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Sample records for absolute configuration determination

  1. Utilization of 1H NMR in the determination of absolute configuration of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiros, Marizeth L.; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P. . E-juceni@ufba.br

    2005-01-01

    This review reports the determination of absolute configuration of primary and secondary alcohols by 1 H NMR spectroscopy, using the Mosher method. This method consists in the derivatization of an alcohol possessing unknown absolute configuration with one or both enantiomers of an auxiliary reagent. The resulting diastereoisomer spectra are registered and compared, and the chemical shift differences (Δδ R,S = δ R - δ S ) are measured. The determination of the absolute configuration of the alcohol molecule is based on the correlation between its chiral center and the auxiliary reagent's chiral center. Therefore, the determination of the absolute configuration depends on aromatic ring shielding effects on the substituents of the alcohol as evidenced by the 1 H NMR spectrum. (author)

  2. New Compounds from Euphorbia helioscopia and Absolute Configuration Determination by Computational Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiangbo; Zhu, Hua Jie; Luo, Gui Fen; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong Xian; Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaopeng; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Guochun; Liu, Guang Ming

    2010-01-01

    The whole plant of Euphorbia helioscopia is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Fom its BuOH soluble extract, one new lactam, three new terpenoids including a new naturally occurring compound, and three known compounds were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic evidences. In particular, the absolute configurations of side chain of compounds 1 and 2 were determined using computational methods

  3. Determination of the absolute configuration of monosaccharides in complex carbohydrates by capillary G.L.C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Gerwig, G.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The absolute configuration of neutral monosaccharides, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy sugars, and uronic acids can be determined by capillary g.l.c. on SE-30 after glycosidation with (-)-2-butanol and protection of the remaining polar groups. The method is illustrated by application to mixtures of the

  4. a Chiral Tagging Strategy for Determining Absolute Configuration and Enantiomeric Excess by Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Patterson, David; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; West, Channing; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of three wave mixing rotational spectroscopy by Patterson, Schnell, and Doyle [1,2] has expanded applications of molecular rotational spectroscopy into the field of chiral analysis. Chiral analysis of a molecule is the quantitative measurement of the relative abundances of all stereoisomers of the molecule and these include both diastereomers (with distinct molecular rotational spectra) and enantiomers (with equivalent molecular rotational spectra). This work adapts a common strategy in chiral analysis of enantiomers to molecular rotational spectroscopy. A "chiral tag" is attached to the molecule of interest by making a weakly bound complex in a pulsed jet expansion. When this tag molecule is enantiopure, it will create diastereomeric complexes with the two enantiomers of the molecule being analyzed and these can be differentiated by molecule rotational spectroscopy. Identifying the structure of this complex, with knowledge of the absolute configuration of the tag, establishes the absolute configuration of the molecule of interest. Furthermore, the diastereomer complex spectra can be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of the sample. The ability to perform chiral analysis will be illustrated by a study of solketal using propylene oxide as the tag. The possibility of using current methods of quantum chemistry to assign a specific structure to the chiral tag complex will be discussed. Finally, chiral tag rotational spectroscopy offers a "gold standard" method for determining the absolute configuration of the molecule through determination of the substitution structure of the complex. When this measurement is possible, rotational spectroscopy can deliver a quantitative three dimensional structure of the molecule with correct stereochemistry as the analysis output. [1] David Patterson, Melanie Schnell, John M. Doyle, Nature 497, 475 (2013). [2] David Patterson, John M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 023008 (2013).

  5. Direct Determination of Absolute Configuration of Methyl-Substituted Phenyloxiranes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Lassen, Peter Rygaard; Johannessen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    obtained from quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory with the B3LYP hybrid exchange correlation functional with 6-31++G**, aug-cc-pVDZ, or aug-cc-pVTZ basis set) and related to the physical structure of the compounds. The absolute configuration could be established directly in each case...

  6. Determination of the absolute configurations at stereogenic centers in the presence of axial chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Jeirath, Neha; Kurtán, Tibor; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Krohn, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Cephalochromin, a homodimeric naphthpyranone natural product, contains both axial chirality due to the hindered rotation along the biaryl axis and central chirality due to the C-2, C-2' stereogenic centers of the fused pyranone ring. For determining the absolute configurations (ACs) of central chirality elements, different chiroptical spectroscopic methods, namely vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and optical rotation (OR), have been used. From these experimental data, in conjunction with corresponding quantum chemical predictions at B3LYP/6-311G* level, it is found that the ECD spectra of cephalochromin are dominated by its axial chirality and are not suitable to distinguish the (aS,2S,2'S) and (aS,2R,2'R) diastereomers and hence to determine the ACs of the central chirality elements. OR signs also did not distinguish the (aS,2S,2'S) and (aS,2R,2'R) diastereomers. On other hand, VCD spectrum of cephalochromin exhibited separate spectral features attributable to axial chirality and stereogenic centers, thereby allowing the determination of both types of chirality elements. This is the first investigation demonstrating that, because of vibrations specific to the studied stereogenic centers, VCD spectroscopy can be used to simultaneously determine the ACs of axial and central chirality elements whenever other chiroptical methods (ECD and OR) fail to report on them. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cooperative use of VCD and XRD for the determination of tetrahydrobenzoisoquinolines absolute configuration: a reliable proof of memory of chirality and retention of configuration in enediyne rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shovan; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Campolo, Damien; Giorgi, Michel; Bertrand, Michéle P; Nechab, Malek

    2013-12-01

    The absolute configurations (AC) of azaheterocylic compounds resulting from the cascade rearrangement of enediynes involving only light atoms were unambiguously assigned by the joint use of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and copper radiation single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). These AC determinations proved that the rearrangements of enediynes proceeded with memory of chirality and retention of configuration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+) - surinamensin's via diastereomeric O-methylmandelic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L. da S.; Barata, L.E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute configurarion of (+) surinamensin, a 8.0.4' neolignan, has been determined based on its O-methymandalates esters. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared and mass spectroscopy analysis are presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. Determining the Absolute Configuration of Two Marine Compounds Using Vibrational Chiroptical Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hopmann, K. H.; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Novotná, J.; Stensen, W.; Urbanová, M.; Svenson, J.; Svendsen, J. S.; Bouř, Petr; Ruud, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2012), s. 858-869 ISSN 0022-3263 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vibrational circular dichroism * Raman optical activity * absolute configuration * bioprospecting Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.564, year: 2012

  10. Absolute Configuration Determination by Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Chiroptical Spectra: Basics and Applications to Fungal Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superchi, Stefano; Scafato, Patrizia; Gorecki, Marcin; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2018-01-01

    Quantum mechanical simulations of chiroptical properties, such as electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotation (OR), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), have rapidly become very popular to assign the absolute configuration of novel natural products. We review the application of the ECD/OR/VCD computational methodology to chiral metabolites of fungal origin. First, we summarize the fundamentals of the three spectroscopies; then, we focus on the specific experimental and computational issues allied to the application of their calculations. We surveyed the entire literature describing the use of ECD/OR/VCD computations for fungal metabolites, and catalogued all papers according to the method employed and to the structural family of compounds. Then, we chose several examples to illustrate the use of the techniques and highlight the practical application of the computational approach. Our literature survey demonstrates that the simulation of ECD/OR/VCD spectra is nowadays widespread and accessible also to non-experts, although a good computational practice is necessary to avoid wrong assignments. ECD is still the most common technique used in the context of fungal metabolites. OR and VCD may be profitably employed when the compound of interest lacks chromophoric groups. Our examples illustrate that the combination of two or more chiroptical methods is strongly advisable in some cases, especially in the presence of high conformational flexibility, where a single technique does not lead to a safe conclusion. The ECD/OR/VCD computational approach is a reliable and versatile method to assign the absolute configuration of fungal metabolites and related natural products. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+)-neopentyl-1-d alcohol by neutron and x-ray diffraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H S; Stevens, R C; Bau, R; Mosher, H S; Koetzle, T F

    1994-12-20

    The absolute configuration of (+)-neopentyl-1-d alcohol, prepared by the reduction of 2,2-dimethylpropanal-1-d by actively fermenting yeast, has been determined to be S by neutron diffraction. The neutron study was carried out on the phthalate half ester of neopentyl-1-d alcohol, crystallized as its strychnine salt. The absolute configuration of the (-)-strychninium cation was first determined by an x-ray anomalous dispersion study of its iodide salt. The chiral skeleton of strychnine then served as a reference from which the absolute configuration of the -O-CHD-C(CH3)3 group of neopentyl phthalate was determined. Difference Fourier maps calculated from the neutron data showed unambiguously that the -O-CHD-C(CH3)3 groups of both independent molecules in the unit cell had the S configuration. This work proves conclusively that the yeast system reduces aldehydes by delivering hydrogen to the re face of the carbonyl group. Crystallographic details: (-)-strychninium (+)-neopentyl-1-d phthalate, space group P2(1) (monoclinic), a = 18.564(6) A, b = 7.713(2) A, c = 23.361(8) A, beta = 94.18(4) degrees, V = 3336.0(5) A3, Z = 2 (T = 100 K). Final agreement factors are R(F) = 0.073 for 2768 reflections collected at room temperature (x-ray analysis) and R(F) = 0.144 for 960 reflections collected at 100 K (neutron analysis).

  12. Redetermination and absolute configuration of atalaphylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title acridone alkaloid [systematic name: 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2,4-bis(3-methylbut-2-enylacridin-9(10H-one], C23H25NO4, has previously been reported as crystallizing in the chiral orthorhombic space group P212121 [Chantrapromma et al. (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, o81–o82] but the absolute configuration could not be determined from data collected with Mo radiation. The absolute configuration has now been determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu radiation. All features of the molecule and its crystal packing are similar to those previously described.

  13. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+)-neopentyl-1-d alcohol by neutron and x-ray diffraction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.S.H.; Stevens, R.C.; Bau, R. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Mosher, H.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Koetzle, T.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1994-12-20

    The absolute configuration of (+)-neopentyl-1-d alcohol, prepared by the reduction of 2,2-dimethylpropanol-1-d by actively fermenting yeast, has been determined to be S by neutron diffraction. The neutron study was carried out on the phthalate half ester of neopentyl-1-d alcohol, crystallized as its strychnine salt. The absolute configuration of the (-)-strychninium cation was first determined by an x-ray anomalous dispersion study of its iodide salt. The chiral skeleton of strychnine then served as a reference from which the absolute configuration of the -O-CHD-C(CH[sub 3])[sub 3] group of neopentyl phthalate was determined. Difference Fourier maps calculated from the neutron data showed unambiguously that the -O-CHD-C(CH[sub 3])[sub 3] groups of both independent molecules in the unit cell had the S configuration. This work proves conclusively that the yeast system reduces aldehydes by delivering hydrogen to the re face of the carbonyl group. Crystallographic details: (-)-strychninium (+)-neopentyl-1-d phthalate, space group P2[sub 1] (monoclinic), a = 18.564(6) [angstrom], b = 7.713(2) [angstrom], c = 23.361(8) [angstrom], [beta] = 94.18(4)[degrees], V = 3336.0(5) [angstrom][sup 3], Z = 2 (T = 100 K). Final agreement factors are R(F) = 0.073 for 2768 reflections collected at room temperature (x-ray analysis) and R(F) = 0.144 for 960 reflections collected at 100 K (neutron analysis). 49 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Direct determination of absolute configuration: a vibrational circular dichroism study on dimethyl-substituted phenyloxiranes synthesized by Shi epoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Lassen, Peter Rygaard; Tanner, David Ackland

    2008-01-01

    obtained using DFT/B3LYP calculations, and the differences between experiment and theory are discussed. The absolute configuration at the benzylic position was established as being (R), (S) and (R) for the cis, trans and geminal dimethylsubstituted phenyloxiranes, respectively. In all three cases...

  15. Resolution and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Twisted Bis-Lactam Analogue of Troger's Base: A Comparative Spectroscopic and Computational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rúnarsson, Ögmundur Vidar; Benkhäuser, Christian; Christensen, Niels Johan

    2015-01-01

    ) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The absolute configuration of (-)-2 was determined by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The corresponding theoretical spectra were calculated using the lowest energy conformation of (R,R)-2 and (S,S)-2 at the B3LYP...

  16. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  17. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  18. Determination of the Absolute Configurations Using Exciton Chirality Method for Vibrational Circular Dichroism: Right Answers for the Wrong Reasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Cody L; Nicu, Valentin P; Polavarapu, Prasad L

    2015-10-22

    Quantum chemical (QC) predictions of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra for the keto form of 3-benzoylcamphor and conformationally flexible diacetates of spiroindicumide A and B are presented. The exciton chirality (EC) model has been briefly reviewed, and a procedure to evaluate the relevance of the EC model has been presented. The QC results are compared with literature experimental VCD spectra as well as with those obtained using the EC model for VCD. These comparisons reveal that the EC contributions to bisignate VCD couplets associated with the C═O stretching vibrations of benzoylcamphor, spiroindicumide A diacetate, and spiroindicumide B diacetate are only ∼30%, ∼3%, and ∼15%, respectively. With such meager EC contributions, the correct absolute configurations (ACs) suggested in the literature for spiroindicumide A diacetate and spiroindicumide B diacetate molecules using the EC concepts can be considered fortuitous. The possibilities for obtaining wrong AC predictions using the EC concepts for VCD are identified, and guidelines for the future use of this model are presented.

  19. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  20. Cyclic Diarylheptanoids from Corylus avellana Green Leafy Covers: Determination of Their Absolute Configurations and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Antonietta; Lauro, Gianluigi; Masullo, Milena; Cantone, Vincenza; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Nazzaro, Filomena; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Piacente, Sonia

    2017-06-23

    The methanol extract of the leafy covers of Corylus avellana, source of the Italian PGI (protected geographical indication) product "Nocciola di Giffoni", afforded two new cyclic diarylheptanoids, giffonins T and U (2 and 3), along with two known cyclic diarylheptanoids, a quinic acid, flavonoid-, and citric acid derivatives. The structures of giffonins T and U were determined as highly hydroxylated cyclic diarylheptanoids by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Their relative configurations were assigned by a combined quantum mechanical/NMR approach, comparing the experimental 13 C/ 1 H NMR chemical shift data and the related predicted values. The absolute configurations of carpinontriol B (1) and giffonins T and U (2 and 3) were assigned by comparison of their experimental electronic circular dichroism curves with the TDDFT-predicted curves. The ability of the compounds to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H 2 O 2 and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ was determined by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of leafy covers of C. avellana and of the isolated compounds against the Gram-positive strains Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative strains Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Carpinontriol B (1) and giffonin U (3) at 40 μg/disk caused the formation of zones of inhibition.

  1. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Krishnan, Shyam; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional

  2. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Nyasol and Hinokiresinol via Synthesis and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...... enables establishment of the absolute configuration of (-)-hinokiresinol, which is concluded to be S. A total synthesis and resolution of hinokiresinol has been performed to resolve the conflicting reports of the coupling constant of the vinylic protons of the disubstituted double bond in this molecule...

  3. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute configuration of some dinorlabdanes from the copaiba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Adriano L.; Baptistela, Lucia H.B.; Imamura, Paulo M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: imam@iqm.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    A novel ent-dinorlabdane ({iota})-13(R)-14,15-dinorlabd-8(17)-ene-3,13-diol was isolated from commercial copaiba oil along with two known dinorlabdanes. The absolute configuration of these dinorditerpenes was established for the first time through synthesis starting from known ({iota})-3-hydroxycopalic acid, which was also isolated from the same oleoresin. (author)

  5. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P

    2000-01-01

    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  6. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  7. Determination of the absolute configurations of natural products via density functional theory calculations of optical rotation, electronic circular dichroism, and vibrational circular dichroism: the cytotoxic sesquiterpene natural products quadrone, suberosenone, suberosanone, and suberosenol A acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, P J; McCann, D M; Devlin, F J; Smith, A B

    2006-07-01

    The determination of the absolute configurations (ACs) of chiral molecules using the chiroptical techniques of optical rotation (OR), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) has been revolutionized by the development of density functional theory (DFT) methods for the prediction of these properties. Here, we demonstrate the significance of these advances for the stereochemical characterization of natural products. Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations of the specific rotations, [alpha](D), of four cytotoxic natural products, quadrone (1), suberosenone (2), suberosanone (3), and suberosenol A acetate (4), are used to assign their ACs. TDDFT calculations of the ECD of 1 are used to assign its AC. The VCD spectrum of 1 is reported and also used, together with DFT calculations, to assign its AC. The ACs of 1 derived from its [alpha](D), ECD, and VCD are identical and in agreement with the AC previously determined via total synthesis. The previously undetermined ACs of 2-4, derived from their [alpha](D) values, have absolute configurations of their tricyclic cores identical to that of 1. Further studies of the ACs of these molecules using ECD and, especially, VCD are recommended to establish more definitively this finding. Our studies of the OR, ECD, and VCD of quadrone are the first to utilize DFT calculations of all three properties for the determination of the AC of a chiral natural product molecule.

  8. Central-to-axial chirality transfer revealed by liquid crystals: a combined experimental and computational approach for the determination of absolute configuration of carboxylic acids with an α chirality centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pieraccini, Silvia; Rosini, Carlo; Superchi, Stefano; Spada, Gian Piero

    2011-10-01

    The conversion into 6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine (DAZ) N-protected amides is a viable route for the determination of the absolute configuration of chiral 2-substituted carboxylic acids. The biphenyl moiety of DAZ, besides being a probe of chirality for the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, makes these systems suitable for configuration assignment by exploiting the chirality amplification which occurs in nematic liquid crystals. To assess the reliability of the liquid crystal method in detecting the absolute stereochemistry of chiral amides bound to a biphenyl group, we measured the helical twisting power of a series of DAZ-N-protected amides and compared these data with the results obtained from ECD measurements. We will show that the liquid crystal method, corroborated by HTP predictions, is trustworthy with our biphenyl derivatives, even when ECD spectra are ambiguous for the presence of aryl moieties displaying strong UV absorptions in the same range of the biphenyl chromophore. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Communication: Probing the absolute configuration of chiral molecules at aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Stephan, E-mail: lotze@amolf.nl; Versluis, Jan [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Schijndel, Luuk van; Milroy, Lech G.; Voets, Ilja K. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bakker, Huib J., E-mail: bakker@amolf.nl [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-28

    We demonstrate that the enantiomers of chiral macromolecules at an aqueous interface can be distinguished with monolayer sensitivity using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG). We perform VSFG spectroscopy with a polarization combination that selectively probes chiral molecular structures. By using frequencies far detuned from electronic resonances, we probe the chiral macromolecular structures with high surface specificity. The phase of the sum-frequency light generated by the chiral molecules is determined using heterodyne detection. With this approach, we can distinguish right-handed and left-handed helical peptides at a water-air interface. We thus show that heterodyne-detected VSFG is sensitive to the absolute configuration of complex, interfacial macromolecules and has the potential to determine the absolute configuration of enantiomers at interfaces.

  10. Absolute configuration of a tetrahydrophenanthrene from Heliotropium ovalifolium by LC-NMR of its Mosher esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilet, David; Guntern, Alain; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Queiroz, Emerson F; Ndjoko, Karine; Foggin, Chris M; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    A new tetrahydrophenanthrene (1, (1R,2R)-1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6,9-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrophenanthren-4(1H)-one (heliophenanthrone)) has been isolated from the aerial parts of Heliotropium ovalifolium. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of the asymmetric centers was determined from LC-NMR data of the Mosher ester derivatives.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of (+-polyzonimine, defensive monoterpene alkaloid produced by a milliped Polyzonium rosalbum, and determination of its S absolute configuration by Its conversion to (4S,5R,6S-(+-nitropolyzonamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi Yasuyo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric Michael addition of the enamine derived from 2,2-dimethylcyclopentanecarbox-aldehyde and (S-prolinol methyl ether to nitroethylene afforded the adduct of 75-76% ee, which finally yielded enantiomerically pure (+-polyzonimine, a nitrogen-containing spirocyclic compound isolated from the defensive glands of a milliped, Polyzonium rosalbum. By converting (+-polyzonimine into (4S,5R,6S-(+-nitropolyzonamine, the hitherto uncertain absolute configuration of the former was established as S.

  12. Absolute Configuration from Different Multifragmentation Pathways in Light-Induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Martin; Kastirke, Gregor; Kunitski, Maksim; Jahnke, Till; Bauer, Tobias; Goihl, Christoph; Trinter, Florian; Schober, Carl; Henrichs, Kevin; Becht, Jasper; Zeller, Stefan; Gassert, Helena; Waitz, Markus; Kuhlins, Andreas; Sann, Hendrik; Sturm, Felix; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Johnson, Allan S; Mazenauer, Manuel; Spenger, Benjamin; Marquardt, Sabrina; Marquardt, Sebastian; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Stohner, Jürgen; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus; Berger, Robert

    2016-08-18

    The absolute configuration of individual small molecules in the gas phase can be determined directly by light-induced Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI). Herein, this approach is demonstrated for ionization with a single X-ray photon from a synchrotron light source, leading to enhanced efficiency and faster fragmentation as compared to previous experiments with a femtosecond laser. In addition, it is shown that even incomplete fragmentation pathways of individual molecules from a racemic CHBrClF sample can give access to the absolute configuration in CEI. This leads to a significant increase of the applicability of the method as compared to the previously reported complete break-up into atomic ions and can pave the way for routine stereochemical analysis of larger chiral molecules by light-induced CEI. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Absolute Configuration of Andrographolide and Its Proliferation of Osteoblast Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrapromma, S.; Boonnak, N.; Pitakpornpreecha, T.; Yordthong, T.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Fun, H. K.

    2018-05-01

    Andrographolide, C20H30O5, is a labdane diterpenoid which was isolated from the leave of Andrographis paniculata. Its crystal structure is determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction: monoclinic, sp. gr. P21, Z = 2. Absolute configuration is determined by the refinement of the Flack parameter to 0.21(19). In the crystal, molecules are linked by O-H···O hydrogen bonds and C-H···O interactions into two dimensional network parallel to the (001) plane. Its proliferation of osteoblast cell lines is reported.

  14. Enantiomeric Mixtures in Natural Product Chemistry: Separation and Absolute Configuration Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N L Batista, Andrea; M Dos Santos, Fernando; Batista, João M; Cass, Quezia B

    2018-02-23

    Chiral natural product molecules are generally assumed to be biosynthesized in an enantiomerically pure or enriched fashion. Nevertheless, a significant amount of racemates or enantiomerically enriched mixtures has been reported from natural sources. This number is estimated to be even larger since the enantiomeric purity of secondary metabolites is rarely checked in the natural product isolation pipeline. This latter fact may have drastic effects on the evaluation of the biological activity of chiral natural products. A second bottleneck is the determination of their absolute configurations. Despite the widespread use of optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism, most of the stereochemical assignments are based on empirical correlations with similar compounds reported in the literature. As an alternative, the combination of vibrational circular dichroism and quantum chemical calculations has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool for both conformational and configurational analysis of natural products, even for those lacking UV-Vis chromophores. In this review, we aim to provide the reader with a critical overview of the occurrence of enantiomeric mixtures of secondary metabolites in nature as well the best practices for their detection, enantioselective separation using liquid chromatography, and determination of absolute configuration by means of vibrational circular dichroism and density functional theory calculations.

  15. Isolation and Absolute Configuration of Boehmenan from Durio affinis Becc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiyansyah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Boehmenan (1 is a lignan which has two feruloyl moieties at C-9 and C-9"' respectively. The structural characterization of (+-boehmenan was confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and HRESIMS as well as by direct comparison with the literature. CD measurements established a 7S' , 8R' configuration. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that boehmenan is moderately active against the T47D cell line with IC 50 13.7 m g/mL and shows weak activity against the HeLa cancer cell line with IC 50 93.5 m g/mL. Boehmenan is also non-cytotoxic to the Vero cell line. From this study, boehmenan X and erythro-carolignan E were also obtained.

  16. Absolute Configuration of 3-METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE by Chiral Tag Rotational Spectroscopy and Vibrational Circular Dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Holdren, Martin S.; Mayer, Kevin J.; Smart, Taylor; West, Channing; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The absolute configuration of 3-methylcyclohexanone was established by chiral tag rotational spectroscopy measurements using 3-butyn-2-ol as the tag partner. This molecule was chosen because it is a benchmark measurement for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). A comparison of the analysis approaches of chiral tag rotational spectroscopy and VCD will be presented. One important issue in chiral analysis by both methods is the conformational flexibility of the molecule being analyzed. The analysis of conformational composition of samples will be illustrated. In this case, the high spectral resolution of molecular rotational spectroscopy and potential for spectral simplification by conformational cooling in the pulsed jet expansion are advantages for chiral tag spectroscopy. The computational chemistry requirements for the two methods will also be discussed. In this case, the need to perform conformer searches for weakly bound complexes and to perform reasonably high level quantum chemistry geometry optimizations on these complexes makes the computational time requirements less favorable for chiral tag rotational spectroscopy. Finally, the issue of reliability of the determination of the absolute configuration will be considered. In this case, rotational spectroscopy offers a "gold standard" analysis method through the determination of the ^{13}C-subsitution structure of the complex between 3-methylcyclohexanone and an enantiopure sample of the 3-butyn-2-ol tag.

  17. Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of Enantiomerically Pure Vitamin K3 2,3-Epoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snatzke, Günther; Wijnberg, Hans; Feringa, Bernard; Marsman, Bea G.; Greydanus, Ben; Pluim, Henk

    1980-01-01

    The 2,3-epoxide of vitamin K3 (menadione, 1) has been prepared in enantiomerically pure form, and the absolute configuration has been deduced from the CD spectrum. The compound with the negative Cotton effect between 340 and 400 nm has the 2R,3S configuration.

  18. Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation.

  19. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Ginkgolide B Characterized by IR- and VCD Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Højmark; Christensen, N.J.; Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and calculated (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) vibrational Circular dichroism (VCD) and IR spectra are compared, illustrating that the structure and absolute configuration of ginkgolide B (GB) may be characterized directly in solution. A conformational search for GB using MacroModel and subsequent...... DFT optimizations (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) provides a structure for the lowest energy conformer which agrees well with the structure determined by X-ray diffraction. In addition, a conformer at all energy of 7 kJ mol(-1) (B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)) with respect to the lowest energy conformer is predicted...

  20. Picrotoxane sesquiterpenoids from the stems of Dendrobium nobile and their absolute configurations and angiogenesis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chun-Wang; He, Yu-Lin; Peng, Cheng; Ding, Xing-Jie; Guo, Li; Xiong, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Five picrotoxane sesquiterpenoids belonging to the unusual dendrobine-type (1 and 4) and the picrotoxinin-type (2, 3, and 5) were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses and physical properties. Compound 1 was a new dendrobine analogue. Although the planar structure of 2 and 3 had been reported, their absolute configurations were first determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and circular dichroism. Compound 2 exhibited angiogenesis effect against sunitinib-induced damage on intersegmental blood vessels in Tg (flk1: EGFP) and Tg (fli1: nEGFP) transgenic zebrafish at concentrations of 3.13, 6.25, 12.50, and 25.00μM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Structure and absolute configuration of Jurassic polyketide-derived spiroborate pigments obtained from microgram quantities.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkenstein, K.; Sun , H.; Falk, H.; Griesinger, C.

    2015-01-01

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary metabolites, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary metabolites of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and absolute configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative...

  2. The absolute configurations of hydroxy fatty acids from the royal jelly of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takafumi; Noda, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    9-Hydroxy-2E-decenoic acid (9-HDA) is a precursor of the queen-produced substance, 9-oxo-2E-decenoic acid (9-ODA), which has various important functions and roles for caste maintenance in honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). 9-HDA in royal jelly is considered to be a metabolite of 9-ODA produced by worker bees, and it is fed back to the queen who then transforms it into 9-ODA. Recently we found that 9-HDA is present in royal jelly as a mixture of optical isomers (R:S, 2:1). The finding leads us to suspect that chiral fatty acids in royal jelly are precursors of semiochemicals. Rather than looking for semiochemicals in the mandibular glands of the queen bee, this study involves the search for precursors of pheromones from large quantities of royal jelly. Seven chiral hydroxy fatty acids, 9,10-dihydroxy-2E-decenoic, 4,10-dihydroxy-2E-decenoic, 4,9-dihydroxy-2E-decenoic, 3-hydroxydecanoic, 3,9-dihydroxydecanoic, 3,11-dihydroxydodecanoic, and 3,10-dihydroxydecanoic acids were isolated. The absolute configurations of these acids were determined using the modified Mosher's method, and it was revealed that, similar to 9-HDA, five acids are present in royal jelly as mixtures of optical isomers.

  3. The sesquiterpenoid nootkatone and the absolute configuration of a dibromo derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Anne M; Fronczek, Frank R; Zhu, Betty C R; Crowe, William E; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Nootkatone, or (4R,4aS,6R)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,4a-dimethyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)naphthalen-2(3H)-one, C(15)H(22)O, a sesquiterpene with strong repellent properties against Formosan subterranean termites and other insects, has the valencene skeleton. The dibromo derivative (1S,3R,4S,4aS,6R,8aR)-1,3-dibromo-6-isopropyl-4,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalen-2-one, C(15)H(24)Br(2)O, has two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ in the rotation of the isopropyl group with respect to the main skeleton. The C-Br distances are in the range 1.950 (4)-1.960 (4) A. Both independent molecules form zigzag chains, with very short intermolecular carbonyl-carbonyl interactions, having the perpendicular motif and O...C distances of 2.886 (6) and 2.898 (6) A. These chains are flanked by intermolecular Br...Br interactions of distances in the range 4.067 (1)-4.218 (1) A. The absolute configuration of the dibromo derivative was determined, from which that of nootkatone was inferred.

  4. Absolute configurations of phytotoxins seiricardine A and inuloxin A obtained by chiroptical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ernesto; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Petrovic, Ana G; Cimmino, Alessio; Koshoubu, Jun; Evidente, Antonio; Berova, Nina; Superchi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The absolute configuration (AC) of the plant phytotoxin inuloxin A, produced by Inula viscosa, and of the fungal phytotoxin seiricardine A, obtained from Seiridium fungi, pathogen for cypress, has been determined by experimental measurements and theoretical simulations of chiroptical properties of three related methods, namely, Optical Rotatory Dispersion (ORD), Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD), and Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD). Computational prediction by Density Functional Theory (DFT) of VCD spectra and by Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) of ORD and ECD spectra allowed to assign (7R,8R,10S) AC to naturally occurring (+)-inuloxin A. In the case of compound (-)-seiricardine A, which lacks useful for the analysis UV-Vis absorption, and thus provides a hardly detectable ECD spectrum and quite low ORD values, an introduction of a suitable chromophore by chemical derivatization was performed. The corresponding derivative, 2-O-p-bromobenzoate ester, gave rise to an intense ECD spectrum and higher ORD and VCD values. The comparison of computed spectra with the experimental ones allowed to assign (1S,2R,3aS,4S,5R,7aS) AC to (-)-2-O-p-bromobenzoate ester of seiricardine A and then to (-)-seiricardine A. This study further supports a recent trend of concerted application of more than a single chiroptical technique toward an unambiguous assignment of AC of flexible and complex natural products. Moreover, the use of chemical derivatization, with insertion of suitable chromophoric moieties has allowed to treat also UV-Vis transparent molecules by ECD and ORD spectroscopies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of chiral reagents for the derivatization of optically-active amines and alcohols for the purpose of determining their enantiomeric purity or absolute configuration is a tool used by many chemists. Among the techniques used, Mosher's amide and Mosher's ester analyses are among the most reliable and one of the most often used. Despite this,…

  6. The Multispecimen Method for Absolute Paleointensity Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; de Groot, L. V.; Monster, M.

    2015-12-01

    Paleointensity methods have seen a large improvement in the 21th century. This included optimizing classic Thellier-style protocols along with establishing stringent sets of quality criteria, developing microwave excitation as an alternative to thermal treatment, selecting sample material that contains the most suitable remanence carriers (i.e. single domain magnetic particles), calibrating non-heating paleointensity methods, and the introduction of the multispecimen paleointensity (MSP) protocol. An MSP experiment is carried out at one specific temperature selected to avoid thermochemical alteration; a series of specimens is heated and cooled in various applied furnace fields oriented parallel to the specimen's NRM. The furnace field value at which no change in NRM occurs is the paleofield. While the rationale of the MSP approach is surprisingly straightforward, some of the original claims (Dekkers and Böhnel, 2006) are by now shown to be untenable. This pertains to the claimed domain state independence in the original MSP method, although the Fabian and Leonhardt (2010) extended protocol largely corrects for domain state effects. Here we describe the optimal workflow for MSP experiments derived from our collection of historic flows from four volcanic edifices: Mt. Etna, Hawaii, the Canary Islands, and the Azores. By comparing the experimental outcome derived from historic flows with known paleointensities we found that technically acceptable experiments may yield overestimates, correct determinations, as well as underestimates of the paleofield. The so-called "ARM test" (de Groot et al., 2012) can distinguish between those three options. Based on TRM and ARM being analogues, this test compares ARM acquisition curves of sister samples before and after heating to the MSP experiment temperature. Simulated paleointensity experiments following this workflow consistently deliver the correct answer (Monster et al., submitted).

  7. Absolute determination of the deuterium content of heavy water, measurement of absolute density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccaldi, M.; Riedinger, M.; Menache, M.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute density of two heavy water samples rich in deuterium (with a grade higher than 99.9%) was determined with the hydrostatic method. The exact isotopic composition of this water (hydrogen and oxygen isotopes) was very carefully studied. A theoretical estimate enabled us to get the absolute density value of isotopically pure D 2 16 O. This value was found to be 1104.750 kg.m -3 at t 68 =22.3 0 C and under the pressure of one atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  8. Estimating absolute configurational entropies of macromolecules: the minimally coupled subspace approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Hensen

    Full Text Available We develop a general minimally coupled subspace approach (MCSA to compute absolute entropies of macromolecules, such as proteins, from computer generated canonical ensembles. Our approach overcomes limitations of current estimates such as the quasi-harmonic approximation which neglects non-linear and higher-order correlations as well as multi-minima characteristics of protein energy landscapes. Here, Full Correlation Analysis, adaptive kernel density estimation, and mutual information expansions are combined and high accuracy is demonstrated for a number of test systems ranging from alkanes to a 14 residue peptide. We further computed the configurational entropy for the full 67-residue cofactor of the TATA box binding protein illustrating that MCSA yields improved results also for large macromolecular systems.

  9. Evaluating the fermionic determinant of dynamical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Alexandru, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose and study an improved method to calculate the fermionic determinant of dynamical configurations. The evaluation or at least stochastic estimation of the ratios of fermionic determinants is essential for a recently proposed updating method of smeared link dynamical fermions. This update creates a sequence of configurations by changing a subset of the gauge links by a pure gauge heat bath or over-relaxation step. The acceptance of the proposed configuration depends on the ratio of the fermionic determinants on the new and original configurations. We study this ratio as a function of the number of links that are changed in the heat bath update. We find that even when every link of a given direction and parity of a 10 fm 4 configuration is updated, the average of the determinant ratio is still close to one and with the improved stochastic estimator the proposed change is accepted with about 20% probability. This improvement suggests that the new updating technique can be efficient even on large lattices and could provide an updating method for dynamical overlap actions

  10. Studies on the Diels-Alder adduct from cyclopentadiene and p-benzoquinone: Biotransformation, enantiomeric excess and absolute configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Camargo Braga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms or isolated enzymes in synthetic routes has been extensively used by industry and academic research. A great advantage of biotransformation in a synthetic route is highly regio- and enatiosselective control, which can be achieved through microbial catalyzed reaction. Biotransformation is one of the most efficient methods in a production of high purity optical compounds and development of efficient routes for target molecules. Biotransformation by Mucor ramosissimus of enedione 1 gave the keto-alcohol (--2 with enantiomeric excess (ee>99,9% (determined by 1H NMR with [(+-Eu(hfc]3 and their epimer (--3. Determination of the absolute configuration of epimer (--3 was accomplished by controlled reaction and measuring of optical rotation (scheme 1. The fungus M. ramosissimus is a promising species to perform desymmetrization of diketones with high enantioselectivity.

  11. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Jurassic Polyketide-Derived Spiroborate Pigments Obtained from Microgram Quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Sun, Han; Falk, Heinz; Griesinger, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary metabolites, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary metabolites of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and absolute configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative red alga, from samples of less than 50 μg using microcryoprobe NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations and reveal their polyketide origin. The pigments are identified as spiroborates with two pentacyclic sec-butyl-trihydroxy-methyl-benzo[gh]tetraphen-one ligands and less-substituted derivatives. The configuration of the sec-butyl group is found to be (S). Because the exceptional benzo[gh]tetraphene scaffold is otherwise only observed in the recently discovered polyketide clostrubin from a present-day Clostridium bacterium, the Jurassic borolithochromes now can be unambiguously linked to the modern polyketide, providing evidence that the fossil pigments are almost originally preserved secondary metabolites and suggesting that the pigments in fact may have been produced by an ancient bacterium. The borolithochromes differ fundamentally from previously described boronated polyketides and represent the first boronated aromatic polyketides found so far. Our results demonstrate the potential of microcryoprobe NMR in the analysis of previously little-explored secondary metabolites from ancient organisms and reveal the evolutionary significance of clostrubin-type polyketides.

  12. Absolute Configurations and NO Inhibitory Activities of Terpenoids from Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ji, Feifei; Kang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Li, Shen; Jin, Da-Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-06-24

    Curcuma longa L., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb and has been used as a spice and a pigment in the food industry. In the ongoing search for inhibitory reagents of NO production and survey of the chemical composition of natural vegetable foods, the chemical constituents of C. longa used as spice were investigated. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 2 new terpenoids and 14 known analogues. Their structures were established on the basis of the extensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by comparison of the calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among them, compound 1 is a rare norditerpene with an ent-labdane skeleton, and 2 is a skeletally novel sesquiterpene having an eight-membered ring. All of the compounds were found to possess NO inhibitory activities in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The discovery of two new compounds in this chemical investigation further disclosed the chemical composition of C. longa used a food spice, and the bioassay implied that the natural food spice C. longa, containing terpenoids with NO inhibitory activities, may be potentially promotive to human health.

  13. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  14. Limitations of absolute activity determination of I-125 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelled, O; German, U; Kol, R; Levinson, S; Weinstein, M; Laichter, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Alphasy, Z [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    A method for absolute determination of the activity of a I-125 source, based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the coincidence photon peak is given in the literature. It is based on the principle that if a radionuclide emits two photons in coincidence , a measurement of its disintegration rate in the photopeak and in the sum- peak can determinate it`s absolute activity. When using this method , the system calibration is simplified and parameters such as source geometry or source position relative to the detector have no significant influence. However, when the coincidence rate is very low, the application of this method is limited because of the statistics of the coincidence peak (authors).

  15. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  16. Enantiomeric high-performance liquid chromatography resolution and absolute configuration of 6β-benzoyloxy-3α-tropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marcelo A; González, Natalia; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    The absolute configuration of the naturally occurring isomers of 6β-benzoyloxy-3α-tropanol (1) has been established by the combined use of chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with electronic circular dichroism detection and optical rotation detection. For this purpose (±)-1, prepared in two steps from racemic 6-hydroxytropinone (4), was subjected to chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with electronic circular dichroism and optical rotation detection allowing the online measurement of both chiroptical properties for each enantiomer, which in turn were compared with the corresponding values obtained from density functional theory calculations. In an independent approach, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography separation using an automatic fraction collector, yielded an enantiopure sample of OR (+)-1 whose vibrational circular dichroism spectrum allowed its absolute configuration assignment when the bands in the 1100-950 cm(-1) region were compared with those of the enantiomers of esters derived from 3α,6β-tropanediol. In addition, an enantiomerically enriched sample of 4, instead of OR (±)-4, was used for the same transformation sequence, whose high-performance liquid chromatography follow-up allowed their spectroscopic correlation. All evidences lead to the OR (+)-(1S,3R,5S,6R) and OR (-)-(1R,3S,5R,6S) absolute configurations, from where it follows that samples of 1 isolated from Knightia strobilina and Erythroxylum zambesiacum have the OR (+)-(1S,3R,5S,6R) absolute configuration, while the sample obtained from E. rotundifolium has the OR (-)-(1R,3S,5R,6S) absolute configuration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Absolute exposure determination of cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Ali, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    The report describes the procedure for the determination of absolute exposure for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. A graphite cavity chamber, nominal volume of 1 cm 3 , manufactured by Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been used. The exposure rate at reference distance determined with the graphite chamber was compared with mean exposure rate measured with NPL-Therapy level X-ray exposure meter normalized to same date. An agreement of 0.39% was found between the two measuring systems, which seems to be very encouraging and quite satisfactory. (authors)

  18. Exciton Coupling in Circular Dichroic Spectroscopy as a Tool for Establishing the Absolute Configuration of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Esters of Allylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, A.; Cornett, Claus; Christensen, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    alpha-beta-Unsaturated esters of allylic alcohols have been shown to exhibit exciton coupling by circular dichroic spectroscopy. This coupling permits the establishment of the absolute configuration. The method was used to prove the absolute configuration at C-2 of archangelolide. Detailed NMR sp...

  19. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by {sup 1}H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Francisco A. da C.; Mendes, Maricleide P. de L.; Fonseca, Neuracy C. da, E-mail: fandrade@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-06-15

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH{sub 2}-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  20. Marine natural products. XXXII. Absolute configurations of C-4 of the manoalide family, biologically active sesterterpenes from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Okamoto, T; Hayashi, K; Yokoyama, N; Sasaki, T; Kitagawa, I

    1994-02-01

    Cytotoxic sesterterpenes, manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b), seco-manoalide (2), (E)-neomanoalide (3), (Z)-neomanoalide (4), and heteronemin (6), were isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta (collected at Amami Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan) by bioassay-guided separation and the absolute configurations of these manoalide family members have been determined. Manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b) were shown to exhibit in vivo antitumor activity and to inhibit the DNA-relaxing activity of mouse DNA topoisomerase I and the DNA-unknotting activity of calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II.

  1. Superheterodyne configuration for two-wavelength interferometry applied to absolute distance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Droz, Nathalie; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new superheterodyne technique for long-distance measurements by two-wavelength interferometry (TWI). While conventional systems use two acousto-optic modulators to generate two different heterodyne frequencies, here the two frequencies result from synchronized sweeps of optical and radio frequencies. A distributed feedback laser source is injected in an intensity modulator that is driven at the half-wave voltage mode. A radio-frequency signal is applied to this intensity modulator to generate two optical sidebands around the optical carrier. This applied radio frequency consists of a digital ramp between 13 and 15 GHz, with 1 ms duration and with an accuracy of better than 1 ppm. Simultaneously, the laser source is frequency modulated by a current modulation that is synchronized on the radio-frequency ramp as well as on a triangle waveform. These two frequency-swept optical signals at the output of the modulator illuminate a Michelson interferometer and create two distinct distance-dependent heterodyne frequencies on the photodetector. The superheterodyne signal is then detected and bandpass filtered to retrieve the absolute distance measurement. Experiments between 1 and 15 m confirm the validity of this new concept, leading to a distance accuracy of ± 50 μm for a 1 ms acquisition time.

  2. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)

  3. Enantioselective semi-preparative HPLC separation of PCB metabolites and their absolute structures determined by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, H.P.; Larsson, C.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Hoffmann, F.; Froeba, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Bergmann, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The present paper represents a first result of an ongoing systematic study of atropisomeric methylsulfonyl, methylthionyl, hydroxy, and methoxy metabolites of environmentally most relevant PCBs. This involves semi-preparative enantioselective HPLC separation to obtain pure atropisomers from synthesized PCB metabolite standards, their configuration estimation using the electronic circular dichroism (UV-CD) method and the determination / confirmation of these absolute configurations applying the combined vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) / ab initio approach. The following substances have been investigated: 4-HO-, 4-MeO-, 4-MeS-, 4-MeSO2-, 3-MeS- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149.

  4. Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tal, B.; Nagy, D.; Veres, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Association EURATOM, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Labit, B.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL SB CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.

  5. Parametrized overview of CO_2 power cycles for different operation conditions and configurations – An absolute and relative performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardemil, José M.; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of CO_2-based power cycles. • A multi-parameter analysis for different cycle configurations. • Performance comparison between CO_2 and four other fluids. • Detailed discussion considering optimized operational parameters (i.e., pressure, HX size). • Overview of the technical applicability of the CO_2. - Abstract: This thermodynamically based study focuses on the thermal performance of power cycles using CO_2 as the working fluid. The work considers numerous aspects that can influence the cycle's performance, such as the type of cycle (i.e., Rankine or Brayton), its configuration (i.e., with and without a recuperator), and different operational conditions (i.e., heat source temperature and the upper and lower operating pressures of the CO_2). To account for all possible scenarios, a thermodynamic routine was especially implemented and linked to a library that contained all the thermodynamics properties of CO_2. The results are mostly presented in terms of the absolute and relative 1st and 2nd Law efficiencies of CO_2 as well as the cycle's scale, here represented by the global conductance (UA) of the heat exchangers used within the cycle. For the relative performance assessment, four other working fluids, commonly used in energy conversion cycles, were considered (i.e., ethane, toluene, D4 siloxane and water). As expected, the absolute performance results indicate a strong dependence of the cycle's efficiencies on the operational conditions. As for the relative performance, the results suggest that while the CO_2's 1st Law efficiency might be lower than other fluids, its exergetic efficiency can be significantly higher. Furthermore, the calculations also indicate that the CO_2's needed global conductance is potentially lower than competing fluids (e.g., toluene) for certain operational conditions, which suggests that CO_2-based power plants can be more compact, since they might require smaller heat exchangers to produce

  6. Total Synthesis, Proof of Absolute Configuration, and Biosynthetic Origin of Stylopsal, the First Isolated Sex Pheromone of Strepsiptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, J.; Černá, K.; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 26 (2013), s. 8515-8524 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1466 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asymmetric synthesis * configuration determination * pheromones * total synthesis * Wittig reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  7. Absolute Configuration of (-)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid: Stereochemistry of Soy Isoflavone Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We have elucidated stereochemistry of (-)-2-HPPA. Determination of (R)-2-HPPA stereochemistry also provided stereochemical information of genistein metabolism. Considering the stereochemistry of 2-HPPA, the precursor of (R)-2-HPPA should be (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Besides, it is clear that only (S)-dihydrogenistein is the possible precursor of (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Therefore, genistein metabolism is suggested to follow the same stereochemical pathway like daidzein. Biotransformation of natural products by human intestinal bacteria has recently drawn a significant interest, due to the emerging strong correlation between gut microbiota and human health. Microbial metabolism of natural products by intestinal bacteria in small intestine and colon proceeds the phase I and II xenobiotic metabolisms in the liver. The metabolites were found to exhibit different biological activities, and affect human etiology. For example, many beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols in human health are attributed to the microbial metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria and the modulation of gut microbiota composition.

  8. Absolute Configuration of (-)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid: Stereochemistry of Soy Isoflavone Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong

    2014-01-01

    We have elucidated stereochemistry of (-)-2-HPPA. Determination of (R)-2-HPPA stereochemistry also provided stereochemical information of genistein metabolism. Considering the stereochemistry of 2-HPPA, the precursor of (R)-2-HPPA should be (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Besides, it is clear that only (S)-dihydrogenistein is the possible precursor of (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Therefore, genistein metabolism is suggested to follow the same stereochemical pathway like daidzein. Biotransformation of natural products by human intestinal bacteria has recently drawn a significant interest, due to the emerging strong correlation between gut microbiota and human health. Microbial metabolism of natural products by intestinal bacteria in small intestine and colon proceeds the phase I and II xenobiotic metabolisms in the liver. The metabolites were found to exhibit different biological activities, and affect human etiology. For example, many beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols in human health are attributed to the microbial metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria and the modulation of gut microbiota composition

  9. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Bustos-Brito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4, 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5, 10-benzoyloxythymol (6 and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7. In addition, (8S-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1, together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2 and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3 were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the 1H and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1–7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  10. Determination of absolute oscillator strengths for doubly-ionized vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goly, A.

    1978-01-01

    Oscillator strengths of thirty V III lines in the wavelength region from 2300A to 2600A were determined by the emission method using a modified wallstabilized cascade are operating at atmospheric pressure in helium with traces of VOCl 3 -vapour. The plasma radiation was analyzed by using a high dispersion grating spectrograph (0.7 A/mm) and Kodak IIaO-plates. Conventional techniques of intensity measurement were employed. Under the physical conditions created the helium plasma was found more or less distant from LTE, but for singly- and doubly-ionized vanadium according to Drawin's criteria, a Boltzmann distribution of level population can be assumed (and has been proved for VII). Measuring a set of intensities of V II lines (with different energies of upper levels) and using gf-values, obtained previously in an argon-vanadium plasma in LTE, excitation temperatures were determined from slopes of Boltzmann plots. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  11. Combined use of three forms of chiroptical spectroscopies in the study of the absolute configuration and conformational properties of 3-phenylcyclopentanone, 3-phenylcyclohexanone, and 3-phenylcycloheptanone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scafato, P.; Caprioli, F.; Pisani, L.; Padula, Daniele; Santoro, F.; Mazzeo, G.; Abbate, S.; Lebon, F.; Longhi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 50 (2013), s. 10752-10762 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ORD * ECD * VCD * vibronic features * absolute configuration * conformations * phenyl hindered rotation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  12. Absolute activity determination of I-125 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peled, O; German, U.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-06-01

    In special cases were a radionuclide emits two photons in cascade, a sum-peak is created in the detector at energy which is the sum of the two single energies. In those cases, it is possible to use the Sum-Peak method in which the system calibration is simplified and parameters such as source geometry, source position relative to the detector and self-absorption can have no significant influence. The purpose of the present work was to check the range of the different parameters where the Sum-Peak method can be applied with good accuracy. The application of the method to determine the activity of I-125 in human thyroid is also presented. The measurements were performed with a Phoswich detector, which is part of a Whole Body Counter (WBC) system and with a standard 1mm. thick NaI(Tl) detector. For the following parameters range it is expected that the error of the activity determination, when using the Sum-Peak method, is up to 15% : activity up to 2000nCi, distance between the detector and the thyroid gland up to 7 cm, thyroid gland dimension up to 20cc . Using improved software that fits Gaussian functions to the spectrum can improve the range of the geometrical constraints and can reduce the error in the activity determination, when using the Sum-Peak method. However, when the coincidence rate is very low, the application of this method is limited because of the poor counting statistics in the coincidence peak. In those cases, the Personal Calibration factor can be used. Comparing the results obtained by using the Sum-Peak method on people to the results received when using the direct method (based on phantom calibration), we obtained a significant over estimation of the thyroid activity when using the direct method by a factor of 4 to 9, because this method can not compensate for the geometry differences between different persons and the calibration phantom

  13. Determination of absolute neutrino masses from Z-bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2001-05-01

    Ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEν) scatter on cosmological relic neutrinos (Rν) producing Z bosons, which can decay hadronically producing protons (Z-burst). We compare the predicted proton spectrum with the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum and determine the mass of the heaviest Rν via a maximum likelihood analysis. Our mass prediction depends on the origin of the power-like part of the UHECR spectrum: m ν = 2.34 -0.84 +1.29 eV for Galactic halo and 0.26 -0.14 +0.20 eV for extragalactic (EG) origin. The second mass, with a lower bound of 0.06 eV on the 95% confidence level (CL), is compatible with a hierarchical ν mass scenario with the largest mass suggested by the atmospheric ν oscillation. The necessary UHEν flux is compatible with present upper limits and should be detected in the near future. (orig.)

  14. Absolute orbit determination using line-of-sight vector measurements between formation flying spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yangwei; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Bin

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that absolute orbit determination can be achieved based on spacecraft formation. The relative position vectors expressed in the inertial frame are used as measurements. In this scheme, the optical camera is applied to measure the relative line-of-sight (LOS) angles, i.e., the azimuth and elevation. The LIDAR (Light radio Detecting And Ranging) or radar is used to measure the range and we assume that high-accuracy inertial attitude is available. When more deputies are included in the formation, the formation configuration is optimized from the perspective of the Fisher information theory. Considering the limitation on the field of view (FOV) of cameras, the visibility of spacecraft and the installation of cameras are investigated. In simulations, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the position and velocity. The results show that the navigation accuracy can be enhanced by using more deputies and the installation of cameras significantly affects the navigation performance.

  15. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  16. A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis. PMID:21568330

  17. Determination of absolute detection efficiencies for detectors of interest in homeland security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of gamma ray detector materials NaI:Tl, CdZnTe, HPGe, HPXe, LaBr 3 :Ce and LaCl 3 :Ce were simulated and compared to that of polyvinyltoluene (PVT). The dimensions of the PVT detector were 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm, which is a typical size for a single-panel portal monitor. The absolute total and peak detection efficiencies for these detector materials for the point, line and spherical source geometries of 60 Co (1332 keV), 137 Cs (662 keV) and 241 Am (59.5 keV) were simulated at various source-to-detector distances using the Monte Carlo N-Particle software (MCNP5-V1.30). The comparison of the absolute total detection efficiencies for a point, line and spherical source geometry of 60 Co and 137 Cs at different source-to-detector distance showed that the absolute detection efficiency for PVT is higher relative to the other detectors of typical dimensions for that material. However, the absolute peak detection efficiency of some of these detectors are higher relative to PVT, for example the absolute peak detection efficiency of NaI:Tl (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPGe (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPXe (11.43 cm diameterx60.96 cm long), and LaCl 3 :Ce (5.08 cm diameterx5.08 cm long) are all greater than that of a 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm PVT detector for 60 Co and 137 Cs for all geometries studied. The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of a right circular cylinder of NaI:Tl with various diameters and thicknesses were determined for a point source. The effect of changing the solid angle on the NaI:Tl detectors showed that with increasing solid angle and detector thickness, the absolute efficiency increases. This work establishes a common basis for differentiating detector materials for passive portal monitoring of gamma ray radiation

  18. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  19. Metrological activity determination of {sup 133}Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.L. da; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O.L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: candida@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. {sup 133}Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods do not calibrate {sup 133}Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes {sup 133}Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  20. The final power calibration of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor for various configurations obtained from the measurements of the absolute average neutron flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre Fonseca Povoa da, E-mail: alexandre.povoa@mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Mura, Luiz Ernesto Credidio; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Betti, Flavio; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of neutron activation foils is a widely spread technique applied to obtain nuclear parameters then comparing the results with those calculated using specific methodologies and available nuclear data. By irradiation of activation foils and subsequent measurement of its induced activity, it is possible to determine the neutron flux at the position of irradiation. The power level during operation of the reactor is a parameter which is directly proportional to the average neutron flux throughout the core. The objective of this work is to gather data from irradiation of gold foils symmetrically placed along a cylindrically configured core which presents only a small excess reactivity in order to derive the power generated throughout the spatial thermal and epithermal neutron flux distribution over the core of the IPEN/MB-01 Nuclear Reactor, eventually lending to a proper calibration of its nuclear channels. The foils are fixed in a Lucite plate then irradiated with and without cadmium sheaths so as to obtain the absolute thermal and epithermal neutron flux. The correlation between the average power neutron flux resulting from the gold foils irradiation, and the average power digitally indicated by the nuclear channel number 6, allows for the calibration of the nuclear channels of the reactor. The reactor power level obtained by thermal neutron flux mapping was (74.65 ± 2.45) watts to a mean counting per seconds of 37881 cps to nuclear channel number 10 a pulse detector, and 0.719.10{sup -5} ampere to nuclear linear channel number 6 (a non-compensated ionization chamber). (author)

  1. The "Case of Two Compounds with Similar Configuration but Nearly Mirror Image CD Spectra" Refuted. Reassignment of the Absolute Configuration of N-Formyl-3',4'-dihydrospiro[indan-1,2'(1'H)-pyridine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Daniele; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2016-09-02

    In 1997, Sandström and co-workers reported the case of two chiral spiro compounds with very similar skeletons but showing almost mirror-image electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra for the corresponding absolute configuration. The paper has been often cited as a proof and good educational example of the pronounced sensitivity of ECD toward molecular conformation, and a clear warning against the use of ECD spectral correlations to assign absolute configurations. Although both concepts remain valid, they are not exemplified by the quoted paper. We demonstrate that the original configurational assignment of one compound was wrong and revise it by using TDDFT calculations. The main reason for the observed failure is the use of the matrix method, a popular approach to predict ECD spectra of compounds which can be treated with an independent system approximation (ISA), including proteins. Using a modern version of the matrix method, we demonstrate that the ISA is not valid for the title compound. Even in the absence of apparent conjugation between the component chromophores, the validity of the ISA should never be taken for granted and the effective extent of orbital overlap should always be verified.

  2. Absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins using 14 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Ch.; Hourani, E.; Loos, R.; Melki, S.

    1982-09-01

    A method for absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins is described. Activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons is performed. In the experimental procedure emphasis is placed on corrections for neutrons and gamma attenuation. In the analytical procedure, a multi linear-regression calculation is used to separate different contributions to the 511 keV gamma peak. The precision in the absolute determination of Cu and Ag is better than 2% in recent coins of definite shapes, whereas it is a somewhat lower in ancient coins of irregular shapes. The method was applied to ancient coins provided by the Museum of the American University of Beirut. Overall consistency and suitability of the method were obtained.

  3. Absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins using 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalouhi, C.; Hourani, E.; Loos, R.; Melki, S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins is described. Activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons is performed. In the experimental procedure emphasis is placed on corrections for neutrons and gamma attenuation. In the analytical procedure, a multi linear-regression calculation is used to separate different contributions to the 511 keV gamma peak. The precision in the absolute determination of Cu and Ag is better than 2% in recent coins of definite shapes, whereas it is a somewhat lower in ancient coins of irregular shapes. The method was applied to ancient coins provided by the Museum of the American University of Beirut. Overall consistency and suitability of the method were obtained. (orig.)

  4. Absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins using 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalouhi, C.; Hourani, E.; Loos, R.; Melki, S. (Faculty of Science, Beirut (Lebanon))

    1982-09-15

    A method for absolute determination of copper and silver in ancient coins is described. Activation analysis by 14 MeV neutrons is performed. In the experimental procedure emphasis is placed on corrections for neutrons and gamma attenuation. In the analytical procedure, a multi linear-regression calculation is used to separate different contributions to the 511 keV gamma peak. The precision in the absolute determination of Cu and Ag is better than 2% in recent coins of definite shapes, whereas it is a somewhat lower in ancient coins of irregular shapes. The method was applied to ancient coins provided by the Museum of the American University of Beirut. Overall consistency and suitability of the method were obtained.

  5. Determination of the Absolute Disintegration Rate of Cs-137 sources by the Tracer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, S; Brune, D

    1963-07-15

    {sup 137}Cs - sources were absolutely measured by the 'tracer method', with {sup 82}Br as a tracer nuclide and with application of the 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence technique. A self-absorption of 6 % was found in sources obtained from a solution with a carrier-content of 400 {mu}g/ml. The precision of the method for the determination of the {beta}-emission rate was estimated to {+-} 1 %. The results were compared with those of other works.

  6. Absolute determination of radiation bursts and of proportional counters space charge effect through the influence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, I.J.; Mayer, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    When proportional counters are employed in charge integration mode to determine the magnitude of a radiation pulse, so intense that individual detection events take place in a time too short to produce individual output pulses, mostly in pulsed neutron sources, the strong build-up of positive space charge reduces the electric multiplication factor of the proportional detector. Under such conditions the ensuing measurement underestimates the amount of radiation that interacted with the detector. If the geometric characteristics, the filling gas pressure and the voltage applied to that detector are known, it becomes possible to apply an analytical correction method to the measurement. In this article we present a method that allows to determine the absolute value of the detected radiation burst without the need to know the characteristics of the employed detectors. It is necessary to employ more than one detector, taking advantage of the Influence Method. The “Influence Method” is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015 [1,2]). Its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016 [3]) and the extension for multiple detectors in (Rios and Mayer 2016 [4]). - Highlights: • Absolute determination of radiation burst. • Proportional counters space charge effect. • Radiation measurements on pulsed devices.

  7. Determination of the Absolute Disintegration Rate of Cs-137 sources by the Tracer Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, S.; Brune, D.

    1963-07-01

    137 Cs - sources were absolutely measured by the 'tracer method', with 82 Br as a tracer nuclide and with application of the 4π β-γ coincidence technique. A self-absorption of 6 % was found in sources obtained from a solution with a carrier-content of 400 μg/ml. The precision of the method for the determination of the β-emission rate was estimated to ± 1 %. The results were compared with those of other works

  8. Determination of local absolute detection efficiency of a ceratron with 55Fe Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Sugiyama, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    The local absolute detection efficiency of a Ceratron (channel electron multiplier made of ceramics) was determined with collimated Mn K Auger electrons ( 5 keV) emitted from 55 Fe as a function of electron incident position and applied voltage. The local efficiency at the channel inlet did not depend so much on the applied voltage. The efficiency at the funnel increased with the applied voltage, while it was always lower than that at the channel inlet. (orig.)

  9. Absolute Configuration Determination of a Taxol Precursor Based on Raman Optical Activity Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, V.; Jegorov, A.; Bouř, Petr; Baumruk, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 7 (2017), s. 1544-1551 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : vibrational circular dichroism * polarized light * molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  10. Determination of Absolute Configuration and Conformation of a Cyclic Dipeptide by NMR and Chiral Spectroscopic Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, X.; Hopmann, K. H.; Hudecová, Jana; Isaksson, J.; Novotná, J.; Stensen, W.; Andrushchenko, Valery; Urbanová, M.; Svendsen, J. S.; Bouř, Petr; Ruud, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 8 (2013), s. 1721-1736 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033; GA ČR GAP208/10/0559; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density-functional theory * Raman optical activity * vibrational circular dichroism * residual dipolar couplings * crystal structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2013

  11. Accurate measurement of the optical activity of alanine crystals and the determination of their absolute chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Terasawa, Yukana; Tanaka, Masahito; Asahi, Toru

    2017-05-01

    Wavelength dependence measurements of the chiroptical properties in alanine crystals have so far been unsuccessful using conventional spectroscopic techniques. We describe our attempts to measure the wavelength dependence of the optical activity in L- and D-alanine crystals along each crystallographic axis, and to determine the absolute chirality of alanine crystals by correlating the absolute structure to the optical activity using an x-ray diffractometer and a generalized high accuracy universal polarimeter. We have succeeded in accurately measuring the optical rotatory dispersion in the direction, which shows that the optical rotation of the D-alanine crystal is dextrorotatory and that of the L-alanine crystal is laevorotatory, thereby determining the absolute chirality. Furthermore, comparison with the optical activity in solution shows that the optical activity in alanine crystals is different not only in value, but also in the sign. These results have led us to conclude that the optical rotatory power in the crystalline state should not be simply the summation of molecular optical rotatory power values. We propose the necessity of a theory, which contains the contribution of molecular interactions within the crystal, in order to calculate the optical rotatory power of the crystalline state.

  12. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  13. Research on determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bojun; Tang Zhangkui; Wang Dong; Yang Gaozhao; Peng Taiping

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators, we deduced equivalent length to deal with experimental data, according to the different layout and weighting of multiple pulse generators. The deposited energy in scintillation crystal and the integral flux which drilling through crystal interface was simulated by MCNP code. The result shows the simulated proportion of different distributed pulse generators is approximately agreed with experimental data. The validity of the equivalent length model was proved by the consistent results between calculation and experimental data. (authors)

  14. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 20β-Hydroxyprednisolone, a Biotransformed Product of Predinisolone by the Marine Endophytic Fungus Penicilium lapidosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory drug predinisolone (1 was reduced to 20β-hydroxyprednisolone (2 by the marine endophytic fungus Penicilium lapidosum isolated from an alga. The structural elucidation of 2 was achieved by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, IR data. Although, 2 is a known compound previously obtained through microbial transformation, the data provided failed to prove the C20 stereochemistry. To solve this issue, DFT and TD-DFT calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP/6–31+G (d,p level of theory in gas and solvent phase. The absolute configuration of C20 was eventually assigned by combining experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra and 3JHH chemical coupling constants.

  15. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reported that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP-derived valine (DHP-valine adducts that upon reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC formed four DHP-valine-PITC adduct isomers. In this study, we report the absolute configuration and stability of DHP-valine and DHP-valine-PITC adducts, and the mechanism of interconversion between DHP-valine-PITC adducts.

  16. Determination of the absolute activity by the coincidences 4πβ-γ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urcelay Silva, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 4π beta-gamma coincidence method for absolute determination of activities is extremely important in the production of high-precision radioactive sources. By means of this method it is possible to obtain absolute measurements of decay to within 0.1%. Thanks to the high efficiency of the 4π counter, most of the corrections required - background, random coincidences, dead time, decay scheme and detector efficiency - are small. The paper describes the experimental set-up showing the pulses in the two branches of the system, together with the conditions under which the 4πbeta flux detector functions. To determine whether the system was functioning satisfactorily, the activity of four cobalt-60 standards (supplied by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures based at Sevres in France) was determined and the differences obtained were less than 0.5% with respect to the certificates accompanying the sources. Alterations to the flux detector are suggested so that higher accuracy may be obtained. (author)

  17. Determination of orbitals for use in configuration interaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Davidson, E.R.; Ruedenberg, K.; Hinze, J.

    1978-01-01

    For a full configuration interaction (CI) calculation the choice of orbitals is completely irrelevant, i.e., the calculated wavefunction is unaffected by an arbitrary unitary transformation of the orbitals; it depends only on the space spanned by the original basis set. For most chemical systems it is not possible to realistically carry out a full CI calculation, so that specification of the orbital set is important. Even for less-than-full CI calculations, it can be shown, however, that for certain types of calculations the wavefunction is unaffected by restricted transformations among the orbital set. For example, for CI calculations based on a single configuration plus a complete set of excitations of a given type (single, double, etc.), the calculated wavefunction is independent of transformations among the set of occupied orbitals and among the set of virtual orbitals. The wavefunction does, however, depend on transformations which mix the occupied and virtual orbitals

  18. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  19. An absolute dose determination of helical tomotherapy accelerator, TomoTherapy High-Art II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailat, Claude J.; Buchillier, Thierry; Pachoud, Marc; Moeckli, Raphaeel; Bochud, Francois O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A helical tomotherapy accelerator presents a dosimetric challenge because, to this day, there is no internationally accepted protocol for the determination of the absolute dose. Because of this reality, we investigated the different alternatives for characterizing and measuring the absolute dose of such an accelerator. We tested several dosimetric techniques with various metrological traceabilities as well as using a number of phantoms in static and helical modes. Methods: Firstly, the relationship between the reading of ionization chambers and the absorbed dose is dependent on the beam quality value of the photon beam. For high energy photons, the beam quality is specified by the tissue phantom ratio (TPR 20,10 ) and it is therefore necessary to know the TPR 20,10 to calculate the dose delivered by a given accelerator. This parameter is obtained through the ratio of the absorbed dose at 20 and 10 cm depths in water and was measured in the particular conditions of the tomotherapy accelerator. Afterward, measurements were performed using the ionization chamber (model A1SL) delivered as a reference instrument by the vendor. This chamber is traceable in absorbed dose to water in a Co-60 beam to a water calorimeter of the American metrology institute (NIST). Similarly, in Switzerland, each radiotherapy department is directly traceable to the Swiss metrology institute (METAS) in absorbed dose to water based on a water calorimeter. For our research, this traceability was obtained by using an ionization chamber traceable to METAS (model NE 2611A), which is the secondary standard of our institute. Furthermore, in order to have another fully independent measurement method, we determined the dose using alanine dosimeters provided by and traceable to the British metrology institute (NPL); they are calibrated in absorbed dose to water using a graphite calorimeter. And finally, we wanted to take into account the type of chamber routinely used in clinical practice and

  20. A determination of the absolute radiant energy of a Robertson-Berger meter sunburn unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuisi, John J.; Harris, Joyce M.

    Data from a Robertson-Berger (RB) sunburn meter were compared with concurrent measurements obtained with an ultraviolet double monochromator (DM), and the absolute energy of one sunburn unit measured by the RB-meter was determined. It was found that at a solar zenith angle of 30° one sunburn unit (SU) is equivalent to 35 ± 4 mJ cm -2, and at a solar zenith angle of 69°, one SU is equivalent to 20 ± 2 mJ cm -2 (relative to a wavelength of 297 nm), where the rate of change is non-linear. The deviation is due to the different response functions of the RB-meter and the DM system used to simulate the response of human skin to the incident u.v. solar spectrum. The average growth rate of the deviation with increasing solar zenith angle was found to be 1.2% per degree between solar zenith angles 30 and 50° and 2.3% per degree between solar zenith angles 50 and 70°. The deviations of response with solar zenith angle were found to be consistent with reported RB-meter characteristics.

  1. New absolute paleointensity determinations for the Permian-Triassic boundary from the Kuznetsk Trap Basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, E.; Metelkin, D. V.; Kazansky, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of a pilot absolute paleointensity study of the ~250 Ma basalts of Kuznetsk traps (Kuznetsk Basin, Altai-Sayan folded area). Studied samples are characterized by a reversed polarity of natural remanent magnetization that corresponds to the lower part of Siberian Trap basalts sequence. Geochemical similarity of Kuznets basalts with those from Norilsk region supports this interpretation. Primary origin of thermal remanence in our sample is confirmed by a positive backed contact test. Rock magnetic analyses indicate that the ChRM is carried by single-domain titanomagnetite. The Coe-version of the Thellier-Therllier double-heating method was utilized for the paleointensity determinations. In contrast to the previous studies of the Permian-Triassic Siberian trap basalts, our data indicate that by the P-T boundary the paleofield intensity was relatively high and comparable with geomagnetic field strength for the last 10 millions of years. New results question the duration of the "Mesozoic dipole-low".

  2. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 ± 13 years, 78 ± 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC—end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Ω cm to 1583 Ω cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method

  3. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 +/- 13 years, 78 +/- 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC--end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Omega cm to 1583 Omega cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method.

  4. Determination of molecular configuration by debye length modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacic, Aleksandar; Criscione, Jason M; Rajan, Nitin K; Stern, Eric; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2011-09-07

    Silicon nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have emerged as ultrasensitive, label-free biodetectors that operate by sensing bound surface charge. However, the ionic strength of the environment (i.e., the Debye length of the solution) dictates the effective magnitude of the surface charge. Here, we show that control of the Debye length determines the spatial extent of sensed bound surface charge on the sensor. We apply this technique to different methods of antibody immobilization, demonstrating different effective distances of induced charge from the sensor surface.

  5. Investigate the capability of INAA absolute method to determine the concentrations of 238U and 232Th in rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the capability of INAA absolute method in determining the elemental concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the rock samples. The INAA absolute method was implemented in PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The accuracy of INAA absolute method was performed by analyzing the IAEA certified reference material (CRM) Soil-7. The analytical results showed the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10 % with Z-score in most cases less than 1. In general, the results of analysed CRM Soil-7 show a good agreement between certified and experimental results which mean that the INAA absolute method can be used accurately for elemental analysis of uranium and thorium in various types of samples. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th ranged from 1.77 to 24.25 and 0.88 to 95.50 ppm respectively. The highest value of 238 U and 232 Th was recorded for granite rock sample G17 of 238 U and sample G9 of 232 Th, whereas the lower value was 1.77 ppm of 238 U recorded in sandstone rock and 0.88 ppm of 232 Th for gabbro. Moreover, a comparison of the 238 U and 232 Th results obtained by the INAA absolute method shows an acceptable level of consistency with those obtained by the INAA relative method. (author)

  6. Absolute determination of 75Se for international comparison of activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglicki, F.A.; Arenillas, P.A.; Furnari, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    An international intercomparison of absolute activity measurements of a solution of Se-75, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France, in 1992, has been carried out. The methodology and results are presented. Source preparation, experimental techniques and measurement system are described. (author). 2 refs

  7. Absolute activity determinations on large volume geological samples independent of self-absorption effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measuring the absolute activity of large volume samples by γ-spectroscopy independent of self-absorption effects using Ge detectors. The method yields accurate matrix independent results at the expense of replicative counting of the unknown sample. (orig./HP)

  8. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron

  9. Hydrogen concentration determinations using focusing configuration in crystal neutron diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, I.; Meleg, T.

    2001-01-01

    By generalizing the formulation given by Dorner one can express the neutron intensity at detector as: I = dΦ/dk i ∫NV s dσ/dk f p(k i ,r,k f )drdk i dk f where dΦ/dk i is the source flux distribution, N is the unit cell density, ds/dk f is the cross-section, V s is the irradiated sample volume and p(k i ,r,k f ) is the transmission function of the spectrometer. Therefore, for the same sample volume and beam intensity, the integral intensity is proportional to the unit cell density, i.e., proportional to the concentration of each element included in the unit-cell structure. This allows for a convenient nondestructive method to evaluate the concentration for the elements entering into the composition of a certain specimen, for example the hydrogen concentration in metallic hydrides, as HZr is. To do it is only necessary for a calibration curve rise, by preparing standard samples with concentrations in the desired range; the corresponding sample concentrations can be measured using a standard destructive method, for example by using the commercially available LECO device. The HZr samples were prepared by controlled hydrogenating process of Zr 2.5% Nb 40x25x1.62 mm plates. A set of 9 samples was realized with different hydrogen concentrations. The 9-th sample is of 'zero' hydrogen concentration, i.e., a sample not suffering a hydrogenating process. The calibration curve (straight) is given. The concentrations of the six pressure tube samples were determined using the above-described procedure; the corresponding values are given in a table form. (authors)

  10. Baseline configuration for GNSS attitude determination with an analytical least-squares solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Guobin; Wang, Qianxin; Xu, Tianhe

    2016-01-01

    The GNSS attitude determination using carrier phase measurements with 4 antennas is studied on condition that the integer ambiguities have been resolved. The solution to the nonlinear least-squares is often obtained iteratively, however an analytical solution can exist for specific baseline configurations. The main aim of this work is to design this class of configurations. Both single and double difference measurements are treated which refer to the dedicated and non-dedicated receivers respectively. More realistic error models are employed in which the correlations between different measurements are given full consideration. The desired configurations are worked out. The configurations are rotation and scale equivariant and can be applied to both the dedicated and non-dedicated receivers. For these configurations, the analytical and optimal solution for the attitude is also given together with its error variance–covariance matrix. (paper)

  11. A Method for Absolute Determination of the Surface Areal Density of Functional Groups in Organic Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Hyegeun; Son, Jin Gyeong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yu, Hyunung; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To develop a methodology for absolute determination of the surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectroscopy was utilized to provide references for calibration of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Fourier transformation-infrared (FT-IR) intensities. By using the MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR techniques, we were able to analyze the organic thin film of a Ru dye compound (C{sub 58}H{sub 86}O{sub 8}N{sub 8}S{sub 2}Ru), which consists of one Ru atom and various stoichiometric functional groups. From the MEIS analysis, the absolute surface areal density of Ru atoms (or Ru dye molecules) was determined. The surface areal densities of stoichiometric functional groups in the Ru dye compound were used as references for the calibration of XPS and FT-IR intensities for each functional group. The complementary use of MEIS, XPS, and FT-IR to determine the absolute surface areal density of functional groups on organic and bio thin films will be useful for more reliable development of applications based on organic thin films in areas such as flexible displays, solar cells, organic sensors, biomaterials, and biochips.

  12. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band.

  13. Determining {sup 252}Cf source strength by absolute passive neutron correlation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6166 (United States); Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    Physically small, lightly encapsulated, radionuclide sources containing {sup 252}Cf are widely used for a vast variety of industrial, medical, educational and research applications requiring a convenient source of neutrons. For many quantitative applications, such as detector efficiency calibrations, the absolute strength of the neutron emission is needed. In this work we show how, by using a neutron multiplicity counter the neutron emission rate can be obtained with high accuracy. This provides an independent and alternative way to create reference sources in-house for laboratories such as ours engaged in international safeguards metrology. The method makes use of the unique and well known properties of the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission system and applies advanced neutron correlation counting methods. We lay out the foundation of the method and demonstrate it experimentally. We show that accuracy comparable to the best methods currently used by national bodies to certify neutron source strengths is possible.

  14. Absolute Determination of High DC Voltages by Means of Frequency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peier, Dirk; Schulz, Bernd

    1983-01-01

    A novel absolute measuring procedure is presented for the definition of fixed points of the voltage in the 100 kV range. The method is based on transit time measurements with accelerated electrons. By utilizing the selective interaction of a monoenergetic electron beam with the electromagnetic field of a special cavity resonator, the voltage is referred to fundamental constants and the base unit second. Possible balance voltages are indicated by a current detector. Experimental investigations are carried out with resonators in the normal conducting range. With a copper resonator operating at the temperature of boiling nitrogen (77 K), the relative uncertainty of the voltage points is estimated to be +/- 4 × 10-4. The technically realizable uncertainty can be reduced to +/- 1 × 10-5 by the proposed application of a superconducting niobium resonator. Thus this measuring device becomes suitable as a primary standard for the high-voltage range.

  15. Absolute determination of the gelling point of gelatin under quasi-thermodynamic equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Franco; Alberini, Ivana; Ferreyra, María G; Rintoul, Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic studies on phase transformation of biopolymers in solution are useful to understand their nature and to evaluate their technological potentials. Thermodynamic studies should be conducted avoiding time-related phenomena. This condition is not easily achieved in hydrophilic biopolymers. In this contribution, the simultaneous effects of pH, salt concentration, and cooling rate (Cr) on the folding from random coil to triple helical collagen-like structures of gelatin were systematically studied. The phase transformation temperature at the absolute invariant condition of Cr = 0 °C/min (T(T)Cr=0) ) is introduced as a conceptual parameter to study phase transformations in biopolymers under quasi-thermodynamic equilibrium and avoiding interferences coming from time-related phenomena. Experimental phase diagrams obtained at different Cr are presented. The T(T)(Cr=0) compared with pH and TT(Cr=0) compared with [NaCl] diagram allowed to explore the transformation process at Cr = 0 °C/min. The results were explained by electrostatic interactions between the biopolymers and its solvation milieu. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Methodological issues in cardiovascular epidemiology: the risk of determining absolute risk through statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Vassilis StavrinosOffice of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Department of Dietetics, Nutrition, Harokopio University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations  overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk, models

  17. Determination of the 3d34d and 3d35s configurations of Fe V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of the spectrum of four times ionized iron, Fe V, has led to the determination of the 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations. From 975 classified lines in the region 645-1190 A we have established 123 of 168 theoretically possible 3d 3 4d levels and 26 of 38 possible 3d 3 5s levels. The estimated accuracy of values of energy levels of these two configurations is about 0.7 cm -1 and 1.0 cm -1 , respectively. The level structure of the system of the 3d 4 , 3d 3 4s, 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations has been theoretically interpreted and the energy parameters have been determined by a least squares fit to the observed levels. A comparison of parameters in Cr III and Fe V ions is given. (orig.)

  18. Determination of Absolute Configuration in Chiral Solvents with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. A Combined Molecular Dynamics/Quantum Chemical Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kessler, Jiří; Dračínský, Martin; Bouř, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 21 (2015), s. 5260-5268 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : X-ray crystallography * NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.883, year: 2015

  19. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of

  20. The clinical determination of absolute density in bone utilizing single and dual energy compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, A.L.; Weaver, J.

    1980-01-01

    Several methods important in the clinical diagnosis of skeletal diseases have been proposed for the determination of bone mass, such as photon absorptiometry, computed tomography, and neutron activation. None of these present methods provides for the determination of the physical density of bone. In the Radiological Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Virginia, the principles of Compton scattering are being investigated with the intent of determining the electron density and the physical density of human bone. A Compton-scatter densitometer has been constructed for the in vivo density determination of the femoral head. This technique utilizes of collimated low energy gamma source and detector system. The method has been tested in cadavers and in known density samples and has an accuracy of 2 %. A second densitometer has been designed for the in vivo determination of electron density of the vertebrae based upon a new technique which employs dual energy Compton scattering in the spinal column. These systems will be discussed; and the principles of dual energy Compton scatter densitometry will be presented. The importance of these isotope techniques and the feasibility of in vivo density determination in the vertebrae and femoral head will be discussed as they relate to clinical diagnosis and research. (author)

  1. Correlation as a Determinant of Configurational Entropy in Supramolecular and Protein Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For biomolecules in solution, changes in configurational entropy are thought to contribute substantially to the free energies of processes like binding and conformational change. In principle, the configurational entropy can be strongly affected by pairwise and higher-order correlations among conformational degrees of freedom. However, the literature offers mixed perspectives regarding the contributions that changes in correlations make to changes in configurational entropy for such processes. Here we take advantage of powerful techniques for simulation and entropy analysis to carry out rigorous in silico studies of correlation in binding and conformational changes. In particular, we apply information-theoretic expansions of the configurational entropy to well-sampled molecular dynamics simulations of a model host–guest system and the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The results bear on the interpretation of NMR data, as they indicate that changes in correlation are important determinants of entropy changes for biologically relevant processes and that changes in correlation may either balance or reinforce changes in first-order entropy. The results also highlight the importance of main-chain torsions as contributors to changes in protein configurational entropy. As simulation techniques grow in power, the mathematical techniques used here will offer new opportunities to answer challenging questions about complex molecular systems. PMID:24702693

  2. 3D absolute hypocentral determination - 13 years of seismicity in Ecuadorian subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Yvonne; Segovia, Monica; Theunissen, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    of azimuthal coverage, record frequency and signal quality. Then, we define 5 domains: Offshore/coast, North-Andean margin, Volcanic chain, Southern Ecuador, and a domain deeper than 50 km. We process earthquake location only if at least 3 proximal stations exist in the event's domain. This data selection allows providing consistent quality location. The third step consists in improving the 3D MAXI technique that is well adapted to perform absolute earthquake location in velocity model presenting strong lateral Vp heterogeneities. The resulting catalogue allows specifying the deformation in the subduction system. All seismicity previously detected before trench occurs indeed between the trench and the coastal range. South of 0°, facing the subducting Carnegie Ridge, the seismicity aligns along the interplate seismogenic zone between an updip limit shallower than ~8 km and a downdip limit that reaches up to 50 km depth. The active seismogenic zone is interrupted by a gap that extends right beneath the coastal range. At these latitudes, a diffuse intraplate deformation also affects the subducting plate, probably induced by the locally thickened lithosphere flexure. Between the trench and the coast, earthquake distribution clearly defines a gap, which size is comparable to the 1942 M7.9 asperity (ellipse of axes ~55/35 km). A slab is clearly defines and dips around 25 to 30°. The slab seismicity is systematically interrupted between 100-170 km, approximately beneath the volcanic chain. North of 0°, i.e. in the megathrust earthquake domain, the interseismic activity is clearly reduced. The interplate distribution seems to gather along alignments perpendicular to the trench attesting probably of the margin segmentation. The North Andean overriding margin is undergoing active deformation, especially at the location where the Andean Chain strike changes of direction. At these latitudes, no earthquake occurs deeper than 100 km depth.

  3. Atom-chip-based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Sven; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity with a quantum gravimeter based on an atom chip. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal [1]. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates [2], as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties that will allow to overcome the current limitations in the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technology offers the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We present a lab-based prototype that uses the atom chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serves as inertial reference inside the vacuum [3]. With this setup, it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal. All steps are pursued on a baseline of 1 cm right below the atom chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will target for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz [4]. The device will be characterized in cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor and finally employed in a campaign to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the

  4. Development of a System for Absolute Quantum Efficiency Determination of Hybrid Photo Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Hammarstedt, P

    2001-01-01

    At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, a new particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is under development. The detectors at LHC require development of highly sophisticated technologies, including Hybrid Photo Diodes (HPD) for high efficiency, high resolution single photon detection with a large area coverage. During the HPD development phase, one of the crucial parameters in the optimization of the photocathode creation process is the quantum efficiency. The aim of this Master Thesis has been to design and implement a system for high precision, high resolution quantum efficiency determination over a large, 200-700 nm photon wavelength range. Commercially available components have been obtained, an optomechanical system has been designed and built, and all the necessary data acquisition, control and analysis software has been implemented. The relative precision of the measurement system has been determined to 2%, with additional possible systematic errors less than 2%. Various qu...

  5. Absolute determination of photoluminescence quantum efficiency using an integrating sphere setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyre, S.; Coutino-Gonzalez, E.; Hofkens, J.; Joos, J. J.; Poelman, D.; Smet, P. F.; Ryckaert, J.; Meuret, Y.; Durinck, G.; Hanselaer, P.; Deconinck, G.

    2014-01-01

    An integrating sphere-based setup to obtain a quick and reliable determination of the internal quantum efficiency of strongly scattering luminescent materials is presented. In literature, two distinct but similar measurement procedures are frequently mentioned: a “two measurement” and a “three measurement” approach. Both methods are evaluated by applying the rigorous integrating sphere theory. It was found that both measurement procedures are valid. Additionally, the two methods are compared with respect to the uncertainty budget of the obtained values of the quantum efficiency. An inter-laboratory validation using the two distinct procedures was performed. The conclusions from the theoretical study were confirmed by the experimental data

  6. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  7. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can

  8. Determination of the absolute jet energy scale in the DOe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G.A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M.M.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S.B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bhat, P.C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N.I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Butler, J.M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christenson, J.H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.R.; Cobau, W.G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W.E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O.I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Signore, K. Del; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Loreto, G. Di; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L.V.; Dugad, S.R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H.E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G.E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K.C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A.N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T.L.; II, R.J. Genik; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gomez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P.I.; GonzalezSolis, J.L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L.T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P.D.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Gruenendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J.A.; Guida, J.M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N.J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K.S.; Hall, R.E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J.M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A.P.; Heintz, U.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J.D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J.S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A.S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S.A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J.Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Joestlein, H.; Jun, S.Y.; Jung, C.K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J.S.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.L.; Kim, C.L.; Kim, S.K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kohli, J.M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A.V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A.V.; Kozlovsky, E.A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q.Z.; Lima, J.G.R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S.L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S.C.; Loekoes, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.L.; Maciel, A.K.A.; Madaras, R.J.; Madden, R.; Magan#=tilde#a-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H.S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M.I.; Mauritz, K.M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A.A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H.L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K.W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C.S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N.K.; Montgomery, H.E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V.S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H.A.; Negret, J.P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y.M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P.Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H.C.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J.B.; Siroten ko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, E.; Smith, R.P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G.R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A.L.; Steinbrueck, G.; Stephens, R.W.; Stevenson, M.L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D.A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T.L.T.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T.G.; Tuts, P.M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E.W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A.A.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Wahl, H.D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J.T.; Wightman, J.A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Wirjawan, J.V.D.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D.R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z.H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E.G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1999-01-01

    The DOe detector is used to study pp-bar collisions at the 1800 and 630 GeV center-of-mass energies available at the Fermilab Tevatron. To measure jets, the detector uses a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. Understanding the jet energy calibration is not only crucial for precision tests of QCD, but also for the measurement of particle masses and the determination of physics backgrounds associated with new phenomena. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets observed with the DOe detector at the two pp-bar center-of-mass energies in the transverse energy and pseudorapidity range E T >8 GeV and vertical bar η vertical bar <3

  9. Multiple-specimen absolute paleointensity determination with the MSP-DSC protocol: Advantages and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, P.; Fanjat, G.; Poidras, T.; Carvallo, C.; Nicol, P.

    2012-04-01

    The MSP-DSC protocol (Dekkers & Bohnel, 2006, EPSL; Fabian & Leonhardt, 2010, EPSL) is a recent development in the methodology for documenting the intensity of the ancient Earth magnetic field. Applicable both on rocks or archaeological artifacts it allows us to use samples that until now were not measured because their magnetic properties do not meet selection criteria required by conventional methods. However, this new experimental protocol requires that samples be heated and cooled under a field parallel to its natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Currently, standard paleointensity furnaces do not match precisely this constraint. Yet, such new measurement protocol seems very promising since it would possibly double the number of available data. We are developing in Montpellier (France), a very fast-heating oven with infrared dedicated to this protocol. Two key points determine its characteristics. The first is to heat uniformly a rock sample of a 10-cc-standard volume as fast as possible. The second is to apply to the sample during the heating (and the cooling) a precise magnetic induction field, perfectly controlled in 3D. We tested and calibrated a preliminary version of this oven along with the MSP-DSC protocol with 3 historical lava flows, 2 from Reunion Island (erupted in 2002 and 2007) and one from Etna (erupted in 1983). These lava flows were selected because they have different magnetic behaviors. Reunion 2002 is rather SD-PSD-like, while Reunion 2007 is PSD-MD-like, and Etna 1983 is MD-like. The paleointensity determinations obtained with the original protocol of Dekkers and Bohnel (2006, EPSL) are within +- 1 μT of the known field for the three lava flows. The same precision is obtained when we applied the fraction correction (MSP-FC protocol). However, we systematically observed a loss in the linearity of the MSP-FC plots. In addition, like Muxworthy and Taylor (2011, GJI), we found that the Domain State Correction is difficult to apply since alpha

  10. Absolute determination of zero-energy phase shifts for multiparticle single-channel scattering: Generalized Levinson theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1996-01-01

    Levinson close-quote s theorem relates the zero-energy phase shift δ for potential scattering in a given partial wave l, by a spherically symmetric potential that falls off sufficiently rapidly, to the number of bound states of that l supported by the potential. An extension of this theorem is presented that applies to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. As suggested by Swan [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 228, 10 (1955)], the extended theorem differs from that derived for potential scattering; even in the absence of composite bound states δ may differ from zero as a consequence of the Pauli principle. The derivation given here is based on the introduction of a continuous auxiliary open-quote open-quote length phase close-quote close-quote η, defined modulo π for l=0 by expressing the scattering length as A=acotη, where a is a characteristic length of the target. Application of the minimum principle for the scattering length determines the branch of the cotangent curve on which η lies and, by relating η to δ, an absolute determination of δ is made. The theorem is applicable, in principle, to single-channel scattering in any partial wave for e ± -atom and nucleon-nucleus systems. In addition to a knowledge of the number of composite bound states, information (which can be rather incomplete) concerning the structure of the target ground-state wave function is required for an explicit, absolute, determination of the phase shift δ. As for Levinson close-quote s original theorem for potential scattering, no additional information concerning the scattering wave function or scattering dynamics is required. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Systematic determination of the JET absolute neutron yield using the MPR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg-Pettersson, N.

    2003-04-01

    This thesis describes the first high-statistics systematic analysis of JET neutron yield and rate measurements obtained by using data acquired with the Magnetic Proton Recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer. The neutron yield and rate were determined by using the count-rate from the MPR neutron spectrometer together with neutron profile information from other neutron diagnostic systems. This has previously been done manually for a few pulses. To be able to do this in a more systematic way a part of the neutron spectrum evaluation code was extracted and put into a separate custom-made program and modifications were done to extract sets of MPR data automatically. The codes have been used for analysis of a large set of pulses from the deuterium-tritium campaign at JET in 1997. Several results were obtained, the most significant of which was the clear improvement seen when neutron profile corrections were applied. Neutron yield-rates derived from MPR count-rate are shown to be in excellent agreement with other JET neutron diagnostic data

  12. Systematic determination of the JET absolute neutron yield using the MPR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg-Pettersson, N

    2003-04-01

    This thesis describes the first high-statistics systematic analysis of JET neutron yield and rate measurements obtained by using data acquired with the Magnetic Proton Recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer. The neutron yield and rate were determined by using the count-rate from the MPR neutron spectrometer together with neutron profile information from other neutron diagnostic systems. This has previously been done manually for a few pulses. To be able to do this in a more systematic way a part of the neutron spectrum evaluation code was extracted and put into a separate custom-made program and modifications were done to extract sets of MPR data automatically. The codes have been used for analysis of a large set of pulses from the deuterium-tritium campaign at JET in 1997. Several results were obtained, the most significant of which was the clear improvement seen when neutron profile corrections were applied. Neutron yield-rates derived from MPR count-rate are shown to be in excellent agreement with other JET neutron diagnostic data.

  13. Absolute measurement of {beta} activities and application to the determination of neutronic densities; Mesure absolue d'activites {beta} et application a la determination des densites neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1951-01-15

    M. Berthelot, to my entrance to the ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', proposed me to study the absolute measurement of neutron densities. Very quickly the problem of the absolute activity of {beta} sources became the central object of this work. In a first part, we will develop the methods of absolute determination for {beta} activities. The use of a 4{pi} counter permits to get the absolute activity of all beta radioactive source, susceptible to be put as thin leaf and of period superior than some minutes. The method is independent of the spectra of the measured radioelement. we will describe in the second part some applications which use neutron densities measurement, neutron sources intensities and ratio of cross sections of capture of thermal neutrons. (M.B.) [French] M. Berthelot, a mon entree au ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', m'a propose d'etudier la mesure absolue des densites neutroniques. Tres rapidement le probleme de l'activite absolue des sources beta est devenu l'objet central de ce travail. Dans une premiere partie, on abordera les methodes de determination absolue des activites beta. L'utilisation d'un compteur 4{pi} permet d 'obtenir l'activite absolue de toute source radioactive beta, susceptible d'etre mise sous forme de feuille mince et de periode superieure a quelques minutes. La methode est independante du spectre du radioelement mesure. On decrira dans la seconde partie quelques applications a des mesures de densites neutroniques, d'intensites de sources de neutrons et de rapport de sections efficaces de capture de neutrons thermiques. (M.B.)

  14. Absolute measurement of {beta} activities and application to the determination of neutronic densities; Mesure absolue d'activites {beta} et application a la determination des densites neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1951-01-15

    M. Berthelot, to my entrance to the ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', proposed me to study the absolute measurement of neutron densities. Very quickly the problem of the absolute activity of {beta} sources became the central object of this work. In a first part, we will develop the methods of absolute determination for {beta} activities. The use of a 4{pi} counter permits to get the absolute activity of all beta radioactive source, susceptible to be put as thin leaf and of period superior than some minutes. The method is independent of the spectra of the measured radioelement. we will describe in the second part some applications which use neutron densities measurement, neutron sources intensities and ratio of cross sections of capture of thermal neutrons. (M.B.) [French] M. Berthelot, a mon entree au ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', m'a propose d'etudier la mesure absolue des densites neutroniques. Tres rapidement le probleme de l'activite absolue des sources beta est devenu l'objet central de ce travail. Dans une premiere partie, on abordera les methodes de determination absolue des activites beta. L'utilisation d'un compteur 4{pi} permet d 'obtenir l'activite absolue de toute source radioactive beta, susceptible d'etre mise sous forme de feuille mince et de periode superieure a quelques minutes. La methode est independante du spectre du radioelement mesure. On decrira dans la seconde partie quelques applications a des mesures de densites neutroniques, d'intensites de sources de neutrons et de rapport de sections efficaces de capture de neutrons thermiques. (M.B.)

  15. Using DNA origami nanostructures to determine absolute cross sections for UV photon-induced DNA strand breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Stefanie; Rackwitz, Jenny; Schürman, Robin; Prinz, Julia; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Bald, Ilko

    2015-11-19

    We have characterized ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced DNA strand break processes by determination of absolute cross sections for photoabsorption and for sequence-specific DNA single strand breakage induced by photons in an energy range from 6.50 to 8.94 eV. These represent the lowest-energy photons able to induce DNA strand breaks. Oligonucleotide targets are immobilized on a UV transparent substrate in controlled quantities through attachment to DNA origami templates. Photon-induced dissociation of single DNA strands is visualized and quantified using atomic force microscopy. The obtained quantum yields for strand breakage vary between 0.06 and 0.5, indicating highly efficient DNA strand breakage by UV photons, which is clearly dependent on the photon energy. Above the ionization threshold strand breakage becomes clearly the dominant form of DNA radiation damage, which is then also dependent on the nucleotide sequence.

  16. Determination of the absolute two-photon ionization cross section of He by an XUV free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Okino, Tomoya; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Adachi, Junichi; Yagishita, Akira; Yazawa, Hiroki; Aoyma, Makoto; Yabashi, Makina; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Higashiya, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kannari, Fumihiko; Yamakawa, Koichi; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Nakano, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    The resonant and non-resonant two-photon single ionization processes of He were investigated using intense free electron laser light in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region (53.4-61.4 nm) covering the 1s-2p and 1s-3p resonant transitions of He. On the basis of the dependences of the yield of He + on the XUV light-field intensity at 53.4, 58.4, 56.0 and 61.4 nm, the absolute values of the two-photon ionization cross sections of He at the four different wavelengths and their dependence on the light-field intensity were determined for the first time. (fast track communication)

  17. Determination of buckling in the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor in cylindrical configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini; Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Aredes, Vitor Ottoni; Silva, Alexandre F. Povoa da; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos; Mura, Luis Felipe L.; Jerez, Rogerio, E-mail: rtpurgato@ipen.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the key parameters in reactor physics is the buckling of a reactor core. It is related to important parameters such as reaction rates, nuclear power operation, fuel burning, among others. In a critical reactor, the buckling depends on the geometric and material characteristics of the reactor core. This paper presents the results of experimental buckling in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts, it is a versatile nuclear facility which allows the simulation of all the characteristics of a large nuclear power reactor and ideal for this type of measurement. We conducted a mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor and thereby determined the total buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for an hour. Then, the activation of the fuel rods was measured by gamma spectrometry on a rod scanner HPGe detector. We analyzed the gamma photons of the {sup 239}Np (276,6 keV) for neutron capture and the {sup 143}Ce (293,3 keV) for fission on both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U, respectively. We analyzed the axial and radial directions. Other measurements were performed using wires and gold foils in the radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The results showed that the cylindrical configuration compared to standard rectangular configuration of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor has a higher neutron economy, since in this configuration there is less leakage of neutrons. The Buckling Total obtained from the three methods was 95.84 ± 2.67 m{sup -2}. (author)

  18. The relative importance of perceptual and memory sampling processes in determining the time course of absolute identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Kent, Christopher; Adelman, James S

    2018-04-01

    In absolute identification, the extended generalized context model (EGCM; Kent & Lamberts, 2005, 2016) proposes that perceptual processing determines systematic response time (RT) variability; all other models of RT emphasize response selection processes. In the EGCM-RT the bow effect in RTs (longer responses for stimuli in the middle of the range) occurs because these middle stimuli are less isolated, and as perceptual information is accumulated, the evidence supporting a correct response grows more slowly than for stimuli at the ends of the range. More perceptual information is therefore accumulated in order to increase certainty in response for middle stimuli, lengthening RT. According to the model reducing perceptual sampling time should reduce the size of the bow effect in RT. We tested this hypothesis in 2 pitch identification experiments. Experiment 1 found no effect of stimulus duration on the size of the RT bow. Experiment 2 used multiple short stimulus durations as well as manipulating set size and stimulus spacing. Contrary to EGCM-RT predictions, the bow effect on RTs was large for even very short durations. A new version of the EGCM-RT could only capture this, alongside the effect of stimulus duration on accuracy, by including both a perceptual and a memory sampling process. A modified version of the selective attention, mapping, and ballistic accumulator model (Brown, Marley, Donkin, & Heathcote, 2008) could also capture the data, by assuming psychophysical noise diminishes with increased exposure duration. This modeling suggests systematic variability in RT in absolute identification is largely determined by memory sampling and response selection processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A direct method to transform between expansions in the configuration state function and Slater determinant bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A novel algorithm is introduced for the transformation of wave functions between the bases of Slater determinants (SD) and configuration state functions (CSF) in the genealogical coupling scheme. By modifying the expansion coefficients as each electron is spin-coupled, rather than performing a single many-electron transformation, the large transformation matrix that plagues previous approaches is avoided and the required number of operations is drastically reduced. As an example of the efficiency of the algorithm, the transformation for a configuration with 30 unpaired electrons and singlet spin is discussed. For this case, the 10 × 10 6 coefficients in the CSF basis is obtained from the 150 × 10 6 coefficients in the SD basis in 1 min, which should be compared with the seven years that the previously employed method is estimated to require

  20. The use of absolute gravity data for the validation of Global Geopotential Models and for improving quasigeoid heights determined from satellite-only Global Geopotential Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godah, Walyeldeen; Krynski, Jan; Szelachowska, Malgorzata

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of absolute gravity data for the validation of Global Geopotential Models (GGMs). It is also aimed at improving quasigeoid heights determined from satellite-only GGMs using absolute gravity data. The area of Poland, as a unique one, covered with a homogeneously distributed set of absolute gravity data, has been selected as a study area. The gravity anomalies obtained from GGMs were validated using the corresponding ones determined from absolute gravity data. The spectral enhancement method was implemented to overcome the spectral inconsistency in data being validated. The quasigeoid heights obtained from the satellite-only GGM as well as from the satellite-only GGM in combination with absolute gravity data were evaluated with high accuracy GNSS/levelling data. Estimated accuracy of gravity anomalies obtained from GGMs investigated is of 1.7 mGal. Considering omitted gravity signal, e.g. from degree and order 101 to 2190, satellite-only GGMs can be validated at the accuracy level of 1 mGal using absolute gravity data. An improvement up to 59% in the accuracy of quasigeoid heights obtained from the satellite-only GGM can be observed when combining the satellite-only GGM with absolute gravity data.

  1. Absolute concentration determination of phosphorus metabolites in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gard, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of mobile high energy phosphorus metabolites and intracellular pH of Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart have been determined under control and reduced flow conditions. Absolute concentration determination was accomplished by Lorentzian lineshape analysis after development of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene as an external intensity standard. Hearts were demonstrated to be biochemically and physiologically competent during control perfusion periods and compromised during reduced flow conditions by independent hemodynamic and metabolic measurements coincident with the NMR experiment. Reduction in perfusate flow from 20 mL/min to 5.0 mL/min (25% flow) or 2.5 mL/min (12.5% flow) demonstrated a fall in phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate concentrations, a rise in cytosolic inorganic phosphate concentrations, and drops in pH. Subsequent recovery upon reflow was observed. The derived values for the free concentration of ADP were very close to the reported values of the Michaelis constant for respiratory stimulation, implicating a regulatory role for this molecule in cellular respiration. Strong evidence that the creating kinase reaction was in equilibrium in the 25% flow study was seen. The NMR observable correlated closely with myocardial performance and biochemical indices of metabolic function, and supported the use of phosphocreatine as an indicator of current metabolic integrity

  2. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  3. A Precision Determination of the Effect of Metallicity on Cepheid Absolute Magnitudes in VIJHK Bands from Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgórski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Zgirski, Bartłomiej; Graczyk, Dariusz [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Górski, Marek [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Storm, Jesper [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Matsunaga, Noriyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Soszyński, Igor, E-mail: pwielgor@camk.edu.pl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00-478 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-06-20

    Using high-quality observed period–luminosity ( P – L ) relations in both Magellanic Clouds in the VIJHK s bands and optical and near-infrared Wesenheit indices, we determine the effect of metallicity on Cepheid P – L relations by comparing the relative distance between the LMC and SMC as determined from the Cepheids to the difference in distance between the Clouds that has been derived with very high accuracy from late-type eclipsing binary systems. Within an uncertainty of 3%, which is dominated by the uncertainty on the mean difference in metallicity between the Cepheid populations in the LMC and SMC, we find metallicity effects smaller than 2% in all bands and in the Wesenheit indices, consistent with a zero metallicity effect. This result is valid for the metallicity range from −0.35 dex to −0.75 dex corresponding to the mean [Fe/H] values for classical Cepheids in the LMC and SMC, respectively. Yet most Cepheids in galaxies beyond the Local Group and located in the less crowded outer regions of these galaxies do fall into this metallicity regime, making our result important for applications to determine the distances to spiral galaxies well beyond the Local Group. Our result supports previous findings that indicated a very small metallicity effect on the near-infrared absolute magnitudes of classical Cepheids, and resolves the dispute about the size and sign of the metallicity effect in the optical spectral range. It also resolves one of the most pressing problems in the quest toward a measurement of the Hubble constant with an accuracy of 1% from the Cepheid–supernova Ia method.

  4. Absolute single-ion solvation free energy scale in methanol determined by the lithium cluster-continuum approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Josefredo R; Miguel, Elizabeth L M

    2013-05-02

    Absolute solvation free energy of the lithium cation in methanol was calculated by the cluster-continuum quasichemical theory of solvation. Clusters with up to five methanol molecules were investigated using X3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with DZVP, 6-311+G(2df,2p), TZVPP+diff, and QZVPP+diff basis sets and including the cluster solvation through the PCM and SMD continuum models. Our calculations have determined a value of -118.1 kcal mol(-1) for the solvation free energy of the lithium, in close agreement with a value of -116.6 kcal mol(-1) consistent with the TATB assumption. Using data of solvation and transfer free energy of a pair of ions, electrode potentials and pKa, we have obtained the solvation free energy of 25 ions in methanol. Our analysis leads to a value of -253.6 kcal mol(-1) for the solvation free energy of the proton, which can be compared with the value of -263.5 kcal mol(-1) obtained by Kelly et al. using the cluster pair approximation. Considering that this difference is due to the methanol surface potential, we have estimated that it corresponds to -0.429 V.

  5. Configural frequency analysis as a method of determining patients' preferred decision-making roles in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeffert Sabine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies examined factors in promoting a patient preference for active participation in treatment decision making with only modest success. The purpose of this study was to identify types of patients wishing to participate in treatment decisions as well as those wishing to play a completely active or passive role based on a Germany-wide survey of dialysis patients; using a prediction typal analysis method that defines types as configurations of categories belonging to different attributes and takes particularly higher order interactions between variables into account. Methods After randomly splitting the original patient sample into two halves, an exploratory prediction configural frequency analysis (CFA was performed on one-half of the sample (n = 1969 and the identified types were considered as hypotheses for an inferential prediction CFA for the second half (n = 1914. 144 possible prediction types were tested by using five predictor variables and control preferences as criterion. An α-adjustment (0.05 for multiple testing was performed by the Holm procedure. Results 21 possible prediction types were identified as hypotheses in the exploratory prediction CFA; four patient types were confirmed in the confirmatory prediction CFA: patients preferring a passive role show low information seeking preference, above average trust in their physician, perceive their physician's participatory decision-making (PDM-style positive, have a lower educational level, and are 56-75 years old (Type 1; p 76 years old (Type 2; p p p Conclusions The method prediction configural frequency analysis was newly introduced to the research field of patient participation and could demonstrate how a particular control preference role is determined by an association of five variables.

  6. SU-E-T-804: Verification of the BJR-25 Method of KQ Determination for CyberKnife Absolute Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, J [Gibbs Cancer Center & Research Institute - Pelham, Greer, SC (United States); Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC - Greenville, SC (United States); Willett, B [Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Absolute calibration of the CyberKnife is performed using a 6cm-diameter cone defined at 80cm SAD. Since kQ is defined using PDD values determined using 10×10 cm fields at 100cm SSD, the PDD must be corrected in order to correctly apply the quality conversion factor. The accepted method is based on equivalent field-size conversions of PDD values using BJR25. Using the new InCise MLC system, the CK is capable of generating a rectangular field equivalent to 10×10 cm square field. In this study, a comparison is made between kQ values determined using the traditional BJR25 method and the MLC method introduced herein. Methods: First, kQ(BJR) is determined: a PDD is acquired using a 6cm circular field at 100cm SSD, its field size converted to an equivalent square, and PDD converted to a 10×10cm field using the appropriate BJR25 table. Maintaining a consistent setup, the collimator is changed, and the MLC method is used. Finally, kQ is determined using PDDs acquired with a 9.71×10.31cm at 100cm SSD. This field is produced by setting the field to a size of 7.77×8.25cm (since it is defined at 80cm SAD). An exact 10×10cm field since field size is relegated to increments of its leaf width (0.25cm). This comparison is made using an Exradin A1SL, IBA CC08, IBA CC13, and an Exradin A19. For each detector and collimator type, the beam injector was adjusted to give 5 different beam qualities; representing a range of clinical systems. Results: Averaging across all beam qualities, kQ(MLC) differed from kQ(BJR) by less than 0.15%. The difference between the values increased with detector volume. Conclusion: For CK users with standard cone collimators, the BJR25 method has been verified. For CK users the MLC system, a technique is described to determine kQ. Primary author is the President/Owner of Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, a company which maintains contracts with Siemens Healthcare and Standard Imaging, Inc.

  7. A Numerical Approach to Determine Attitude Dynamics of Floating Bodies with Irregular Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Lin Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study acquires the attitude dynamics of floating bodies with irregular configurations using an effective computational model, which has been validated theoretically and verified by experiments. By comparison a correlation formula was described to predict inclinations for the floating slender body imitating an excise torpedo. Thereafter a computational model was developed to account for bodies with attitudes in more general situations. For demonstration, a submersible was simulated to reveal that the inclinations vary abruptly around certain longitudinal locations of center of gravity. The property variations during water ingress assumption were presented. Similar to the virtue tank, an innovative concept of building the numerical data base for a specific floating body has been proposed, by which the position of its center of gravity can be obtained by interpolation from attitude data in tables as determined by the present computational model.

  8. Absolute band structure determination on naturally occurring rutile with complex chemistry: Implications for mineral photocatalysis on both Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Xiaoming; Li, Yanzhang; Ding, Cong; Wu, Jing; Lu, Anhuai; Ding, Hongrui; Qin, Shan; Wang, Changqiu

    2018-05-01

    Rutile is the most common and stable form of TiO2 that ubiquitously existing on Earth and other terrestrial planets like Mars. Semiconducting mineral such as rutile-based photoredox reactions have been considered to play important roles in geological times. However, due to the inherent complexity in chemistry, the precision determination on band structure of natural rutile and the theoretical explanation on its solar-driven photochemistry have been hardly seen yet. Considering the multiple minor and trace elements in natural rutile, we firstly obtained the single-crystal crystallography, mineralogical composition and defects characteristic of the rutile sample by using both powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the band gap was accurately determined by synchrotron-based O K-edge X-ray absorption and emission spectra, which was firstly applied to natural rutile due to its robustness on compositions and defects. The absolute band edges of the rutile sample was calculated by considering the electronegativity of the atoms, band gap and point of zero charge. Besides, after detecting the defect energy levels by photoluminescence spectra, we drew the schematic band structure of natural rutile. The band gap (2.7 eV) of natural rutile was narrower than that of synthetic rutile (3.0 eV), and the conduction and valence band edges of natural rutile at pH = pHPZC were determined to be -0.04 V and 2.66 V (vs. NHE), respectively. The defect energy levels located at nearly the middle position of the forbidden band. Further, we used theoretical calculations to verify the isomorphous substitution of Fe and V for Ti gave rise to the distortion of TiO6 octahedron and created vacancy defects in natural rutile. Based on density functional theory, the narrowed band gap was interpreted to the contribution of Fe-3d and V-3d orbits, and the defect energy state was formed by hybridization of O-2p and Fe/V/Ti-3d

  9. Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, K; Verhoeven; Verleye

    2009-01-01

    Absolute abundances (concentrations) of dinoflagellate cysts are often determined through the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing. An inter-laboratory calibration exercise was set up in order to test the comparability of results obt...

  10. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  11. A novel setup for the determination of absolute cross sections for low-energy electron induced strand breaks in oligonucleotides - The effect of the radiosensitizer 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, J.; Rankovic, M.L.; Milosavljevic, A.R.; Bald, I.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in DNA radiation damage. Here we present a method to quantify LEE induced strand breakage in well-defined oligonucleotide single strands in terms of absolute cross sections. An LEE irradiation setup covering electron energies <500 eV is constructed and optimized to irradiate DNA origami triangles carrying well-defined oligonucleotide target strands. Measurements are presented for 10.0 and 5.5 eV for different oligonucleotide targets. The determination of absolute strand break cross sections is performed by atomic force microscopy analysis. An accurate fluence determination ensures small margins of error of the determined absolute single strand break cross sections σ SSB . In this way, the influence of sequence modification with the radiosensitive 5-Fluorouracil ( 5F U) is studied using an absolute and relative data analysis. We demonstrate an increase in the strand break yields of 5F U containing oligonucleotides by a factor of 1.5 to 1.6 compared with non-modified oligonucleotide sequences when irradiated with 10 eV electrons. (authors)

  12. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  13. Competition between intermolecular interaction and configuration entropy as the structure-determining factor for inclusion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, O.; Belosludov, V.; Adamova, T. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Nikolaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Belosludov, R.; Kawazoe, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Kudoh, J.I. [Tohoku Univ., Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan). Center for Northeast Asia Studies

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed method to accurately predict the thermodynamic properties of clathrate hydrates, particularly their structural phase transitions under pressure. The method is based on the theory of Van-der-Waals and Platteeuw with some modifications that include the influence of guest molecules on the host lattice. The model was used to explain the exception from the established rule that small guest molecules form structure s1 and large molecules form structure s2 hydrates. In this study, the thermodynamic properties of argon (Ar) hydrate and methane hydrate, each in both cubic structure s1 and s2 were modelled. The model showed that two competing factors play a role in the formation of inclusions, notably the intermolecular interaction of guest molecules with water molecules, and the configuration entropy. Competition of these 2 factors determines the structure of hydrate formed at different pressures. The model provides an accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of gas hydrates and how they behave under pressure. For the argon hydrates, the structural phase transition from structure s2 to s1 at high pressure was predicted, while methane hydrates were predicted to be metastable in the s2 structure. The model can be used for other inclusion compounds with the same type of composition such as clathrate silicon, zeolites, and inclusion compounds of semiconductor elements. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Configuration determination for k-out-of-n partially redundant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lixuan; Lewis, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    The k-out-of-n configuration is a widely adopted structure for partially redundant safety systems. This configuration ensures a high level of reliability and safety with limited financial and space resources. It also facilitates on-line Test and Maintenance (T and M) without having to shut the system down. One question a decision maker needs to answer when adopting k-out-of-n systems is: what is the best configuration for the application, i.e. how many channels in total need to be utilized and among these channels, how many channels need to function simultaneously in order for the system to function. There are various factors to consider in order to make this decision. This paper looks at this problem from a reliability engineers point of view. A quantitative analysis is performed for both unavailability and probability of spurious operation due to independent failure. In particular, the relative gain and/or loss of these quantities that occurs due to changing from one configuration to another are compared through rigorous mathematical analysis. The results provide important information that can be used when choosing system configurations to meet regulatory requirements and financial constraints. The two different configurations for shutdown systems in Nuclear Power Plants, the 2-out-of-3 system and the 2-out-of-4 system, are utilized as an example to illustrate the theoretical results

  15. Determination of the absolute internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence in GaN co-doped with Si and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Foussekis, M.; McNamara, J. D.; Behrends, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A.

    2012-04-01

    The optical properties of high-quality GaN co-doped with silicon and zinc are investigated by using temperature-dependent continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The blue luminescence band is related to the ZnGa acceptor in GaN:Si,Zn, which exhibits an exceptionally high absolute internal quantum efficiency (IQE). An IQE above 90% was calculated for several samples having different concentrations of Zn. Accurate and reliable values of the IQE were obtained by using several approaches based on rate equations. The concentrations of the ZnGa acceptors and free electrons were also estimated from the photoluminescence measurements.

  16. Absolute determination of the dominant amplitudes of the electroproduction of neutral pions at the momentum transfer of 0,630 GeV2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantes, B.

    2003-10-01

    A complete Monte Carlo simulation for the neutral pion electroproduction experiment in the kinematics of the Δ(1232) that was carried out at the accelerator facility ELSA has been developed to correct the data concerning effects like detector resolution efficiencies, acceptances and radiation corrections. Results for the leading amplitudes are extracted at the four momentum transfer of 0.630 GeV 2 . Absolute cross sections are extracted using the well known elastic ep scattering to determine the luminosity. (orig.)

  17. Determination of the absolute efficiency of an organic scintillator for neutrons with energies between 0.5 and 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Lisowski, P.W.; Russell, G.J.; King, N.S.P.; Donnert, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the absolute efficiency of an NE-213 scintillator for neutrons with energies from 0.5 to 800 MeV. The detector was 5.1 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm deep. The efficiencies were obtained for detector thresholds of 0.011, 0.48, 1.12, and 4.48 MeVee. Our results are compared to predictions of the STANTON computer code. (orig.)

  18. Determination of the absolute K through O conversion coefficients of the 80-keV M4 transition in /sup 193/Ir/sup m/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, M.; Gunnink, R.; Nagle, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    We produced carrier-free, nearly isotopically pure /sup 193/Ir/sup m/ from thermal-neutron irradiation of /sup 192/Os. From studies of the conversion-electron spectrum, the photon spectrum, and the absolute counting rates, we determined the absolute K, L1, L2, L3, M1, M3, M5, N, and O+P conversion coefficients for the first time. With possibly one exception, these values agree closely with theoretical calculations. The value for the energy of the unconverted gamma ray was found to be 80.22 +- 0.02 keV. The half-life for /sup 193/Ir/sup m/ determined by absolute electron counting in a proportional counter of 100% counting efficiency (4πβ) was found to be 10.53 +- 0.04 d. We have determined the L 1 subshell fluorescence yield, ω 1 , to be 0.120 +- 0.003 for iridium. Based upon our measurements of initial and final L subshell vacancies together with a best-fit literature value for ω 2 , we have found a plausible value for the Coster-Kronig coefficient f/sub 12/ to be 0.091 +- 0.011

  19. The determination of sulfoxide configuration in six-membered rings using NMR specroscopy and DFT calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Slavětínská, Lenka; Janků, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2011), s. 356-366 ISSN 0957-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NMR * calculation of NMR parameters * sulfoxides * configuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.652, year: 2011

  20. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  1. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    The presentation of images that are similar to that of an unknown lesion seen on a mammogram may be helpful for radiologists to correctly diagnose that lesion. For similar images to be useful, they must be quite similar from the radiologists' point of view. We have been trying to quantify the radiologists' impression of similarity for pairs of lesions and to establish a ''gold standard'' for development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selecting such similar images. However, it is considered difficult to reliably and accurately determine similarity ratings, because they are subjective. In this study, we compared the subjective similarities obtained by two different methods, an absolute rating method and a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) method, to demonstrate that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by the responses of a group of radiologists. The absolute similarity ratings were previously obtained for pairs of masses and pairs of microcalcifications from five and nine radiologists, respectively. In this study, similarity ranking scores for eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were determined by use of the 2AFC method. In the first session, the eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were grouped and compared separately for determining the similarity ranking scores. In the second session, another similarity ranking score was determined by use of mixed pairs, i.e., by comparison of the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair. Four pairs of masses and four pairs of microcalcifications were grouped together to create two sets of eight pairs. The average absolute similarity ratings and the average similarity ranking scores showed very good correlations in the first study (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.94 and 0.98 for masses and microcalcifications, respectively). Moreover, in the second study, the correlations between the absolute ratings and the ranking scores were also

  2. SU-E-T-49: Automatic Beam Angle Determination for Lung IMRT Planning Using a Beam Configuration Atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L; Yin, F; Sheng, Y; Wu, Q J.; Ge, Y; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a technique to automatically determine beam angle configurations for lung IMRT planning based on the patient-specific anatomy and tumor geometry. Methods: The relationship between individual patient anatomy and proper beam configurations was learned from high quality clinical plans in three steps. First, a beam configuration atlas was obtained by classifying 60 lung IMRT plans into 6 beam configuration clusters based on a dissimilarity measure defined between different beam configurations. A beam configuration template was extracted from each cluster to form an atlas. Second, a beam efficiency index map (EI map) was constructed to characterize the geometry of the tumor relative to the lungs, the body and other OARs along each candidate beam direction. Finally, the EI maps of the clinical cases and the cluster assignments of their beam configurations were paired to train a Bayesian classification model. This technique was validated by leave-one-out cross validation with 16 cases randomly selected from the original dataset. An IMRT plan (autobeam plan) for each test case was generated using the beam configuration template according to the cluster assignment given by the model and was compared with the corresponding clinical plan. Results: The dosimetric parameters (mean±S.D. in percentage of prescription dose) in the auto-beam plans and in the clinical plans, respectively, and the p-values by a paired ttest (in parenthesis) are: lung Dmean: 16.3±9.3, 18.6±7.4 (0.48), esophagus Dmean: 28.4±18, 30.7±19.3 (0.02), Heart Dmean: 21.5±17.5,21.1±17.2 (0.76), Spinal Cord D2%: 48±23, 51.2±21.8 (0.01), PTV dose homogeneity (D2%–D99%): 22±27.4, 20.4±12.8 (0.10).The dose reductions by the autobeam plans in esophagus Dmean and cord D02 are statistically significant but the differences (<4%) may not be clinically significant. The other dosimetric parameters are not statistically different. Conclusion: Plans generated by the automatic beam angle

  3. Simple and rapid LC-MS/MS method for the absolute determination of cetuximab in human serum using an immobilized trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kaito; Naito, Takafumi; Okamura, Jun; Hosokawa, Seiji; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-11-30

    Proteomic approaches using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without an immunopurification technique have not been applied to the determination of serum cetuximab. This study developed a simple and rapid LC-MS/MS method for the absolute determination of cetuximab in human serum and applied it to clinical settings. Surrogate peptides derived from cetuximab digests were selected using a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Reduced-alkylated serum cetuximab without immunopurification was digested for 20minutes using immobilized trypsin, and the digestion products were purified by solid-phase extraction. The LC-MS/MS was run in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method was applied to the determination of serum samples in head and neck cancer patients treated with cetuximab. The chromatographic run time was 10minutes and no peaks interfering with surrogate peptides in serum digestion products were observed. The calibration curve of absolute cetuximab in serum was linear over the concentration range of 4-200μg/mL. The lower limit of quantification of cetuximab in human serum was 4μg/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were less than 13.2% and 88.0-100.7%, respectively. The serum concentration range of cetuximab was 19-140μg/mL in patients. The serum cetuximab concentrations in LC-MS/MS were correlated with those in ELISA (r=0.899, P <0.01) and the mean bias was 1.5% in cancer patients. In conclusion, the present simple and rapid method with acceptable analytical performance can be helpful for evaluating the absolute concentration of serum cetuximab in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O3 → NaO + O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, David; Marshall, Paul; Plane, J.M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute second-order rate constant for the reaction Na + O 3 -> NaO + O 2 (k 1 ) has been determined by time-resolved atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at lambda = 589 nm [Na(3 2 Psub(j)) 2 Ssub(1/2))] following pulsed irradiation, coupled with monitoring of O 3 by light absorption in the ultra-violet; this yields k 1 (500 K) = 4(+4,-2) x 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , resolving large differences for various estimates of this important quantity used in modelling the sodium layer in the mesosphere. (author)

  5. JT-60 configuration parameters for feedback control determined by regression analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukawa, Makoto; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ninomiya, Hiromasa (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment)

    1991-12-01

    The stepwise regression procedure was applied to obtain measurement formulas for equilibrium parameters used in the feedback control of JT-60. This procedure automatically selects variables necessary for the measurements, and selects a set of variables which are not likely to be picked up by physical considerations. Regression equations with stable and small multicollinearity were obtained and it was experimentally confirmed that the measurement formulas obtained through this procedure were accurate enough to be applicable to the feedback control of plasma configurations in JT-60. (author).

  6. JT-60 configuration parameters for feedback control determined by regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Makoto; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ninomiya, Hiromasa

    1991-12-01

    The stepwise regression procedure was applied to obtain measurement formulas for equilibrium parameters used in the feedback control of JT-60. This procedure automatically selects variables necessary for the measurements, and selects a set of variables which are not likely to be picked up by physical considerations. Regression equations with stable and small multicollinearity were obtained and it was experimentally confirmed that the measurement formulas obtained through this procedure were accurate enough to be applicable to the feedback control of plasma configurations in JT-60. (author)

  7. The Location of the Deepest Point of the Eyeball Determines the Optic Disc Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Jung, Younhea; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2017-07-19

    Tilted and rotated appearances are hallmarks of the myopic optic disc. As the eyeball grows axially, the posterior pole elongates not only globally but in a localized manner as well. In this process, the optic disc is pulled towards the deepest point of the elongated eyeball, which might result in a change in optic disc configuration. Thus, we hypothesized that analyzing the variation of posterior pole contour can play a major role in understanding optic disc configuration in myopic subjects. By analyzing consecutive images of swept source OCT coronal sections at the posterior pole, the deepest interface between Bruch's membrane and the choroid could be identified as the deepest point of the eyeball (DPE). The location and the properties of the DPE differed significantly between the 125 eyes of non-glaucomatous myopic group and the 40 eyes of non-glaucomatous emmetropic group classified based on 24 mm axial length. The results suggested that the larger disc to DPE angle and the larger disc to DPE depth strongly predicts the optic disc torsion degree and the optic disc tilt. Our findings suggest that identifying the posterior pole profile plays a major role in understanding the optic disc alterations found in myopic subjects.

  8. Correlations among experimental and theoretical NMR data to determine the absolute stereochemistry of darcyribeirine, a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelieri, Náuvia Maria; Ferreira, Thiago Resende; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Alcântara, Antônio Flávio de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Darcyribeirine (1) is a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora. Stereochemistry of 1 was previously proposed based on 1D (coupling constant data) and 2D (NOESY correlations) NMR techniques, having been established a configuration 3R, 15S, and 20R (isomer 1a). Stereoisomers of 1 (i.e., 1a-1h) can be grouped into four sets of enantiomers. Carbon chemical shifts and hydrogen coupling constants were calculated using BLYP/6-31G* theory level for the eight isomers of 1. Calculated NMR data of 1a-1h were correlated with the corresponding experimental data of 1. The best correlations between theoretical and experimental carbon chemical shift data were obtained for the set of enantiomers 1e/1f to structures in the gaseous phase and considering solvent effects (using PCM and explicit models). Similar results were obtained when the same procedure was performed to correlations between theoretical and experimental coupling constant data. Finally, optical rotation calculations indicate 1e as its absolute stereochemistry. Orbital population analysis indicates that the hydrogen bonding between N-H of 1e and DMSO is due to contributions of its frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals, mainly LUMO+1, LUMO+2, and LUMO+3.

  9. Determination of the excess of reactivity in a nuclear configuration and its influence on the power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga, Agustin; Tapia, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This work presents experimental results which show that the critical position of a given nuclear configuration changes with the reactor power (expressed by the current measurement). Thus, if the current is 0.6 x 10 -11 A (1 W), then the critical position is, BC1 = 0.0 % while 0.6 x 10 -9 A (100 W), BC1= 46.5 %. The difference is apparent because under a current of 10 -10 A, the reactivity is not significant. Therefore, it is recommended that for reactors like the RP-10 with a lot of neutrons at the 'background' level, the excess reactivity must be measured in current as 0.6 x 10 -9 A (100 W) not less. Finally, the excess of reactivity for the N o 42 configuration was determined, which was 3032 pcm with uncertainty less than 1 %. (authors).

  10. Determination of the Absolute Enantiomeric Excess of the Carbon Nanotube Ensemble by Symmetry Breaking Using the Optical Titration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jinsook; Kim, Somin; Jang, Myungsu; Park, Minsuk; Oh, Hyunkyu; Ju, Sang-Yong

    2017-10-17

    Symmetry breaking of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has profound effects on their optoelectronic properties that are essential for fundamental study and applications. Here, we show that isomeric SWNTs that exhibit identical photoluminescence (PL) undergo symmetry breaking by flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and exhibit dual PLs and different binding affinities (K a ). Increasing the FMN concentration leads to systematic PL shifts of SWNTs according to structural modality and handedness due to symmetry breaking. Density gradient ultracentrifugation using a FMN-SWNT dispersion displays PL shifts and different densities according to SWNT handedness. Using the optical titration method to determine the PL-based K a of SWNTs against an achiral surfactant as a titrant, left- and right-handed SWNTs display two-step PL inflection corresponding to respective K a values with FMN, which leads to the determination of the enantiomeric excess (ee) of the SWNT ensemble that was confirmed by circular dichroism measurement. Decreasing the FMN concentration for the SWNT dispersion leads to enantiomeric selection of SWNTs. The titration-based ee determination of the widely used sodium cholate-based SWNT dispersion was also demonstrated by using FMN as a cosurfactant.

  11. Experimental and theoretical determinations of the absolute ionization cross section of alkali metals by electron impact in the energy range from 100 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalin, Rene

    1972-01-01

    The absolute electron impact ionization cross sections for the alkali metals in the energy range between 100 eV and 2000 eV were measured by the non-modulated crossed beam technique. The neutral beam of alkali atoms is produced by a Knudsen cell and crossed at right angles with the electron beam. The ions formed are collected on a plate and their intensity determined with a D.C. amplifier. The neutral beam is condensed on a cold trap cooled with liquid nitrogen, this temperature being much lower than that required to obtain total condensation. The amount of metal deposited is measured by the isotopic dilution technique and by atomic absorption, and the density of the atoms in the neutral beam is calculated. The total absolute ionization cross sections can then be determined. All possible errors have been carefully analyzed and their magnitudes estimated. The absolute ionization cross section for Li at an energy of 500 eV is: Q Li = 0,358 x 10 -16 cm 2 . This value is half of that obtained by Mac Farland and Kinney. The partial ionization cross sections for the singly and multiply charged ions is determined with a mass spectrometer attached to this apparatus. For the singly charged ions, the variation of the cross section with the energy of the ionizing electrons is in agreement with the optically allowed transition law: Q = A log BE/E. From the variation of Q with E, the squared matrix elements of the transition moment (|M i |) 2 are determined for all the elements studied. New calculations of the ionization cross section of Li and Na were performed in the framework of the Born-Bethe approximation as modified by Gaudin and Botter to take into account collisions with large momentum variation of the incident electron. Hartree-Fock type wave functions for the ground state atom (tabulated by Clementi) were used. The calculated values are in good agreement with our experimental results and with the former theoretical results calculated by various methods. This work also

  12. Detection of atomic and molecular hydrogen in post-discharge by resonant multi-photo-ionisation. Determination of absolute atomic densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persuy, Philippe

    1990-01-01

    Within the frame of studies on devices for physical vapour deposition, and on phenomena leading to these depositions, this research thesis reports the development of a laser-diagnosis based on the phenomenon of resonant multi-photo-ionisation, and an attempt to obtain from it values of the absolute concentration of atomic hydrogen. After some recalls on the diversity of multi-photon phenomena, their theoretical and experimental evolutions, and on the particular role of hydrogen, the author reports experiments performed at 307.7 and 364.7 nm which respectively addressed the post-discharge detection of molecular hydrogen and of atomic hydrogen. A model is presented which addresses the interaction volume, and results of experiments of atom multi-photo-ionisation are reported. One of the results of this model is an assessment of the cross-section of the excitation with three photons of the hydrogen atom. This result is then used to determine the absolute density of atoms in fundamental state for different discharge conditions. Finally, the author presents the calculation software and some curve examples displaying the evolution of the number of ions and of excited states within the interaction volume [fr

  13. Modeling Multi-wavelength Stellar Astrometry. III. Determination of the Absolute Masses of Exoplanets and Their Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-05-01

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 μas precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  14. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. III. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE MASSES OF EXOPLANETS AND THEIR HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 μas precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  15. Changing the configuration of business information systems for advanced continuous replenishment implementation : case studies of Indonesian and Dutch retailers on contingency factors that determine the configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasution, Reza Ashari

    2005-01-01

    Business Information Systems (BIS) play an important role in the CR practice. The definition of BIS in this thesis includes the aspects of data, data processing activities, and data processing technologies that support those activities. The BIS configuration in a retail company shows the possibility

  16. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aleksander Wysocki

    Full Text Available Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month. Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo. Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  17. Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.

  18. Errors and limits in the determination of plasma electron density by measuring the absolute values of the emitted continuum radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bruzzone, H.; Grondona, D.

    1994-01-01

    The reliable determination of a plasma electron structure requires a good knowledge of the errors affecting the employed technique. A technique based on the measurements of the absolute light intensity emitted by travelling plasma structures in plasma focus devices has been used, but it can be easily modified to other geometries and even to stationary plasma structures with time-varying plasma densities. The purpose of this work is to discuss in some detail the errors and limits of this technique. Three separate errors are shown: the minimum size of the density structure that can be resolved, an overall error in the measurements themselves, and an uncertainty in the shape of the density profile. (author)

  19. Determination of the absolute concentrations of H2O - D2O mixtures using the increase in sensitivity of infra-red absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccaldi, M.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given in this report of original work concerning an infrared method for determining the absolute isotopic content of H 2 O - D 2 O mixtures. The spectrum is obtained, in both the liquid and the solid states, of water of unknown D 2 O content and of mixtures of this water and light water. The Beer-Lambert law-is Well followed in this case; the measurement of three parameters involved in this law is described together with a method of measuring the fourth parameter. The results obtained using infrared and nuclear resonance techniques are compared. The concentration of the 99.9960 per cent reference water is known with a precision of a least + 40 ppm - 20 ppm and very likely to ± 5 ppm. (author) [fr

  20. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  1. Photoelectron and UV absorption spectroscopy for determination of electronic configurations of negative molecular ions: Chlorophenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseplin, E.E.; Tseplina, S.N.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khvostenko, O.G.

    2009-01-01

    The photoelectron and UV absorption spectra of p-, m-, and o-chlorophenols in the gas phase have been obtained. On the basis of DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) calculations, the photoelectron bands have been assigned to occupied molecular orbitals. From the TDDFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) calculation results, the UV absorption bands have been assigned to excited singlet states of the molecules under investigation. For each excited state a dominant transition was found. It has been shown that the energies of these singlet transitions correlate with the energy differences between the ground-state molecular orbitals participating in them. Using the UV spectra interpretation, the electronic states of molecular anions detected earlier for the same compounds by means of the resonant electron capture mass-spectrometry have been determined.

  2. Determination of the force systems produced by different configurations of tear drop orthodontic loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanical characteristics of teardrop loop with and without helix fabricated using different metal alloy compositions (stainless steel and beta-titanium, submitted to different intensities of bends preactivation (0º and 40º, and with different cross-sectional dimension of the wire used to build these loops (0.017 x 0.025-in and 0.019 x 0.025-in. METHODS: Eighty loops used to close spaces were submitted to mechanical tests. The magnitudes of horizontal force, the moment/force ratio, and the load/deflection ratio produced by the specimens were quantified. Loops were submitted to a total activation of 5.0 mm and the values were registered for each 1.0 mm of activation. For statistic data analysis, a analysis of variance was performed and a Tukey's Multiple Comparison test was used as supplement, considering a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: In general, teardrop loops with helix produced lower magnitudes of horizontal force and load/deflection ratio, and higher moment/force ratio than teardrop loops without helix. Among all analyzed variables, metal alloy composition presented greater influence in the horizontal force and in the load/deflection ratio. The moment/force ratio showed to be more influenced by the preactivation of loops for space closure.

  3. Application of Bayesian configural frequency analysis (BCFA) to determine characteristics user and non-user motor X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawardi, Muhamad Iqbal; Padmadisastra, Septiadi; Tantular, Bertho

    2018-03-01

    Configural Frequency Analysis is a method for cell-wise testing in contingency tables for exploratory search type and antitype, that can see the existence of discrepancy on the model by existence of a significant difference between the frequency of observation and frequency of expectation. This analysis focuses on whether or not the interaction among categories from different variables, and not the interaction among variables. One of the extensions of CFA method is Bayesian CFA, this alternative method pursue the same goal as frequentist version of CFA with the advantage that adjustment of the experiment-wise significance level α is not necessary and test whether groups of types and antitypes form composite types or composite antitypes. Hence, this research will present the concept of the Bayesian CFA and how it works for the real data. The data on this paper is based on case studies in a company about decrease Brand Awareness & Image motor X on Top Of Mind Unit indicator in Cirebon City for user 30.8% and non user 9.8%. From the result of B-CFA have four characteristics from deviation, one of the four characteristics above that is the configuration 2212 need more attention by company to determine promotion strategy to maintain and improve Top Of Mind Unit in Cirebon City.

  4. Experimental determination of absolute-scale compton cross sections using the K X-ray escape and a comparison with three versions of the impulse approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasic, S.; Uroic, M.; Tocilj, Z.; Majer, M.; Gamulin, O.; Bokulic, T.; Ilakovac, K.

    2005-01-01

    Double-differential Compton cross sections at two incident photon energies of 68.9 and 70.8 keV (mercury Kα X-rays) at the scattering angle of about 172 deg were measured in germanium using the coincidence technique with a detector as the scatterer. The cross sections were determined by normalization of the Compton spectra to the peaks due to the escape of characteristic Kα and Kβ X-rays from the target detector. This new approach of determination of absolute-scale Compton cross sections can also be applied in widely used single-mode measurements (source-scatterer-detector assembly). Our analysis shows that the new method is especially convenient and accurate at lower incident photon energies above the K-edge in the target atoms. The experimental results are compared with the non-relativistic impulse approximation, the frequently used simplified version of the relativistic impulse approximation and the non-relativistic impulse approximation used with the relativistic expression for the atomic electron momentum in the direction of the photon momentum transfer. Contrary to our expectation, the non-relativistic impulse approximation clearly gives the best agreement with the experimental data in the region of the Compton peak

  5. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  6. Determinations of its Absolute Dimensions and Distance by the Analyses of Light and Radial-Velocity Curves of the Contact Binary -I. V417 Aquilae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New photometric and spectroscopic solutions of W-type overcontact binary V417 Aql were obtained by solving the UBV light curves of Samec et al. (1997 and radial-velocity ones of Lu & Rucinski (1999 with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney binary code. In the light curve synthesis the light of a third-body, which Qian (2003 proposed, was considered and obtained about 2.7%, 2.2%, and 0.4% for U, B, and V bandpasses, respectively. The model with third-light is better fitted to eclipse parts than that with no third-light. Absolute dimensions of V417 Aql are determined from our solution as M1=0.53 M⊙, M2=1.45 M⊙, R1=0.84 R⊙ and R2=1.31 M⊙, and the distance to it is deduced as about 216pc. Our distance is well consistent with that (204pc derived from Rucinski & Duerbeck's (1997 relation, MV=MV(log P, B-V, but is more distant than that (131±40pc determined by the Hipparcos trigonometric parallax. The difference may result from the relatively large error of Hipparcos parallax for V417 Aql.

  7. Determining potential 30/20 GHz domestic satellite system concepts and establishment of a suitable experimental configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, G. H.; Anzic, G.

    1979-01-01

    Issues and results in a NASA study of the potential concepts and markets for a multibeam 30/20 GHz domestic satellite system in the 1990s are presented. Issues considered include the reduction of signal attenuation due to rain, beam-beam interference isolation in the multibeam system, the method of access/modulation (FDMA, TDMA or hybrid) and the market for reduced reliability and wideband services. A hypothetical demonstration payload configuration which would attempt to resolve these issues is illustrated. The communications payload would employ a system of seven contiguous coverage spots in order to demonstrate a typical cell in a contiguous beam system having extensive frequency re-use, as in a direct-to-user system, and a single spot, typical of a trunking system, to determine signal isolation. The payload could be carried on several existing buses and is illustrated on an MMS bus.

  8. Deconvolution of overlapping features in electron energy-loss spectra: the determination of absolute differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of electronic states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.; Brunger, M.J.; Teubner, O.J.P.; Mojarrabi, B.

    1996-06-01

    A set of three computer programs is reported which allow for the deconvolution of overlapping molecular electronic state structure in electron energy-loss spectra, even in highly perturbed systems. This procedure enables extraction of absolute differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of electronic states of diatomic molecules from electron energy-loss spectra. The first code in the sequence uses the Rydberg-Klein-Rees procedure to generate potential energy curves from spectroscopic constants, while the second calculates Franck-Condon factors by numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation, given the potential energy curves. The third, given these Franck-Condon factors, the previously calculated relevant energies for the vibrational levels of the respective electronic states and the experimental energy-loss spectra, extracts the differential cross sections for each state. Each program can be run independently, or the three can run in sequence to determine these cross sections from the spectroscopic constants and the experimental energy-loss spectra. The application of these programs to the specific case of electron scattering from nitric oxide (NO) is demonstrated. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Determination of buckling and probability of leakage of neutron in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor in cylindrical configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini

    2014-01-01

    One of the key parameters in reactor physics is the Buckling of a reactor core. It is related to important parameters such as reaction rates, nuclear power operation, fuel burning, among others. In a critical reactor, the Buckling depends on the geometric and material characteristics of the reactor core. This work presents the results of experimental Buckling in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts, it is a versatile nuclear facility which allows the simulation of all the characteristics of a large nuclear power reactor and ideal for this type of measurement. We conducted a mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor and thereby determined the total Buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for one hour. Then, the activity of the fuel rods was measured by gamma spectrometry on a rod scanner HPGe detector. We analyzed the gamma photons of the 239 Np (276,6 keV) for neutron capture (n,γ) and the 143 Ce (293,3 keV) for fission (n,f) on both 238 U and 235 U, respectively. We analyzed the axial and radial directions. Other measurements were performed using wires and gold foils in the radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The Buckling Total obtained from the three methods by weighted mean is 96,55 ± 7,47 m -2 . The goal is to obtain experimental values of a set of experimental data to allow one direct comparison with values calculated by the codes used in reactor physics CITATION and MCNP. (author)

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Absolute determination of single-stranded and self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector genome titers by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Chen, Shu-Jen; Wilson, James M

    2014-04-01

    Accurate titration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector genome copies is critical for ensuring correct and reproducible dosing in both preclinical and clinical settings. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the current method of choice for titrating AAV genomes because of the simplicity, accuracy, and robustness of the assay. However, issues with qPCR-based determination of self-complementary AAV vector genome titers, due to primer-probe exclusion through genome self-annealing or through packaging of prematurely terminated defective interfering (DI) genomes, have been reported. Alternative qPCR, gel-based, or Southern blotting titering methods have been designed to overcome these issues but may represent a backward step from standard qPCR methods in terms of simplicity, robustness, and precision. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a new PCR technique that directly quantifies DNA copies with an unparalleled degree of precision and without the need for a standard curve or for a high degree of amplification efficiency; all properties that lend themselves to the accurate quantification of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. Here we compare a ddPCR-based AAV genome titer assay with a standard and an optimized qPCR assay for the titration of both single-stranded and self-complementary AAV genomes. We demonstrate absolute quantification of single-stranded AAV vector genomes by ddPCR with up to 4-fold increases in titer over a standard qPCR titration but with equivalent readout to an optimized qPCR assay. In the case of self-complementary vectors, ddPCR titers were on average 5-, 1.9-, and 2.3-fold higher than those determined by standard qPCR, optimized qPCR, and agarose gel assays, respectively. Droplet digital PCR-based genome titering was superior to qPCR in terms of both intra- and interassay precision and is more resistant to PCR inhibitors, a desirable feature for in-process monitoring of early-stage vector production and for vector genome biodistribution

  12. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

  13. Operational Dynamic Configuration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chok Fung; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    schedule containing k configurations based on stability score of the sector combinations among the raw operational configurations. In addition, the number of the selected configurations is determined based on balance between accuracy and assessment complexity.

  14. Long-term temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology spectral irradiance scale determined with absolute filter radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Howard W.; Gibson, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    The temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral irradiance scale as measured with broadband filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity is described. The working standard free-electron laser (FEL) lamps and the check standard FEL lamps have been monitored with radiometers in the ultraviolet and the visible wavelength regions. The measurements made with these two radiometers reveal that the NIST spectral irradiance scale as compared with an absolute thermodynamic scale has not changed by more than 1.5% in the visible from 1993 to 1999. Similar measurements in the ultraviolet reveal that the corresponding change is less than 1.5% from 1995 to 1999. Furthermore, a check of the spectral irradiance scale by six different filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity based on the high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer shows that the agreement between the present scale and the detector-based scale is better than 1.3% throughout the visible to the near-infrared wavelength region. These results validate the assigned spectral irradiance of the widely disseminated NIST or NIST-traceable standard sources

  15. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  16. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more and more difficult to remove heat as one approaches absolute zero. This is the ... A new and active branch of engineering ... This temperature is called the critical temperature, Te' For sulfur dioxide the critical ..... adsorbent charcoal.

  17. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  18. Encasing the Absolutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Martinčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.

  19. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schneider, Uwe [University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  20. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  1. Absolute bioavailability of evacetrapib in healthy subjects determined by simultaneous administration of oral evacetrapib and intravenous [13C8]‐evacetrapib as a tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburub, Aktham; Ward, Chris; Hinds, Chris; Czeskis, Boris; Ruterbories, Kenneth; Suico, Jeffrey G.; Royalty, Jane; Ortega, Demetrio; Pack, Brian W.; Begum, Syeda L.; Annes, William F.; Lin, Qun; Small, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This open‐label, single‐period study in healthy subjects estimated evacetrapib absolute bioavailability following simultaneous administration of a 130‐mg evacetrapib oral dose and 4‐h intravenous (IV) infusion of 175 µg [13C8]‐evacetrapib as a tracer. Plasma samples collected through 168 h were analyzed for evacetrapib and [13C8]‐evacetrapib using high‐performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates following oral and IV doses, including area under the concentration‐time curve (AUC) from zero to infinity (AUC[0‐∞]) and to the last measureable concentration (AUC[0‐tlast]), were calculated. Bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of least‐squares geometric mean of dose‐normalized AUC (oral : IV) and corresponding 90% confidence interval (CI). Bioavailability of evacetrapib was 44.8% (90% CI: 42.2–47.6%) for AUC(0‐∞) and 44.3% (90% CI: 41.8–46.9%) for AUC(0‐tlast). Evacetrapib was well tolerated with no reports of clinically significant safety assessment findings. This is among the first studies to estimate absolute bioavailability using simultaneous administration of an unlabeled oral dose with a 13C‐labeled IV microdose tracer at about 1/1000th the oral dose, with measurement in the pg/mL range. This approach is beneficial for poorly soluble drugs, does not require additional toxicology studies, does not change oral dose pharmacokinetics, and ultimately gives researchers another tool to evaluate absolute bioavailability. PMID:26639670

  2. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  3. Configuration Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, A.; Taylor, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will briefly discuss the reason for and content of configuration management both for new plants and, when adapted, for older plants. It will then address three types of activities a utility may undertake as part of a nuclear CAM program and with which Sargent and Leyden has been actively involved. The first activity is a methodology for preparing design-basis documentation. The second is the identification of essential data required to be kept by the utility in support of the operation of a nuclear plant. The third activity is a computerized classification system of plant components, allowing ready identification of plant functional and physical characteristics. Plant configuration documentation describes plant components, the ways they arranged to interact, and the ways they are enabled to interact. Configuration management, on the other hand, is more than the control of such documentation. It is a dynamic process for ensuring that a plant configuration meets all relevant requirements for safety and economy, even while the configuration changes and even while the requirements change. Configuration management for a nuclear plant is so complex that it must be implemented in phases and modules. It takes advantage of and integrates existing programs. Managing complexity and streamlining the change process become important additional objectives of configuration management. The example activities fulfill essential goals of an overall CAM program: definition of design baseline, definition of essential plant data, and classification of plant components

  4. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  5. Absolute magnitudes by statistical parallaxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, A.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes an algorithm for stellar luminosity calibrations (based on the principle of maximum likelihood) which allows the calibration of relations of the type: Msub(i)=sup(N)sub(j=1)Σqsub(j)Csub(ij), i=1,...,n, where n is the size of the sample at hand, Msub(i) are the individual absolute magnitudes, Csub(ij) are observational quantities (j=1,...,N), and qsub(j) are the coefficients to be determined. If one puts N=1 and Csub(iN)=1, one has q 1 =M(mean), the mean absolute magnitude of the sample. As additional output, the algorithm provides one also with the dispersion in magnitude of the sample sigmasub(M), the mean solar motion (U,V,W) and the corresponding velocity ellipsoid (sigmasub(u), sigmasub(v), sigmasub(w). The use of this algorithm is illustrated. (Auth.)

  6. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  7. Absolute determination of thyroid activity from profile scans. Description of a correction method for extra-thyroidal activity of the neck. , pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damme, K.J. van

    1977-01-01

    An absolute method to measure the uptake of radioactive iodide by the thyroid by making a profile scan across the thyroid region with a slit-collimated detector is described. It is well known that the extra-thyroidal activity (ETA) in the neck may constitute a severe hindrance to measure the uptake accurately, especially in cases of hypothyroidism and often during the first few hours after the administration of the traces dose (e.g. orally 0.5 μCiNa 131 I). The author's approach to the problem is presented. A practical application of the method is discussed in extenso. A comparative evaluation of the usability of 123 I and 131 I as least-burdening radionuclides for child patients is given at the end

  8. Absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band of N2 as determined by high energy electron impact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.C.; Lee, J.S.; Wellenstein, H.F.; Bonham, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strength for the dipole forbidden quadrupole allowed Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band a 1 Pi/subg/ reverse arrow X 1 Σ + /subg/ in molecular nitrogen at an energy loss of 9.35 eV is observed by electron impact spectroscopy using 25 keV electrons over the momentum transfer range 0.04less than or equal toK 2 less than or equal to10 a.u. The results agree in the zero angle (zero momentum transfer) limit with the previous observations of Skerbele and Lassettre, but are in disagreement with previous theoretical and experimental results for K 2 >0.5. (auth)

  9. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  10. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  11. Determining the 13C(α, n)16O absolute cross section through the concurrent application of ANC and THM and astrophysical consequences for the s-process in AGB-LMSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippella, Oscar; La Cognata, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The 13C(α, n)16O reaction is considered to be the most important neutron source for the s-process main component in low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars. No direct experimental data exist at very low energies and measurements performed through direct techniques show inconsistent results, mostly in their absolute values. In this context, we reversed the usual normalization procedure combining two indirect approaches, the asymptotic normalization coefficient and the Trojan Horse Method, to unambiguously determine the absolute value of the 13C(α, n)16O astrophysical S(E)-factor in the most relevant energy-region for astrophysics. Adopting the new reaction rate for the n-source in the NEWTON s-process nucleosynthesis code, astrophysical calculations show only limited variations, less than 1%, for those nuclei whose production is considered to be totally due to slow neutron captures.

  12. Influence of photoisomers in bilirubin determinations on Kodak Ektachem and Hitachi analysers in neonatal specimens study of the contribution of structural and configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Millet, V; Unal, D; Charrel, M

    1995-08-01

    We compared data obtained with the Kodak Ektachem and Hitachi 717 Analysers and HPLC from 83 neonates under phototherapy. Total bilirubin values determined with the Kodak and Hitachi are in good agreement, but we observed a large discrepancy in the results for conjugated (Kodak) and direct (Hitachi) bilirubin. HPLC revealed that all the samples contained configurational isomers, while only 7.7% and 30.8% contained conjugated bilirubin and structural isomers, respectively. We developed a device for the specific and quantitative production of configurational or structural isomers, by irradiation with blue or green light. In vitro, total bilirubin values are coherent for the routine analysers in the presence of configurational or structural isomers. With configurational isomers, unconjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is lower than total bilirubin (Kodak), and conjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is always equal to zero, so the apparatus gives a false positive response for delta bilirubin. In contrast, the direct bilirubin (Hitachi) is constant. Furthermore, in the presence of structural isomers, unconjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is unexpectedly higher than total bilirubin (Kodak), conjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is proportional to the quantity of these isomers, and direct bilirubin (Hitachi) is constant. The contribution of photoisomers in bilirubin measurements is discussed.

  13. Dependence of proton beam polarization on ion source transition configurations; Determination de la polarisation du faisceau de protons pour les quatre configurations des transitions de la source d`ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J.; Ausset, P.; Ball, J.; Beauvais, P.Y.; Bedfer, Y.; Chamouard, P.A.; Fontaine, J.M.; Kunne, R.; Lagniel, J.M.; Sans, J.L. [Laboratoire National Saturne - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Allgower, Ch.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Spinka, H.M. [ANL-HEP, Argonne (United States); Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Demiere, Ph.; Rapin, D.; Teglia, A. [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire; Janout, Z. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Popov, A.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A. [Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable anomalies were observed in recorded pp elastic scattering spin dependent data at several proton beam energies at SATURNE II. These results suggested that the discrepancies are related to the polarized ion source. In order to understand the observed effects, the proton beam polarizations for each ion source state were determined separately. Convenient procedures, allowing to determine the beam polarization from a beam-line polarimeter are presented. Two distinct experiments are necessary for this purpose. In the first one the LEFT-RIGHT instrumental asymmetry of the beam polarimeter arms is determined. In the second one this correction factor is applied to asymmetries measured with the beam from the polarized ion source in different polarization states. Both experiments determined the scattering asymmetries for all four polarized source states as functions of different source parameters. The measurements were carried out at the proton beam kinetic energy 0.80 GeV, where the pp elastic scattering analyzing power is at its maximum. Results show that the so called `unpolarized states` of the source are polarized, whereas the absolute values of the beam polarizations in `polarized states` are equal. It was observed that the hexapole lens of the ion source provides some beam polarization in the absence of any transition. The beam polarization as function of the hexapole current, of the transition efficiencies and of the rotation solenoid current has been studied. It is also shown, how one way obtain a strictly unpolarized beam using the polarized source only. The results obtained with the SATURNE II ion source HYPERION may be also valid for other accelerators and sources. (authors) 10 refs.

  14. Determination of Delta m(d) and absolute calibration of flavor taggers for the Delta m(s) analysis, in fully reconstructed decays at the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jonatan Piedra [University of Cantabria, (Spain). Inst. of Physics

    2005-04-21

    The new trigger processor, the Silicon Vertex Tracking (SVT), has dramatically improved the B physics capabilities of the upgraded CDF II Detector; for the first time in a hadron collider, the SVT has enabled the access to non-lepton-triggered B meson decays. Within the new available range of decay modes, the B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$π+ signature is of paramount importance in the measurement of the Δms mixing frequency. The analysis reported here is a step towards the measurement of this frequency; two where our goals: carrying out the absolute calibration of the opposite side flavor taggers, used in the Δms measurement; and measuring the B$0\\atop{d}$ mixing frequency in a B → Dπ sample, establishing the feasibility of the mixing measurement in this sample whose decay-length is strongly biased by the selective SVT trigger. We analyze a total integrated luminosity of 355 pb-1 collected with the CDF II Detector. By triggering on muons, using the conventional di-muon trigger; or displaced tracks, using the SVT trigger, we gather a sample rich in bottom and charm mesons.

  15. Effekten af absolut kumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Britta; Klement, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Som led i finansloven for 2011 blev regeringen og forligspartierne enige om at undersøge reglerne om strafudmåling ved samtidig pådømmelse af flere kriminelle forhold og i forbindelse hermed vurdere konsekvenserne af at ændre de gældende regler i forhold til kapacitetsbehovet i Kriminalforsorgens...... samlet bødesum ved en absolut kumulation i forhold til en modereret kumulation, som nu er gældende....

  16. Numerical investigation on various heat exchanger performances to determine an optimum configuration for charge air cooler, oil and water radiators in F1 sidepods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Pierre; Könözsy, László; Temple, Clive; Grove, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional CFD transitional flow simulations in formula one car sidepods. • Determination of an optimum heat exchanger configuration placed in the sidepods. • Prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop to mass flow rate correlation curves. • Performance of heat exchanger configurations for non-isothermal transitional flows. • Overcome the difficulties of macroscopic heat exchanger and porous media methods. - Abstract: The present work focuses on a three-dimensional CFD approach to predict the performance of various heat exchangers in conjunction with non-isothermal transitional flows for motorsport applications. The objective of this study is to determine the heat transfer, pressure drop and inhomogeneous flow behaviour for distinct heat exchangers to identify an optimum configuration for the charge air cooler, water and oil radiators placed in the sidepods of a formula one (F1) car. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of various heat exchanger configurations has been carried out in this work. In order to assess the reliability of the obtained results, a mesh sensitivity study along with additional parametric investigations have been performed to provide numerical parameters predicting accurately (a) the heat transfer rate at the fluid-solid interface and (b) the sporadic separation. As a result of the performed validation procedure in this study, the aerodynamic- and thermal boundary layer development along with the convective characteristics of the air flow have been captured accurately near to the heated surface. The characterization of a heat exchanger core and a core configuration in a closed domain is also possible with this procedure. The presented three-dimensional CFD approach could overcome the difficulties of macroscopic heat exchanger and porous media methods for F1 applications, because it can be used to predict the heat transfer and pressure drop related to the mass flow rate correlation curves. The contribution of

  17. Development of a High-Resolution Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Method with Application to the Determination of Absolute Concentration of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abneesh; Hodges, Joseph T

    2018-05-07

    Isotope dilution-cold-vapor-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-CV-ICPMS) has become the primary standard for measurement of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) mass concentration. However, quantitative mass spectrometry is challenging for several reasons including (1) the need for isotopic spiking with a standard reference material, (2) the requirement for bias-free passive sampling protocols, (3) the need for stable mass spectrometry interface design, and (4) the time and cost involved for gas sampling, sample processing, and instrument calibration. Here, we introduce a high-resolution laser absorption spectroscopy method that eliminates the need for sample-specific calibration standards or detailed analysis of sample treatment losses. This technique involves a tunable, single-frequency laser absorption spectrometer that measures isotopically resolved spectra of elemental mercury (Hg) spectra of 6 1 S 0 ← 6 3 P 1 intercombination transition near λ = 253.7 nm. Measured spectra are accurately modeled from first-principles using the Beer-Lambert law and Voigt line profiles combined with literature values for line positions, line shape parameters, and the spontaneous emission Einstein coefficient to obtain GEM mass concentration values. We present application of this method for the measurement of the equilibrium concentration of mercury vapor near room temperature. Three closed systems are considered: two-phase mixtures of liquid Hg and its vapor and binary two-phase mixtures of Hg-air and Hg-N 2 near atmospheric pressure. Within the experimental relative standard uncertainty, 0.9-1.5% congruent values of the equilibrium Hg vapor concentration are obtained for the Hg-only, Hg-air, Hg-N 2 systems, in confirmation with thermodynamic predictions. We also discuss detection limits and the potential of the present technique to serve as an absolute primary standard for measurements of gas-phase mercury concentration and isotopic composition.

  18. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  19. Configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, R.R.; Sumiec, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing regulatory and industry attention has been focused on properly controlling electrical design changes. These changes can be controlled by using configuration management techniques. Typically, there are ongoing modifications to various process systems or additions due to new requirements at every power plant. Proper control of these changes requires that an organized method be used to ensure that all important parameters of the electrical auxiliary systems are analyzed and that these parameters are evaluated accurately. This process, commonly referred to as configuration management, is becoming more important on both fossil and nuclear plants. Recent NRC- and utility-initiated inspections have identified problems due to incomplete analysis of changes to electrical auxiliary systems at nuclear stations

  20. Absolute determination by X-ray diffraction of a binary or ternary mixture: nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, P.; Hauptman, A.

    1960-01-01

    The method employed is based upon the comparison between computed and measured intensities for conveniently selected X-Ray diffraction lines of each component of the powder. Care must be taken to allow for absorption, both inside each grain and in overall sample. This method has been applied to the determination of nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder. (author) [fr

  1. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  2. Absolute measurement of 85Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1978-01-01

    An extension of 4πe.x-γ coincidence technique is described to measure the absolute disintegration rate of 85 Sr. This nuclide shows electron capture-gamma decay, and 514keV level of 85 Rb is a meta-stable state with half life of 0.958 μsec. Therefore, the conventional 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with about 1 μsec of resolution time can not be applied to this nuclide. To measure the absolute disintegration rate of this, the delayed 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with two different resolution time has been used. The disintegration rate was determined from four counting rates of electron-x ray, gamma ray and two coincidences, and the true disintegration rate could be obtained by extraporation of the electron-x ray detection efficiency to 1. Two resolution time appearing in the calculation formulas were determined from the chance coincidence between electron-x ray and delayed gamma ray signals. When the coincidence countings with three different resolution time were carried out by one coincidence circuit, the results calculated from all combinations did not agree each other. However, when the two coincidence circuits of the same type were used to fix the resolution time, a good coincidence absorption function was obtained and the disintegration rate was determined with accuracy of +- 0.5%. To evaluate the validity of the results the disintegration rates were measured by two NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors whose gamma-ray detection efficiency was previously determined and both results were agreed within accuracy of +- 0.5%. This method can be applied with nearly same accuracy for the beta-gamma decay nuclide possessing a meta-stable state of the half life below about 10 μsec. (auth.)

  3. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... time series of several years are now available. Along the coast there are nearby tide gauge stations, many of which have time series of several decades. We describe the observing network, procedures, auxiliary observations, and discuss results obtained for selected sites. We compare the gravity results...

  4. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, Lana; Gaspar, Clara; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat; Neufeld, Niko

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) will handle the monitoring, configuration and operation of all the LHCb experimental equipment. All parameters required to configure electronics equipment under the control of the ECS will reside in a configuration database. The database will contain two kinds of information: 1.\tConfiguration properties about devices such as hardware addresses, geographical location, and operational parameters associated with particular running modes (dynamic properties). 2.\tConnectivity between devices : this consists of describing the output and input connections of a device (static properties). The representation of these data using tables must be complete so that it can provide all the required information to the ECS and must cater for all the subsystems. The design should also guarantee a fast response time, even if a query results in a large volume of data being loaded from the database into the ECS. To fulfil these constraints, we apply the following methodology: Determine from the d...

  5. Influence of physical and chemical properties of HTSXT-FTIR samples on the quality of prediction models developed to determine absolute concentrations of total proteins, carbohydrates and triglycerides: a preliminary study on the determination of their absolute concentrations in fresh microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano León, Esteban; Coat, Rémy; Moutel, Benjamin; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Gonçalves, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Absolute concentrations of total macromolecules (triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates) in microorganisms can be rapidly measured by FTIR spectroscopy, but caution is needed to avoid non-specific experimental bias. Here, we assess the limits within which this approach can be used on model solutions of macromolecules of interest. We used the Bruker HTSXT-FTIR system. Our results show that the solid deposits obtained after the sampling procedure present physical and chemical properties that influence the quality of the absolute concentration prediction models (univariate and multivariate). The accuracy of the models was degraded by a factor of 2 or 3 outside the recommended concentration interval of 0.5-35 µg spot(-1). Change occurred notably in the sample hydrogen bond network, which could, however, be controlled using an internal probe (pseudohalide anion). We also demonstrate that for aqueous solutions, accurate prediction of total carbohydrate quantities (in glucose equivalent) could not be made unless a constant amount of protein was added to the model solution (BSA). The results of the prediction model for more complex solutions, here with two components: glucose and BSA, were very encouraging, suggesting that this FTIR approach could be used as a rapid quantification method for mixtures of molecules of interest, provided the limits of use of the HTSXT-FTIR method are precisely known and respected. This last finding opens the way to direct quantification of total molecules of interest in more complex matrices.

  6. Development of an absolute x-ray fluorescence technique and high accuracy analytical methods for the determination of metals in catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Parker, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    A technique to produce characteristic x-rays by direct beta excitation for x-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. This is carried out by the introduction of 100 uCi of Pm-147 or Ni-63 to a small sample, which is placed directly in the window of a modified Si(Li) semiconductor. Corrected intensities are only given at 300 seconds for synthetic standards oscillating within the range 22 3 was used, to which the radioisotope was directly added. Preliminary results of the determination of eleven different radionuclides by means of an elementary x-ray analysis by using a new analytical technique, are discussed. In this technique the radioisotope and the sample are directly mixed, then this source-sample in the detector window and is protected from contamination with a thin plastic film. Future and possible applications of this technique are presented

  7. Determining roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV (photovoltaic) systems, based on LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, pyranometer measurements, and distribution network configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srećković, Nevena; Lukač, Niko; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of distributed generation units, integrated within the distribution network requires increased attention to their proper placements. In urban areas, buildings' rooftops are expected to have greater involvement in the deployment of PV (photovoltaic) systems. This paper proposes a novel procedure for determining roof surfaces suitable for their installation. The PV potential of roof surfaces is assessed based on Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and pyranometer measurements. Then, the time-dependent PV generation profiles, electricity distribution network configuration, and time-dependent loading profiles are used together over time-steps for selecting those roof surfaces with the highest PV potential, which would lead to the highest reduction of network losses per year. The presented procedure was implemented within a real urban area distribution network. The results obtained confirmed that PV potential assessment could be an insufficient criterion when selecting those roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV systems. In order to obtain relevant results, network configuration and time-dependent loading and generation profiles must be considered as well. - Highlights: • Roof surfaces, suitable for installation of PV systems are evaluated and ranked. • Improved PV potential based procedure is proposed for their selection in urban areas. • Time-dependent network loading and PV generation profiles are considered. • Losses in a real electricity network are minimized in the optimization procedure. • Final selection of ranked roof surfaces is based on results of optimization.

  8. Determination of gas temperature and C2 absolute density in Ar/H2/CH4 microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond deposition from the C2 Mulliken system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, G; Benedic, F; Mohasseb, F; Hassouni, K; Gicquel, A

    2004-01-01

    The spectroscopic characterization of Ar/H 2 /CH 4 discharges suitable for the synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond using the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process is reported. The experiments are realized in a moderate-pressure bell jar reactor, where discharges are ignited using a microwave cavity coupling system. The concentration of CH 4 is maintained at 1% and the coupled set of hydrogen concentration/microwave power (MWP) ranges from 2%/500 W to 7%/800 W at a pressure of 200 mbar. Emission spectroscopy and broadband absorption spectroscopy studies are carried out on the C 2 (D I SIGMA + u -CHI I SIGMA + g ) Mulliken system and the C 2 (d 3 Π g -a 3 Π u ) Swan system in order to determine the gas temperature and the C 2 absolute density within the plasma. For this purpose, and since the Swan system is quite well-known, much importance is devoted to the achievement of a detailed simulation of the Mulliken system, which allows the determination of both the rotational temperature and the density of the CHI I SIGMA + g ground state, as well as the rotational temperature of the D I SIGMA + u state, from experimental data. All the experimental values are compared to those predicted by a thermochemical model developed to describe Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave discharges under quasi-homogeneous plasma assumption. This comparison shows a reasonable agreement between the values measured from the C 2 Mulliken system, those measured from the C 2 Swan system and that calculated from plasma modelling, especially at low hydrogen concentration/MWP. These consistent results show that the use of the Mulliken system leads to fairly good estimates of the gas temperature and of the C 2 absolute density. The relatively high gas temperatures found for the conditions investigated, typically between 3000 K and 4000 K, are attributed to the low thermal conductivity of argon that may limit thermal losses to the substrate surface and reactor wall. The measured C 2

  9. Absolute isotopic abundances of Ti in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46 Ti/ 48 Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. We provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components. The absolute Ti and Ca isotopic compositions still support the correlation of 50 Ti and 48 Ca effects in the FUN inclusions and imply contributions from neutron-rich equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium nucleosynthesis. The present identification of endemic effects at 46 Ti, for the absolute composition, implies a shortfall of an explosive-oxygen component or reflects significant isotope fractionation. Additional nucleosynthetic components are required by 47 Ti and 49 Ti effects. Components are also defined in which 48 Ti is enhanced. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  10. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  11. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik

    2000-03-01

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  12. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  13. Determining Absolute Zero in the Kitchen Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Robert; Siegel, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate Charles's Law of Ideal Gases by creating a constant-pressure thermometer from materials that can be found in the kitchen. Discusses the underlying mathematical relationships and a step-by-step description of the experiment. (MDH)

  14. Projective absoluteness for Sacks forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that Sigma(1)(3)-absoluteness for Sacks forcing is equivalent to the nonexistence of a Delta(1)(2) Bernstein set. We also show that Sacks forcing is the weakest forcing notion among all of the preorders that add a new real with respect to Sigma(1)(3) forcing absoluteness.

  15. Model for impedance determinations and power deposition characterization in three-electrode configurations for capacitive radio frequency hyperthermia. Part A: impedance determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morand, A.; Bolomey, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    By means of simplifying assumptions, a 2-D rectangular model for three-electrode radio frequency hyperthermia systems is established. The validity of these assumptions is discussed. The electric behavior of the model is characterized by a three-port equivalent network. The three resistances in the network are determined by means of conformal mappings. The process is applied to devices exhibiting a plane of symmetry but provisions exist for a generalization to asymmetrical systems. The set of five design elements completing the description of the system comprises a resistance and a balance factor as the two electrical parameters, and electrode sizes and spacings as the three geometrical parameters. For practical purposes the links between these parameters, figured out by computations, are mapped into block diagrams and into a chart. The block diagrams show that the electrode sizes and spacings have almost uncorrelated effects upon the electrical parameters. When the values of any three among the five parameters have been chosen, the chart gives the two unknown parameter values by direct reading or through interpolations. The use of complementary systems widens the chart range to almost any practical system values, and it allows the two-electrode system relations between resistance and capacitance to be generalized to any three-electrode system

  16. Absolute measurement of a tritium standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzisehovic, M.; Mocilnik, I.; Buraei, K.; Pongrac, S.; Milojevic, A.

    1978-01-01

    For the determination of a tritium absolute activity standard, a method of internal gas counting has been used. The procedure involves water reduction by uranium and zinc further the measurement of the absolute disintegration rate of tritium per unit of the effective volume of the counter by a compensation method. Criteria for the choice of methods and procedures concerning the determination and measurement of gaseous 3 H yield, parameters of gaseous hydrogen, sample mass of HTO and the absolute disintegration rate of tritium are discussed. In order to obtain gaseous sources of 3 H (and 2 H), the same reversible chemical reaction was used, namely, the water - uranium hydride - hydrogen system. This reaction was proved to be quantitative above 500 deg C by measuring the yield of the gas obtained and the absolute activity of an HTO standard. A brief description of the measuring apparatus is given, as well as a critical discussion of the brass counter quality and the possibility of obtaining equal working conditions at the counter ends. (T.G.)

  17. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  18. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  19. The absolute differential calculus calculus of tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Cività, Tullio

    1926-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  20. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.

  1. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  2. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  3. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  4. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  5. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  6. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  7. Some absolutely effective product methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Dikshit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the product method A(C,1, where (C,1 is the Cesàro arithmetic mean matrix, is totally effective under certain conditions concerning the matrix A. This general result is applied to study absolute Nörlund summability of Fourier series and other related series.

  8. Plotting and Determination of Nominal Stresses in the Сrankshaft Components of V Configuration Engine with Offset Rod Bearing Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Mikhailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a great number of large vehicle engines, especially diesel ones, have a V-shaped configuration layout. For six-cylinder and eight-cylinder V-engines, to simplify a processing technology of the block-crankcases, in the section manufacturers often use the 90° angle, which is the most prevalent angle for the V8 engine. However, in this case, an even firing cycle in the cylinders is not provided for the V6 layout. This leads to significant vibrations, especially at idle and requires for a more massive flywheel.Designers face the challenge to provide the even firing cycle in the cylinders. To solve this problem are often used the crankshaft designs, which have the offset rod journals. However, it leads to the manufacturing complexity of the shaft, and also to the need to use the special methods of calculation.There are no direct calculation methods for the crankshafts of this design. The paper proposes a technique to define the nominal stresses in the crankshaft of this design. To consider the shaft is used a split-type design. The paper presents a schematic diagram of the crankshaft loading, and on its basis describes equations of the moments for each section. A special attention is drawn to the new constructive element, i.e. an intermediate cheek. For clarity, the diagrams of moments in two mutually perpendicular planes are built. It is worth noting that the paper also proposes a technique from transition from the global to the local coordinate system when considering the moments in the crankshaft elements.Further, there are the appropriate expressions to determine the nominal stresses. This is one of the main desired values in calculating the crankshaft endurance. The developed technique in the particular case allows the calculation of crankshaft engine models that can be subsumed under the advantages.In the future the proposed technique is expected to be a basis for creating a software complex. The complex objective is expected to be

  9. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  10. Software configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas Peces, E.; Martin Faraldo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Software Configuration Management is directed towards identifying system configuration at specific points of its life cycle, so as to control changes to the configuration and to maintain the integrity and traceability of the configuration throughout its life. SCM functions and tasks are presented in the paper

  11. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  12. Absolute measurement method of environment radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1989-11-01

    A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter

  13. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  14. /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C spin-spin coupling constants in structural investigations. I. New method of determining the configuration of oximes and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivdin, L.B.; Shcherbakov, V.V.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-07-10

    It was shown that the direct /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C spin-spin coupling constants can be used for the unambiguous identification of the configurational isomers of oximes and their derivatives. The stereospecificity of the constants is explained by the additional contribution from the unshared electron pair of the nitrogen atom to the spin-spin coupling constant between the adjacent carbon nuclei in the cis position.

  15. The Absolute Immanence in Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Daeseung

    2013-01-01

    The absolute immanence in Deleuze Daeseung Park Abstract The plane of immanence is not unique. Deleuze and Guattari suppose a multiplicity of planes. Each great philosopher draws new planes on his own way, and these planes constitute the "time of philosophy". We can, therefore, "present the entire history of philosophy from the viewpoint of the institution of a plane of immanence" or present the time of philosophy from the viewpoint of the superposition and of the coexistence of planes. Howev...

  16. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  17. A unix configuration engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.

    1994-06-01

    A high level description language is presented for the purpose of automatically configuring large heterogeneous networked unix environments, based on class-oriented abstractions. The configuration engine is portable and easily extensible

  18. MICROCONTROLLER PIN CONFIGURATION TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Joshi; F. Mohammed Rizwan; Dr. Rajashree Shettar

    2012-01-01

    Configuring the micro controller with large number of pins is tedious. Latest Infine on microcontroller contains more than 200 pins and each pin has classes of signals. Therefore the complexity of the microcontroller is growing. It evolves looking into thousands of pages of user manual. For a user it will take days to configure the microcontroller with the peripherals. We need an automated tool to configure the microcontroller so that the user can configure the microcontroller without having ...

  19. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  20. Absolute pitch: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, P E

    1977-11-01

    The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres.

  1. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  2. HLT configuration management system

    CERN Document Server

    Daponte, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger (HLT) is implemented running a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on thousands of CPUs. The CMS software is written mostly in C++, using Python as its configuration language through an embedded CPython interpreter. The configuration of each process is made up of hundreds of modules, organized in sequences and paths. As an example, the HLT configurations used for 2011 data taking comprised over 2200 different modules, organized in more than 400 independent trigger paths. The complexity of the HLT configurations and the large number of configuration produced require the design of a suitable data management system. The present work describes the designed solution to manage the considerable number of configurations developed and to assist the editing of new configurations. The system is required to be remotely accessible and OS-independent as well as easly maintainable easy to use. To meet these requirements a three-layers architecture has been choose...

  3. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  4. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  5. 2$^{+}$ anomaly and configurational isospin polarization of $^{136}$Te

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to perform a Coulomb excitation experiment on beams of radioactive ions of $^{136}$Te delivered by HIE-ISOLDE impinging on a $^{58}$Ni target. Scattered particles will be detected by a DSSSD detector and $\\gamma$-rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The proposed Configurational Isospin Polarization (CIP) of the two lowest 2$^+$ states will be determined by measuring the E2 excitation yield distribution to them. The expected proton-dominated one-phonon character of the second excited 2$^+$ state of $^{136}$Te will be tested on the basis of absolute electromagnetic matrix elements from the observed Coulomb excitation cross sections. Complementary lifetime information on this predominant 2$^+_{1,ms}$ state will be extracted using the differential DSAM technique. The experiment will clarify to what extent CIP is responsible for the 2$^+$ anomaly in $^{136}$Te.

  6. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  7. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mrosenbe@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  8. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Waugh, C J; Séguin, F H; Sio, H; Sinenian, N; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Hohenberger, M; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Yeamans, C B; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Bionta, R M; Talison, B; Casey, D T; Landen, O L; Moran, M J; Zacharias, R A; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ∼1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  9. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  10. Autoshaping as a psychophysical paradigm: Absolute visual sensitivity in the pigeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Dennis H.

    1981-01-01

    A classical conditioning procedure (autoshaping) was used to determine absolute visual threshold in the pigeon. This method provides the basis for a standardized visual psychophysical paradigm. PMID:16812228

  11. CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    ''The Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' prescribes an approach to the methodology for performing postclosure criticality analyses within the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An essential component of the methodology is the ''Configuration Generator Model for In-Package Criticality'' that provides a tool to evaluate the probabilities of degraded configurations achieving a critical state. The configuration generator model is a risk-informed, performance-based process for evaluating the criticality potential of degraded configurations in the monitored geologic repository. The method uses event tree methods to define configuration classes derived from criticality scenarios and to identify configuration class characteristics (parameters, ranges, etc.). The probabilities of achieving the various configuration classes are derived in part from probability density functions for degradation parameters. The NRC has issued ''Safety Evaluation Report for Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, Revision 0''. That report contained 28 open items that required resolution through additional documentation. Of the 28 open items, numbers 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, and 19 were concerned with a previously proposed software approach to the configuration generator methodology and, in particular, the k eff regression analysis associated with the methodology. However, the use of a k eff regression analysis is not part of the current configuration generator methodology and, thus, the referenced open items are no longer considered applicable and will not be further addressed

  12. Ansible configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Ansible Configuration Management"" is a step-by-step tutorial that teaches the use of Ansible for configuring Linux machines.This book is intended for anyone looking to understand the basics of Ansible. It is expected that you will have some experience of how to set up and configure Linux machines. In parts of the book we cover configuration files of BIND, MySQL, and other Linux daemons, therefore a working knowledge of these would be helpful but are certainly not required.

  13. Configuration management at NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhraski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Configuration Management (CM) objectives at NEK are to ensure consistency between Design Requirements, Physical Plant Configuration and Configuration Information. Software applications, supporting Design Change, Work Control and Document Control Processes, are integrated in one module-oriented Management Information System (MIS). Master Equipment Component List (MECL) database is central MIS module. Through a combination of centralized database and process migrated activities it is ensured that the CM principles and requirements (accurate, current design data matching plant's physical configuration while complying to applicable requirements), are followed and fulfilled.(author)

  14. The relative and absolute speed of radiographic screen - film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of new screen-film systems have become available for use in diagnostic radiology. These new screens are made of materials generally known as rare - earth phosphors which have high x-ray absorption and high x-ray to light conversion efficiency compared to calcium tungstate phosphors. The major advantage of these new systems is reduction of patient exposure due to their high speed or high sensitivity. However, a system with excessively high speed can result in a significant degradation of radiographic image quality. Therefore, the speed is important parameters for users of these system. Our aim of in this was to determine accurately and precisely the absolute speed and relative speeds of both new and conventional screen - film system. We determined the absolute speed in condition of BRH phantom beam quality and the relative speed were measured by a split - screen technique in condition of BRH and ANSI phantom beam quality. The absolute and the relative speed were determined for 8 kinds of screen - 4 kinds of film in regular system and 7 kinds pf screen - 7 kinds of film in ortho system. In this study we could know the New Rx, T - MAT G has the highest film speed, also know Green system's standard deviation of relative speed larger than blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the relative speed in ortho or regular system

  15. The bolometric, infrared and visual absolute magnitudes of Mira variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.S.C.; Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Statistical parallaxes, as well as stars with individually known distances are used to derive bolometric and infrared absolute magnitudes of Mira (Me) variables. The derived bolometric magnitudes are in the mean about 0.75 mag fainter than recent estimates. The problem of determining the pulsation constant is discussed. Miras with periods greater than 150 days probably pulsate in the first overtone. Those of shorter periods are anomalous and may be fundamental pulsators. It is shown that the absolute visual magnitudes at mean light of Miras with individually determined distances are consistent with values derived by Clayton and Feast from statistical parallaxes. (author)

  16. Simulator configuration maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Requirements and recommendations of this section defines NPP personnel activity aimed to the provision of the simulator configuration compliance with the current configuration of the power-generating unit-prototype, standard and technical requirements and describe a monitoring procedure for a set of simulator software and hardware, training, organizational and technical documents

  17. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Glen Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  18. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...

  19. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  20. Simulator configuration management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulent, J.; Brooks, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed revisions to ANS 3.5-1985 (Section 5) require Utilities to establish a simulator Configuration Management System (CMS). The proposed CMS must be capable of: Establishing and maintaining a simulator design database. Identifying and documenting differences between the simulator and its reference plant. Tracking the resolution of identified differences. Recording data to support simulator certification, testing and maintenance. This paper discusses a CMS capable of meeting the proposed requirements contained in ANS 3.5. The system will utilize a personal computer and a relational database management software to construct a simulator design database. The database will contain records to all reference nuclear plant data used in designing the simulator, as well as records identifying all the software, hardware and documentation making up the simulator. Using the relational powers of the database management software, reports will be generated identifying the impact of reference plant changes on the operation of the simulator. These reports can then be evaluated in terms of training needs to determine if changes are required for the simulator. If a change is authorized, the CMS will track the change through to its resolution and then incorporate the change into the simulator design database

  1. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  2. Comparison between four dissimilar solar panel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, K.; Ali, U. A.; Yusuf, Ibrahim; Koko, A. D.; Bala, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies on photovoltaic systems focused on how it operates and energy required in operating it. Little attention is paid on its configurations, modeling of mean time to system failure, availability, cost benefit and comparisons of parallel and series-parallel designs. In this research work, four system configurations were studied. Configuration I consists of two sub-components arranged in parallel with 24 V each, configuration II consists of four sub-components arranged logically in parallel with 12 V each, configuration III consists of four sub-components arranged in series-parallel with 8 V each, and configuration IV has six sub-components with 6 V each arranged in series-parallel. Comparative analysis was made using Chapman Kolmogorov's method. The derivation for explicit expression of mean time to system failure, steady state availability and cost benefit analysis were performed, based on the comparison. Ranking method was used to determine the optimal configuration of the systems. The results of analytical and numerical solutions of system availability and mean time to system failure were determined and it was found that configuration I is the optimal configuration.

  3. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model...... is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken...

  4. Drupal 8 configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Drupal 8 Configuration Management is intended for people who use Drupal 8 to build websites, whether you are a hobbyist using Drupal for the first time, a long-time Drupal site builder, or a professional web developer.

  5. Configuration by Modularisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riitahuhta, Asko; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    Globally operating companies have realized that locally customized products and services are today the prerequisite for the success. The capability or the paradigm to act locally in global markets is called Mass Customization [Victor 1997]. The prerequisite for Mass Customization is Configuration...... Management and i Configuration Management the most important means is Modularisation.The goal of this paper is to show Configuration Management as a contribution to the Mass Customisation and Modularisation as a contribution to the industrialisation of the design area [Andreasen 1997]. A basic model...... for the creation of a structured product family is presented and examples are given. The concepts of a novel Dynamic Modularisation method, Metrics for Modularisation and Design for Configurability are presented....

  6. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  7. Computer software configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.

    1987-08-01

    This report reviews the basic elements of software configuration management (SCM) as defined by military and industry standards. Several software configuration management standards are evaluated given the requirements of the nuclear industry. A survey is included of available automated tools for supporting SCM activities. Some information is given on the experience of establishing and using SCM plans of other organizations that manage critical software. The report concludes with recommendations of practices that would be most appropriate for the nuclear power industry in Canada

  8. ROE Fish Faunal Absolute Loss

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Reduction is based on the number of native species determined to be present as of 2015, compared with historical numbers documented prior to 1970. Data are displayed...

  9. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  10. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  11. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  12. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  13. Absolute measurement of the viscosity of classical and quantum fluids by rotating-cylinder viscometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.; LaMar, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the use of rotating-cylinder viscometers to determine absolute shear viscosities of classical fluids and of helium II in the context of past and current knowledge of the stability and flow of these fluids between concentric cylinders. We identify a problem in measuring the absolute viscosity when the inner cylinder is rotating and the outer cylinder is at rest. We conclude by discussing the design of viscometers for absolute viscosity measurements in helium I and helium II

  14. Remembering facial configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, V; Doyle, T; Dench, N; Burton, M

    1991-02-01

    Eight experiments are reported showing that subjects can remember rather subtle aspects of the configuration of facial features to which they have earlier been exposed. Subjects saw several slightly different configurations (formed by altering the relative placement of internal features of the face) of each of ten different faces, and they were asked to rate the apparent age and masculinity-femininity of each. Afterwards, subjects were asked to select from pairs of faces the configuration which was identical to one previously rated. Subjects responded strongly to the central or "prototypical" configuration of each studied face where this was included as one member of each test pair, whether or not it had been studied (Experiments 1, 2 and 4). Subjects were also quite accurate at recognizing one of the previously encountered extremes of the series of configurations that had been rated (Experiment 3), but when unseen prototypes were paired with seen exemplars subjects' performance was at chance (Experiment 5). Prototype learning of face patterns was shown to be stronger than that for house patterns, though both classes of patterns were affected equally by inversion (Experiment 6). The final two experiments demonstrated that preferences for the prototype could be affected by instructions at study and by whether different exemplars of the same face were shown consecutively or distributed through the study series. The discussion examines the implications of these results for theories of the representation of faces and for instance-based models of memory.

  15. Electronic configurations and energies in some thermodynamically correlated laves compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.M.

    1979-04-01

    The known electronic configurations of simple elements in Laves compounds are correlated with those of the more complex systems to determine their electronic configurations and gaseous state promotion energies

  16. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  17. Configuration Control Office

    CERN Multimedia

    Beltramello, O

    In order to enable Technical Coordination to manage the detector configuration and to be aware of all changes in this configuration, a baseline of the envelopes has been created in April 2001. Fifteen system and multi-system envelope drawings have been approved and baselined. An EDMS file is associated with each approved envelope, which provides a list of the current known unsolved conflicts related to the envelope and a list of remaining drawing inconsistencies to be corrected. The envelope status with the associated drawings and EDMS file can be found on the web at this adress: http://atlasinfo.cern.ch/Atlas/TCOORD/Activities/Installation/Configuration/ Any modification in the baseline has to be requested via the Engineering Change Requests. The procedure can be found under: http://atlasinfo.cern.ch/Atlas/TCOORD/Activities/TcOffice/Quality/ECR/ TC will review all the systems envelopes in the near future and manage conflict resolution with the collaboration of the systems.

  18. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, L; Van Herwijnen, Eric; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb configuration database is to store information about all the controllable devices of the detector. The experiment's control system (that uses PVSS ) will configure, start up and monitor the detector from the information in the configuration database. The database will contain devices with their properties, connectivity and hierarchy. The ability to store and rapidly retrieve huge amounts of data, and the navigability between devices are important requirements. We have collected use cases to ensure the completeness of the design. Using the entity relationship modelling technique we describe the use cases as classes with attributes and links. We designed the schema for the tables using relational diagrams. This methodology has been applied to the TFC (switches) and DAQ system. Other parts of the detector will follow later. The database has been implemented using Oracle to benefit from central CERN database support. The project also foresees the creation of tools to populate, maintain, and co...

  19. Absolute configuration of alpha- and beta-pinene in essential oils of two Nigella species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valterová, Irena; Klouček, P.; Kokoška, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 9 (2009), s. 1020-1020 ISSN 0032-0943. [International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research /57./. 16.08.2009-20.08.2009, Geneva] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Ranunculaceae * monoterpenes * Nigella nigellastrum * Nigella arvensis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Absolute Configuration of a Cyclic Dipeptide Reflected in Vibrational Optical Activity: Ab Initio and Experimental Investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, X.; Hopmann, K. H.; Hudecová, Jana; Stensen, W.; Novotná, J.; Urbanová, M.; Svendsen, J. S.; Bouř, Petr; Ruud, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 10 (2012), s. 2554-2563 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cyclic dipeptide * vibrational otpical activity * density functional theory * dispersion * electronic circular dichroism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.771, year: 2012

  1. Oxygen configurations in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  3. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. SRP [Salt Repository Project] configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This configuration management plan describes the organization, policies, and procedures that will be used on the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to implement the configuration management disciplines and controls. Configuration management is a part of baseline management. Baseline management is defined in the SRP Baseline Procedures Notebook and also includes cost and schedule baselines. Configuration management is a discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of an item, to control changes to those characteristics, to record and report change processing and implementation status, and to audit the results. Configuration management is designed as a project management tool to determine and control baselines, and ensure and document all components of a project interface both physically and functionally. The purpose is to ensure that the product acquired satisfies the project's technical and operational requirements, and that the technical requirements are clearly defined and controlled throughout the development and acquisition process. 5 figs

  5. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors....... A building is considered absolute sustainable if its annual environmental burden is less than its share of the earth environmental carrying capacity. Two case buildings – a standard house and an upcycled single-family house located in Denmark – were assessed according to this approach and both were found...... to exceed the target values of three (almost four) of the eleven impact categories included in the study. The worst-case excess was for the case building, representing prevalent Danish building practices, which utilized 1563% of the Climate Change carrying capacity. Four paths to reach absolute...

  6. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  7. Stirling Engine Configuration Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Egas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike internal combustion engines, Stirling engines can be designed to work with many drive mechanisms based on the three primary configurations, alpha, beta and gamma. Hundreds of different combinations of configuration and mechanical drives have been proposed. Few succeed beyond prototypes. A reason for poor success is the use of inappropriate configuration and drive mechanisms, which leads to low power to weight ratio and reduced economic viability. The large number of options, the lack of an objective comparison method, and the absence of a selection criteria force designers to make random choices. In this article, the pressure—volume diagrams and compression ratios of machines of equal dimensions, using the main (alpha, beta and gamma crank based configurations as well as rhombic drive and Ross yoke mechanisms, are obtained. The existence of a direct relation between the optimum compression ratio and the temperature ratio is derived from the ideal Stirling cycle, and the usability of an empirical low temperature difference compression ratio equation for high temperature difference applications is tested using experimental data. It is shown that each machine has a different compression ratio, making it more or less suitable for a specific application, depending on the temperature difference reachable.

  8. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  9. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  10. Ansible configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for anyone who wants to learn Ansible starting from the basics. Some experience of how to set up and configure Linux machines and a working knowledge of BIND, MySQL, and other Linux daemons is expected.

  11. Absolute cross sections from the ''boomerang model'' for resonant electron-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, L.; Herzenberg, A.

    1979-01-01

    The boomerang model is used to calculate absolute cross sections near the 2 Pi/sub g/ shape resonance in e-N 2 scattering. The calculated cross sections are shown to satisfy detailed balancing. The exchange of electrons is taken into account. A parametrized complex-potential curve for the intermediate N 2 /sup ts-/ ion is determined from a small part of the experimental data, and then used to calculate other properties. The calculations are in good agreement with the absolute cross sections for vibrational excitation from the ground state, the absolute cross section v = 1 → 2, and the absolute total cross section

  12. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  13. Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.

    2018-05-01

    The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.

  14. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  15. Determination of buckling and probability of leakage of neutron in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor in cylindrical configuration; Medida do buckling e da probabilidade de fuga de neutrons do nucleo do reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgato, Rafael Turrini

    2014-07-01

    One of the key parameters in reactor physics is the Buckling of a reactor core. It is related to important parameters such as reaction rates, nuclear power operation, fuel burning, among others. In a critical reactor, the Buckling depends on the geometric and material characteristics of the reactor core. This work presents the results of experimental Buckling in the reactor IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor in its cylindrical configuration with 28 fuel rods along its diameter. The IPEN/MB-01 is a zero power reactor designed to operate at a maximum power of 100 watts, it is a versatile nuclear facility which allows the simulation of all the characteristics of a large nuclear power reactor and ideal for this type of measurement. We conducted a mapping of neutron flux inside the reactor and thereby determined the total Buckling of the cylindrical configuration. The reactor was operated for one hour. Then, the activity of the fuel rods was measured by gamma spectrometry on a rod scanner HPGe detector. We analyzed the gamma photons of the {sup 239}Np (276,6 keV) for neutron capture (n,γ) and the {sup 143}Ce (293,3 keV) for fission (n,f) on both {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U, respectively. We analyzed the axial and radial directions. Other measurements were performed using wires and gold foils in the radial and axial directions of the reactor core. The Buckling Total obtained from the three methods by weighted mean is 96,55 ± 7,47 m{sup -2}. The goal is to obtain experimental values of a set of experimental data to allow one direct comparison with values calculated by the codes used in reactor physics CITATION and MCNP. (author)

  16. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  17. Symmetries of cluster configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, P.

    1975-01-01

    A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed

  18. Assignment of absolute stereostructures through quantum mechanics electronic and vibrational circular dichroism calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Jiang, Nan; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of absolute configuration of chiral molecules including structurally complex natural products remains a challenging problem in organic chemistry. A reliable method for assigning the absolute stereostructure is to combine the experimental circular dichroism (CD) techniques such as electronic and vibrational CD (ECD and VCD), with quantum mechanics (QM) ECD and VCD calculations. The traditional QM methods as well as their continuing developments make them more applicable with accuracy. Taking some chiral natural products with diverse conformations as examples, this review describes the basic concepts and new developments of QM approaches for ECD and VCD calculations in solution and solid states.

  19. Mechanical configuration and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.; Casini, G.; Churakov, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The INTOR engineering design has been strongly influenced by considerations for assembly and maintenance. A maintenance philosophy was established at the outset of the conceptual design to insure that the tokamak configuration would be developed to accommodate maintenance requirements. The main features of the INTOR design are summarized in this paper with primary emphasis on the impact of maintenance considerations. The most apparent configuration design feature is the access provided for torus maintenance. Particular attention was given to the size and location of superconducting magnets and the location of vacuum boundaries. All of the poloidal field (PF) coils are placed outside of the bore of the toroidal field (TF) coils and located above and below an access opening between adjacent TF coils through which torus sectors are removed. A magnet structural configuration consisting of mechanically attached reinforcing members has been designed which facilitates the open access space for torus sector removal. For impurity control, a single null poloidal divertor was selected over a double null design in order to maintain sufficient access for pumping and maintenance of the collector. A double null divertor was found to severely limit access to the torus with the addition of divertor collectors and pumping at the top. For this reason, a single null concept was selected in spite of the more difficult design problems associated with the required asymmetric PF system and higher particle loadings

  20. Realization of a frequency standard at 778 nm: absolute frequency measurement of the 2S-8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium and determination of the Rydberg constant; Realisation d'un etalon de frequence a 778 nm: mesure absolue des frequences 2S-8S/D des atomes d'hydrogene et de deuterium et determination de la constante de rydberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvoir, B. de

    1996-12-15

    The purpose of this work is to design a 778 nm standard laser for performing an absolute measurement of 2S-8S/D frequencies of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. This frequency calibration is based on a 5S-5D two-photon transition of the rubidium atom. Metrological performance of this laser is 10 times as good as that of He-Ne laser calibrated on iodine. It has been shown that the passage of a laser radiation through an optic fiber does not deteriorate its metrological properties. 2S-8S/8D transitions have been excited in an atomic jet by a titanium-sapphire laser. Spurious effects can shift and broaden lines. In order to prevent these effects, a theoretical line has been shaped and adjusted on experimental signals. The frequency comparison between the excitation laser and the standard laser has led to the measurement of the absolute frequency of the line concerned. The value of the Rydberg constant has been deduced: R{sub {infinity}} = 109737.3156859 (10) cm{sup -1}. The comparison of experimental data between deuterium and hydrogen has allowed us to determine the value of the Lamb shift of the 2S state of deuterium: L(2S-2P) = 1059,230 (9) MHz.

  1. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  2. Configuration Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has established a configuration management (CM) plan to execute the SRS CM Policy and the requirements of the DOE Order 4700.1. The Reactor Restart Division (RRD) has developed its CM Plan under the SRS CM Program and is implementing it via the RRD CM Program Plan and the Integrated Action Plan. The purpose of the RRD CM program is to improve those processes which are essential to the safe and efficient operation of SRS production reactors. This document provides details of this plan

  3. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  4. Investigation to determine the absolute sensitivity of Rh SPNDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorian, F.; Patai Szabo, S.; Pos, I.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the work was to find an empirical sensitivity function of the Rh SPNDs used in VVER-440 reactors and to investigate the accuracy and adequateness of the detector signal predicting capability of the associated model. In our case the model was based on the HELIOS transport code and the C-PORCA nodal code. A statistical sensitivity analysis versus some selected parameters (e.g. enrichment, burn-up) has been carried out by using a substantial amount of measured data. We also investigated the stability of the electron collecting probability of the detectors versus their burn-up and other parameters with the aim of obtaining a tuned semi-empirical formula for the detector burnup correction. (Authors)

  5. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-04-15

    The annual ('01-'01) objective of this project is to data the fault activity for the presumed quaternary fault zones to the western part of the Ulsam fault system and southeastern coastal area near the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. Rb-Sr, K-Ar, OSL, C-14 and U-series disequilibrium methods were applied to the fault rocks, organic matter and quaternary formations collected from the Pyeonghae, Bogyeongsa, Yugyeri, Byegkye, Gacheon-1 and Joil outcrops of the Yangsan fault system, the Baenaegol outcrop of the Moryang fault system, the Susyongji(Madong-2), Singye, Hwalseongri, Ipsil and Wonwonsa outcrops of the Ulsan fault system and from quaternary marine terraces (Oryoo and Kwangseong sites) in the southeastern coastal area. The experimental procedure of the OSL SAR protocol was reexamined to get more reliable dating results.

  6. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 80-95 Ma, 70 Ma, 50 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Yangsan fault zone. The apparent K-Ar ages tend to be older than Rb-Sr ages, probably indicating the effect of excess radiogenic Ar, which will be furthur investigated by Ar-Ar method. The OSL SAR protocol using 220 .deg. C cut-heat yields reproducible and stratigraphically consistent OSL ages ranging from 71 ka to 48 ka for beach deposits of the marine terrace No 2. The apparent OSL ages for the marine terrace No 3 range from 92 ka to 61 ka. These ages constrain the minimum age of the platform considering the underestimation effect resulted from deposition underwater. Therefore we regard the formation age of the terrace No 3 as MIS(Marine Isotopic Stage) 5c or 5e. Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating results for the fault rocks suggest the occurrence of recurrent fault activity around 40 Ma, 30 Ma and 23 Ma along the Ulsan fault zone. Relatively young (< 10 Ma) fault activities are recognized in the Oesa, Janghangri and Wonwonsa sites.

  7. Studies on panax acetylenes: absolute structure of a new panax acetylene, and inhibitory effects of related acetylenes on the growth of L-1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yoshio; Satoh, Mitsuru; Isobe, Kimiaki; Mohri, Kunihiko; Yoshida, Yuki; Fujimoto, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    A new Panax acetylene, 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1), was isolated from Panax quinquefolium. The absolute configurations of 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1) and PQ-1 (2) were determined to be (9R,10R) and (3R,9R,10R), respectively, by synthesizing 1 and 2 starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate, and by synthesizing their stereoisomers from L-(+)-diethyl tartrate. The growth inhibitory effects of Panax acetylenes (1-8) and their stereoisomers against leukemia cells were tested. Unnatural acetylenes having the (3S)-configuration (2, 5, 6, 7, 8; IC(50)=0.01-0.1 microg/ml) were found to be approximately ten times more potent than natural acetylenes (IC(50)=0.1-1.0 microg/ml) with the (3R)-configuration. Potency differences due to the configuration at C-9 and C-10 were unrelated to this stereochemistry. The C(14)-polyacetylenes, PQ-8 (4) and its isomer (IC(50)=1.0-10.0 microg/ml), were found to exhibit weaker cytotoxicity than the C(17)-polyacetylenes.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  9. Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation

  10. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  11. Combining Near-Subject Absolute and Relative Measures of Longitudinal Hydration in Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cian; McIntyre, Christopher; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Davies, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The feasibility and additional value of combining bioimpedance analysis (BIA) with near-subject absolute measurement of total body water using deuterium dilution (TBWD) in determining longitudinal fluid status was investigated.

  12. Ames Optimized TCA Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Configuration design at Ames was carried out with the SYN87-SB (single block) Euler code using a 193 x 49 x 65 C-H grid. The Euler solver is coupled to the constrained (NPSOL) and the unconstrained (QNMDIF) optimization packages. Since the single block grid is able to model only wing-body configurations, the nacelle/diverter effects were included in the optimization process by SYN87's option to superimpose the nacelle/diverter interference pressures on the wing. These interference pressures were calculated using the AIRPLANE code. AIRPLANE is an Euler solver that uses a unstructured tetrahedral mesh and is capable of computations about arbitrary complete configurations. In addition, the buoyancy effects of the nacelle/diverters were also included in the design process by imposing the pressure field obtained during the design process onto the triangulated surfaces of the nacelle/diverter mesh generated by AIRPLANE. The interference pressures and nacelle buoyancy effects are added to the final forces after each flow field calculation. Full details of the (recently enhanced) ghost nacelle capability are given in a related talk. The pseudo nacelle corrections were greatly improved during this design cycle. During the Ref H and Cycle 1 design activities, the nacelles were only translated and pitched. In the cycle 2 design effort the nacelles can translate vertically, and pitch to accommodate the changes in the lower surface geometry. The diverter heights (between their leading and trailing edges) were modified during design as the shape of the lower wing changed, with the drag of the diverter changing accordingly. Both adjoint and finite difference gradients were used during optimization. The adjoint-based gradients were found to give good direction in the design space for configurations near the starting point, but as the design approached a minimum, the finite difference gradients were found to be more accurate. Use of finite difference gradients was limited by the

  13. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  14. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...

  15. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  16. Absolutyzm i pluralizm (ABSOLUTISM AND PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Alethic absolutism is a thesis that propositions can not be more or less true, that they are true or false for ever (if true at all and that their truth is independent on any circumstances of their assertion. In negative version, easier to defend, alethic absolutism claims the very same proposition can not be both true and false relative to circumstances of its assertion. Simple alethic pluralism is a thesis that we have many concepts of truth. It is a very good way to dissolve the controversy between alethic relativism and absolutism. Many philosophical concepts of truth are the best reason for such pluralism. If concept is meaning of a name, we have many concepts of truth because the name 'truth' was understood in many ways. The variety of meanings however can be superficial. Under it we can find one idea of truth expressed in correspondence truism or schema (T. The content of the truism is too poor to be content of anyone concept of truth, so it usually is connected with some picture of the world (ontology and we have so many concepts of truth as many pictures of the world. The authoress proposes the hierarchical pluralism with privileged classic (or correspondence in weak sense concept of truth as absolute property.Other author's publications:

  17. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  18. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  19. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  20. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  1. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  2. Relationship between Income and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Absolute or Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Khashchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the absolute and relative income in determining the subjective economic well-being. It is shown that the relationship of the income to SEB is curvilinear with the increase of marginal utility for a higher income. At low income levels its effect on SEB is determined not by its absolute, but by its relative value based on the comparisons with the subjective standards of well-being.

  3. Gas/liquid flow configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Jacques; Fitremann, J.-M.

    1978-01-01

    Prediction of flow configurations (morphology) for gas/liquid or liquid/vapour mixtures is an important industrial problem which is not yet fully understood. The ''Flow Configurations'' Seminar of Societe Hydrotechnique de France has framed recommendations for investigation of potential industrial applications for flow configurations [fr

  4. Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Cornelius, Harold; Hickling, Ron; Brooks, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Emerging test instrumentation and test scenarios increasingly require network communication to manage complexity. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. A fundamental requirement for a software-definable radio system is independence from carrier frequencies, one of the radio components that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate the viability of a promising chipset that performs conversion of radio frequency (RF) signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit the size of a commodity disk drive, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.

  5. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism....

  6. Deployable reflector configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    Both the theoretical reasons for considering a non-circular format for the Large Deployable Reflector, and a potentially realizable concept for such a device, are discussed. The optimum systems for diffraction limited telescopes with incoherent detection have either a single filled aperture, or two such apertures as an interferometer to synthesize a larger aperture. For a single aperture of limited area, a reflector in the form of a slot can be used to give increased angular resolution. It is shown how a 20 x 8 meter telescope can be configured to fit the Space Shuttle bay, and deployed with relatively simple operations. The relationship between the sunshield design and the inclination of the orbit is discussed. The possible use of the LDR as a basic module to permit the construction of supergiant space telescopes and interferometers both for IR/submm studies and for the entire ultraviolet through mm wave spectral region is discussed.

  7. Absolute distance measurement with micrometer accuracy using a Michelson interferometer and the iterative synthetic wavelength principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Gdeisat, Munther; Bezombes, Frederic; Qudeisat, Mohammad

    2012-02-27

    We present a novel system that can measure absolute distances of up to 300 mm with an uncertainty of the order of one micrometer, within a timeframe of 40 seconds. The proposed system uses a Michelson interferometer, a tunable laser, a wavelength meter and a computer for analysis. The principle of synthetic wave creation is used in a novel way in that the system employs an initial low precision estimate of the distance, obtained using a triangulation, or time-of-flight, laser system, or similar, and then iterates through a sequence of progressively smaller synthetic wavelengths until it reaches micrometer uncertainties in the determination of the distance. A further novel feature of the system is its use of Fourier transform phase analysis techniques to achieve sub-wavelength accuracy. This method has the major advantages of being relatively simple to realize, offering demonstrated high relative precisions better than 5 × 10(-5). Finally, the fact that this device does not require a continuous line-of-sight to the target as is the case with other configurations offers significant advantages.

  8. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Medola, Fausto Orsi [UNESP; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetic...

  9. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s-2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  10. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  11. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  12. Absolute total cross sections for noble gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, P. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with experiments on the elastic scattering of Ar, Kr and Xe, using the molecular beam technique. The aim of this work was the measurement of the absolute value of the total cross section and the behaviour of the total cross section, Q, as function of the relative velocity g of the scattering partners. The author gives an extensive analysis of the glory structure in the total cross section and parametrizes the experimental results using a semiclassical model function. This allows a detailed comparison of the phase and amplitude of the predicted and measured glory undulations. He indicates how the depth and position of the potential well should be changed in order to come to an optimum description of the glory structure. With this model function he has also been able to separate the glory and attractive contribution to Q, and using the results from the extrapolation measurements he has obtained absolute values for Qsub(a). From these absolute values he has calculated the parameter C 6 that determines the strength of the attractive region of the potential. In two of the four investigated gas combinations the obtained values lie outside the theoretical bounds. (Auth.)

  13. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  14. Application of Configurators in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Shorter lead-time, improved quality of product specifications and better communication with customers and suppliers are benefits derived from the application of configurators. Configurators are knowledge-based IT-systems that can be applied to deal with product knowledge and to support different...... processes in a company. Traditionally, configurators have been used as an internal tool. In this paper focus will be on the application of configurators in a network of companies, and a procedure for developing product configurators in a network of companies will be presented. The aim is to present...... a structured guideline, tools and methods on how to successfully develop configurators in a network perspective. Findings presented in this paper are supported by research in a case company. The results from the empirical work show a huge potential for the application of configurators in networks of companies....

  15. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  16. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  17. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  18. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  19. Internal descriptions of absolute Borel classes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holický, P.; Pelant, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 1 (2004), s. 87-104 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1466; GA ČR GA201/03/0933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : absolute Borel class * complete sequence of covers * open map Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2004

  20. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  1. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  2. Configurational isomerism in polyoxovanadates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnke, Lisa K.; Naether, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Kondinski, Aleksandar; Van Leusen, Jan; Monakhov, Kirill Yu.; Koegerler, Paul [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Warzok, Ulrike; Schalley, Christoph A. [Institut fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2018-03-05

    A water-soluble derivative of the polyoxovanadate {V_1_5E_6O_4_2} (E=semimetal) archetype enables the study of cluster shell rearrangements driven by supramolecular interactions. A reaction unique to E=Sb, induced exclusively by ligand metathesis in peripheral [Ni(ethylenediamine){sub 3}]{sup 2+} counterions, results in the formation of the metastable α{sub 1}* configurational isomer of the {V_1_4Sb_8O_4_2} cluster type. Contrary to all other polyoxovanadate shell architectures, this isomer comprises an inward-oriented vanadyl group and is ca. 50 and 12 kJ mol{sup -1} higher in energy than the previously isolated α and β isomers, respectively. We discuss this unexpected reaction in light of supramolecular Sb-O..V and Sb-O..Sb contacts manifested in {V_1_4Sb_8O_4_2}{sub 2} dimers detected in the solid state. ESI MS experiments confirm the stability of these dimers also in solution and in the gas phase. DFT calculations indicate that other, as of yet elusive isomers of {V_1_4Sb_8}, might be accessible as well. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Ployzou, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei. Our research program consists of a careful theoretical study of the nuclear few-body systems. During the past year we have completed several aspects of this program. We have continued our program of using the trinucleon system to investigate the validity of various realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Also, the effects of meson-exchange currents in nuclear systems have been studied. Initial calculations using the configuration-space Faddeev equations for nucleon-deuteron scattering have been completed. With modifications to treat relativistic systems, few-body methods can be applied to phenomena that are sensitive to the structure of the individual hadrons. We have completed a review of Relativistic Hamiltonian Dynamics in Nuclear and Particle Physics for Advances in Nuclear Physics. Although it is called a review, it is a large document that contains a significant amount of new research

  4. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we developed a simple numerical scheme to determine the static equilibrium configuration of charged metallic bodies by minimizing the potential energy function. The method developed has some advantages; it combines the general theory and the physical meanings nested in the mathematical model and this ...

  5. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D→anti Kπe+νe, D→anti K*e+νe and determination of Γ(D+→anti K*0e+νe)/Γ(D+→anti K0e+νe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J.Z.; Ban, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Using the data of about 33 pb -1 collected at and around 3.773 GeV with the BES-II detector at the BEPC collider, we have studied the exclusive semileptonic decays D + →K - π + e + ν e , D 0 →anti K 0 π - e + ν e , D + →anti K *0 e + ν e and D 0 →K *- e + ν e . The absolute branching fractions for the decays are measured to be BF(D + →K - π + e + ν e )=(3.50±0.75±0.27)%, BF(D 0 →anti K 0 π - e + ν e )=(2.61±1.04±0.28)%, BF(D + →anti K *0 e + ν e )=(5.06±1.21±0.40)% and BF(D 0 →K *- e + ν e )=(2.87±1.48±0.39)%. The ratio of the vector to pseudoscalar semileptonic decay rates Γ(D + →anti K *0 e + ν e )/Γ(D + →anti K 0 e + ν e ) is determined to be 0.57±0.17±0.02. (orig.)

  6. Siroco, a configurable robot control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, B.G.; Maraggi, G.J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The SIROCO (Configurable Robot Control System) is an electronic system designed to work in applications where mechanized remote control equipment and robots are necessary especially in Nuclear Power Plants. The structure of the system (hardware and software) determines the following user characteristics: a) Reduction in the time spent in NDT and in radiation doses absorbed, due to remote control operation; b) possibility for full automation in NDT, c) the system can simultaneously control up to six axes and can generate movements in remote areas; and d) possibility for equipment unification, due to SIROCO being a configurable system. (author)

  7. Configuration studies of LHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1997-01-01

    Configuration studies are performed on the plasmas of The Large Helical Device (LHD), the construction of which is almost completed at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The LHD has flexibility as an experimental device and can have various configurations by changing the poloidal magnetic fields, the pitch of the helical coils (pitch parameter), and the ratio of currents flowing in the two helical coils. Characteristics of the plasma are investigated for the standard configuration, the change in the pitch parameter, and the helical axis configuration

  8. Configuration studies of LHD plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Masao

    1997-03-01

    Configuration studies are performed on the plasmas of The Large Helical Device (LHD), the construction of which is almost completed at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The LHD has flexibility as an experimental device and can have various configurations by changing the poloidal magnetic fields, the pitch of the helical coils (pitch parameter), and the ratio of currents flowing in the two helical coils. Characteristics of the plasma are investigated for the standard configuration, the change in the pitch parameter, and the helical axis configuration. (author)

  9. Results of an investigation to determine local flow characteristics at the air data probe locations using an 0.030-scale model (45-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B (modified) in the NASA Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (OA161, A, B, C), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test 0A161 of a 0.030-scale model 45-0 of the configuration 140A/B (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel facilities. The purpose of this test was to determine local total and static pressure environments for the air data probe locations and relative effectiveness of alternate flight-test probe configurations. Testing was done in the Mach number range from 0.30 to 3.5. Angle of attack was varied from -8 to 25 degrees while sideslip varied between -8 and 8 degrees.

  10. Dynamic configuration of the CMS Data Acquisition cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Biery, Kurt; Boyer, Vincent; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Fortes Rodrigues, Fabiana; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Zanetti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition cluster, which runs around 10000 applications, is configured dynamically at run time. XML configuration documents determine what applications are executed on each node and over what networks these applications communicate. Through this mechanism the DAQ System may be adapted to the required performance, partitioned in order to perform (test-) runs in parallel, or re-structured in case of hardware faults. This paper presents the CMS DAQ Configurator tool, which is used to generate comprehensive configurations of the CMS DAQ system based on a high-level description given by the user. Using a database of configuration templates and a database containing a detailed model of hardware modules, data and control links, nodes and the network topology, the tool automatically determines which applications are needed, on which nodes they should run, and over which networks the event traffic will flow. The tool computes application parameters and generates the XML configuration documents as well a...

  11. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  12. Absolute measurement of environmental radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1987-01-01

    A transportable meter for environmental radon measurement with a 40 liter decay chamber is designed on the principle of Thomas two-filter radon content absolute measurement. The sensitivity is 0.37 Bq·m -3 with 95% confidence level. This paper describes the experimental method of measuremment and it's intrinsic uncertainty. The typical intrinsic uncertainty (for n x 3.7 Bq·m -3 radon concentration) is <10%. The parameter of exit filter effeciency is introduced into the formula, and the verification is done for the case when the diameter of the exit filter is much less than the inlet one

  13. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  14. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  15. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  17. On the absolute meaning of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Edwards

    Full Text Available The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented. Keywords: Kinematics, Gravity, Atomic clocks, Cosmic microwave background

  18. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T

    2008-10-02

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  19. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton–dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  20. Configuration affects parallel stent grafting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Armstrong, Paul A; Zwiebel, Bruce; Grundy, Shane; Back, Martin R; Shames, Murray L

    2018-05-01

    A number of adjunctive "off-the-shelf" procedures have been described to treat complex aortic diseases. Our goal was to evaluate parallel stent graft configurations and to determine an optimal formula for these procedures. This is a retrospective review of all patients at a single medical center treated with parallel stent grafts from January 2010 to September 2015. Outcomes were evaluated on the basis of parallel graft orientation, type, and main body device. Primary end points included parallel stent graft compromise and overall endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compromise. There were 78 patients treated with a total of 144 parallel stents for a variety of pathologic processes. There was a significant correlation between main body oversizing and snorkel compromise (P = .0195) and overall procedural complication (P = .0019) but not with endoleak rates. Patients were organized into the following oversizing groups for further analysis: 0% to 10%, 10% to 20%, and >20%. Those oversized into the 0% to 10% group had the highest rate of overall EVAR complication (73%; P = .0003). There were no significant correlations between any one particular configuration and overall procedural complication. There was also no significant correlation between total number of parallel stents employed and overall complication. Composite EVAR configuration had no significant correlation with individual snorkel compromise, endoleak, or overall EVAR or procedural complication. The configuration most prone to individual snorkel compromise and overall EVAR complication was a four-stent configuration with two stents in an antegrade position and two stents in a retrograde position (60% complication rate). The configuration most prone to endoleak was one or two stents in retrograde position (33% endoleak rate), followed by three stents in an all-antegrade position (25%). There was a significant correlation between individual stent configuration and stent compromise (P = .0385), with 31

  1. Characterization of Cladosporols from the Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399 and Configurational Revision of the Previously Reported Cladosporol Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Lei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Mándi, Attila; Antus, Sándor; Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-10-06

    Four new cladosporol derivatives, cladosporols F-I (1-4), the known cladosporol C (5), and its new epimer, cladosporol J (6), were isolated and identified from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399. Their structures were determined by detailed interpretation of NMR and MS data, and the absolute configurations were established on the basis of TDDFT-ECD and OR calculations. The configurational assignment of cladosporols F (1) and G (2) showed that the previously reported absolute configuration of cladosporol A and all the related cladosporols need to be revised from (4'R) to (4'S). Compounds 1-6 showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Vibrio harveyi with MIC values ranging from 4 to 128 μg/mL. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxicity against A549, Huh7, and LM3 cell lines with IC 50 values of 5.0, 1.0, and 4.1 μM, respectively, and compound 5 showed activity against H446 cell line with IC 50 value of 4.0 μM.

  2. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  3. Absolute instabilities of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. N.; van Heijster, P.; Marangell, R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the spectral stability of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model of bacterial chemotaxis with a logarithmic chemosensitivity function and a constant, sublinear, and linear consumption rate. Linearising around the travelling wave solutions, we locate the essential and absolute spectrum of the associated linear operators and find that all travelling wave solutions have parts of the essential spectrum in the right half plane. However, we show that in the case of constant or sublinear consumption there exists a range of parameters such that the absolute spectrum is contained in the open left half plane and the essential spectrum can thus be weighted into the open left half plane. For the constant and sublinear consumption rate models we also determine critical parameter values for which the absolute spectrum crosses into the right half plane, indicating the onset of an absolute instability of the travelling wave solution. We observe that this crossing always occurs off of the real axis.

  4. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  5. Determination of relative configurations and conformations of oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria guianensis by NMR; Determinacao por RMN das configuracoes relativas e conformacoes de alcaloides oxindolicos isolados de Uncaria guianensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Flausino Junior, Otavio Aparecido; Furlan, Maysa; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2004-12-01

    Phytochemical studies with leaves of Uncaria guianensis resulted in the isolation of the oxindole alkaloids isomitraphylline (1), 3-isoajmalicine (2) mitraphylline (3), and isomitraphylinic acid (4). Structural assignments of these alkaloids, including relative configurations and conformations, were performed through spectral data and physical properties. 1D and 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was a valuable tool for the establishment of the relative stereochemistry of those compounds. (author)

  6. Absolute measurement of the critical scattering cross section in cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinka, C.J.; Minkiewicz, V.J.; Passell, L.

    1975-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering techniques have been used to study the angular distribution of the critical scattering from cobalt above T/sub c/. These measurements have been put on an absolute scale by calibrating the critical scattering directly against the nuclear incoherent scattering from cobalt. In this way the interaction range r 1 , which appears in the classical and modified Ornstein--Zernike expressions for the asymptotic form of the spin pair correlation function and is related to the strength of the spin correlations, has been determined. We obtain r 1 /a = 0.46 +- 0.03 for the ratio of the interaction range to the nearest-neighbor distance in cobalt. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Lack of agreement among previous determinations of the ratio r 1 /a made in iron failed to provide a definitive comparison with theory

  7. Viscous Design of TCA Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The goal in this effort is to redesign the baseline TCA configuration for improved performance at both supersonic and transonic cruise. Viscous analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between overset grids. Viscous designs are conducted with OVERDISC, a script which couples OVERFLOW with the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) inverse design method. The successful execution of any computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based aerodynamic design method for complex configurations requires an efficient method for regenerating the computational grids to account for modifications to the configuration shape. The first section of this presentation deals with the automated regridding procedure used to generate overset grids for the fuselage/wing/diverter/nacelle configurations analysed in this effort. The second section outlines the procedures utilized to conduct OVERDISC inverse designs. The third section briefly covers the work conducted by Dick Campbell, in which a dual-point design at Mach 2.4 and 0.9 was attempted using OVERDISC; the initial configuration from which this design effort was started is an early version of the optimized shape for the TCA configuration developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG), which eventually evolved into the NCV design. The final section presents results from application of the Natural Flow Wing design philosophy to the TCA configuration.

  8. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  9. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  10. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  11. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  12. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  13. A Software Configuration Management Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    Software Configuration Management has been a big success in research and creation of tools. There are also many vendors in the market of selling courses to companies. However, in the education sector Software Configuration Management has still not quite made it - at least not into the university...... curriculum. It is either not taught at all or is just a minor part of a general course in software engineering. In this paper, we report on our experience with giving a full course entirely dedicated to Software Configuration Management topics and start a discussion of what ideally should be the goal...

  14. Device configuration-management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Chamber System, a major component of the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility, contains several hundred devices which report status to the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for control and monitoring purposes. To manage the large number of diversity of devices represented, a device configuration management system was required and developed. Key components of this software tool include the MFTF Data Base; a configuration editor; and a tree structure defining the relationships between the subsystem devices. This paper will describe how the configuration system easily accomodates recognizing new devices, restructuring existing devices, and modifying device profile information

  15. Effect of Absolute From Hibiscus syriacus L. Flower on Wound Healing in Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Dae Won; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proliferation and migration of keratinocytes are essential for the repair of cutaneous wounds. Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used in Asian medicine; however, research on keratinocytes is inadequate. Objective: To establish the dermatological properties of absolute from Hibiscus syriacus L. flower (HSF) and to provide fundamental research for alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: We identified the composition of HSF absolute using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We also examined the effect of HSF absolute in HaCaT cells using the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, sprout-out growth assay, and western blotting. We conducted an in-vivo wound healing assay in rat tail-skin. Results: Ten major active compounds were identified from HSF absolute. As determined by the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, and sprout-out growth assay results, HSF absolute exhibited similar effects as that of epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and migration patterns of keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), which were significantly increased after HSF absolute treatment. The expression levels of the phosphorylated signaling proteins relevant to proliferation, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and Akt, were also determined by western blot analysis. Conclusion: These results of our in-vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate that HSF absolute induced cell growth and migration of HaCaT cells by phosphorylating both Erk 1/2 and Akt. Moreover, we confirmed the wound-healing effect of HSF on injury of the rat tail-skin. Therefore, our results suggest that HSF absolute is promising for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine. SUMMARY Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute increases HaCaT cell migration and proliferation.Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute regulates phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt in HaCaT cell.Treatment with Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower induced sprout outgrowth.The wound in the tail-skin of rat was reduced by Hisbiscus syriacus

  16. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  17. DI3 - A New Procedure for Absolute Directional Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Geese

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard observatory procedure for determining a geomagnetic field's declination and inclination absolutely is the DI-flux measurement. The instrument consists of a non-magnetic theodolite equipped with a single-axis fluxgate magnetometer. Additionally, a scalar magnetometer is needed to provide all three components of the field. Using only 12 measurement steps, all systematic errors can be accounted for, but if only one of the readings is wrong, the whole measurement has to be rejected. We use a three-component sensor on top of the theodolites telescope. By performing more measurement steps, we gain much better control of the whole procedure: As the magnetometer can be fully calibrated by rotating about two independent directions, every combined reading of magnetometer output and theodolite angles provides the absolute field vector. We predefined a set of angle positions that the observer has to try to achieve. To further simplify the measurement procedure, the observer is guided by a pocket pc, in which he has only to confirm the theodolite position. The magnetic field is then stored automatically, together with the horizontal and vertical angles. The DI3 measurement is periodically performed at the Niemegk Observatory, allowing for a direct comparison with the traditional measurements.

  18. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  19. Airport Configuration Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is presently poor knowledge throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) of the airport configurations currently in use at each airport. There is even less...

  20. Belene NPP project configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, A.

    2009-01-01

    The configuration management includes: change identification; change assessment; change coordination; change approval or rejection; Change introduction. One of the main tasks while implementing the above processes is the analysis of the effect of one change upon all the related elements

  1. Highly Functionalised Cyclopentanes by Radical Cyclisation of Unsaturated Bromolactones III. Preparation of Carbaaldohexofuranoses. - Determination of the Relative Configuration at C-4/C-5 of 2,3-Unsaturated heptono-1,4-lactones by Means of 1-H NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Horneman, Anne Marie

    1999-01-01

    Two new carbaaldohexofuranoses, carba--D-glucofuranose and carba--L-mannofuranose have been prepared using 5,6-O-isopropylidene-D-glycero-L-galacto-heptono-1,4-lactone (6) as the starting material. The key step was a highly stereoselective intramolecular 5-exo-trig radical cyclisation of C-2......-substituted 2,3-unsaturated 7-bromo-7-deoxy-heptono-1,4-lactones promoted by tributyltin hydride. Assignment of the configuration of the unsaturated lactones was based upon NMR data of related compounds. The starting material, compound 6, was obtained by chain elongation of D-gulose, and a facile method...

  2. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the re...

  3. Configurational assignments of conformationally restricted bis-monoterpene hydroquinones: Utility in exploration of endangered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joonseok Oh; John J. Bowling; Amar G. Chittiboyina; Robert J. Doerksen; Daneel Ferreira; Theodor D. Leininger; Mark T. Hamann

    2013-01-01

    Endangered plant species are an important resource for new chemistry. Lindera melissifolia is native to the Southeastern U.S. and scarcely populates the edges of lakes and ponds. Quantum mechanics (QM) used in combination with NMR/ECD is a powerful tool for the assignment of absolute configuration in lieu of X-ray crystallography. Methods: The EtOAc extract of L....

  4. Aspects of manual wheelchair configuration affecting mobility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users' actions and mobility.

  5. Application of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) absolute analysis method for silica refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Yamada, Yasujiro; Kansai, Kouhei; Tomatsu, Ichirou; Murata, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a rapid and precise quantitative analytical method for the determination of major and trace elements in many industries and academics. XRF analytical values are relative due to the use of the calibration curves calculated from measuring the reference standard materials such as Japanese Refractory Reference Materials (JRRM) series with certified values determined by wet chemical analysis. The development of the XRF analytical method from relative to absolute analysis will help much to determine the absolute values of samples from the fields where reference standard samples have not been prepared, and thus can be applied widely in many industries. The implement of the absolute XRF analysis for silica refractories requires high purity reagents and/or reference standard solution for the binary basic calibration curve, and theoretical matrix correction coefficients for the multi-components silica refractories analysis. The reproducibility and repeatability of this method for Al 2 O 3 5 mass% sample were 0.009 and 0.006 mass% in Al 2 O 3 and showed better values that those of ICP-AES recognized as an absolute method in JIS R 2212-2, which yielded 0.028 and 0.031 mass%, respectively. The XRF absolute analysis for JRRM 200 series, 201a and 205a does not show a bias but coincides with their certified values. (author)

  6. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  7. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  8. A distributed lumped active all-pass network configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1972-01-01

    In this correspondence a new and interesting distributed lumped active network configuration that realizes an all-pass network function is described. A design chart for determining the values of the network elements is included.

  9. Absolute dimensions and evolutionary status of UW CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric B and V light curves of close binary system UW Canis Majoris (08.5 If + O-B) are analysed. Combining the photoelectric elements and the spectroscopic orbit absolute dimensions of the system are determined. The mass of the bright primary (08.5 If) component is found to be 19.3 solar masses and that of the faint secondary to be 23.2 solar masses. The primary has filled the Roche lobe and it is 1 to 2 mag over-luminous for its mass. The massive secondary component is most likely a main sequence star. Comparison with the theoretical evolutionary models of massive close binary systems undergoing case A of mass exchange indicate that UW CMa is close to the contact stage of evolution. (author)

  10. A SOLAR SPECTROSCOPIC ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCE OF ARGON FROM RESIK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of He-like and H-like Ar (Ar XVII and Ar XVIII) lines at 3.949 A and 3.733 A, respectively, with the RESIK X-ray spectrometer on the CORONAS-F spacecraft, together with temperatures and emission measures from the two channels of GOES, have been analyzed to obtain the abundance of Ar in flare plasmas in the solar corona. The line fluxes per unit emission measure show a temperature dependence like that predicted from theory and lead to spectroscopically determined values for the absolute Ar abundance, A(Ar) = 6.44 ± 0.07 (Ar XVII) and 6.49 ± 0.16 (Ar XVIII), which are in agreement to within uncertainties. The weighted mean is 6.45 ± 0.06, which is between two recent compilations of the solar Ar abundance and suggests that the photospheric and coronal abundances of Ar are very similar.

  11. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  12. Absolute cross-section measurements of inner-shell ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hans; Tobehn, Ingo; Ebel, Frank; Hippler, Rainer

    1994-12-01

    Cross section ratios for K- and L-shell ionization of thin silver and gold targets by positron and electron impact have been determined at projectile energies of 30 70 keV. The experimental results are confirmed by calculations in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) which include an electron exchange term and account for the deceleration or acceleration of the incident projectile in the nuclear field of the target atom. We report first absolute cross sections for K- and L-shell ionization of silver and gold targets by lepton impact in the threshold region. We have measured the corresponding cross sections for electron (e-) impact with an electron gun and the same experimental set-up.

  13. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  14. Dynamics and configurations of galaxy triplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, J.P.; Orlov, V.V.; Chernin, A.D.; Ivanov, A.V.; Kiseleva, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to infer the probable dynamical states of galaxy triplets by the observed data on their configurations. Two methods are proposed for describing the distributions of the triplet configuration parameters characterizing a tendency to alignment and hierarchy: (1) obtaining a representative sample of configurations and determining its statistical parameters (moments and percentages); and (2) dividing the region of possible configurations of triple systems (Agekian and Anosova, 1967) into a set of segments and finding the probabilities for the configurations to find themselves in each of them. Both these methods allow representation of the data by numerical simulations as well as observations. The effect of projection was studied. It rather overestimates the alignment and hierarchy of the triple systems. Among the parameters of interest there are found some parameters that are least sensitive to projection effects. The samples consist of simulated galaxy triplets (with hidden mass) as well as of 46 probably physical triple galaxies (Karachentseva et al., 1979). The observed triples as well as numerical models show a tendency to alignment. The triple galaxies do not show any tendency to hierarchy (formation of the temporary binaries), but this tendency may be present for simulated triplets without significant dark matter. The significant hidden mass (of order ten times the total mass of a triplet) decreases the probability of forming a binary and so weakens the hierarchy. Small galaxy groups consisting of 3 to 7 members are probably the most prevalent types of galaxy aggregate (Gorbatsky, 1987). Galaxy triplets are the simplest groups, but dynamically nontrivial ones

  15. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  16. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  17. Measurement of the 235 U absolute activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.C.; Santos, M.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute activity of 235 U contained in a sample was measured utilizing a sum-coincidence circuit which selects only the alpha particles emitted simultaneously with the 143 KeV gamma radiations from the 231 Th (product nucleus). The alpha particles were detected by means of a new type of a gas scintillating chamber, in which the light emitted by excitation of the gas atoms, due to the passage of a charged incoming particle, has its intensity increased by the action of an applied electric field. The gamma radiations were detected by means of a 1'x 1 1/2 Nal (TI) scintillation detector. The value obtained for the half-life of 235 U, (7.04+-0.01)10 8 y, was compared with the data available from various observers with used different experimental techniques. It is shown that our results are in excellent agreement with the best data available on the subject. (author) 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  19. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M V,RRc = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M V,RRab = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M V,RRc = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W π , W θ , W z ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s –1 in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ W π ,σ W θ ,σ W z ) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s -1 . For the disk, we find (W π , W θ , W z ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s –1 relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ W π ,σ W θ ,σ W z ) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s -1 . Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4

  20. Knowledge Based Product Configuration - a documentatio tool for configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    . A lot of knowledge isput into these systems and many domain experts are involved. This calls for an effective documentation system in order to structure this knowledge in a way that fits to the systems. Standard configuration systems do not support this kind of documentation. The chapter deals...... with the development of a Lotus Notes application that serves as a knowledge based documentation tool for configuration projects. A prototype has been developed and tested empirically in an industrial case-company. It has proved to be a succes....

  1. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de; Jimenez S, S.

    2007-01-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration (σ + - σ - ) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10 7 Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  2. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  3. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  4. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  5. Instanton Field Configurations and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Konopleva, N P

    2005-01-01

    The role of vacuum relativization in QCD and nucleus theory is discussed. It is shown that relativistic vacuum must be described by vacuum Einstein equations. Black Holes have to make their appearance in QCD because of Schwarzschildean solution of these equations. Instanton configurations of any fields do not change vacuum Einstein equations and their solutions, because their energy-momentum tensors are zero. But they make it possible to determine a space-time topology, which cannot be defined by differential Einstein equations. Therefore, Black Holes number in space-time is possibly connected with instanton configurations of fields and other matter. Instantons do not fall into Black Holes and are the very matter which surrounds them.

  6. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  7. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    The current, still evolving status of the design and the optimization work for the moderator configuration for the European Spallation Source is described. The moderator design has been strongly driven by the low-dimensional moderator concept recently proposed for use in spallation neutron sources...... or reactors. Quasi-two dimensional, disc- or tube-shaped moderators,can provide strong brightness increase (factor of 3 or more) with respect to volume para-H2moderators, which constitute the reference, state-of-the-art technology for high-intensity coupled moderators. In the design process other, more...... conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  8. Development of Simulator Configuration Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedrelid, Olav; Pettersen, Geir

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the development of a Simulator Configuration Tool (SCT) is to achieve faster and more efficient production of dynamic simulators. Through application of versatile graphical interfaces, the simulator builder should be able to configure different types of simulators including full-scope process simulators. The SCT should be able to serve different simulator environments. The configuration tool communicates with simulator execution environments through a TCP/IP-based interface, Communication with a Model Server System developed at Institutt for energiteknikk has been established and used as test case. The system consists of OSF/Motif dialogues for operations requiring textual input, list selections etc., and uses the Picasso-3 User Interface Management System to handle presentation of static and dynamic graphical information. (author)

  9. BAYESIAN IMAGE RESTORATION, USING CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordis Linda Thorarinsdottir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed in detail for 3 X 3 and 5 X 5 configurations and examples of the performance of the procedure are given.

  10. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  11. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  12. Projective configurations in projectivegeometrical drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the optimization of the earlier discussed computer method of obtaining new forms of polyhedra based on projective geometry drawings (trace Diagrams.While working on getting new multifaceted forms by projective geometry methods based on the well-known models of polyhedra on the first stage of the work it is required to calculate the parameters of projective geometry drawings, and then to build them. This is an often used apparatus of analytical geometry. According to it, at first the parameters of the polyhedron (core system of planes are calculated, then we obtain the equation of the plane of the face of the polyhedron, and finally we obtain the equations of lines the next plane faces on the selected curve plane. At each stage of application such a method requires the use of the algorithms of floating point arithmetic, on the one hand, leads to some loss of accuracy of the results and, on the other hand, the large amount of computer time to perform these operations in comparison with integer arithmetic operations.The proposed method is based on the laws existing between the lines that make up the drawing - the known configurations of projective geometry (complete quadrilaterals, configuration of Desargues, Pappus et al..The authors discussed in detail the analysis procedure of projective geometry drawing and the presence of full quadrilaterals, Desargues and Pappus configurations in it.Since the composition of these configurations is invariant with respect to projective change of the original nucleus, knowing them, you can avoid the calculations when solving the equations for finding direct projective geometry drawing analytically, getting them on the basis of belonging to a particular configuration. So you can get a definite advantage in accuracy of the results, and in the cost of computer time. Finding these basic configurations significantly enriches the set of methods and the use of projective geometry drawings.

  13. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  14. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, F; Distefano, C

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Instance-specific algorithm configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Malitsky, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a modular and expandable technique in the rapidly emerging research area of automatic configuration and selection of the best algorithm for the instance at hand. The author presents the basic model behind ISAC and then details a number of modifications and practical applications. In particular, he addresses automated feature generation, offline algorithm configuration for portfolio generation, algorithm selection, adaptive solvers, online tuning, and parallelization.    The author's related thesis was honorably mentioned (runner-up) for the ACP Dissertation Award in 2014,

  17. Results for the Aboveground Configuration of the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies; Lindgren, Eric Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies

    2016-09-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis. These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and also by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and belowground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of aboveground and belowground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the current investigation was to produce data sets that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks that utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister in an aboveground configuration. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly was deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents a vertical canister system. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. The arrangement of ducting was used to mimic conditions for an aboveground storage configuration in a vertical, dry cask

  18. Commissioning of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune

    To determine the total cross section and absolute luminosity in the ATLAS detector at the LHC via pp scattering under very small angles, a dedicated sub-detector called ALFA has been made. Several performance evaluation tests including a test beam campaign lead to improvements of the detector...

  19. The main sequence of NGC 6231 and the calibration of absolute magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a discussion of a new approach to the calibration of absolute magnitudes for MK spectral types. With the addition of the NGC 6231 main sequence down to A0, the material for the cluster fitting method using very carefully determined MK types is complete. (Auth.)

  20. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and cho...

  1. Low geometry counter for the absolute measurement of the activity of alpha-emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.; Acena, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A low-geometry counter is described which allows the absolute determination of the activity for alpha-emitting sources. A Si implanted detector is used to obtain the spectrum of the sample. Two samples are measured with this counter and a 2 π gridded ion chamber. The results an their uncertainties for both instruments are discussed. (Author)

  2. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  3. Kramers Pairs in configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2003-01-01

    The theory of symmetry-preserving Kramers pair creation operators is reviewed and formulas for applying these operators to configuration interaction calculations are derived. A new and more general type of symmetry-preserving pair creation operator is proposed and shown to commute with the total ...

  4. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  5. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  6. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  7. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  8. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  9. Bose and Fermi walk configurations on planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, D K; Bhatti, F M; Essam, J W

    2012-01-01

    The number, f C n (H), of n-walk configurations of type C is investigated on certain two-rooted directed planar graphs H which will be always realized as plane graphs in R 2 . C may be Bose or Fermi as defined by Inui and Katori. Both types of configuration are collections of non-crossing walks which follow the directed paths between the roots of the plane graph H. In the case of configurations of Fermi type each walk may be included only once. The number f Bose n (H) is shown to be a polynomial in n of degree n max − 1 where n max is the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration. The coefficient of the highest power of n in this polynomial is simply related to the number of maximal Fermi walk configurations. It is also shown that n max = c(H) + 1 where c(H) is the number of finite faces on H. Extension of these results to multi-rooted graphs is also discussed. When H is the union of paths between two sites of the directed square lattice subject to various boundary conditions Kreweras showed that the number of Bose configurations is equal to the number of n-element multi-chains on segments of Young’s lattice. He expressed this number as a determinant the elements of which are polynomials in n. We evaluate this determinant by the method of LU decomposition in the case of ‘watermelon’ configurations above a wall. In this case the polynomial is a product of linear factors but on introducing a second wall the polynomial does not completely factorize but has a factor which is the number of watermelon configurations on the largest rectangular subgraph. The number of two-rooted ‘star’ configurations is found to be the product of the numbers of watermelon configurations on the three rectangular subgraphs into which it may be partitioned. (paper)

  10. A Preliminary Analysis of the Flying Qualities of the Consolidated Vultee MX-813 Delta-Wing Airplane Configuration at Transonic and Low Supersonic Speeds as Determined from Flights of Rocket-Powered Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcham, Grady L.

    1949-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the flying qualities of the Consolidated Vultee MX-813 delta-wing airplane configuration has been made based on the results obtained from the first two 1/8 scale models flown at the NACA Pilotless Aircraft Research Station, Wallop's Island, VA. The Mach number range covered in the tests was from 0.9 to 1.2. The analysis indicates adequate elevator control for trim in level flight over the speed range investigated. Through the transonic range there is a mild trim change with a slight tucking-under tendency. The elevator control effectiveness in the supersonic range is reduced to about one-half the subsonic value although sufficient control for maneuvering is available as indicated by the fact that 10 deg elevator deflection produced 5g acceleration at Mach number of 1.2 at 40,000 feet.The elevator control forces are high and indicate the power required of the boost system. The damping. of the short-period oscillation is adequate at sea-level but is reduced at 40,000 feet. The directional stability appears adequate for the speed range and angles of attack covered.

  11. Absolute measurement of the activity of 222Rn using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Ingo; Greupner, Heinz; Keyser, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    A measuring set-up comprising a proportional counter of calculable 222 Rn efficiency and quantifiable active volume (δ V 222 Rn efficiency is determined by computer simulation of the measured α-spectra. The procedures necessary for absolute measurements by means of the counter are described, and the suitability of the counter for absolute measurements of the 222 Rn activity is proved by experiments. Thus, a new method for the realization of the unit of activity of 222 Rn is obtained, which is independent of the unit of activity of 226 Ra

  12. Loop Quantization and Symmetry: Configuration Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhack, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Given two sets S 1, S 2 and unital C *-algebras A_1, A_2 of functions thereon, we show that a map {σ : {S}_1 \\longrightarrow {S}_2} can be lifted to a continuous map \\barσ : spec A_1 \\longrightarrow spec A_2 iff σ^\\ast A_2 := σ^\\ast f | f \\in A_2 \\subseteq A_1. Moreover, \\bar σ is unique if existing, and injective iff σ^\\ast A_2 is dense. Then, we apply these results to loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology. For all usual technical conventions, we decide whether the cosmological quantum configuration space is embedded into the gravitational one; indeed, both are spectra of some C *-algebras, say, A_cosm and A_grav, respectively. Typically, there is no embedding, but one can always get an embedding by the defining A_cosm := C^\\ast(σ^\\ast A_grav), where {σ} denotes the embedding between the classical configuration spaces. Finally, we explicitly determine {C^\\ast(σ^\\ast A_grav) in the homogeneous isotropic case for A_grav generated by the matrix functions of parallel transports along analytic paths. The cosmological quantum configuration space so equals the disjoint union of R and the Bohr compactification of R, appropriately glued together.

  13. Absolute Hydration Free Energy of Proton from First Principles Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute hydration free energy of the proton, DGhyd298(H+), is one of the fundamental quantities for the thermodynamics of aqueous systems. Its exact value remains unknown despite extensive experimental and computational efforts. We report a first-principles determination of DGhyd298(H+) by using the latest developments in electronic structure theory and massively parallel computers. DGhyd298(H+) is accurately predicted to be -262.4 kcal/mol based on high-level, first-principles solvation-included electronic structure calculations. The absolute hydration free energies of other cations can be obtained by using appropriate available thermodynamic data in combination with this value. The high accuracy of the predicted absolute hydration free energy of proton is confirmed by applying the same protocol to predict DGhyd298(Li+)

  14. The Absolute Deviation Rank Diagnostic Approach to Gear Tooth Composite Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of the different degree with single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, a method for the diagnosis of absolute deviation of gear faults is presented. The method uses ADAMS, respectively, set-up dynamics model of single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, to obtain the result of different degree of broken teeth, pitting the single fault and compound faults in the meshing frequency, and the amplitude frequency doubling through simulating analysis. Through the comparison with the normal state to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the fault, the absolute value deviation diagnostic approach is used to identify the fault and validate it through experiments. The results show that absolute deviation rank diagnostic approach can realize the recognition of gear single faults and compound faults with different degrees and provide quick reference to determine the degree of gear fault.

  15. Stereochemistry of Endogenous Palmitic Acid Ester of 9-Hydroxystearic Acid and Relevance of Absolute Configuration to Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Kolar, Matthew J; Chu, Qian; Syed, Ismail; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan; Siegel, Dionicio

    2017-04-05

    Lipids have fundamental roles in the structure, energetics, and signaling of cells and organisms. The recent discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), lipids with potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicates that our understanding of the composition of lipidome and the function of lipids is incomplete. The ability to synthesize and test FAHFAs was critical in elucidating the roles of these lipids, but these studies were performed with racemic mixtures, and the role of stereochemistry remains unexplored. Here, we synthesized the R- and S- palmitic acid ester of 9-hydroxystearic acid (R-9-PAHSA, S-9-PAHSA). Access to highly enantioenriched PAHSAs enabled the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to separate and quantify R- and S-9-PAHSA, and this approach identified R-9-PAHSA as the predominant stereoisomer that accumulates in adipose tissues from transgenic mice where FAHFAs were first discovered. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of 9-PAHSA biosynthesis and degradation indicate that the enzymes and pathways for PAHSA production are stereospecific, with cell lines favoring the production of R-9-PAHSA and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a PAHSA degradative enzyme, selectively hydrolyzing S-9-PAHSA. These studies highlight the role of stereochemistry in the production and degradation of PAHSAs and define the endogenous stereochemistry of 9-PAHSA in adipose tissue. This information will be useful in the identification and characterization of the pathway responsible for PAHSA biosynthesis, and access to enantiopure PAHSAs will elucidate the role of stereochemistry in PAHSA activity and metabolism in vivo.

  16. Absolute tense forms in Tswana | Pretorius | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These views were compared in an attempt to put forth an applicable framework for the classification of the tenses in Tswana and to identify the absolute tenses of Tswana. Keywords: tense; simple tenses; compound tenses; absolute tenses; relative tenses; aspect; auxiliary verbs; auxiliary verbal groups; Tswana Opsomming

  17. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.J.; Oosterbeek, J.W.

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of

  18. Absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Science Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has in use a system of absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Basically, absolute INAA is dependent upon the absolute measurement of the disintegration rates of the nuclides produced by neutron capture. From such disintegration rate data, the amount of the target element present in the irradiated sample is calculated by dividing the observed disintegration rate for each nuclide by the expected value for the disintegration rate per microgram of the target element that produced the nuclide. In absolute INAA, the expected value for disintegration rate per microgram is calculated from nuclear parameters and from measured values of both thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes which were present during irradiation. Absolute INAA does not depend on the concurrent irradiation of elemental standards but does depend on the values for thermal and epithermal neutron capture cross-sections for the target nuclides. A description of the analytical method is presented

  19. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  20. Genomic DNA-based absolute quantification of gene expression in Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Gregory A; McElrone, Andrew J; Matthews, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Many studies in which gene expression is quantified by polymerase chain reaction represent the expression of a gene of interest (GOI) relative to that of a reference gene (RG). Relative expression is founded on the assumptions that RG expression is stable across samples, treatments, organs, etc., and that reaction efficiencies of the GOI and RG are equal; assumptions which are often faulty. The true variability in RG expression and actual reaction efficiencies are seldom determined experimentally. Here we present a rapid and robust method for absolute quantification of expression in Vitis where varying concentrations of genomic DNA were used to construct GOI standard curves. This methodology was utilized to absolutely quantify and determine the variability of the previously validated RG ubiquitin (VvUbi) across three test studies in three different tissues (roots, leaves and berries). In addition, in each study a GOI was absolutely quantified. Data sets resulting from relative and absolute methods of quantification were compared and the differences were striking. VvUbi expression was significantly different in magnitude between test studies and variable among individual samples. Absolute quantification consistently reduced the coefficients of variation of the GOIs by more than half, often resulting in differences in statistical significance and in some cases even changing the fundamental nature of the result. Utilizing genomic DNA-based absolute quantification is fast and efficient. Through eliminating error introduced by assuming RG stability and equal reaction efficiencies between the RG and GOI this methodology produces less variation, increased accuracy and greater statistical power. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Magnetocrystalline and configurational anisotropies in Fe nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavassori, P.; Bisero, D.; Carace, F.; Liberati, M.; Di Bona, A.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Valeri, S.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of single-crystal Fe micron and submicron squares and disks, have been fabricated using a focused ion beam apparatus from a film epitaxially grown on MgO. The hysteresis loops of the patterned areas differ from those of the continuous film as a consequence of the different reversal determined by the lateral confinement of the Fe film. By means of modulated field magneto-optical anisometry measurements we studied the symmetry and the strength of the overall anisotropy. For the smaller square elements we observed a higher-order term in the overall anisotropy with eightfold symmetry arising from the configurational contribution

  2. Development of Methods and Means of Configuration Data Transfer For Use in an FPGA Based Trigger Controller Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  3. Absolute measurement of neutron fluxes inside the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, S. V.

    1964-10-01

    The subject of this work is the development and study of two methods of neutron measurements in nuclear reactors, the new method of high neutron flux measurements and the Li 6 -semiconductor neutron spectrometer. This work is presented in four sections: Section I. The introduction explains the need for neutron measurements in reactors. A critical survey is given of the existing methods of high neutron flux measurement and methods of fast neutron spectrum determination. Section II. Theoretical basis of the work of semiconductor counters and their most important characteristics are given. Section III. The main point of this section is in presenting the basis of the new method which the author developed, i.e., the long-tube method, and the results obtained by it, with particular emphasis on absolute measurement of high neutron fluxes. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed in details at the end of this section. Section IV. A comparison of the existing semiconductor neutron spectrometers is made and their advantages and shortcomings underlined. A critical analysis of the obtained results with the Li 6 -semiconductor spectrometer with plane geometry is given. A new type of Li 6 -semiconductor spectrometer is described, its characteristics experimentally determined, and a comparison of it with a classical Li 6 -spectrometer made (author)

  4. Absolute measurement of neutron fluxes inside the reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajdacic, S V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-10-15

    The subject of this work is the development and study of two methods of neutron measurements in nuclear reactors, the new method of high neutron flux measurements and the Li{sup 6}-semiconductor neutron spectrometer. This work is presented in four sections: Section I. The introduction explains the need for neutron measurements in reactors. A critical survey is given of the existing methods of high neutron flux measurement and methods of fast neutron spectrum determination. Section II. Theoretical basis of the work of semiconductor counters and their most important characteristics are given. Section III. The main point of this section is in presenting the basis of the new method which the author developed, i.e., the long-tube method, and the results obtained by it, with particular emphasis on absolute measurement of high neutron fluxes. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed in details at the end of this section. Section IV. A comparison of the existing semiconductor neutron spectrometers is made and their advantages and shortcomings underlined. A critical analysis of the obtained results with the Li{sup 6}-semiconductor spectrometer with plane geometry is given. A new type of Li{sup 6}-semiconductor spectrometer is described, its characteristics experimentally determined, and a comparison of it with a classical Li{sup 6}-spectrometer made (author)

  5. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  6. Configuring Symantec AntiVirus

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This is the only book that will teach system administrators how to configure, deploy, and troubleshoot Symantec Enterprise Edition in an enterprise network. The book will reflect Symantec''s philosophy of "Centralized Antivirus Management." For the same reasons that Symantec bundled together these previously separate products, the book will provide system administrators with a holistic approach to defending their networks from malicious viruses. This book will also serve as a Study Guide for those pursuing Symantec Product Specialist Certifications.Configuring Symantec AntiVirus Enterprise Edition contains step-by-step instructions on how to Design, implement and leverage the Symantec Suite of products in the enterprise.ØFirst book published on market leading product and fast-growing certification. Despite the popularity of Symantec''s products and Symantec Product Specialist certifications, there are no other books published or announced.ØLess expensive substitute for costly on-sight training. Symantec off...

  7. Snowflake Divertor Configuration in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Ahn, Joonwook; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, R.J.; McLean, Adam G.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Scott, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel 'snowflake' divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  8. 'Snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.M.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Scott, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel 'snowflake' divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  9. "Snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J. E.; Mueller, D. M.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryutov, D. D.; Scott, H. A.

    2011-08-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel "snowflake" divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  10. Automatic creation of simulation configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, G.; Poizat, F.

    1993-01-01

    SIPA, which stands for 'Simulator for Post Accident', includes: 1) a sophisticated software oriented workshop SWORD (which stands for 'Software Workshop Oriented towards Research and Development') designed in the ADA language including integrated CAD system and software tools for automatic generation of simulation software and man-machine interface in order to operate run-time simulation; 2) a 'simulator structure' based on hardware equipment and software for supervision and communications; 3) simulation configuration generated by SWORD, operated under the control of the 'simulator structure' and run on a target computer. SWORD has already been used to generate two simulation configurations (French 900 MW and 1300 MW nuclear power plants), which are now fully operational on the SIPA training simulator. (Z.S.) 1 ref

  11. Exploration of Configuration Options for a Large Civil Compound Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Multiple compound helicopter configurations are designed using a combination of rotorcraft sizing and comprehensive analysis codes. Results from both the conceptual design phase and rotor comprehensive analysis are presented. The designs are evaluated for their suitability to a short-to-medium-haul civil transport mission carrying a payload of 90 passengers. Multiple metrics are used to determine the best configuration, with heavy emphasis placed on minimizing fuel burn.

  12. Foreign Investment and International Plant Configuration: Whither the Product Cycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos,René; Sleuwaegen,Leo

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of the decision to invest abroad in particular configurations of overseas plants for 120 Japanese firms active in 36 well-defined electronic product markets. We find support for a structured internationalization decision model in which the decision to produce abroad and the choice for a specific international plant configuration are treated as nested strategic options. Drivers at the industry and firm level push firms to consider overseas investment, and locational...

  13. Energy analysis of thermal energy storages with grid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid configurations of TESs are developed and assessed. • Characteristics of various configurations of TESs are developed as functions of properties. • Functions for the discharge temperature and the discharge energy of the TES are developed. - Abstract: In some thermal networks like district energy systems, there can exist conditions, depending on space availability, economics, project requirements, insulation, storing media type and other issues, for which it may be advantageous to utilize several thermal energy storages (TESs) instead of one. Here, various configurations for multiple TESs are proposed and investigated. Significant parameters for a TES, or a set of TESs, include discharging temperature and recovered energy. First, one TES is modeled to determine the final temperature, energy recovery, and energy efficiency. Next, characteristics for various grid configurations of multiple TESs are developed as functions of TES characteristics (e.g., charging and discharging temperatures and energy quantities). Series, parallel and comprehensive grid TES configurations are considered. In the parallel configuration, the TESs behave independently. This suggests that the TES can consist of different storage media types and sizes, and that there is no restriction on initial temperature of the TES. In the series configuration, the situation is different because the TESs are connected directly or indirectly through a heat exchanger. If there is no heat exchanger between the TESs, the TES storage media should be the same, because the outlet of one TES in the series is the inlet to the next. The initial temperature of the second TES must be smaller than the discharge temperature of the first. There is no restriction on the TES size for series configurations. The general grid configuration is observed to exhibit characteristics of both series and parallel configurations

  14. Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that guides you through the key steps in implementing best solutions for high availability and performance tuning. It is split into two distinct approaches: client and site side HA and optimization.Microsoft SCCM High Availability and Performance Tuning is for IT professionals and consultants working with Configuration Manager who wish to learn the skills to deploy a redundant and scalable solution.

  15. Safe Configuration of TLS Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    comparison with observed flows to flag inconsistencies. Keywords: Transport Layer Security ( TLS ), Secure Socket Layer ( SSL ), configuration, secure...servers. SSL / TLS has evolved over 18 years from SSL 1.0 to TLS 1.2 and has been widely deployed and accepted across Internet servers. This has made...and provides a large-scale view of TLS properties across Internet web sites. The guidance provided in [10] describes best practices for SSL / TLS

  16. Theory of field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This final report surveys the results of work conducted on the theory of field reversed configurations. This project has spanned ten years, beginning in early 1980. During this period, Spectra Technology was one of the leading contributors to the advances in understanding FRC. The report is organized into technical topic areas, FRC formation, equilibrium, stability, and transport. Included as an appendix are papers published in archival journals that were generated in the course of this report. 33 refs

  17. Drupal 7 Multi Sites Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Follow the creation of a multi-site instance with Drupal. The practical examples and accompanying screenshots will help you to get multiple Drupal sites set up in no time. This book is for Drupal site builders. It is assumed that readers are familiar with Drupal already, with a basic grasp of its concepts and components. System administration concepts, such as configuring Apache, MySQL, and Vagrant are covered but no previous knowledge of these tools is required.

  18. An automated LS(β)- NaI(Tl)(γ) coincidence system as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leena; Das, A P; Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D B; Kulkarni, M S

    2018-07-01

    4πβ-γ coincidence method is a powerful and widely used method to determine the absolute activity concentration of radioactive solutions. A new automated liquid scintillator based coincidence system has been designed, developed, tested and established as absolute standard for radioactivity measurements. The automation is achieved using PLC (programmable logic controller) and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition). Radioactive solution of 60 Co was standardized to compare the performance of the automated system with proportional counter based absolute standard maintained in the laboratory. The activity concentrations determined using these two systems were in very good agreement; the new automated system can be used for absolute measurement of activity concentration of radioactive solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  20. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  1. Low emittance configuration for spear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Harris, J.; Stege, R.; Cerino, J.; Hettel, R.; Hofmann, A.; Liu, R.Z.; Wiedemann, H.; Winick, H.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of synchrotron radiation beams from SPEAR, in particular the brilliance of undulator radiation, can be improved significantly by reducing the emittance of the stored electron beam. A reduction of the horizontal emittance by a factor of 3.5 to a value of 130 nanometer-radians (nm-r) at 3 GeV has been achieved by using stronger focussing, mainly in the horizontal plane. The low emittance configuration also reduces the dispersion and vertical beta functions in the straight sections, making them more suitable for wigglers. The higher betatron tunes lead to a larger phase advance between the two kickers, which has to be corrected during injection by shunting current from some quadrupoles. The configuration was optimized within SPEAR hardware limitations and tested for dynamic aperture with the tracking program PATRICIA. After implementation of this scheme, beam was successfully injected and accumulated. The measured emittance of the stored beam was in agreement with calculations. Presently the configuration is being made operational

  2. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  3. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dong, Subo [Institute for Advanced Study, 500 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  4. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  5. Absolute measurement of the $\\beta\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{16}$N at ISOLDE with the aim of determining the branching ratio for $\\beta\\alpha$ decay on an absolute scale. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty. This limits the precision with which the S-factor of the astrophysically important $^{12}$C($\\alpha, \\gamma)^{16}$O reaction can be determined.

  6. Absolute measurement of alkaline atoms in low density jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.; Guernigou, J.

    1974-01-01

    In order to determine the neutral fraction of cesium vapor which is not ionized in the beam issuing from an ion thruster, a particular sensor was developed at ONERA. This probe, the sensibility of which is 6 10 7 atoms sec -1 was used in order to measure the variation of cesium atom flux ejected from a spherical isothermal cavity. Experiments were performed in three flow conditions caracterized by the ratio of the mean free path to the dimension of the orifice or to the diameter of the cavity. Results demonstrate that it is possible in this configuration to obtain an efflux of 5 10 13 atoms sec -1 in accordance to cosine law when the mean free path is about the diameter of the spherical cavity [fr

  7. NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This presentation will cover the electrical configuration testing of the TDU-1 HERMeS Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined are the thruster body tied to facility ground, thruster floating, and finally the thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The TDU-1 HERMeS was configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.

  8. Absolute counting of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is radiopharmaceutical that belongs to the group of strong beta-weak gamma emitters. It emits high energy beta particles, (E β m ax = 2.12MeV) and weak gamma rays (E γ = 155 keV) hence makes it suitable for wide variety of therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications. Therapeutic applications include therapy of tumors, radionuclide synovectomy, bone pain palliation, intra vascular radiation therapy etc. 188 Re-labeled medicines have been employed increasingly in the therapy of tumors and vascular restenosis. To ensure that patient receives the appropriate radiation dose during the treatment, both the activity standardization and the determination of sensitivity coefficient of the secondary standard for 188 Re have become important tasks. This paper presents the methods and results obtained for the following measurements a) Standardisation of the 188 Re by using the 4π proportional counter (4πPC)-gamma extrapolation method b) Determination of sensitivity coefficient (pA/MBq) of the secondary standard ionization chamber type Centronic IG12, 20A for 188 Re

  9. Estimation of Cumulative Absolute Velocity using Empirical Green's Function Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Hee; Yun, Kwan Hee; Chang, Chun Joong; Park, Se Moon

    2009-01-01

    In recognition of the needs to develop a new criterion for determining when the OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake) has been exceeded at nuclear power plants, Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) was introduced by EPRI. The concept of CAV is the area accumulation with the values more than 0.025g occurred during every one second. The equation of the CAV is as follows. CAV = ∫ 0 max |a(t)|dt (1) t max = duration of record, a(t) = acceleration (>0.025g) Currently, the OBE exceedance criteria in Korea is Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA, PGA>0.1g). When Odesan earthquake (M L =4.8, January 20th, 2007) and Gyeongju earthquake (M L =3.4, June 2nd, 1999) were occurred, we have had already experiences of PGA greater than 0.1g that did not even cause any damage to the poorly-designed structures nearby. This moderate earthquake has motivated Korea to begin the use of the CAV for OBE exceedance criteria for NPPs. Because the present OBE level has proved itself to be a poor indicator for small-to-moderate earthquakes, for which the low OBE level can cause an inappropriate shut down the plant. A more serious possibility is that this scenario will become a reality at a very high level. Empirical Green's Function method was a simulation technique which can estimate the CAV value and it is hereby introduced

  10. ATLAS ALFA—measuring absolute luminosity with scintillating fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, S

    2009-01-01

    ALFA is a high-precision scintillating fibre tracking detector under construction for the absolute determination of the LHC luminosity at the ATLAS interaction point. This detector, mounted in so-called Roman Pots, will track protons elastically scattered under μrad angles at IP1.In total there are four pairs of vertically arranged detector modules which approach the LHC beam axis to mm distance. Each detector module consists of ten layers of two times 64 scintillating fibres each (U and V planes). The fibres are coupled to 64 channels Multi-Anodes PhotoMultipliers Tubes read out by compact front-end electronics. Each detector module is complemented by so-called overlap detectors: Three layers of two times 30 scintillating fibres which will be used to measure the relative positioning of two vertically arranged main detectors. The total number of channels is about 15000. Conventional plastic scintillator tiles are mounted in front of the fibre detectors and will serve as trigger counter. The extremely restric...

  11. Transport modelling for ergodic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runov, A.; Kasilov, S.V.; McTaggart, N.; Schneider, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zagorski, R.; Reiter, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ergodization, either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X, defines the need for transport models that are able to describe the ergodic configuration properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the appropriate full metric tensor has to be known. To study the transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) two possible methods are used. First, a finite-difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates is used. This grid is generated by field-line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (thus also minimizing the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are then interpolated in a plane (a toroidal cut), where the interpolation problem for a quasi-isotropic system has to be solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (keeping the structural information for magnetic surfaces if they exist) and discretization. All toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. Second, a Monte Carlo transport model originally developed for the modelling of the DED configuration of TEXTOR is used. A generalization and extension of this model was necessary to be able to handle W7-X. The model solves the transport equations with Monte Carlo techniques making use of mappings of local magnetic coordinates. The application of this technique to W7-X in a limiter-like configuration is presented. The decreasing dominance of parallel transport with respect to radial transport for electron heat, ion heat and particle transport results in increasingly steep profiles for the respective quantities within the islands. (author)

  12. Determinacion de la configuracion E-Z de los acidos Fumarico y Maleico. Un experimento orientado a incentivar el desarrollo de la investigacion cientifica en alumnos de Pregrado Determination of the E-Z fumaric and maleic acids configuration. An experiment designed to develop scientific research abilities in undergraduates students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we intend to eliminate the idea that laboratory exercises seem like cookbooks. That is, exercises shall be presented as a problematic situation. Based on observation and experimentation, the students should determine the E-Z configuration of maleic and fumaric acids. The basis of this laboratory exercise is the acid-catalyzed isomerization of maleic acid to fumaric acid. Students are given the starting material, reagents and the experimental procedure. They are told that the starting material is a dicarboxylic acid containing a C=C double bond of formula C4H4O4. Students determine melting points, solubilities, acidity and chromatographic patterns for both the starting material and the product, so that a configuration of each acid can be proposed. This type of experiment yields excellent results, because the students are left to deduce that maleic acid is less stable than fumaric acid. Additionally, they conclude that maleic acid is the "Z" isomer and fumaric acid is the "E" isomer. Finally, this laboratory exercise allows the students to develop simultaneously their critical-thinking skills with the respective laboratory techniques and not to see chemistry as recipes to be followed.

  13. Variable configuration plasmas in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Hofmann, F.; Anton, M.

    1994-01-01

    During its first year of operation, TCV has achieved a wide variety of plasma shapes, limited and diverted, attaining 810 kA plasma current and elongation over 2.0. Ohmic H-Modes have been regularly produced, with a maximum confinement time of 80 msec and maximum normalised β N of 1.9. The conditions for the H-Mode transition differ from other experiments. The transitions from ELM-free to ELMy H-Modes and back have been selectively triggered for configurations close to a Double-Null. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs

  14. Variable configuration plasmas in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Hofmann, F.; Anton, M.

    1995-01-01

    During its first year of operation, TCV has achieved a wide variety of plasma shapes, limited and diverted, attaining 810 kA plasma current and elongation over 2.0. Ohmic H modes have been regularly produced, with a maximum confinement time of 80 ms and a maximum normalized β N of 1.9. The conditions for the H mode transition differ from other experiments. The transitions from ELM free to ELMy H modes and back have been selectively triggered for configurations close to a double-null. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  15. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  16. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  17. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  18. VISIONS FOR FOOTWEAR TIP SHAPE ACCORDING TO THE CONFIGURATION FINGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCOCI Marina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Compatibility between the consumer and the interior leg permanent footwear raises a number of issues. And any new form of footwear is time for a new silhouette last. Fashion is a factor in determining the shape of the last significant role. The most important influence on fashion in footwear that has at one time is found in peak shape. During registered a variety of forms leading to the last, for example, pointed, oval, round, square, asymmetrical, curved, trapezoidal, etc. Each has added a tip top recommended. The paper analyzes the morphofunctional characteristic, namely, finger configuration. The configuration of the fingers is determined from the positions of all the fingers of one another, as are six variants. Analysis of the shape and configuration of the arm fingers allow us to make the following recommendations to consumers: people showing finger configuration as in variant V and VI are advised not to wear pointy shoes because of the limited movement of the foot, which favors the diversion finger I exterior and deformed finger V; persons who fall within I-IV variant can procure pointy shoes; a round-tipped shoes, square, curved or asymmetric may be purchased by any consumer regardless of the configuration of the fingers; shoes with cut edge must be present only in garderopa people in variant I and II; consumers whose configuration is like finger-VI and III variants are awkwardly shaped fingers can buy shoes closed in the previous summer, but of different perforations or overlapping strips.

  19. Example of software configuration management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.

    2006-01-01

    Software configuration management is the mechanism used to track and control software changes and may include the following actions: A tracking system should be established for any changes made to the existing software configuration. Requirement of the configuration management system are the following: - Backup the different software configuration; - Record the details (the date, the subject, the filenames, the supporting documents, the tests, ...) of the changes introduced in the new configuration; - Document all the differences between the different versions. Configuration management allows simultaneous exploitation of one specific version and development of the next version. Minor correction can be perform in the current exploitation version

  20. District Heating Network Design and Configuration Optimization with Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the configuration of a district heating network which connects from the heating plant to the end users is optimized. Each end user in the network represents a building block. The connections between the heat generation plant and the end users are represented with mixed integer...... and the pipe friction and heat loss formulations are non-linear. In order to find the optimal district heating network configuration, genetic algorithm which handles the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem is chosen. The network configuration is represented with binary and integer encoding...... and it is optimized in terms of the net present cost. The optimization results indicates that the optimal DH network configuration is determined by multiple factors such as the consumer heating load, the distance between the heating plant to the consumer, the design criteria regarding the pressure and temperature...