control (AC3) Page 13 of 28 are important in determining the alert’s priority

  3. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  4. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M.; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Vanden Berk, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ~2600-3300 Å after removing optical light, and u ≈ 3000-4000 Å) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ≈2000-2400 Å). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 Å. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ~1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  5. A Robust Electrode Configuration for Bioimpedance Measurement of Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode configuration is an important issue in the continuous measurement of respiration using impedance pneumography (IP. The robust configuration is usually confirmed by comparing the amplitude of the IP signals acquired with different electrode configurations, while the relative change in waveform and the effects of body posture and respiratory pattern are ignored. In this study, the IP signals and respiratory volume are simultaneously acquired from 8 healthy subjects in supine, left lying, right lying and prone postures, and the subjects are asked to perform four respiratory patterns including free breathing, thoracic breathing, abdominal breathing and apnea. The IP signals are acquired with four different chest electrode configurations, and the volume are measured using pneumotachograph (PNT. Differences in correlation and absolute deviation between the IP-derived and PNT-derived respiratory volume are assessed. The influences of noise, respiratory pattern and body posture on the IP signals of different configurations have significant difference (p < 0.05. The robust electrode configuration is found on the axillary midline, which is suitable for long term respiration monitoring.

  6. A robust electrode configuration for bioimpedance measurement of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bin; Yen, Chen-Wen; Liang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Guan-Zheng; Song, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Electrode configuration is an important issue in the continuous measurement of respiration using impedance pneumography (IP). The robust configuration is usually confirmed by comparing the amplitude of the IP signals acquired with different electrode configurations, while the relative change in waveform and the effects of body posture and respiratory pattern are ignored. In this study, the IP signals and respiratory volume are simultaneously acquired from 8 healthy subjects in supine, left lying, right lying and prone postures, and the subjects are asked to perform four respiratory patterns including free breathing, thoracic breathing, abdominal breathing and apnea. The IP signals are acquired with four different chest electrode configurations, and the volume are measured using pneumotachograph (PNT). Differences in correlation and absolute deviation between the IP-derived and PNT-derived respiratory volume are assessed. The influences of noise, respiratory pattern and body posture on the IP signals of different configurations have significant difference (p < 0.05). The robust electrode configuration is found on the axillary midline, which is suitable for long term respiration monitoring.

  7. Backside configured surface plasmonic enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun, E-mail: xuejun-lu@uml.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Vaillancourt, Jarrod [Applied NanoFemto Technologies, LLC, 181 Stedman St. 2, Lowell, MA 01851 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, we fabricated, measured and compared the quantum dots infrared photodetector enhancement by the top- and backside- configured plasmonic structures. The backside configured plasmonic structure can provide much higher device performance enhancement. Furthermore, the excitation of the surface plasmonic waves by the top- and backside- configured plasmonic structures was analyzed. Detailed simulation results of the electric field at different wavelength from top illumination and backside illumination were provided. The stronger electric field from the backside illumination attributed to the higher enhancement.

  8. Performance bounds for relative configuration and global transformation in cooperative localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative localization introduces internode measurements to provide the node relative locations instead of absolute locations. This paper decomposes the absolute locations into relative configuration and global transformation, where the former can be specified by the internode measurements while the latter requires reference information. This decomposition can be used to investigate the relative localization which uses only internode measurements and the absolute localization with the consideration of anchor location uncertainty. After deriving the coordinate representations, error metric, and performance bounds for the global transformation, we evaluate the performance of a node location calibration that uses the measurements from sources in unknown locations.

  9. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  10. Learning in a unidimensional absolute identification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Cowan, Nelson; Pfaltz, Monique

    2004-10-01

    We tested whether there is long-term learning in the absolute identification of line lengths. Line lengths are unidimensional stimuli, and there is a common belief that learning of these stimuli quickly reaches a low-level asymptote of about seven items and progresses no more. We show that this is not the case. Our participants served in a 1.5-h session each day for over a week. Although they did not achieve perfect performance, they continued to improve day by day throughout the week and eventually learned to distinguish between 12 and 20 line lengths. These results are in contrast to common characterizations of learning in absolute identification tasks with unidimensional stimuli. We suggest that this learning reflects improvement in short-term processing.

  11. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  12. Absolute zero and the conquest of cold

    CERN Document Server

    Shachtman, Tom

    2000-01-01

    In a sweeping yet marvelously concise history, Tom Shachtman ushers us into a world in which scientists tease apart the all-important secrets of cold. Readers take an extraordinary trip, starting in the 1600s with an alchemist's air conditioning of Westminster Abbey and scientists' creation of thermometers. Later, while entrepreneurs sold Walden Pond ice to tropical countries -- packed in "high-tech" sawdust -- researchers pursued absolute zero and interpreted their work as romantically as did adventurers to remote regions. Today, playing with ultracold temperatures is one of the hottest frontiers in physics, with scientists creating useful particles Einstein only dreamed of. Tom Shachtman shares a great scientific adventure story and its characters' rich lives in a book that has won a grant from the prestigious Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Absolute Zero is for everyone who loves history and science history stories, who's eager to explore Nobel Prize-winning physics today, or who has ever sighed with pleasure ...

  13. An absolute measure for a key currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  14. Typology of Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Edwards, Kasper; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Many organisations are moving from mass production to mass customization. Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly seen as an interesting option for firms who wish to pursue a strategy with a high degree of product variance while retaining a low cost of specifying the product. To become...... more specific in relation to how product configuration systems can support mass customization, it is necessary to understand how different product configuration systems can be classified, and how these differ. This paper presents a typology of product configuration systems based on the five kinds...

  15. Absolute vs. Relative Notion of Wealth Changes

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses solutions derived from lottery experiments using two alternative assumptions: that people perceive wealth changes as absolute amounts of money; and that people consider wealth changes as a proportion of some reference value dependant on the context of the problem under consideration. The former assumption leads to the design of Prospect Theory, the latter - to a solution closely resembling the utility function hypothesized by Markowitz (1952B). This paper presents several...

  16. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  17. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Angelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  18. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  19. Anderson's absolute objects and constant timelike vector hidden in Dirac matrices

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Anderson's theorem asserting, that symmetry of dynamic equations written in the relativisitically covariant form is determined by symmetry of its absolute objects, is applied to the free Dirac equation. Dirac matrices are the only absolute objects of the Dirac equation. There are two ways of the Dirac matrices transformation: (1) Dirac matrices form a 4-vector and wave function is a scalar, (2) Dirac matrices are scalars and the wave function is a spinor. In the first case the Dirac equation ...

  20. A Software Configuration Management Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    Software Configuration Management has been a big success in research and creation of tools. There are also many vendors in the market of selling courses to companies. However, in the education sector Software Configuration Management has still not quite made it - at least not into the university...... and contents of such a course....

  1. Heisenberg model and Rigged Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    We show a correspondence of all the solutions of the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model for N=12 to the rigged configurations based on the comparison of the set of Takahashi quantum numbers in lexicographical order with the set of riggings of the rigged configurations in co-lexicographical order.

  2. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; Braga, Nelson R. F.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2017-02-01

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton-dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  3. Application of Configurators in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    a structured guideline, tools and methods on how to successfully develop configurators in a network perspective. Findings presented in this paper are supported by research in a case company. The results from the empirical work show a huge potential for the application of configurators in networks of companies....

  4. Synthesis, chiral HPLC resolution and configuration assignment of 1-phenylglyceryl trinitrate stereomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Tron, Gian Cesare; Marabello, Domenica; Stilo, Antonella Di; Cena, Clara; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Roussel, Christian

    2006-06-01

    As an introductory study of in vitro vasodilating activity, the access to the four stereomers of 1-phenylglyceryl trinitrate is described using achiral and chiral chromatography. For semi-preparative separation of the enantiomers, a Chiralcel OD (250 x 10 mm, 10 microm) was used. Catalytic reduction leading to the corresponding stereomers of 1-phenylglycerol allowed absolute configuration assignments. The same methods were used for the separation and configuration assignment of the enantiomers of 3-phenylpropane-1,2-diyl dinitrate.

  5. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L. [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolf, Marek, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz [Astronomical Institute, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, 180 00 Praha 8, V Holesovickach 2 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  6. Determination of relative configurations and conformations of oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria guianensis by NMR; Determinacao por RMN das configuracoes relativas e conformacoes de alcaloides oxindolicos isolados de Uncaria guianensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Flausino Junior, Otavio Aparecido; Furlan, Maysa; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2004-12-01

    Phytochemical studies with leaves of Uncaria guianensis resulted in the isolation of the oxindole alkaloids isomitraphylline (1), 3-isoajmalicine (2) mitraphylline (3), and isomitraphylinic acid (4). Structural assignments of these alkaloids, including relative configurations and conformations, were performed through spectral data and physical properties. 1D and 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was a valuable tool for the establishment of the relative stereochemistry of those compounds. (author)

  7. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  8. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2016-07-21

    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  9. ABSOLUT LOMO绝对创意

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    婷婷(整理)

    2007-01-01

    ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今,已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭,而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。

  10. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  11. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  12. Development of an absolute neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, C; Birstein, L; Loyola, H [Section de Desarrollos Innovativos, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: lbirstei@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    An Absolute Neutron Dosimeter was developed to be used as a calibration standard for the Radiation Metrology Laboratory at CCHEN. The main component of the Dosimeter consists of a Proportional Counter of cylindrical shape, with Polyethylene walls and Ethylene gas in its interior. It includes a cage shaped arrangement of graphite bars that operates like the Proportional Counter cathode and a tungsten wire of 25 {mu}m in diameter {mu}m as the anode. Results of a Montecarlo modeling for the Dosimeter operation and results of tests and measurements performed with a radioactive source are presented.

  13. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  14. The Absolute Magnitude of RRc Variables From Statistical Parallax

    CERN Document Server

    Kollmeier, Juna A; Burns, Christopher R; Gould, Andrew; Thompson, Ian B; Preston, George W; Sneden, Christopher; Crane, Jeffrey D; Dong, Subo; Madore, Barry F; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, Jose L; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D; Villanueva, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 247 RRc selected from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) for which high-quality light curves, photometry and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey (CARRS). We find that M_(V,RRc) = 0.52 +/- 0.11 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M_(V,RRab) = 0.75 +/- 0.13 and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M_(V, RRc) = 0.27 +/- 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo to be (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (10.9,34.9,7.2) km/s in the radial, rotational and vertical directions with dispersions (sigma_(W_pi), sigma_(W_theta), sigma_(W_z)) = (154.7, 103.6, 93.8) km/s. For the disk, we find (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (8.5, 213...

  15. Rosette Central Configurations, Degenerate central configurations and bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Jinzhi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we find a class of new degenerate central configurations and bifurcations in the Newtonian $n$-body problem. In particular we analyze the Rosette central configurations, namely a coplanar configuration where $n$ particles of mass $m_1$ lie at the vertices of a regular $n$-gon, $n$ particles of mass $m_2$ lie at the vertices of another $n$-gon concentric with the first, but rotated of an angle $\\pi/n$, and an additional particle of mass $m_0$ lies at the center of mass of the system. This system admits two mass parameters $\\mu=m_0/m_1$ and $\\ep=m_2/m_1$. We show that, as $\\mu$ varies, if $n> 3$, there is a degenerate central configuration and a bifurcation for every $\\ep>0$, while if $n=3$ there is a bifurcations only for some values of $\\epsilon$.

  16. Adaptive Configuration of UVLC Using PDM in H.26L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiaofeng; ZHANGYe; GUXuemai

    2004-01-01

    Universal variable length coding (UVLC) is a key technique of the new generation video coding standard H.26L. Although the UVLC provides an easy way to encode all syntax elements in a regular form, it failed to conform to symbol probability distribution to get the best coding result in some conditions, especially with small quantization parameter (i.e. QP) values. Configurable Variable length code (VLC) is a better method to solve this problem. However, the confguration determination is a new problem. In this paper, Probability distribution matching (PDM) is proposed to choose the most suitable configuration from a predetermined configuration table according to already encoded symbol probability distribution. The configuration is gotten in encoder and decoder in the same way, and any overhead information is unnecessary. Experimental results show that the PDM is an applicable method to adjust the configuration, and a wider usage of configurable VLC in other coding applications is foreseeing.

  17. Error analysis in newborn screening: can quotients support the absolute values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, Borros; Hintz, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Newborn screening is performed using modern tandem mass spectrometry, which can simultaneously detect a variety of analytes, including several amino acids and fatty acids. Tandem mass spectrometry measures the diagnostic parameters as absolute concentrations and produces fragments which are used as markers of specific substances. Several prominent quotients can also be derived, which are quotients of two absolute measured concentrations. In this study, we determined the precision of both the absolute concentrations and the derived quotients. First, the measurement error of the absolute concentrations and the measurement error of the ratios were practically determined. Then, the Gaussian theory of error calculation was used. Finally, these errors were compared with one another. The practical analytical accuracies of the quotients were significantly higher (e.g., coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.1% for the phenylalanine to tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) quotient and CV = 5.6% for the Fisher quotient) than the accuracies of the absolute measured concentrations (mean CVs = 12%). According to our results, the ratios are analytically correct and, from an analytical point of view, can support the absolute values in finding the correct diagnosis.

  18. A method to estimate the absolute ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter from relative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbeom; Song, Dong-Gi; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2017-02-17

    The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter, β, is determined from the displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic frequency component generated during the propagation of ultrasonic waves through a material. This parameter is generally referred to as the absolute parameter. Meanwhile, it is difficult to measure the small displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic component; therefore, most studies measure the relative parameter determined from the detected signal amplitude. However, for quantitative assessment of material degradation, the absolute parameter is still required. This study proposes a method to estimate the absolute parameter for damaged material by measuring the relative parameter. This method is based on the fact that the fractional ratio of the relative parameters between different materials is identical to that of the absolute parameters after compensation for material dependent differences such as the wavenumber and detection-sensitivity. In order to experimentally verify the method, the relative parameters of heat-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens with different aging times were measured to compare with absolute parameters directly measured by piezo-electric detection. The results show that the fluctuations of both parameters with respect to aging time were very similar to each other, and that the absolute parameters estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those measured directly.

  19. ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE TYPE INDIRECT CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.

  20. Absolute Orientation Based on Distance Kernel Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbiao Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical absolute orientation method is capable of transforming tie points (TPs from a local coordinate system to a global (geodetic coordinate system. The method is based only on a unique set of similarity transformation parameters estimated by minimizing the total difference between all ground control points (GCPs and the fitted points. Nevertheless, it often yields a transformation with poor accuracy, especially in large-scale study cases. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel absolute orientation method based on distance kernel functions, in which various sets of similarity transformation parameters instead of only one set are calculated. When estimating the similarity transformation parameters for TPs using the iterative solution of a non-linear least squares problem, we assigned larger weighting matrices for the GCPs for which the distances from the point are short. The weighting matrices can be evaluated using the distance kernel function as a function of the distances between the GCPs and the TPs. Furthermore, we used the exponential function and the Gaussian function to describe distance kernel functions in this study. To validate and verify the proposed method, six synthetic and two real datasets were tested. The accuracy was significantly improved by the proposed method when compared to the classical method, although a higher computational complexity is experienced.

  1. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  2. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yiran Chen

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...

  3. Bethe's quantum numbers and rigged configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol N. Kirillov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to determine the quantum numbers, which we call the rigged configurations, for the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations for the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model under the periodic boundary condition. Our method is based on the observation that the sums of Bethe's quantum numbers within each string behave particularly nicely. We confirm our procedure for all solutions for length 12 chain (totally 923 solutions.

  4. The GLC and TLC resolution of diastereoisomeric polyhydroxystearates and assignment of configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R; Bever, E L; Snyder, F

    1966-11-01

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA) derivatives of methyl 12-hydroxystearate, methyl ricinoleate, five positional isomers of methylthreo- anderythro-dihydroxystearate, four diastereoisomeric methyl 9,10-12-trihydroxystearates, and four racemic diastereoisomeric methyl 9,10-12,13-tetrahydroxystearates were prepared and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The isomericthreo- anderythro-dihydroxystearates that had not previously been resolved by GLC were separated. Excellent resolution of the diastereoisomeric pairs of methylthreo- anderythro-9,10-12-triand and methylerythro, erythro- andthreo, threo-9,10-12,13-tetrahydroxystearates was obtained by GLC of their TFA derivatives. Analyses of these high-molecular-weight compounds were carried out on polar and nonpolar packed columns used routinely for methyl ester analysis.The various methyl mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrahydroxysterate esters were also analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Silica Gel G adsorbent layers and on Silica Gel G impregnated with sodium arsenite.Relative and absolute configurations were assigned to the various diastereoisomeric tri- and tetrahydroxysterates based on information obtained from GLC, TLC, synthetic ratios, and molecular-models.A micro hydroxylation method that gives quantitative yields ofthreo- anderythro-dihydroxy acids from various concentrations of C(18) monoene geometrical isomers was developed. Subsequent GLC analysis of the isomeric methyl dihydroxy TFA derivatives allows the quantitative determination of double-bond configuration on small samples without expensive or specialized equipment.

  5. Configurational assignments of conformationally restricted bis-monoterpene hydroquinones: Utility in exploration of endangered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joonseok Oh; John J. Bowling; Amar G. Chittiboyina; Robert J. Doerksen; Daneel Ferreira; Theodor D. Leininger; Mark T. Hamann

    2013-01-01

    Endangered plant species are an important resource for new chemistry. Lindera melissifolia is native to the Southeastern U.S. and scarcely populates the edges of lakes and ponds. Quantum mechanics (QM) used in combination with NMR/ECD is a powerful tool for the assignment of absolute configuration in lieu of X-ray crystallography. Methods: The EtOAc extract of L....

  6. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Southworth, John, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: astro.js@keele.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.

  7. Configuration Spaces in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-01-01

    I consider configuration spaces for $N$-body problems, gauge theories and for GR in both geometrodynamical and Ashtekar variables forms, including minisuperspace and inhomogeneous perturbations thereabout in the former case. These include many interesting spaces of shapes (with and without whichever of local or global notions of scale). In considering reduced configuration spaces, stratified manifolds arise. Three strategies to deal with these are `excise', `unfold' and `accept'. I show that spaces of triangles arising from various interpretations of 3-body problems already serve as model arena for all three. I furthermore argue in favour of the `accept' strategy on relational grounds. Sheaf methods then become relevant in this case, as does the stratifold construct that pairs some well-behaved stratified manifolds with sheaves. I apply arguing against `excise' and `unfold' to GR's superspace and thin sandwich, and to the removal of collinear configurations in mechanics. Non-redundant configurations are also ...

  8. Configuration entropy of fractal landscapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez‐Iturbe, Ignacio; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    .... The spatial arrangement of two‐dimensional images is found to be an effective way to characterize fractal landscapes and the configurational entropy of these arrangements imposes demanding conditions for models attempting to represent these fields.

  9. 白内障超声乳化摘出术后OCT测量的眼前节结构改变%The changes of ocular anterior segment configuration following phacoemulsification determined by anterior segment OCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑虔

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a main blinding eye disease worldwide,follwed by glaucoma.Expension of lens volume occurs in early stage of age-related cataractous eyes,which is a risk factor of Primary angle-closure glaucoma,and phacoemulsification is a feasible approach to remove it.However,how to select the timing of operation and determine the prognosis is the major challenge for ophthalmologists.In order to evaluate the influence of phacoemulsification on ocular anterior segment configuration,we collected the information of 17 articles that quantitatively analyzed the ocular anterior segment parameter changes after phacoemulsification,determined by anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT).Total 866 eyes that received phacoemulsification for age-related cataract were included in the following-up duration for 6 months,and the results showed that the mean anterior chamber depth (ACD),anterior chamber volume (ACV),anterior chamber angle (ACA),angle opening distance 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AODS00),angle opening distance 750 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD750),trabecular-iris space area 500 μm from scleral spur (TISA500),trabecular-iris space area 750 μm from scleral spur(TISA750),and angle recess area 750 μm anterior to the scleral spur (ARA 750) were increased,but the mean anterior chamber width (ACW) and iris thickness measured at 750 μm (IT750) were not significantly changed,while the postoperative iris curvature (I-Curv),iris cross-sectional area and convex hull of iris segments were decreased after phacoemulsification.In addition,the postoperative ACD,TISA500 showed positive correlations to preoperative lens thickness,and the ACD and AOD500 in 3 months after operation were positively correlated to the preoperative lens value (LV).This systematic review concluded that phacoemulsification could be used for the treatment of glaucoma by relieving pupillary block,reducing the iris oppression,deepening the anterior chamber and opening anterior chamber angle.%目前,白内

  10. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  11. Configured fuel briquet and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.M.

    1985-01-29

    A charcoal briquet of any selected shape is configured to provide a preselected ignition time and total burning time response. A method of constructing such a briquet for any desired combustion response includes empirically deriving expressions for ignition time as a function of briquet volume, surface area and density, and for burn time as a function of volume and density, and configuring any selected shape briquet in accordance with the parameters found to provide such selected performance.

  12. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  13. Aspects of manual wheelchair configuration affecting mobility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users' actions and mobility.

  14. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  15. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  16. Absolute properties of the spotted eclipsing binary star CV Bootis

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg

    2008-01-01

    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84-day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system CV Boo. These data along with other observations from the literature are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M(A) = 1.032 +/- 0.013 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.262 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the hotter, larger, and more massive primary (star A), and M(B) = 0.968 +/- 0.012 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.173 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 +/- 150 K and 5670 +/- 150 K. The intrinsic variability with a period about 1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulatio...

  17. Accurate absolute parameters of the binary system V4089 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Veramendi, M E

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a spectroscopic-photometric analysis of the binary V4089 Sgr with the aim to obtain absolute masses and radii of the components and to contrast these parameters with stellar evolution theoretical models. We took high-resolution spectra and measured radial velocity using standard cross-correlations and a technique of spectral disentangling. Absolute parameters of the components were determined through the simultaneous fitting of measured radial velocities and Geneva photometric data available in the literature. In this way we obtained Ma=2.584+-0.008 Msun, Mb=1.607+-0.007 Msun, Ra=3.959+-0.013 Rsun, and Rb=1.605+-0.016 Rsun. The comparison of these parameters with two grids of theoretical models led to estimate narrow ranges of possible values for system metallicity and age. According circularization theory it is not expected that the binary had been achieved a circular orbit as a result of tidal friction, so the null eccentricity found is an interesting fact. On the other hand, we measured proj...

  18. DI3 - A New Procedure for Absolute Directional Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Geese

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard observatory procedure for determining a geomagnetic field's declination and inclination absolutely is the DI-flux measurement. The instrument consists of a non-magnetic theodolite equipped with a single-axis fluxgate magnetometer. Additionally, a scalar magnetometer is needed to provide all three components of the field. Using only 12 measurement steps, all systematic errors can be accounted for, but if only one of the readings is wrong, the whole measurement has to be rejected. We use a three-component sensor on top of the theodolites telescope. By performing more measurement steps, we gain much better control of the whole procedure: As the magnetometer can be fully calibrated by rotating about two independent directions, every combined reading of magnetometer output and theodolite angles provides the absolute field vector. We predefined a set of angle positions that the observer has to try to achieve. To further simplify the measurement procedure, the observer is guided by a pocket pc, in which he has only to confirm the theodolite position. The magnetic field is then stored automatically, together with the horizontal and vertical angles. The DI3 measurement is periodically performed at the Niemegk Observatory, allowing for a direct comparison with the traditional measurements.

  19. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  20. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  1. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  2. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  3. WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  4. Inviscid instability of the Batchelor vortex: Absolute-convective transition and spatial branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendraru, Cornel; Sellier, Antoine; Rossi, Maurice; Huerre, Patrick

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to examine the spatio-temporal instability properties of the Batchelor q-vortex, as a function of swirl ratio q and external axial flow parameter a. The inviscid dispersion relation between complex axial wave number and frequency is determined by numerical integration of the Howard-Gupta ordinary differential equation. The absolute-convective nature of the instability is then ascertained by application of the Briggs-Bers zero-group-velocity criterion. A moderate amount of swirl is found to promote the onset of absolute instability. In the case of wakes, transition from convective to absolute instability always takes place via the helical mode of azimuthal wave number m=-1. For sufficiently large swirl, co-flowing wakes become absolutely unstable. In the case of jets, transition from absolute to convective instability occurs through various helical modes, the transitional azimuthal wave number m being negative but sensitive to increasing swirl. For sufficiently large swirl, weakly co-flowing jets become absolutely unstable. These results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those obtained by Delbende et al. through a direct numerical simulation of the linear response. Finally, the spatial (complex axial wave number, real frequency) instability characteristics are illustrated for the case of zero-external flow swirling jets.

  5. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  6. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  7. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  8. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  9. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  10. Absolute stability for the lateral-directional BWB model with rate limited actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel IORGA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a study regarding the interaction between the human pilot and the aircraft which may result in a dangerous phenomenon called Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO, in the context of the lateral directional motion. The theoretical model of the airplane used is a Blended Wing Body (BWB configuration and the human operator is expressed by the Synchronous Pilot Model (represented by a simple gain. The Popov criterion, in the case of the infinite parameter, is applied in order to investigate the absolute stability of the pilot-airplane linearized system in the presence of the rate saturation of the actuator.

  11. BAYESIAN IMAGE RESTORATION, USING CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordis Linda Thorarinsdottir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed in detail for 3 X 3 and 5 X 5 configurations and examples of the performance of the procedure are given.

  12. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  13. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  14. Superfast 3D absolute shape measurement using five binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method that recovers high-quality 3D absolute coordinates point by point with only five binary patterns. Specifically, three dense binary dithered patterns are used to compute the wrapped phase; and the average intensity is combined with two additional binary patterns to determine fringe order pixel by pixel in phase domain. The wrapped phase is temporarily unwrapped point by point by referring to the fringe order. We further developed a computational framework to reduce random noise impact due to dithering, defocusing and random noise. Since only five binary fringe patterns are required to recover one 3D frame, extremely high speed 3D shape measurement can be achieved. For example, we developed a system that captures 2D images at 3333 Hz, and thus performs 3D shape measurement at 667 Hz.

  15. A modified phase-coding method for absolute phase retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Fringe projection technique is one of the most robust tools for three dimensional (3D) shape measurement. Various fringe projection methods have been proposed for addressing different issues in profilometry and phase-coding is one such technique employed to determine fringe orders for absolute phase retrieval. However this method is prone to fringe order error, while dealing with high-frequency fringes. This paper studies phase error introduced by system non-linearity in phase-coding and provides a mathematical model to obtain the maximum number of achievable codewords in a given scheme. In addition, a modified phase-coding method is also proposed for phase error compensation. Experimental study validates the theoretical analysis on the maximum number of achievable codewords and the performance of the modified phase-coding method is also illustrated.

  16. Electronic Configuration of Yb Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Svane, A. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Strange, P. [Physics Department, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Winter, H. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delin, A.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.; Fast, L. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Uppsala, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Wills, J.M. [Center of Materials Science and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The total energy differences between divalent and trivalent configurations of Yb ions in a number of Yb compounds are studied. Two different band theoretical methods, which differ in the treatment of the localized f electrons, are used. The results show that in all Yb compounds the valence energy differences are equal to the energy needed to localize an f electron. These valence energy differences correlate with the number of f electrons hybridizing with the conduction bands in the trivalent configuration. For divalent YbS, the pressure induced f -electron delocalization implies an intermediate valency, as also indicated by experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  17. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...... from implementing PCS. The three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, 3)less resource intensity.......Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  18. Instance-specific algorithm configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Malitsky, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a modular and expandable technique in the rapidly emerging research area of automatic configuration and selection of the best algorithm for the instance at hand. The author presents the basic model behind ISAC and then details a number of modifications and practical applications. In particular, he addresses automated feature generation, offline algorithm configuration for portfolio generation, algorithm selection, adaptive solvers, online tuning, and parallelization.    The author's related thesis was honorably mentioned (runner-up) for the ACP Dissertation Award in 2014,

  19. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; McClelland, D E; Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; Clelland, David E Mc

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network naturally arise in this context. We propose a formalism to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method, and construct a model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  20. A Newtonian interpretation of configurational forces on dislocations and cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Royer-Carfagni, Gianni

    2016-10-01

    Configurational forces are fundamental concepts in the description of the motion of dislocations, cracks and other defects that introduce singularities within the solid state. They are defined by considering variations in energies associated with the movement of such defects, and are therefore different from the classical forces that enter the balance laws of classical Newtonian mechanics. Here, it is demonstrated how a configurational force can be viewed as the resultant of the (Newtonian) contact forces acting on the perturbed shape of an object of substance equivalent to the defect, and evaluated in the limit of the shape being restored to the primitive configuration. The expressions for the configurational forces on the paradigmatic examples of cracks and dislocations are in agreement with those determined using classical variational arguments. This finding opens a new prospective in the use of configurational forces by permitting their physical and intuitive visualization.