WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute beginners a1

  1. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  2. Objective-C for Absolute Beginners iPhone and Mac Programming Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Gary; Fisher, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    It seems as if everyone is writing applications for Apple's iPhone and iPad, but how do they all do it? It's best to learn Objective-C, the native language of both the iOS and Mac OS X, but where to begin? Right here, even if you've never programmed before! Objective-C for Absolute Beginners will teach you how to write software for your Mac, iPhone,or iPad using Objective-C, an elegant and powerful language with a rich set of developer tools. Using a hands-on approach, you'll learn to think in programming terms, how to use Objective-C to build program logic, and how to write your own applicati

  3. Mac Programming for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Want to learn how to program on your Mac? Not sure where to begin? Best-selling author Wallace Wang will explain how to get started with Cocoa, Objective-C, and Xcode. Whether you are an experienced Windows coder moving to the Mac, or you are completely new to programming, you'll see how the basic design of a Mac OS X program works, how Objective-C differs from other languages you may have used, and how to use the Xcode development environment. Most importantly, you'll learn how to use elements of the Cocoa framework to create windows, store data, and respond to users in your own Mac programs.

  4. Python 3 for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Tim

    2009-01-01

    There are many more people who want to study programming other than aspiring computer scientists with a passing grade in advanced calculus. This guide appeals to your intelligence and ability to solve practical problems, while gently teaching the most recent revision of the programming language Python. You can learn solid software design skills and accomplish practical programming tasks, like extending applications and automating everyday processes, even if you have no programming experience at all. Authors Tim Hall and J-P Stacey use everyday language to decode programming jargon and teach Py

  5. Irrlicht 17 Realtime 3D Engine Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    A beginner's guide with plenty of screenshots and explained code. If you have C++ skills and are interested in learning Irrlicht, this book is for you. Absolutely no knowledge of Irrlicht is necessary for you to follow this book!

  6. JavaScript for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    McNavage, T

    2010-01-01

    If you are new to both JavaScript and programming, this hands-on book is for you. Rather than staring blankly at gobbledygook, you'll explore JavaScript by entering and running hundreds of code samples in Firebug, a free JavaScript debugger. Then in the last two chapters, you'll leave the safety of Firebug and hand-code an uber cool JavaScript application in your preferred text editor. Written in a friendly, engaging narrative style, this innovative JavaScript tutorial covers the following essentials: * Core JavaScript syntax, such as value types, operators, expressions, and statements provide

  7. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  8. Liferay Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Robert; Bhatt, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter follows the creation of a fictional neighbourhood site to demonstrate an aspect of Liferay portal with practical examples, screenshots, and step-by-step instructions. All you need in order to benefit from the Liferay Beginner's Guide is programming experience. No prior knowledge of Liferay is required, although experienced Liferay portal programmers who need to get up to speed with its latest features will also find this book useful.

  9. Joomla! 25 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Written with a fast-paced but friendly and engaging approach, this Packt Beginner's guide is designed to be placed alongside the computer as your guide and mentor. Step-by-step tutorials are bolstered by explanations of the reasoning behind what you are doing. You will quickly pick up the necessary skills, tips, and tricks for building a successful Joomla! website. This book is written for beginners to website design. By the end of the book you will have built a complete custom content managed website, and be ready to build any kind of website.

  10. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  11. JBoss ESB Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    DiMaggio, Len; Magesh, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter contains practical examples with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots to guide you through the implementation of JBoss ESB. This book is intended for Java programmers although you don't need previous experience with middleware such as application servers or ESBs.

  12. concrete5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laubacher, Remo

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series. You will be guided through the set up of a Concrete5 site with step-by-step practical examples. This book is ideal for developers who would like to build their first site with Concrete5. Some k

  13. Nuclear power for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croall, S.; Sempler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Witty, critically, and with expert knowledge, 'Atomic power for beginners' describes the development of nuclear power for military purposes and its 'peaceful uses' against the will of the population. Atomic power, the civil baby of the bomb is not only a danger to our lives - it is enemy to all life as all hard technologies are on which economic systems preoccupied with growth put their hopes. Therefore, 'Atomic power for beginners' does not stop at nuclear engineering but proceeds to investigate its consequences, nationally and with a view to the Third World. And since the consequences are so fatal and it is not enough to say no to nuclear power, it gives some thoughts to a better future - with soft technology and alternative production. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  14. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  15. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  16. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  17. Joomla! 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An easy to use, step-by-step guide to creating professional, mobile-friendly websites with the free Joomla CMS. The Joomla! 3 Beginner's Guide Second Edition is the ultimate guide for web developers who wish to build upon their skills and knowledge on creating websites. Even if you're new to this subject, you won't have any difficulty understanding the clear and friendly instructions and explanations. No prior knowledge of HTML and CSS is required.

  18. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette Kolding

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. DESIGN: A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. METHODS: Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individua...

  19. Android NDK Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ratabouil, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    This beginner's guide focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also see how to avoid some common pitfalls. Are you an Android Java programmer who needs more performance? Are you a C/C++ developer who doesn't want to bother with Java stuff and its out-of-control garbage collector? Do you want to create fast intensive multimedia applications or games? Answer yes to any of the above and this book is for you. With some general knowledge of C/C++ development, you will be able to dive head first into native Android development.

  20. qooxdoo Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Raffi, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt beginner's guide. The unique style of the book is to set the requirements for an application, Team Twitter, in the first chapter and apply the concepts in the application as you learn in the following chapters. When you complete this book, you would have developed a complete application. Although the scope of this book is only on the Qooxdoo framework, which is a client side framework, we have explained how to set up one of the RPC servers and demonstrated the end to end application in the Team Twitter. This book is intended for the client side developers who design and develop

  1. Stochastic cooling for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehl, D.

    1984-01-01

    These two lectures have been prepared to give a simple introduction to the principles. In Part I we try to explain stochastic cooling using the time-domain picture which starts from the pulse response of the system. In Part II the discussion is repeated, looking more closely at the frequency-domain response. An attempt is made to familiarize the beginners with some of the elementary cooling equations, from the 'single particle case' up to equations which describe the evolution of the particle distribution. (orig.)

  2. CFEngine 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rajneesh

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book guides you through setting up Cfengine to maximizing its potential. This book focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also learn how to avoid some common pitfalls. If you are a System Administrator or Configuration manager with a growing infrastructure and if you are looking for a dependable tool to manage your infrastructure, then this book is for you. If your infrastructure is already big with hundreds and thousands of nodes and you are looking for a secure, versatile and stable configu

  3. Astronomy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Becan, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy For Beginners is a friendly and accessible guide to our universe, our galaxy, our solar system and the planet we call home. Each year as we cruise through space on this tiny blue-green wonder, a number of amazing and remarkable events occur. For example, like clockwork, we'll run head-on into asteroid and cometary debris that spreads shooting stars across our skies. On occasion, we'll get to watch the disk of the Moon passing the Sun, casting its shadow on the face of the Earth, and sometimes we'll get to watch our own shadow as it glides across the face of the Moon. The Sun's path w

  4. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  5. Manga studio 5 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Using a step-by-step approach, this book will lead you through the process of building up complex, multi-page comic/Manga art, along with industry insights along the way. ""Manga Studio Beginner's Guide"" is for beginners in comic creation. The more you know about how comics are made, the better you will be, but it's not essential to get the most out of this book. Even if you're a professional comic artist, this book will get you up to speed on using Manga Studio 5.

  6. Interesting Instruction of Programming for Beginners

    OpenAIRE

    横井, 仁史; Hitoshi, YOKOI; 聖徳学園女子短期大学; Shotoku Gakuen Women's Junior Collge

    1994-01-01

    Programming needs logoical thinking as mathematics. But I have an experience that I insturucted Programming for beginners as mathematics, then most of students did not like Prgramming. Interesting Insturuction for example to make pictures and games in computer fits for beginners. So I show Interesting Insturuction of programming for beginners in SHOTOKU Juior College.

  7. TestNG beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Varun

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a friendly, beginner's guide style with plenty of step-by-step instructions with appropriate examples.This book is great for developers and testers who are new to TestNg and want to learn how to use TestNG for writing their application as well as functional tests. This book assumes that you have experience in Java and OOPs concepts and have worked with certain IDE.

  8. GeoServer beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Youngblood, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions are included and the needs of a beginner are totally satisfied by the book. The book consists of plenty of examples with accompanying screenshots and code for an easy learning curve. You are a web developer with knowledge of server side scripting, and have experience with installing applications on the server. You have a desire to want more than Google maps, by offering dynamically built maps on your site with your latest geospatial data stored in MySQL, PostGIS, MsSQL or Oracle. If this is the case, this book is meant for you.

  9. Android 30 Animations Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Written in Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book takes a step-by-step approach with each chapter made up of three to five tutorials that introduce and explain different animation concepts. All concepts are explained with real-world examples that are fun to read and work with. If you are familiar with developing Android applications and want to bring your apps to life by adding smashing animations, then this book is for you. The book assumes that you are comfortable with Java development and have familiarity with creating Android Views in XML and Java. The tutorials assume that you will wa

  10. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  11. Transforming beginner teacher mentoring interventions for social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transforming beginner teacher mentoring interventions for social reform. ... for developing scholarship of teaching, as it is aligned with the role of scholar and ... Keywords: Action research; learning styles; mentoring practice; professional ...

  12. Using Reciprocal Peer Teaching to Develop Learner Autonomy: An Action Research Project with a Beginners' Chinese Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiming; Devitt, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Peer teaching has been used as a mechanism for promoting learner autonomy in a range of language learning contexts. This article explores how absolute beginners in a Chinese class can engage in reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) from the start of their language learning experience and how this contributes to the development of their autonomy as…

  13. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  14. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  15. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can

  16. Python 3 Web Development Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide Series, this book follows a sample application, with lots of screenshots, to help you get to grips with the techniques as quickly as possible. Moderately experienced Python programmers who want to learn how to create fairly complex, database-driven, cross browser compatible web apps that are maintainable and look good will find this book of most use. All key technologies except for Python 3 are explained in detail.

  17. RavenDB 2.x beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tannir, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions and examples that are designed to help you get started with RavenDB. If you are a .NET developer, new to document-oriented databases, and you wish to learn how to build applications using NoSQL databases, then this book is for you. Experience with relational database systems will be helpful, but not necessary.

  18. Visual media processing using Matlab beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Siogkas, George

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, Beginner's Guide format, showing the user how to use the digital media aspects of Matlab (image, video, sound) in a practical, tutorial-based style.This is great for novice programmers in any language who would like to use Matlab as a tool for their image and video processing needs, and also comes in handy for photographers or video editors with even less programming experience wanting to find an all-in-one tool for their tasks.

  19. A New Approach to Programming Language Education for Beginners with Top-Down Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Saito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper applies a top-down approach for a beginners who has not yet acquired any programming languages.

  20. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Colloquial French: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to French as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in French in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial French is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range

  1. iAd Production Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This beginner's guide focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also see how to avoid some common pitfalls. This book is for brands, advertisers and developers who want to create compelling, emotive, iAd advertisements that generate revenue and increase brand awareness. You don't need previous experience of creating adverts or apps for iPhone and iPad, as you'll be taken through the entire process to make motion-rich, beautiful ads.

  2. Eclipse plugin development by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A Beginner's Guide following the ""by Example"" approach. There will be 5-8 major examples that will be used in the book to develop advanced plugins with the Eclipse IDE.This book is for Java developers who are familiar with Eclipse as a Java IDE and are interested in learning how to develop plug-ins for Eclipse. No prior knowledge of Eclipse plug-in development or OSGi is necessary, although you are expected to know how to create, run, and debug Java programs in Eclipse.

  3. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  4. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: CHF 702 Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  5. Language Training: French course for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. A French course for beginners (level 0) will take place from 12 July to 27 August. Timetable: not yet fixed Duration: 54 hours / 2 hours a day Price: 702 SF Please enrol as soon as possible through the Web: http://cern.ch/Training FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  6. jQuery for designers beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    MacLees, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that spices up your web pages and designs them in the way you want using the most widely used JavaScript library, jQuery. The beginner-friendly and easy-to-understand approach of the book will help get to grips with jQuery in no time. If you know the fundamentals of HTML and CSS, and want to extend your knowledge by learning to use JavaScript, then this is just the book for you. jQuery makes JavaScript straightforward and approachable - you'll be surprised at how easy it can be to add animations and special effects to your beautifully designed pages.

  7. Relativity and quantum physics for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Manly, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    As we humans have expanded our horizons to see things vastly smaller, faster, larger, and farther than ever before, we have been forced to confront preconceptions born of the human experience and create wholly new ways of looking at the world around us. The theories of relativity and quantum physics were developed out of this need and have provided us with phenomenal, mind-twisting insights into the strange and exciting reality show of our universe.Relativity and Quantum Physics For Beginners is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the bizarre concepts that fueled the scientific revolution of the 20th century and led to amazing advances in our understanding of the universe.

  8. Review: Ways of teaching struggling reading students, and beginners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Ways of teaching struggling reading students, and beginners. ... International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Beginner teacher professional development: An action research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanya

    beginner teacher taking part in an 'education sink or swim gala' be empowered to help transform society? Society in the .... greatest challenges that were perceived then and are still present ..... mentees 1, 4 and 5 have a triple dominant profile,.

  10. iPhone and iPad apps for absolute beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rory

    2013-01-01

    So how do you build an application for the iPhone and iPad? Don't you need to spend years learning complicated programming languages? What about Objective-C and Cocoa touch? The answer is that you don't need to know any of those things! Anybody can start building simple apps for the iPhone and iPad, and this book will show you how. This update of an Apress bestseller walks you through creating your first app, using plain English and practical examples using the iOS 6 software development platform and more. It cuts through the fog of jargon and misinformation that surrounds iPhone and iPad app

  11. R statistical application development by example : beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tattar, Narayanachart Prabhanjan

    2013-01-01

    Full of screenshots and examples, this Beginner's Guide by Example will teach you practically everything you need to know about R statistical application development from scratch. You will begin learning the first concepts of statistics in R which is vital in this fast paced era and it is also a bargain as you do not need to do a preliminary course on the subject.

  12. Selecting literature for beginner readers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibbert, Liesel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.

  13. NumPy 1.5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Idris, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The book is written in beginner's guide style with each aspect of NumPy demonstrated by real world examples. There is appropriate explained code with the required screenshots thrown in for the novice. This book is for the programmer, scientist or engineer, who has basic Python knowledge and would like to be able to do numerical computations with Python.

  14. A beginner's guide to the literature search in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S; Hussain, Z; Boyle, J G

    2017-05-01

    Conducting a literature search can be a daunting prospect if you have not done it before. This article aims to provide a beginner's guide to searching the medical education literature, by describing how to construct an effective search strategy, the resources that are available and the basics of how searching works.

  15. Zend framework 2.0 by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shasankar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Zend Framework 2.0 by Example: Beginner's Guide is a step-by-step guide that aims to empower you to build web applications packed with some really exciting features using Zend Framework 2.0.If you are a PHP Developer who is new to Zend Framework, but you want to get hands-on with the product quickly, this book is for you. Basic knowledge of object oriented programming with PHP is expected.

  16. Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training.

    OpenAIRE

    Frič, Čestmír

    2013-01-01

    Work name: Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training. Aim of work: To determin and evaluate significance of balance equipment in off water training. Method: The method of comparative experiment have been used in this thesis. Than the obtained data were evaluated. It was nessesary to create and compare two groups of people, compound of young healthy individuals in the age 20 - 30 both male and female. The only condition for the research was their zero experience...

  17. CS Circles: An In-Browser Python Course for Beginners

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, David; Vasiga, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Computer Science Circles is a free programming website for beginners that is designed to be fun, easy to use, and accessible to the broadest possible audience. We teach Python since it is simple yet powerful, and the course content is well-structured but written in plain language. The website has over one hundred exercises in thirty lesson pages, plus special features to help teachers support their students. It is available in both English and French. We discuss the philosophy behind the cour...

  18. A beginners guide to the SVXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.; Kipnis, I.; Kleinfelder, S.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.; Sarraj, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.

    1994-06-01

    In the late 1980's, several versions of a full custom chip called the SVX were built and tested. The chip was designed to be a second generation silicon strip readout chip incorporating new features such as data sparsification for silicon strip detectors. The SVX designed by Stuart Kleinfelder and others at LBL contained 128 channels of electronics and proved to be very popular. Initially the chip was fabricated in 3.0 micron process and later transferred to a 1.2 micron radiation hard process. Based on the success of the first SVX (referred herein as SVXI), a need arose for a third generation device. This new 128 channel device called the SVXII was developed by a collaboration of engineers at Fermilab and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The SVXII, designed in a 1.2 micron process, contains many new features including analog storage and digitization of the analog information. In addition to the new features, the SXVII is intended to operate with interaction times approximately 25 times faster than the original SVX, have the same or better noise characteristics, and have a minimal increase in power. The SVXII is an engineering challenge. This report is a first detailed attempt to introduce the SVXIII to the user. Knowledge of the original SVX and its operation would be helpful and can be obtained from references 1--3

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. iClone 431 3D Animation Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    McCallum, MD

    2011-01-01

    This book is a part of the Beginner's guide series, wherein you will quickly start doing tasks with precise instructions. Then the tasks will be followed by explanation and then a challenging task or a multiple choice question about the topic just covered. Do you have a story to tell or an idea to illustrate? This book is aimed at film makers, video producers/compositors, vxf artists or 3D artists/designers like you who have no previous experience with iClone. If you have that drive inside you to entertain people via the internet on sites like YouTube or Vimeo, create a superb presentation vid

  1. Vaadin 7 UI design by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on Beginner's Guide for developers who are new to Vaadin and/or Vaadin UI components. The book will teach readers through examples to use each of the exciting components to build and add various aspects of the user interface to their web apps.If you have experience with the Java language and want to create web applications that look good without having to deal with HTML, XML, and JavaScript, this book is for you. Basic Java programming skills are required, but no web development knowledge is needed at all.

  2. Discovering SQL A Hands-On Guide for Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Teaching the SQL skills that businesses demand when hiring programmers If you're a SQL beginner, you don't just want to learn SQL basics, you also want to get some practical SQL skills you can use in the job market. This book gives you both. Covering the basics through intermediate topics with clear explanations, hands-on exercises, and helpful solutions, this book is the perfect introduction to SQL. Topics include both the current SQL:2008 standards, the upcoming SQL:2011 standards, and also how to use SQL against current releases of the most popular commercial SQL databases, such as Oracle,

  3. A Proposal of a Color Music Notation System on a Single Melody for Music Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Ming-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Music teachers often encounter obstructions in teaching beginners in music reading. Conventional notational symbols require beginners to spend significant amount of time in memorizing, which discourages learning at early stage. This article proposes a newly-developed color music notation system that may improve the recognition of the staff and the…

  4. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

  5. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  6. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  7. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more and more difficult to remove heat as one approaches absolute zero. This is the ... A new and active branch of engineering ... This temperature is called the critical temperature, Te' For sulfur dioxide the critical ..... adsorbent charcoal.

  8. Encasing the Absolutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Martinčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.

  9. A guide to MATLAB for beginners and experienced users

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Brian R; Rosenberg, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Now in its third edition, this outstanding textbook explains everything you need to get started using MATLAB®. It contains concise explanations of essential MATLAB commands, as well as easily understood instructions for using MATLAB's programming features, graphical capabilities, simulation models, and rich desktop interface. MATLAB 8 and its new user interface is treated extensively in the book. New features in this edition include: a complete treatment of MATLAB's publish feature; new material on MATLAB graphics, enabling the user to master quickly the various symbolic and numerical plotting routines; and a robust presentation of MuPAD® and how to use it as a stand-alone platform. The authors have also updated the text throughout, reworking examples and exploring new applications. The book is essential reading for beginners, occasional users and experienced users wishing to brush up their skills. Further resources are available from the authors' website at www-math.umd.edu/schol/a-guide-to-matlab.html.

  10. Semiokapitalismus und imperiale Kontrollgesellschaft Zur Digitalisierung der Produktion am Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Neurath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Neurath analysiert angesichts des kybernetischen Semiokapitalismus und des durch ihn entstandenen "Kognitariats" in welcher Art und Weise digitale Produktions- und Wertschöpfungsprozesse am Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts zur Kontrolle eingesetzt werden ...

  11. Specific problems of beginners at study of programming and possibilities of their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Procházková, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of beginners in the study of programming at University of Economics in Prague, Faculty of Informatics and Statistics. This applies particularly to students who are studying the subject Programming in Java.

  12. What are the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harato, Kengo; Maeno, Shinichi; Tanikawa, Hidenori; Kaneda, Kazuya; Morishige, Yutaro; Nomoto, So; Niki, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    It was hypothesized that surgical time of beginners would be much longer than that of experts. Our purpose was to investigate and clarify the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a multicentre study. A total of 300 knees in 248 patients (averaged 74.6 years) were enrolled. All TKAs were done using the same instruments and the same measured resection technique at 14 facilities by 25 orthopaedic surgeons. Surgeons were divided into three surgeon groups (four experts, nine medium-volume surgeons and 12 beginners). The surgical technique was divided into five phases. Detailed surgical time and ratio of the time in each phase to overall surgical time were recorded and compared among the groups in each phase. A total of 62, 119, and 119 TKAs were done by beginners, medium-volume surgeons, and experts, respectively. Significant differences in surgical time among the groups were seen in each phase. Concerning the ratio of the time, experts and medium-volume surgeons seemed cautious in fixation of the permanent component compared to other phases. Interestingly, even in ratio, beginners and medium-volume surgeons took more time in exposure of soft tissue compared to experts. (0.14 in beginners, 0.13 in medium-volume surgeons, 0.11 in experts, P time in exposure and closure of soft tissue compared to experts. Improvement in basic technique is essential to minimize surgical time among beginners. First of all, surgical instructors should teach basic techniques in primary TKA for beginners. Therapeutic studies, Level IV.

  13. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  14. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  15. Effekten af absolut kumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Britta; Klement, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Som led i finansloven for 2011 blev regeringen og forligspartierne enige om at undersøge reglerne om strafudmåling ved samtidig pådømmelse af flere kriminelle forhold og i forbindelse hermed vurdere konsekvenserne af at ændre de gældende regler i forhold til kapacitetsbehovet i Kriminalforsorgens...... samlet bødesum ved en absolut kumulation i forhold til en modereret kumulation, som nu er gældende....

  16. A stargazing program for beginners a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jamie

    2015-01-01

     By investing just an hour a week and $50 in binoculars, it’s possible to learn a few simple techniques and quickly gain a real insight into the night sky's ever-changing patterns – and what they tell us about Earth, the seasons and ourselves. Searching more for a learned appreciation of nature and our exact place within the cosmos than academic scientific knowledge, science and travel writer Jamie Carter takes the reader on a 12 month tour of the night sky's incredible annual rhythms that say so much about Earth. During the journey he learns about the celestial mechanics at work in the skies above that are – to the beginner – almost beyond belief. As well as the vital constellations and clusters, and the weird and wonderful nebulas, he searches out “dark sky destinations” across the globe that help increase knowledge and give a new perspective on familiar night sky sights. On the journey he witnesses a solar eclipse and grapples with star-charts, binoculars, smartphone apps, telescopes, spots sa...

  17. Moving forward: Revisiting the Spanish for High Beginners course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Belpoliti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on the redesign of a Spanish for High Beginners (SHB course at a large metropolitan university in Texas, USA. The first section presents a discussion on the diverse nature of students who can benefit from an intensive first-year Spanish course and the challenges that these learners’ mixed abilities pose for instruction. The second section describes the redesign process of the SHB course, including placement procedures, the Spanish Language Program sequence, and changes in the syllabus to integrate communicative and transcultural competences by implementing a combination of focused instruction, collaborative learning and task-based approaches. The last section introduces a short presentation of four activities implemented in the redesigned course, which provide paths for future development of advanced beginners’ integrative tasks. The final section focuses on the results of an exit survey measuring students’ perceptions of the course. The successful implementation of changes and its outcomes demonstrate that this course could be a relevant solution for Spanish programs at tertiary institutions with diverse populations, helping to solve challenges of placement, articulation, and time-to-graduation effectiveness.

  18. TOPICAL CASUAL TALKS AS RESPONSIVE LISTENING AND SPEAKING PERFORMANCES OF BEGINNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranindya Zulhi Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global communication concern brings human to be familiar with English as early as possible. Nowadays beginner students started English orally in elementary school even kindergarten. At this moment, they dealth with listening and speaking skills and put them into practice. When they came down to English, some beginners feel uncomfortable in their learning because of facing formal situation. The beginners who were typically keen on playing and having fun comfortably could not be treated in teaching-learning that was usually presented to intermediate level or adult. Teachers had to create informal situation so that they were more relaxed and got chemistry one another. Dealing with comfortable zone put into informal situation in listening and speaking practices for the beginners, this study focused on topical casual talks. It set up a relaxed spot in order to explore effective communication related to their subject matters. The teachers/tutors could apply one of classroom listening and speaking performance types, responsive. This study used qualitative approach. While it refered to library research. The primary source was Elementary School Silabus. Whereas the secondary data sources were English teaching-learning books. This issue discussed about listening and speaking skills for beginners. The beginners classified into age 6-8. In listening section, the students processed teacher talk instantly. Afterwards in speaking, suitable direct short response answered the teacher talk. This action could be assessed by subjective test in the form of wh-questions and short answers test. Ultimately, the next comparable studies may converse different competences and performances for beginners or any levels.

  19. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  20. Three stitch hernioplasty: A novel technique for beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchayappan, Manikandan; Narayanasamy, Sangara Narayanan; Duraisamy, Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze mesh fixation with minimum sutures and postoperative complications. Study Design: Prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery, Thanjavur Medical College and Hospital, Tamil Nadu, from July 2010 to June 2012. Materials and Methods: All inguinal hernia patients, who fulfilled the sample selection criteria, were admitted and planned for surgery. The prolene mesh is fashioned as in Lichtenstein's repair, placed and fixed only by three prolene stitches. The first stitch is made in the periosteum of pubic tubercle. The second stitch is taken in the inguinal ligament (1.5 cm lateral to the pubic tubercle) and the third stitch is from the medial most part of the conjoint tendon, that is, the mesh is fixed in the medial aspect alone. Results: Majority of the patients fall between the age group of 40 and 60 (72%) years and all are male patients. Of the total cases, 50% were right sided, 25% were left sided, and 25% were bilateral. Of the postoperative complications, 12% had seroma, 4% had hematoma, 2% developed surgical site infection, 2% developed chronic groin pain, 1% presented with recurrence, and none developed foreign body sinus. Conclusion: The incidence of long-term complications of three stitch hernioplasty are comparable to that of the other standard, tension-free open hernia repair as well as other laparoscopic procedures. Moreover, the three stitch hernioplasty method is a simple method, easy for the beginners to adopt, has less foreign body reaction, less time consuming, causes less tissue trauma, and lesser chance for vascular injury. PMID:26629464

  1. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  2. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... time series of several years are now available. Along the coast there are nearby tide gauge stations, many of which have time series of several decades. We describe the observing network, procedures, auxiliary observations, and discuss results obtained for selected sites. We compare the gravity results...

  3. Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 administration beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baransel, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Using real-world examples and hands-on tasks, Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 Administration Beginner's Guide will give you a solid foundation in Oracle Data Guard. It has been designed to teach you everything you need to know to successfully create and operate Data Guard environments with maximum flexibility, compatibility, and effectiveness.If you are an Oracle database administrator who wants to configure and administer Data Guard configurations, then ""Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 Administration Beginner's Guide"" is for you. With a basic understanding of Oracle database administration, you'll be able

  4. A beginner's guide to 3D printing 14 simple toy designs to get you started

    CERN Document Server

    Rigsby, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A Beginner''s Guide to 3D Printing is the perfect resource for those who would like to experiment with 3D design and manufacturing, but have little or no technical experience with the standard software. Author Mike Rigsby leads readers step-by-step through 15 simple toy projects, each illustrated with screen caps of Autodesk 123D Design, the most common free 3D software available. The projects are later described using Sketchup, another free popular software package. Beginning with basics projects that will take longer to print than design, readers are then given instruction on more advanced t

  5. Teaching Norwegian to Beginners: Six Principles to Guide Lesson Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krulatz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a foreign language is no simple task. There are several factors to consider, from curriculum design, to material selection and lesson implementation, to assessment. The challenge, however, is even greater, if you are teaching a less commonly taught language such as Norwegian – a language spoken by fewer than six million native speakers, used almost exclusively in one country, and with a limited number of available pedagogical materials. Under such circumstances, the task of preparing high quality communicative lessons is immense, even for an experienced language instructor. The goal of this article is to present how a successful language lesson can be developed even if one is using a textbook that does not foster communicative competence. As an example, I am using a unit from a Norwegian textbook for beginners: På vei, often used in Norwegian as a second language course for adults in Norway. The lesson focuses on routines and times of the day, and it concludes with the students comparing and contrasting their daily routines with a partner. Prior to this lesson, students have learned to provide basic information about themselves (where they come from, what languages they speak, what they do for work, expressions for greetings and goodbyes, basic verbs relating to daily activities such as ‘snakker’ (to speak, ‘kjører’ (to drive, ‘kjøpper’ (to buy, ‘jobber’ (to work, ‘leser’ (to read, ‘scriver’ (to write, ordinal numerals, meals, some food items, some basic prepositions and locations, words for family members, and subject and object pronouns for all persons. If you were to closely follow the textbook in teaching this unit, you would begin by teaching the students how to tell time, then briefly go over some verbs to express daily routines, listen to and read a text titled ‘Jeg står opp klokka seks,’ a narrative about Monica’s day (Monica is one of the characters in the book, and finally ask the students

  6. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…

  7. English Idioms and Iranian Beginner Learners: A Focus on Short Stories and Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeed; Mansourzadeh, Nurullah

    2017-01-01

    Idiomatic expressions are among the most difficult and challenging aspects in the realm of lexicon. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effect of short stories and pictures on learning idiomatic expressions by beginner EFL learners. For this aim, 52 Iranian EFL learners were chosen and assigned to three groups randomly: two…

  8. Shifting ontologies of a serious game and its relationships with English education for beginners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala; Meyer, Bente

    2011-01-01

      This paper takes its point of departure in a language project, which is a subproject under the larger ongoing (2007-2011) research project Serious Games on a Global Market Place. The language project follows how the virtual universe known as Mingoville ( http://www.mingoville.com/ ) becomes an ...... and learning situations of English for beginners. Keywords: Entanglement approach, relational ontology, serious games, teaching and learning English for beginners, educational technology research...... an actor in English education for beginners. The virtual universe provides an online environment for students beginning to learn English in schools and at home. This paper will focus on the shifting ontologies of Mingoville and teaching and learning situations in beginners' English. This paper takes its......  This paper takes its point of departure in a language project, which is a subproject under the larger ongoing (2007-2011) research project Serious Games on a Global Market Place. The language project follows how the virtual universe known as Mingoville ( http://www.mingoville.com/ ) becomes...

  9. A Case Study: Writing a Spanish Dictionary as a Collaborative Task among Beginner Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a small-scale study carried out in a beginners' Spanish class of second year undergraduate students. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a vocabulary task in terms of its impact on vocabulary acquisition, the learners' approach to vocabulary learning and their motivation and engagement. The task…

  10. Enhancing Beginners' Second Language Learning through an Informal Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakowa, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools are used increasingly to support second language learning, but there have been limited studies involving beginner learners, multiple technologies, and informal settings. This current study addresses this gap and investigates the factors affecting students' interest in a nongraded online learning environment and what kinds of tools,…

  11. Collection Development for the School Library Media Program: A Beginner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Mona

    2006-01-01

    A valuable resource for new or experienced school librarians, "Collection Development for the School Library Media Program: A Beginner's Guide" is an easy-to-use guide to collection development. It provides practical and relevant information about collection development issues such as: the school users, policies, selection criteria and sources,…

  12. Programming Languages or Generic Software Tools, for Beginners' Courses in Computer Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Erich

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of methods that can be used to teach beginner courses in computer literacy focuses on students aged 10-12. The value of using a programing language versus using a generic software package is highlighted; Logo and Prolog are reviewed; and the use of databases is discussed. (LRW)

  13. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  14. Reasoning process characteristics in the diagnostic skills of beginner, competent, and expert dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Kathleen E; Torres, José E; Recio, María E

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate qualitative differences in the diagnostic reasoning process at different developmental stages of expertise. A qualitative design was used to study cognitive processes that characterize the diagnosis of oral disease at the stages of beginner (five junior students who had passed the NBDE I), competent (five GPR first-year residents), and expert dentists (five general dentists with ten or more years of experience). Individually, each participant was asked to determine the diagnosis of an oral condition based on a written clinical case, using the think aloud technique and retrospective reports. A subsequent interview was conducted to obtain the participants' diagnostic process model and pathophysiology of the case. The analysis of the verbal protocols indicated that experts referred to the patient's sociomedical context more frequently, demonstrated better organization of ideas, could determine key clinical findings, and had an ability to plan for the search of pertinent information. Fewer diagnostic hypotheses were formulated by participants who used forward reasoning, independent of the stage of development. Beginners requested additional diagnostic aids (radiographs, laboratory tests) more frequently than the competent/expert dentists. Experts recalled typical experiences with patients, while competent/beginner dentists recalled information from didactic courses. Experts evidenced cognitive diagnostic schemas that integrate pathophysiology of disease, while competent and beginner participants had not achieved this integration. We conclude that expert performance is a combination of a knowledge base, reasoning skills, and an accumulation of experiences with patients that is qualitatively different from that of competent and beginner dentists. It is important for dental education to emphasize the teaching of cognitive processes and to incorporate a wide variety of clinical experiences in addition to the teaching of

  15. Projective absoluteness for Sacks forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that Sigma(1)(3)-absoluteness for Sacks forcing is equivalent to the nonexistence of a Delta(1)(2) Bernstein set. We also show that Sacks forcing is the weakest forcing notion among all of the preorders that add a new real with respect to Sigma(1)(3) forcing absoluteness.

  16. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  17. Teaching of reading to school beginners : a study of reading programmes in primary one in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kemizano, Rosert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The study examines reading programmes with the reference to the teaching/learning of reading to school beginners. The teaching of reading at the early stages is important because it is the quality of the experiences that children get that affect or lay the foundation for reading development (Chall, 1996).Therefore, the phenomenon, “teaching of reading to school beginners” studied is of great importance. The theoretical background used includes reading and its importance, Languag...

  18. Practice for beginners programming lesson using App Lab: Introduction of programming learning for undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    榊原, 直樹

    2017-01-01

    App Lab is an online programming education environment. It was designed classes of programming for beginners using the App Lab. Through 15 lessons of the class, it was to understand the basic structure of the programming of the sequential-repetition-branch. Students were allowed to complete the game as a final project. The effectiveness of App the Lab has been confirmed from these results.

  19. Consideration of a Learning Programming Process based on Software Design for Beginners

    OpenAIRE

    大村, 基将; 紅林, 秀治

    2016-01-01

    We considered a learning programming process based on software design for technology education. Lessons of computer program-aided measurement and control are for beginners to learn programming. These lessons are efficient to learn the step of programming, but the main of the lessons are works of typing the sample programming and debugging. Therefore, these lessons have a fundamental lack of the concept of design. Then we considered learning processes of programming and applied the process of ...

  20. [Beginners' operations and medical specialist standards : Avoidance of criminal liability and civil liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H

    2018-05-16

    In all phases, patients are entitled to receive medical treatment according to medical specialist standards. This does not mean that patients necessarily have to be treated by a medical specialist. Operations performed by "beginners", e. g. assistant physicians, are permitted. However, there are increased liability risks, both for the specialist and the assistant physician. Furthermore, there are risks of criminal responsibility for causing bodily harm by negligence or negligent manslaughter. This article portrays the requirements of civil liability and criminal responsibility concerning beginners' operations on the basis of cases and judgments of the Federal Court and the Higher Regional Courts in Germany. Additionally, the reception of the jurisprudence by the relevant legal literature will be discussed. Jurisprudence and legal literature categorize breaches of duty of care. Assistant physicians can be subject to contributory negligence liabilities, while specialists can bear liabilities for negligent selection, organization or supervision. Responsible specialist and assistant physicians can protect themselves (and the patient) and avoid legal risks by only performing operations adequate to their educational level or by delegating operations to beginners and ensuring intervention by a specialist by supervision of the operation which is suitable to the assistant physician's level of education.

  1. Microstructure characterization via stereological relations — A shortcut for beginners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabst, Willi, E-mail: pabstw@vscht.cz; Gregorová, Eva; Uhlířová, Tereza

    2015-07-15

    Stereological relations that can be routinely applied for the quantitative characterization of microstructures of heterogeneous single- and two-phase materials via global microstructural descriptors are reviewed. It is shown that in the case of dense, single-phase polycrystalline materials (e.g., transparent yttrium aluminum garnet ceramics) two quantities have to be determined, the interface density (or, equivalently, the mean chord length of the grains) and the mean curvature integral density (or, equivalently, the Jeffries grain size), while for two-phase materials (e.g., highly porous, cellular alumina ceramics), one additional quantity, the volume fraction (porosity), is required. The Delesse–Rosiwal law is recalled and size measures are discussed. It is shown that the Jeffries grain size is based on the triple junction line length density, while the mean chord length of grains is based on the interface density (grain boundary area density). In contrast to widespread belief, however, these two size measures are not alternative, but independent (and thus complementary), measures of grain size. Concomitant with this fact, a clear distinction between linear and planar grain size numbers is proposed. Finally, based on our concept of phase-specific quantities, it is shown that under certain conditions it is possible to define a Jeffries size also for two-phase materials and that the ratio of the mean chord length and the Jeffries size has to be considered as an invariant number for a certain type of microstructure, i.e., a characteristic value that is independent of the absolute size of the microstructural features (e.g., grains, inclusions or pores). - Highlights: • Stereology-based image analysis is reviewed, including error considerations. • Recipes are provided for measuring global metric microstructural descriptors. • Size measures are based on interface density and mean curvature integral density. • Phase-specific quantities and a generalized

  2. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  3. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  4. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  5. Some absolutely effective product methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Dikshit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the product method A(C,1, where (C,1 is the Cesàro arithmetic mean matrix, is totally effective under certain conditions concerning the matrix A. This general result is applied to study absolute Nörlund summability of Fourier series and other related series.

  6. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes Towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Tolosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students’ learning with a free writing activity done as pretest and posttest and used a semi-structured interview to explore their attitudes towards language learning and their perceived development of their native language. Data analysis indicated statistically significant gains in foreign language writing and positive attitudinal changes toward foreign and native language learning.

  7. A beginner's guide to writing the nursing conceptual model-based theoretical rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Eileen; Manister, Nancy N

    2012-10-01

    Writing the theoretical rationale for a study can be a daunting prospect for novice researchers. Nursing's conceptual models provide excellent frameworks for placement of study variables, but moving from the very abstract concepts of the nursing model to the less abstract concepts of the study variables is difficult. Similar to the five-paragraph essay used by writing teachers to assist beginning writers to construct a logical thesis, the authors of this column present guidelines that beginners can follow to construct their theoretical rationale. This guide can be used with any nursing conceptual model but Neuman's model was chosen here as the exemplar.

  8. FusionCharts Beginner's Guide The Official Guide for FusionCharts Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Nadhani, Sanket; Bhattacharya, Shamasis

    2012-01-01

    The book is written as a practical, step-by-step guide to using FusionCharts Suite. The book not only teaches you the fundamentals and implementation of FusionCharts Suite, but also makes you the data visualization guru among your friends and colleagues by teaching how to select the right chart type and usability tips. Filled with examples, code samples and practical tips in a no-nonsense way, the book is a breeze to read.This book is both for beginners and advanced web developers who need to create interactive charts for their web applications. No previous knowledge of FusionCharts Suite is a

  9. Shifting ontologies of a serious game and its relationships with English education for beginners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala; Meyer, Bente

    2011-01-01

      This paper takes its point of departure in a language project, which is a subproject under the larger ongoing (2007-2011) research project Serious Games on a Global Market Place. The language project follows how the virtual universe known as Mingoville ( http://www.mingoville.com/ ) becomes...... point of departure in neither Mingoville as part of the media ecologies of the classroom, nor in the epistemological ramifications of Mingoville. Instead, it suggests that opening up the shifting ontologies of Mingoville (i.e. what mediates Mingoville and its relationships with doing beginners English...

  10. Adobe Flash 11 Stage3D (Molehill) Game Programming Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kaitila, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Written in an informal and friendly manner, the style and approach of this book will take you on an exciting adventure. Piece by piece, detailed examples help you along the way by providing real-world game code required to make a complete 3D video game. Each chapter builds upon the experience and achievements earned in the last, culminating in the ultimate prize - your game! If you ever wanted to make your own 3D game in Flash, then this book is for you. This book is a perfect introduction to 3D game programming in Adobe Molehill for complete beginners. You do not need to know anything about S

  11. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  12. Absolute magnitudes by statistical parallaxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, A.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes an algorithm for stellar luminosity calibrations (based on the principle of maximum likelihood) which allows the calibration of relations of the type: Msub(i)=sup(N)sub(j=1)Σqsub(j)Csub(ij), i=1,...,n, where n is the size of the sample at hand, Msub(i) are the individual absolute magnitudes, Csub(ij) are observational quantities (j=1,...,N), and qsub(j) are the coefficients to be determined. If one puts N=1 and Csub(iN)=1, one has q 1 =M(mean), the mean absolute magnitude of the sample. As additional output, the algorithm provides one also with the dispersion in magnitude of the sample sigmasub(M), the mean solar motion (U,V,W) and the corresponding velocity ellipsoid (sigmasub(u), sigmasub(v), sigmasub(w). The use of this algorithm is illustrated. (Auth.)

  13. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  14. The Absolute Immanence in Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Daeseung

    2013-01-01

    The absolute immanence in Deleuze Daeseung Park Abstract The plane of immanence is not unique. Deleuze and Guattari suppose a multiplicity of planes. Each great philosopher draws new planes on his own way, and these planes constitute the "time of philosophy". We can, therefore, "present the entire history of philosophy from the viewpoint of the institution of a plane of immanence" or present the time of philosophy from the viewpoint of the superposition and of the coexistence of planes. Howev...

  15. Development of a Portable Training Tool for Simulating Visceral Angiographic Procedures for Beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Osuga, Keigo; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Miura, Hiroshi; Terayama, Koshi; Anai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masahide; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a tool that we developed to simulate performance of visceral angiography to train beginners in the field of splanchnic angiography. Seven residents and two fellows who were rotating within the Division of Interventional Radiology at our institution between June and August 2008 participated in the evaluation of this tool. They had no experience in performing visceral angiography as an operator. Time for selection of arterial branches arising from the celiac axis on the model was measured before and after training. After such training, the participants performed actual visceral angiography as an operator with instructors beside them. Success of the trainees in selecting visceral arterial branches was evaluated in these real-life cases. In the first test using the model, seven of nine trainees (77.8%) succeeded in selecting all required arteries, while the remaining two failed to select all required arteries. After training using the model, all trainees succeeded in selecting all required arteries just before the actual angiographic study. In the actual angiography, the catheter was successfully inserted from the femoral artery and advanced to the superior mesenteric, celiac, splenic, common hepatic, gastroduodenal, and right and left hepatic arteries by all trainees with only two exceptions. In conclusion, this tool is helpful for training beginners in visceral angiographic procedures.

  16. Peculiarities of mathematics instruction for beginners for children with disabilities in regular primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the issue of education of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities in regular primary schools in the context of mathematics instruction for beginners. The authors state the basic characteristics of mathematics instruction for beginners with respect to the contents studied in the first four grades of primary school, as well as the key problems and educational needs of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. The basic characteristics of inclusive education and the key role of teacher in this process are pointed out. Starting from the developmental peculiarities of children with disabilities, the authors emphasize the importance of applying an individualized approach in teaching mathematics. Possible didactic and methodical solutions are discussed, as well as different approaches in teaching this subject that can facilitate learning of mathematical contents to visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. Bearing in mind the peculiarities of inclusive education, i.e. the need for the children with disabilities to participate in common activities with the other children in the class, the authors emphasize the importance of encouraging interaction and communication among children in the process of learning mathematical contents.

  17. Absolute pitch: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, P E

    1977-11-01

    The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres.

  18. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  19. Task-Based Language Teaching for Beginner-Level Learners of L2 French: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlam, Rosemary; Ellis, Rod

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of input-based tasks on the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar by beginner-level learners of L2 French and reported the introduction of task-based teaching as an innovation in a state secondary school. The experimental group (n = 19) completed a series of focused input-based language tasks, taught by their…

  20. Enhanced Recognition of Written Words and Enjoyment of Reading in Struggling Beginner Readers through Whole-Word Multimedia Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemaker, Arjette; Pitchford, Nicola J.; O'Malley, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of a reading intervention using the whole-word multimedia software "Oxford Reading Tree (ORT) for Clicker" was compared to a reading intervention using traditional ORT Big Books. Developing literacy skills and attitudes towards learning to read were assessed in a group of 17 struggling beginner readers aged 5-6 years. Each child…

  1. Food Ration and Mental Training for the Improvement of the Free Throw Performance in Congolese Beginners Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhika, Eddie Janvier; Moussouami, Simplice Innocent; Tsiama Portejoie, Jean Aimé; Bazaba Kayilou, Jean Michel; Moyen, Rachel; Mizere Moungondo, Martin; Maouene, Michel; Mbemba, François

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through an experimental study, the present work aims at testing the effectiveness of diet and mental imagery on the success of free throw in Congolese beginners Basketball Players. Method: 45 players participated in this experimental study in Brazzaville (Congo). These subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 15), made up of…

  2. A Drawing and Multi-Representational Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Programming Using C: Design and Pilot Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents both the design and the pilot formative evaluation study of a computer-based problem-solving environment (named LECGO: Learning Environment for programming using C using Geometrical Objects) for the learning of computer programming using C by beginners. In its design, constructivist and social learning theories were taken into…

  3. Factors That Contribute to Transfer and Bachelor's Degree Attainment of Low-Income Community College Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Andrea Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Transfer and bachelor's degree attainment rates of low-income community college beginners lag behind their middle- and high-income peers. As community college continues to be an affordable and accessible route to higher education, consideration should be given to how to close the gap in transfer and bachelor's degree attainment rates of low-income…

  4. From Theory to Practice: Beginner Teachers' Experiences of the Rigour of the Postgraduate Certificate in Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomlomo, Vuyokazi; Sosibo, Zilungile

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on how recent graduates perceive the rigour of the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) initial teacher education (ITE) programme. The article is based on qualitative data collected from a purposely selected sample of 19 beginner teachers who graduated from two higher education institutions that offer PGCE programmes…

  5. Absolute measurement of 85Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1978-01-01

    An extension of 4πe.x-γ coincidence technique is described to measure the absolute disintegration rate of 85 Sr. This nuclide shows electron capture-gamma decay, and 514keV level of 85 Rb is a meta-stable state with half life of 0.958 μsec. Therefore, the conventional 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with about 1 μsec of resolution time can not be applied to this nuclide. To measure the absolute disintegration rate of this, the delayed 4 πe.x-γ coincidence technique with two different resolution time has been used. The disintegration rate was determined from four counting rates of electron-x ray, gamma ray and two coincidences, and the true disintegration rate could be obtained by extraporation of the electron-x ray detection efficiency to 1. Two resolution time appearing in the calculation formulas were determined from the chance coincidence between electron-x ray and delayed gamma ray signals. When the coincidence countings with three different resolution time were carried out by one coincidence circuit, the results calculated from all combinations did not agree each other. However, when the two coincidence circuits of the same type were used to fix the resolution time, a good coincidence absorption function was obtained and the disintegration rate was determined with accuracy of +- 0.5%. To evaluate the validity of the results the disintegration rates were measured by two NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors whose gamma-ray detection efficiency was previously determined and both results were agreed within accuracy of +- 0.5%. This method can be applied with nearly same accuracy for the beta-gamma decay nuclide possessing a meta-stable state of the half life below about 10 μsec. (auth.)

  6. 101 amazing sights of the night sky a guided tour for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Moromisato, George

    2017-01-01

    Is there anything more wondrous and alluring than the night sky? You've seen the stars, and you know about the constellations--but there's so much more to discover! George Moromisato's magnificent full-color guide introduces you to 101 amazing sights, from Saturn's famous rings to the Andromeda Galaxy. Learn what to look for and when and where to find it! This astronomy book is perfect for beginners, so many objects can be seen with the unaided eye or binoculars, while others simply require a small telescope. Book Features: Guide to 101 phenomena and objects of the night sky, ranked by beauty, accessibility and historical importance Information about equipment needed, from binoculars to small telescopes Full-color photographs, including many from NASA Astrophotography tips on taking pictures of the night sky, such as snapping shots with a phone through a telescope Charts to know when to look for solar eclipses, meteor showers and other notable events.

  7. Review of The Atheist’s Primer and Atheism for Beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Bissette

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The New Atheists are occasionally accused of lacking nuance and sophistication, or of existing in an intellectual vacuum. To some it may seem that Dawkins 'et al'. are naïve logical positivists; this perspective may be reinforced by recent authors’ explicit rejection of the value of philosophy and other non-scientific approaches to knowledge (cf. Lawrence Krauss, Stephen Hawking. Into the fray steps Michael Palmer, offering his attempt to popularise a version of atheism that is underpinned by a long tradition of philosophical inquiry. 'The Atheist’s Primer', a condensed version of Palmer’s previous work, is aptly named: it is a crash course on the history and major arguments of atheism from a firmly philosophical angle. Its companion text, 'Atheism For Beginners', is a coursebook aimed at tutors seeking to teach this material.

  8. Optical spectra of phthalocyanines and related compounds a guide for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Isago, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This book displays how optical (absorption, emission, and magnetic circular dichroism) spectra of phthalocyanines and related macrocyclic dyes can be varied from their prototypical ones depending on conditions. As these compounds can be involved in colorful chemistry (which might be driven by impurities in solvents), their spectra behave like the sea-god Proteus in their mutability. Therefore, those who have been engaged with phthalocyanines for the first time, including even educated professional researchers and engineers, may have been embarrassed by the deceptive behavior of their compounds and could have, in the worst cases, given up their projects. This book is aimed not merely at reviewing the optical spectra, but also at helping such people, particularly beginners, to figure them out by showing some examples of their prototypical spectra and their variations in several situations. For the purpose of better understanding, the book also provides an introduction to their theoretical backgrounds as graphic...

  9. Character Learning Strategies Among Danish and Swedish Beginners of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Chen, Yi-ting

    Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1990), we adapted Shen’ (2005) questionnaire into two online surveys. The first survey was done in February 2016 aiming to discover some Chinese character learning strategies employed by Danish and Swedish learners. Based on the 1st survey, the second survey......This study was conducted at three universities (i.e., Aarhus University, Copenhagen University, and Stockholm University) at two Nordic countries (i.e., Denmark and Sweden). 39 beginner Danish and Swedish of Chinese (L2) university students participated in the study. Drawing from the strategy...... was developed and thereafter conducted in March 2016. A preliminary analysis revealed that the students used primarily three types of strategies (1) compensation strategies (i.e., application-assisted tools), (2) cognitive strategies (i.e., orthographic knowledge) and (3) memory strategies (i.e., repeated...

  10. Data analysis using SPSS for Windows, versions 8 - 10 a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy J, Dr

    2001-01-01

    A new edition of this best-selling introductory book to cover the latest SPSS versions 8.0 - 10.0 This book is designed to teach beginners how to use SPSS for Windows, the most widely used computer package for analysing quantitative data. Written in a clear, readable and non-technical style the author explains the basics of SPSS including the input of data, data manipulation, descriptive analyses and inferential techniques, including; - creating using and merging data files - creating and printing graphs and charts - parametric tests including t-tests, ANOVA, GLM - correlation, regression and factor analysis - non parametric tests and chi square reliability - obtaining neat print outs and tables - includes a CD-Rom containing example data files, syntax files, output files and Excel spreadsheets.

  11. Advanced Beginner to Competent Practitioner: New Graduate Nurses' Perceptions of Strategies That Facilitate or Hinder Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Martin, Lyne; Harripaul, Anastasia; Antonacci, Rosetta; Laframboise, Devon; Purden, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    New graduate nurses (NGNs) are a precious resource, but their development from advanced beginners to competent nurses is challenging. This qualitative descriptive study explored NGNs' perceptions of strategies that influenced their development in the first 2 years of employment. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 13 nurses. The study revealed that NGNs learn to master aspects of the nursing role as they construct a professional identity. They identified organizational, educational, and personal strategies as being important to their development, including tailored orientation, opportunities for skill acquisition, and personal support. Few strategies supported the development of professional identity. Mastering the nursing role and constructing a professional identity is central to NGNs' development. Further attention from nursing leaders is needed to promote concurrent development in both dimensions. Nurses with a strong professional identity are more likely to remain in the profession. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  13. Wheelchair propulsion kinematics in beginners and expert users: influence of wheelchair settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, P; Louis, N

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have linked the handrim wheelchair propulsion with a prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the wheelchair settings on upper limb kinematics during wheelchair propulsion. Recordings were made under various wheelchair configuration conditions to understand the effect of wheelchair settings on kinematics parameters such shoulder, elbow and wrist angles. Ten experts and ten beginners' subjects propelled an experimental wheelchair on a roller ergometer system at a comfortable speed. Twelve wheelchair configurations were tested. Kinematics were recorded for each configuration. Based on the hand position relatively to the handrim, the main kinematic parameters of wheelchair propulsion were investigated on the whole propulsion cycle and a key event such as handrim contact and release. Compared to the beginner subjects, all the experts' subjects generally present higher joint amplitude and propulsion speeds. Seat height and antero-posterior axle position influence usage of the hand-rim, timing parameters and configurations of upper limb joints. Results seem to confirm that low and backward seat position allow a greater efficiency. Nevertheless, according that proximity of joint limit is a well known factor of musculoskeletal disorders, our results let us think that too low and backward seat position, increasing joints positions and amplitudes, could increase the risk of upper limb injuries in relation with manual wheelchair propulsion. Kinematic differences highlight that future studies on wheelchair propulsion should only be done with impaired experienced subjects. Furthermore, this study provides indications on how wheelchair settings can be used for upper limb injury prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography a useful tool in a beginner's hand? How much can a Computer Assisted Diagnosis prototype help in characterizing the malignancy of focal liver lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Tudor Voicu; Popescu, Alina; Sporea, Ioan; Danila, Mirela; David, Ciprian; Gui, Vasile; Iacob, Nicoleta; Miclaus, Gratian; Sirli, Roxana

    2017-08-23

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improved the characterization of focal liver lesions (FLLs), but is an operatordependent method. The goal of this paper was to test a computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) prototype and to see its benefit in assisting a beginner in the evaluation of FLLs. Our cohort included 97 good quality CEUS videos[34% hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 12.3% hypervascular metastases (HiperM), 11.3% hypovascular metastases (HipoM), 24.7% hemangiomas (HMG), 17.5% focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)] that were used to develop a CAD prototype based on an algorithm that tested a binary decision based classifier. Two young medical doctors (1 year CEUS experience), two experts and the CAD prototype, reevaluated 50 FLLs CEUS videos (diagnosis of benign vs. malignant) first blinded to clinical data, in order to evaluate the diagnostic gap beginner vs. expert. The CAD classifier managed a 75.2% overall (benign vs. malignant) correct classification rate. The overall classification rates for the evaluators, before and after clinical data were: first beginner-78%; 94%; second beginner-82%; 96%; first expert-94%; 100%; second expert-96%; 98%. For both beginners, the malignant vs. benign diagnosis significantly improved after knowing the clinical data (p=0.005; p=0,008). The expert was better than the beginner (p=0.04) and better than the CAD (p=0.001). CAD in addition to the beginner can reach the expert diagnosis. The most frequent lesions misdiagnosed at CEUS were FNH and HCC. The CAD prototype is a good comparing tool for a beginner operator that can be developed to assist the diagnosis. In order to increase the classification rate, the CAD system for FLL in CEUS must integrate the clinical data.

  15. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  16. Near threshold absolute TDCS: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, T.; Schlemmer, P.; Roeder, J.; Frost, L.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new method, and first results for an impact energy 2 eV above the threshold of ionisation of helium, are presented for the measurement of absolute triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in a crossed beam experiment. The method is based upon measurement of beam/target overlap densities using known absolute total ionisation cross sections and of detection efficiencies using known absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS). For the present work the necessary absolute DDCS for 1 eV electrons had also to be measured. Results are presented for several different coplanar kinematics and are compared with recent DWBA calculations. (orig.)

  17. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  18. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  19. USABILITY TESTING OF JAPANESE CAPTIONS SEGMENTATION SYSTEM TO SCAFFOLD BEGINNERS TO COMPREHEND JAPANESE VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A major learning difficulty of Japanese foreign language (JFL learners is the complex composition of two syllabaries, hiragana and katakana, and kanji characters adopted from logographic Chinese ones. As the number of Japanese language learners increases, computer-assisted Japanese language education gradually gains more attention. This study aimed to adopt a Japanese word segmentation system to help JFL learners overcome literacy problems. This study adopted MeCab, a Japanese morphological analyzer and part-of-speech (POS tagger, to segment Japanese texts into separate morphemes by adding spaces and to attach POS tags to each morpheme for beginners. The participants were asked to participate in three experimental activities involvingwatching two Japanese videos with general or segmented Japanese captions and complete the Nielsen’s Attributes of Usability (NAU survey and the After Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ to evaluate the usability of the learning activities. The results of the system evaluation showed that the videos with the segmented captions could increase the participants’ learning motivation and willingness to adopt the word segmentation system to learn Japanese.

  20. Measurement of the 235 U absolute activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.C.; Santos, M.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute activity of 235 U contained in a sample was measured utilizing a sum-coincidence circuit which selects only the alpha particles emitted simultaneously with the 143 KeV gamma radiations from the 231 Th (product nucleus). The alpha particles were detected by means of a new type of a gas scintillating chamber, in which the light emitted by excitation of the gas atoms, due to the passage of a charged incoming particle, has its intensity increased by the action of an applied electric field. The gamma radiations were detected by means of a 1'x 1 1/2 Nal (TI) scintillation detector. The value obtained for the half-life of 235 U, (7.04+-0.01)10 8 y, was compared with the data available from various observers with used different experimental techniques. It is shown that our results are in excellent agreement with the best data available on the subject. (author) 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  1. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  2. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors....... A building is considered absolute sustainable if its annual environmental burden is less than its share of the earth environmental carrying capacity. Two case buildings – a standard house and an upcycled single-family house located in Denmark – were assessed according to this approach and both were found...... to exceed the target values of three (almost four) of the eleven impact categories included in the study. The worst-case excess was for the case building, representing prevalent Danish building practices, which utilized 1563% of the Climate Change carrying capacity. Four paths to reach absolute...

  3. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  4. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  5. Absolute spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Smyth, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiometric photoelectric spectrophotometry of Nova Cygni 1975 was carried out on 1975 August 31, September 2, 3. α Lyr was used as reference star and its absolute spectral energy distribution was used to reduce the spectrophotometry of the nova to absolute units. Emission strengths of Hα, Hβ, Hγ (in W cm -2 ) were derived. The Balmer decrement Hα:Hβ:Hγ was compared with theory, and found to deviate less than had been reported for an earlier nova. (author)

  6. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  7. Review of applications of TLBO algorithm and a tutorial for beginners to solve the unconstrained and constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm is finding a large number of applications in different fields of engineering and science since its introduction in 2011. The major applications are found in electrical engineering, mechanical design, thermal engineering, manufacturing engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, computer engineering, electronics engineering, physics, chemistry, biotechnology and economics. This paper presents a review of applications of TLBO algorithm and a tutorial for solving the unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. The tutorial is expected to be useful to the beginners.

  8. Absolute isotopic abundances of Ti in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46 Ti/ 48 Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. We provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components. The absolute Ti and Ca isotopic compositions still support the correlation of 50 Ti and 48 Ca effects in the FUN inclusions and imply contributions from neutron-rich equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium nucleosynthesis. The present identification of endemic effects at 46 Ti, for the absolute composition, implies a shortfall of an explosive-oxygen component or reflects significant isotope fractionation. Additional nucleosynthetic components are required by 47 Ti and 49 Ti effects. Components are also defined in which 48 Ti is enhanced. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  9. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  10. Redetermination and absolute configuration of atalaphylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title acridone alkaloid [systematic name: 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2,4-bis(3-methylbut-2-enylacridin-9(10H-one], C23H25NO4, has previously been reported as crystallizing in the chiral orthorhombic space group P212121 [Chantrapromma et al. (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, o81–o82] but the absolute configuration could not be determined from data collected with Mo radiation. The absolute configuration has now been determined by refinement of the Flack parameter with data collected using Cu radiation. All features of the molecule and its crystal packing are similar to those previously described.

  11. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  12. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  13. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...

  14. On the absolute measure of Beta activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The mea surements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  15. Absolute measurement of a tritium standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzisehovic, M.; Mocilnik, I.; Buraei, K.; Pongrac, S.; Milojevic, A.

    1978-01-01

    For the determination of a tritium absolute activity standard, a method of internal gas counting has been used. The procedure involves water reduction by uranium and zinc further the measurement of the absolute disintegration rate of tritium per unit of the effective volume of the counter by a compensation method. Criteria for the choice of methods and procedures concerning the determination and measurement of gaseous 3 H yield, parameters of gaseous hydrogen, sample mass of HTO and the absolute disintegration rate of tritium are discussed. In order to obtain gaseous sources of 3 H (and 2 H), the same reversible chemical reaction was used, namely, the water - uranium hydride - hydrogen system. This reaction was proved to be quantitative above 500 deg C by measuring the yield of the gas obtained and the absolute activity of an HTO standard. A brief description of the measuring apparatus is given, as well as a critical discussion of the brass counter quality and the possibility of obtaining equal working conditions at the counter ends. (T.G.)

  16. Absolutyzm i pluralizm (ABSOLUTISM AND PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Alethic absolutism is a thesis that propositions can not be more or less true, that they are true or false for ever (if true at all and that their truth is independent on any circumstances of their assertion. In negative version, easier to defend, alethic absolutism claims the very same proposition can not be both true and false relative to circumstances of its assertion. Simple alethic pluralism is a thesis that we have many concepts of truth. It is a very good way to dissolve the controversy between alethic relativism and absolutism. Many philosophical concepts of truth are the best reason for such pluralism. If concept is meaning of a name, we have many concepts of truth because the name 'truth' was understood in many ways. The variety of meanings however can be superficial. Under it we can find one idea of truth expressed in correspondence truism or schema (T. The content of the truism is too poor to be content of anyone concept of truth, so it usually is connected with some picture of the world (ontology and we have so many concepts of truth as many pictures of the world. The authoress proposes the hierarchical pluralism with privileged classic (or correspondence in weak sense concept of truth as absolute property.Other author's publications:

  17. Absolute Distance Measurements with Tunable Semiconductor Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    T118, - (2005), s. 41-44 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB2065001 Keywords : tunable laser * absolute interferometer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  18. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  19. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  20. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  1. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  2. Assessing Verbal Functioning in South African School Beginners from Diverse Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate; Bloch, Lauren; Moolla, Azra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether measures of verbal working memory are less sensitive to children's socioeconomic background than traditional vocabulary measures. Participants were 120 school beginners, divided into high and low socioeconomic groups. The groups contained equal numbers of English first-language and second-language speakers. All were…

  3. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  4. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  5. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  6. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  7. Absolute spectrophotometry of the β Lyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnashev, V.I.; Skul'skij, M.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    In 1974 an absolute spectrophotometry of β Lyr was performed with the scanning spectrophotometer in the 3300-7400 A range. The energy distribution in the β Lyr spectrum is obtained. The β Lyr model is proposed. It is shown, that the continuous spectrum of the β Lyr radiation can be presented by the total radiation of the B8 3 and A5 3 two stars and of the gaseous envelope with Te =20000 K

  8. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  9. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  10. Internal descriptions of absolute Borel classes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holický, P.; Pelant, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 1 (2004), s. 87-104 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1466; GA ČR GA201/03/0933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : absolute Borel class * complete sequence of covers * open map Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2004

  11. The absolute differential calculus calculus of tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Cività, Tullio

    1926-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  12. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  13. Benzofuranoid and bicyclooctanoid neolignans:absolute configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A. de; Giesbrecht, A.M.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    The naturally occuring benzofuranoid and bicyclo (3,2,1) octanoid neolignans have their relative configurations established by 1 H and 13 C NMR, inclusively with aid of the solvent shift technique. Interconversion of the benzofuranoid type compounds, as well as for a benzofuranoid to a bicyclooctanoid derivate, make ORD correlations, ultimately with (2S, 3S) - and (2R,3R)-2,3- dihydrobenzofurans, possible, and led to the absolute configurations of both series of neolignans [pt

  14. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.

  15. Absolute measurement method of environment radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1989-11-01

    A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter

  16. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  17. Absolute measurement of environmental radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1987-01-01

    A transportable meter for environmental radon measurement with a 40 liter decay chamber is designed on the principle of Thomas two-filter radon content absolute measurement. The sensitivity is 0.37 Bq·m -3 with 95% confidence level. This paper describes the experimental method of measuremment and it's intrinsic uncertainty. The typical intrinsic uncertainty (for n x 3.7 Bq·m -3 radon concentration) is <10%. The parameter of exit filter effeciency is introduced into the formula, and the verification is done for the case when the diameter of the exit filter is much less than the inlet one

  18. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  19. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  20. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  2. On the absolute meaning of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Edwards

    Full Text Available The present manuscript aims to clarify why motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable sense, and how this relates to relativistic effects caused by motion. A fresh analysis of motion, build on first axiom, delivers proof with its result, from which significant new understanding and computational power is gained.A review of experimental results demonstrates, that unaccelerated motion causes matter to age slower in a comparable, observer independent sense. Whilst focusing on this absolute effect, the present manuscript clarifies its context to relativistic effects, detailing their relationship and incorporating both into one consistent picture. The presented theoretical results make new predictions and are testable through suggested experiment of a novel nature. The manuscript finally arrives at an experimental tool and methodology, which as far as motion in ungravitated space is concerned or gravity appreciated, enables us to find the absolute observer independent picture of reality, which is reflected in the comparable display of atomic clocks.The discussion of the theoretical results, derives a physical causal understanding of gravity, a mathematical formulation of which, will be presented. Keywords: Kinematics, Gravity, Atomic clocks, Cosmic microwave background

  3. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  4. Absolute determination of the deuterium content of heavy water, measurement of absolute density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccaldi, M.; Riedinger, M.; Menache, M.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute density of two heavy water samples rich in deuterium (with a grade higher than 99.9%) was determined with the hydrostatic method. The exact isotopic composition of this water (hydrogen and oxygen isotopes) was very carefully studied. A theoretical estimate enabled us to get the absolute density value of isotopically pure D 2 16 O. This value was found to be 1104.750 kg.m -3 at t 68 =22.3 0 C and under the pressure of one atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  5. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  6. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  7. A novel capacitive absolute positioning sensor based on time grating with nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hongji; Liu, Hongzhong; Liu, Xiaokang; Peng, Kai; Yu, Zhicheng

    2018-05-01

    The present work proposes a novel capacitive absolute positioning sensor based on time grating. The sensor includes a fine incremental-displacement measurement component combined with a coarse absolute-position measurement component to obtain high-resolution absolute positioning measurements. A single row type sensor was proposed to achieve fine displacement measurement, which combines the two electrode rows of a previously proposed double-row type capacitive displacement sensor based on time grating into a single row. To achieve absolute positioning measurement, the coarse measurement component is designed as a single-row type displacement sensor employing a single spatial period over the entire measurement range. In addition, this component employs a rectangular induction electrode and four groups of orthogonal discrete excitation electrodes with half-sinusoidal envelope shapes, which were formed by alternately extending the rectangular electrodes of the fine measurement component. The fine and coarse measurement components are tightly integrated to form a compact absolute positioning sensor. A prototype sensor was manufactured using printed circuit board technology for testing and optimization of the design in conjunction with simulations. Experimental results show that the prototype sensor achieves a ±300 nm measurement accuracy with a 1 nm resolution over a displacement range of 200 mm when employing error compensation. The proposed sensor is an excellent alternative to presently available long-range absolute nanometrology sensors owing to its low cost, simple structure, and ease of manufacturing.

  8. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  9. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  10. Absolute beam current monitoring in endstation c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochna, C.

    1995-01-01

    The first few experiments at CEBAF require approximately 1% absolute measurements of beam currents expected to range from 10-25μA. This represents errors of 100-250 nA. The initial complement of beam current monitors are of the non intercepting type. CEBAF accelerator division has provided a stripline monitor and a cavity monitor, and the authors have installed an Unser monitor (parametric current transformer or PCT). After calibrating the Unser monitor with a precision current reference, the authors plan to transfer this calibration using CW beam to the stripline monitors and cavity monitors. It is important that this be done fairly rapidly because while the gain of the Unser monitor is quite stable, the offset may drift on the order of .5μA per hour. A summary of what the authors have learned about the linearity, zero drift, and gain drift of each type of current monitor will be presented

  11. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  12. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  13. Structuring scientific works in the “Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion” format – what a beginner ought to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avdeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference materials about the “Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion”, which is a commonly used international format for scientific works, have become available for Russian authors nowadays, still lack of knowledge about the format would pop up here or there, especially when we speak about beginners. The faults which would appear regularly in work structuring prompted the present research, the aim of which is to compare the information about the IMRAD format with the specific difficulties beginning authors would often face when preparing their works for publication.The main materials to be studied were sources in Russian and in English published mostly in 2010s and devoted to the problems of structuring works according to the meant above format. Besides, the present research considered the results of plagiarism tests (such tests used to be carried out at the Russia State Library within the period of 2013 – 2015 with the help of software “Automated system of specialized processing of textual documents”. The main methods of our research would remain structural and comparative analysis of texts.As a result, our research revealed the fact of inconsistency of the available information on the IMRAD structure. It would often demand deep thinking and explanations. Different authors of reference editions would as a rule differ one from another in their interpretation of the degree of necessity of this or that composition element, of the amount of details in descriptions, etc. Moreover, the very structure of scientific work looks differently for different authors. More often the structure supposes the integrity of the contents and its form, still sometimes its description would be replaced by outer elements, such as, for example, language clichés. The analysis of the most common faults in text structuring points that authors do not often have a clear idea of how to understand the different demands which are so obscurely described

  14. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  15. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  16. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  17. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence (T.-D. Lee, 'On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields,' Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)) is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  18. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  19. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  1. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  2. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  3. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, F; Distefano, C

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Effect of peripheral vision training on the attack of beginner indoor soccer players: a study during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted within the context of Human Motor Skill Science, in the area of Biophysical Dimension and following the research line of the Study of Learning Mechanisms and Processes and of Motor Conduct within the epistemological construct of phenomenological explanation. The objective of this study was to investigate peripheral vision training (PVT and its effect on attack runs during indoor soccer, taking into account dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function in both learning speed andoffensive skills. Ten beginner indoor soccer players aged 10.4 ± 2.31 years, from Lar da Criança Padre Franz Neumair, Ititioca, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study. The boys were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 5 and a controlgroup (CG, n = 5 with similar dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function (H (EG: 80% left H and 20% right H, CG: 60% left H and 40% right H. The players underwent nine training sessions, followed by a championship, and then six additional sessions, followed by a second championship. Each championship was filmed for scoutvideo analysis. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in peripheral vision during offensive runs between CG and EG, with marked acquisition of peripheral vision in EG. The quality of the attack runs was significant (two-way ANOVA. EG was the better team at the beginning of the attack runs and during attack development, whereas CG was better at attack finalization during the first championship. EG showed more competence in attack run finalization during the second championship. No significant difference in the number of goals scored was observed between the two groups (two-wayANOVA, p>0.05. The frequency of participation in the training sessions was significant (t-test for independent samples, p≤0.05, with EG attending more sessions. In conclusion, EG acquired peripheral vision, a finding suggesting that PVT improves the attack capacity of indoor soccer

  6. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  7. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  8. Absolute tense forms in Tswana | Pretorius | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These views were compared in an attempt to put forth an applicable framework for the classification of the tenses in Tswana and to identify the absolute tenses of Tswana. Keywords: tense; simple tenses; compound tenses; absolute tenses; relative tenses; aspect; auxiliary verbs; auxiliary verbal groups; Tswana Opsomming

  9. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.J.; Oosterbeek, J.W.

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of

  10. Absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Science Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has in use a system of absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Basically, absolute INAA is dependent upon the absolute measurement of the disintegration rates of the nuclides produced by neutron capture. From such disintegration rate data, the amount of the target element present in the irradiated sample is calculated by dividing the observed disintegration rate for each nuclide by the expected value for the disintegration rate per microgram of the target element that produced the nuclide. In absolute INAA, the expected value for disintegration rate per microgram is calculated from nuclear parameters and from measured values of both thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes which were present during irradiation. Absolute INAA does not depend on the concurrent irradiation of elemental standards but does depend on the values for thermal and epithermal neutron capture cross-sections for the target nuclides. A description of the analytical method is presented

  11. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  12. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  13. Effect of peripheral vision training on the attack of beginner indoor soccer players: a study during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p119   In the area of Biophysical Dimension and following the research line of the Study of Learning Mechanisms and Processes and of Motor Conduct within the epistemological construct of phenomenological explanation. The objective of this study was to investigate peripheral vision training (PVT and its effect on attack runs during indoor soccer, taking into account dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function in both learning speed and offensive skills. Ten beginner indoor soccer players aged 10.4 ± 2.31 years, from Lar da Criança Padre Franz Neumair, Ititioca, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participated in the study. The boys were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 5 and a control group (CG, n = 5 with similar dominant laterality (brain hemisphere function (H (EG: 80% left H and 20% right H, CG: 60% left H and 40% right H. The players underwent nine training sessions, followed by a championship, and then six additional sessions, followed by a second championship. Each championship was filmed for scout video analysis. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in peripheral vision during offensive runs between CG and EG, with marked acquisition of peripheral vision in EG. The quality of the attack runs was significant (two-way ANOVA. EG was the better team at the beginning of the attack runs and during attack development, whereas CG was better at attack finalization during the first championship. EG showed more competence in attack run finalization during the second championship. No significant difference in the number of goals scored was observed between the two groups (two-way ANOVA, p>0.05. The frequency of participation in the training sessions was significant (t-test for independent samples, p≤0.05, with EG attending more sessions. In conclusion, EG acquired peripheral vision, a finding suggesting that PVT improves the attack capacity of indoor soccer players.

  14. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  15. Efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol in unrespectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Hameed, K.; Khan, I.U.; Shah, S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine efficacy of intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection in researchable hepatocellular carcinoma. A randomized, controlled, experimental and interventional clinical trial. Gastroenterology Department, PGMI, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar during the period from June, 1998 to June, 2000. Thirty patients were treated by percutaneous, intrahepatic absolute alcohol injection sin repeated sessions, 33 patients were not given or treated with alcohol to serve as control. Both the groups were comparable for age, sex and other baseline characteristics. Absolute alcohol therapy significantly improved quality of life of patients, reduced the tumor size and mortality as well as showed significantly better results regarding survival (P< 0.05) than the patients of control group. We conclude that absolute alcohol is a beneficial and safe palliative treatment measure in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (author)

  16. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The researcher also interviewed native speakers of the dialect. The study ... The word 'synonymy' means sameness of meaning, i.e., a relationship in which more ... whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo or not. ..... 'close this book'.

  17. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  18. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m 2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m 2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  19. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  20. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D., E-mail: dmitry.moseev@ipp.mpg.de; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Gellert, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power is measured.

  1. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  2. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  3. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Krishnan, Shyam; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional

  4. A proposal to measure absolute environmental sustainability in lifecycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, Manuele; Roy, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    sustainable are therefore increasingly important. Such absolute indicators exist, but suffer from shortcomings such as incomplete coverage of environmental issues, varying data quality and varying or insufficient spatial resolution. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that life cycle assessment (LCA...... in supporting decisions aimed at simultaneously reducing environmental impacts efficiently and maintaining or achieving environmental sustainability. We have demonstrated that LCA indicators can be modified from being relative to being absolute indicators of environmental sustainability. Further research should...

  5. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sammie eTarenskeen; Mirjam eBroersma; Mirjam eBroersma; Bart eGeurts

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a bet...

  6. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Tarenskeen, S.L.; Broersma, M.; Geurts, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Usi...

  7. Jazz: A Beginner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Introducing jazz music to elementary and middle school students can open a multitude of creative doors--provided that teachers know how and where to start. This article presents a sample of what Christine Nowmos teaches to her kindergarten-through-fourth-grade classrooms over the course of two months. During January and February each year, she has…

  8. E10 for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebert, R.W.; Nicolai, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this contribution, we summarize a recent attempt to understand hyperbolic Kac Moody algebras in terms of the string vertex operator construction. As is well known, Kac Moody algebras fall into one of three classes corresponding to whether the associated Cartan matrices are positive definite, positive semi-definite and indefinite. Of these, the first two are well understood, leading to finite and affine Lie algebras (the latter being equivalent to current algebras in two space-time dimensions). Virtually nothing is known, however, about the last class of Kac Moody algebras, based on indefinite Cartan matrices. Nonetheless these have been repeatedly suggested as natural candidates for the still elusive fundamental symmetry of string theory (see e.g. [24], [28] for recent proposals in this direction). Being vastly larger than affine Kac Moody algebras, they are certainly ''sufficiently big'' for this purpose, but an even more compelling argument supporting such speculations is the intimate link that exists between Kac Moody algebras and the vertex operator construction of string theory which has been known for a long time. More specifically, it has been established that the elements making up a Kac Moody algebra of finite or affine type can be explicitly realized in terms of tachyon and photon emission vertex operators of a compactified open bosonic string [9], [14]. On the basis of these results, it has been conjectured that Kac Moody algebras of indefinite type might not only furnish new symmetries of string theory, but might themselves be understood in terms of string vertex operators associated with the higher excited (massive) states of a compactified bosonic string [14], [8]. (orig.)

  9. Quantum physics for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The textbook introduces students to the main ideas of quantum physics and the basic mathematical methods and techniques used in the fields of advanced quantum physics, atomic physics, laser physics, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, and theoretical mathematics. The textbook explains how microscopic objects (particles) behave in unusual ways, giving rise to what's called quantum effects. It contains a wide range of tutorial problems from simple confidence-builders to fairly challenging exercises that provide adequate understanding of the basic concepts of quantum physics.

  10. Hydrogen energy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the outstanding role of hydrogen in energy processes, where it is the most functional element due to its unique peculiarities that are highlighted and emphasized in the book. The first half of the book covers the great natural hydrogen processes in biology, chemistry, and physics, showing that hydrogen is a trend that can unite all natural sciences. The second half of the book is devoted to the technological hydrogen processes that are under research and development with the aim to create the infrastructure for hydrogen energetics. The book describes the main features of hydrogen that make it inalienable player in processes such as fusion, photosynthesis, and metabolism. It also covers the methods of hydrogen production and storage, highlighting at the same time the exclusive importance of nanotechnologies in those processes.

  11. C++ for beginners... masters

    CERN Document Server

    Asthana, Ankit

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: The purpose of this book is to provide an introductory text for understanding the C++ language and to empower the reader to write C++ programs. The book also introduces reader to the paradigm of object oriented programming. The main strength and USP of this book is that it is written by a student for students but will be equally useful for intermediate level programmers, and software development professionals. The author is in the best position to identify and address issues and areas where a student needs maximum help in understanding the C++ concepts and developing programmi

  12. TCSA for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    the basics of the approach I also give a brief overview of the recently introduced renormalization methods to deal with cut-off dependence, which led to a major improvement in precision and also widened the potential scope of applications.

  13. Kant for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Want, Christopher; Appignanesi, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Immanuel Kant, philosopher of the Enlightenment, laid the foundations of modern Western thought. This work focuses on the three critiques of Pure Reason, Practical Reason and Judgement. It describes Kant's main formal concepts: the relation of mind to sensory experience, the question of freedom and the law and, above all, the revaluation of metaphysics. Kant emerges as a diehard rationalist yet also a Romantic, deeply committed to the power of the sublime to transform experience.

  14. Am Beginn des Hausbaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    Architectural developments during the Neolithic period show important innovations, e.g., the discovery and use of the right angle and the use of activity floors placed on top of each other. Although these developments influenced our building history and our understanding of architecture in genera...

  15. Nuclear power for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croall, S.; Sempler, K.

    1978-01-01

    A 'comic strip' account of nuclear power, covering weapons and weapons proliferation, reactor accidents involving human errors, radiation hazards, radioactive waste management and the fuel cycle, fast breeder reactors and plutonium, security, public relations and sociological aspects, energy consumption patterns, energy conservation and alternative energy sources, environmental aspects and anti-nuclear activities. (U.K.)

  16. Pulsars for the Beginner

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLavore, Phillip; Wayland, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history of the discovery of pulsars, observations that have been made on pulsar radiation, and theories that have been presented for its presence and origin. Illustrations using pulsar's properties are presented in mechanics, electromagnetic radiation and thermodynamics. (DS)

  17. Android NDK beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ratabouil, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Are you an Android Java programmer who needs more performance? Are you a C/C++ developer who doesn't want to bother with the complexity of Java and its out-of-control garbage collector? Do you want to create fast intensive multimedia applications or games? If you've answered yes to any of these questions then this book is for you. With some general knowledge of C/C++ development, you will be able to dive headfirst into native Android development.

  18. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  19. PHENIX for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajc, W.A.; Fachini, P.

    2002-01-01

    An introduction to the PHENIX detector and to the PHENIX physics program is presented. The PHENIX physics results presented here are those from the the first RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) run with Au+Au collisions at √(S NN ) = 130 GeV. A brief overview of the PHENIX detector is provided. The systematic variation with centrality of charged particle multiplicity, transverse energy, identified particle spectra and yield ratios, production of charged hadrons and π0's at high transverse momenta are reported, together with first results on charm production at RHIC

  20. PHENIX for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, W. A.; Fachini, P.

    2002-10-01

    An introduction to the PHENIX detector and to the PHENIX physics program is presented. The PHENIX physics results presented here are those from the the first RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) run with Au+Au collisions at RADICAL:[[RADICAND:[SNN

  1. NS simulator for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    NS-2 is an open-source discrete event network simulator which is widely used by both the research community as well as by the people involved in the standardization protocols of IETF. The goal of this book is twofold: on one hand to learn how to use the NS-2 simulator, and on the other hand, to become acquainted with and to understand the operation of some of the simulated objects using NS-2 simulations. The book is intended to help students, engineers or researchers who need not have much background in programming or who want to learn through simple examples how to analyse some simulated obje

  2. Openlayers 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gratier, Thomas; Hazzard, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional web developer, if you wish to use maps on your website, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of JavaScript will be helpful, but is not necessary. If you've never worked with maps before, this book will introduce you to some common mapping topics and will guide you through the OpenLayers library. Experienced developers can also use this book as a reference to OpenLayers 3 components and to further enhance their knowledge.

  3. The Pragmatics of "Unruly" Dative Absolutes in Early Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Collins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines some uses of the dative absolute in Old Church Slavonic and in early recensional Slavonic texts that depart from notions of how Indo-European absolute constructions should behave, either because they have subjects coreferential with the (putative main-clause subjects or because they function as if they were main clauses in their own right. Such "noncanonical" absolutes have generally been written off as mechanistic translations or as mistakes by scribes who did not understand the proper uses of the construction. In reality, the problem is not with literalistic translators or incompetent scribes but with the definition of the construction itself; it is quite possible to redefine the Early Slavic dative absolute in a way that accounts for the supposedly deviant cases. While the absolute is generally dependent semantically on an adjacent unit of discourse, it should not always be regarded as subordinated syntactically. There are good grounds for viewing some absolutes not as dependent clauses but as independent sentences whose collateral character is an issue not of syntax but of the pragmatics of discourse.

  4. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  5. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, R.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  6. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  7. The relative and absolute speed of radiographic screen - film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of new screen-film systems have become available for use in diagnostic radiology. These new screens are made of materials generally known as rare - earth phosphors which have high x-ray absorption and high x-ray to light conversion efficiency compared to calcium tungstate phosphors. The major advantage of these new systems is reduction of patient exposure due to their high speed or high sensitivity. However, a system with excessively high speed can result in a significant degradation of radiographic image quality. Therefore, the speed is important parameters for users of these system. Our aim of in this was to determine accurately and precisely the absolute speed and relative speeds of both new and conventional screen - film system. We determined the absolute speed in condition of BRH phantom beam quality and the relative speed were measured by a split - screen technique in condition of BRH and ANSI phantom beam quality. The absolute and the relative speed were determined for 8 kinds of screen - 4 kinds of film in regular system and 7 kinds pf screen - 7 kinds of film in ortho system. In this study we could know the New Rx, T - MAT G has the highest film speed, also know Green system's standard deviation of relative speed larger than blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the blue system. It was realized that there were no relationship between the absolute speed and the relative speed in ortho or regular system

  8. Using a task-based approach to teaching and learning Chinese as a Foreign Language in a university beginner's level class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    to learning Chinese as a foreign language. Chinese culture elements were also integrated into the tasks and the learning process. By analysing seven items of a post-course survey, this paper investigates the learners’ opinions toward the task-based language teaching and learning method, as well as the methods......The task-based method is regarded as an effective approach for promoting interaction and collaboration in language learning. In a beginner Chinese language course offered as an elective at Aalborg University, Denmark, a selection of tasks was designed and used to attract the students’ interests...... used in integrating culture with the language learning in this course. The results indicated that course participants were generally positive about their learning experiences and processes during the course. They appreciated not only the task-based method, but also the ways in which culture...

  9. What on earth is a mainframe ? an introduction to IBM zSeries mainframes and z/OS operating systems for total beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, David

    2008-01-01

    Looking for a "Mainframes for Beginners" book? Need to learn about z/OS fast? Then this is the book you need. This is the perfect introduction to IBM System z Mainframes and z/OS. Avoiding technical jargon, it gives you the basic facts in clear, light-hearted, entertaining English. You'll quickly learn what Mainframes are, what they do, what runs on them, and terms and terminology you need to speak Mainframe-ese. But it's not all technical. There's also invaluable information about the people that work on Mainframes, Mainframe management issues, new Mainframe trends, and other facts that don't seem to be written down anywhere else. What On Earth is a Mainframe is the closest you'll get to a "Mainframes for Dummies" book. Programmers, managers, recruitment consultants, and industry commentators will all find this book their new best friend when trying to understand the Mainframe world.

  10. Oracle Application Express 5 for beginners a practical guide to rapidly develop data-centric web applications accessible from desktop, laptops, tablets, and smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Oracle Application Express has taken another big leap towards becoming a true next generation RAD tool. It has entered into its fifth version to build robust web applications. One of the most significant feature in this release is a new page designer that helps developers create and edit page elements within a single page design view, which enormously maximizes developer productivity. Without involving the audience too much into the boring bits, this full colored edition adopts an inspiring approach that helps beginners practically evaluate almost every feature of Oracle Application Express, including all features new to version 5. The most convincing way to explore a technology is to apply it to a real world problem. In this book, you’ll develop a sales application that demonstrates almost every feature to practically expose the anatomy of Oracle Application Express 5. The short list below presents some main topics of Oracle APEX covered in this book: Rapid web application development for desktops, la...

  11. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  12. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  13. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, Sander K R; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and health outcome

  14. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  15. Absolute transition probabilities for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Absolute radiative transition probabilities are reported for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium covering the wavelength range 340-880 nm. These transition probabilities are obtained by scaling published relative line intensities (Meggers et al 1975 Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (National Bureau of Standards Monograph 145)) with a smaller set of published absolute transition probabilities (Bisson et al 1991 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8 1545). All 559 new values are for lines for which transition probabilities have not previously been available. The estimated relative random uncertainty of the new data is +-35% for nearly all lines.

  16. Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the morphological deformation of a solid-liquid interface of a binary melt under rapid solidification conditions near two absolute stability limits. The first of these involves the complete stabilization of the system to cellular instabilities as a result of large enough surface energy. We derive nonlinear evolution equations in several limits in this scenario and investigate the effect of interfacial disequilibrium on the nonlinear deformations that arise. In contrast to the morphological stability problem in equilibrium, in which only cellular instabilities appear and only one absolute stability boundary exists, in disequilibrium the system is prone to oscillatory instabilities and a second absolute stability boundary involving attachment kinetics arises. Large enough attachment kinetics stabilize the oscillatory instabilities. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation to describe the nonlinear development of the solid-liquid interface near this oscillatory absolute stability limit. We find that strong asymmetries develop with time. For uniform oscillations, the evolution equation for the interface reduces to the simple form f''+(βf')2+f =0 , where β is the disequilibrium parameter. Lastly, we investigate a distinguished limit near both absolute stability limits in which the system is prone to both cellular and oscillatory instabilities and derive a nonlinear evolution equation that captures the nonlinear deformations in this limit. Common to all these scenarios is the emergence of larger asymmetries in the resulting shapes of the solid-liquid interface with greater departures from equilibrium and larger morphological numbers. The disturbances additionally sharpen near the oscillatory absolute stability boundary, where the interface becomes deep-rooted. The oscillations are time-periodic only for small-enough initial amplitudes and their frequency depends on a single combination of physical parameters, including the

  17. A note on unique solvability of the absolute value equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lotfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that applying sufficient regularity conditions to the interval matrix $[A-|B|,A+|B|]$‎, ‎we can create a new unique solvability condition for the absolute value equation $Ax+B|x|=b$‎, ‎since regularity of interval matrices implies unique solvability of their corresponding absolute value equation‎. ‎This condition is formulated in terms of positive definiteness of a certain point matrix‎. ‎Special case $B=-I$ is verified too as an application.

  18. Absolute decay parametric instability of high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zozulya, A.A.; Silin, V.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    A new absolute decay parametric instability having wide spatial localization region is shown to be possible near critical plasma density. Its excitation is conditioned by distributed feedback of counter-running Langmuir waves occurring during parametric decay of incident and reflected pumping wave components. In a hot plasma with the temperature of the order of kiloelectronvolt its threshold is lower than that of a known convective decay parametric instability. Minimum absolute instability threshold is shown to be realized under conditions of spatial parametric resonance of higher orders

  19. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model...... is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken...

  20. The bolometric, infrared and visual absolute magnitudes of Mira variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.S.C.; Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Statistical parallaxes, as well as stars with individually known distances are used to derive bolometric and infrared absolute magnitudes of Mira (Me) variables. The derived bolometric magnitudes are in the mean about 0.75 mag fainter than recent estimates. The problem of determining the pulsation constant is discussed. Miras with periods greater than 150 days probably pulsate in the first overtone. Those of shorter periods are anomalous and may be fundamental pulsators. It is shown that the absolute visual magnitudes at mean light of Miras with individually determined distances are consistent with values derived by Clayton and Feast from statistical parallaxes. (author)

  1. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the GNET...

  2. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  3. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  4. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  5. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  6. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  8. The Absolute and the Relative Dimensions of Constitutional Rights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-47 ISSN 0143-6503 Keywords : constitutional rights * judicial review * proportionality Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/ojls/article/37/1/31/2669583/The-Absolute-and-the-Relative-Dimensions-of

  9. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  10. Absolute configuration of some dinorlabdanes from the copaiba oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Adriano L.; Baptistela, Lucia H.B.; Imamura, Paulo M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: imam@iqm.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    A novel ent-dinorlabdane ({iota})-13(R)-14,15-dinorlabd-8(17)-ene-3,13-diol was isolated from commercial copaiba oil along with two known dinorlabdanes. The absolute configuration of these dinorditerpenes was established for the first time through synthesis starting from known ({iota})-3-hydroxycopalic acid, which was also isolated from the same oleoresin. (author)

  11. Absolute Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual absolute risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…

  12. Absolute differential yield of parametric x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchagin, A.V.; Pristupa, V.I.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of measurements of absolute differential yield of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) in thin single crystal are presented for the first time. It has been established that the experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations according with kinematical theory. The influence of density effect on PXR properties is discussed. (author). 19 refs., 7 figs

  13. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  14. Comments on the theory of absolute and convective instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarsson, T.E.; Roennmark, K.

    1986-10-01

    The theory of absolute and convective instabilities is discussed and we argue that the basis of the theory is questionable, since it describes the linear development of instabilities by their behaviour in the time asymptotic limit. In order to make sensible predictions on the linear development of instabilities, the problem should be studied on the finite time scale implied by the linear approximation. (authors)

  15. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The widely applied “dollar-a-day” methodology identifies global absolute poverty as declining precipitously since the early 80’s throughout the developing world. The methodological underpinnings of the “dollar-a-day” approach have been questioned in terms of adequately representing equivalent

  16. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global absolute poverty rates of the World Bank demonstrate a continued decline of poverty in developing countries between 1983 and 2012. However, the methodology applied to derive these results has received extensive criticism by scholars for requiring the application of PPP exchange rates and

  17. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  18. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos; Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-01-01

    -Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend

  19. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  20. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  1. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P

    2000-01-01

    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  2. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  3. Absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Xiang; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    In this proceeding, the results of the in-situ absolute intensity calibration for ECE measurements on EAST are presented. A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer system and a Michelson interferometer on EAST have been calibrated independently, and preliminary results from plasma operation indicate a good agreement between the electron temperature profiles obtained with different systems. (author)

  4. Absolute dissipative drift-wave instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Chance, M.S.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1979-07-01

    Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, it is shown that the dissipative drift-wave instabilities are absolute in tokamak plasmas. The existence of unstable eigenmodes is shown to be associated with a new eigenmode branch induced by the finite toroidal couplings

  5. On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On quantum harmonic oscillator being subjected to absolute potential state. SWAMI NITYAYOGANANDA. Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, R.K. Beach, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. E-mail: nityayogananda@gmail.com. MS received 1 May 2015; accepted 6 May 2016; published online 3 December 2016. Abstract.

  6. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an arithmetical function f with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the ∑ n ≤ N f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan's totient functions.

  7. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  8. A Web-Based, Social Networking Beginners' Running Intervention for Adults Aged 18 to 50 Years Delivered via a Facebook Group: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looyestyn, Jemma; Kernot, Jocelyn; Boshoff, Kobie; Maher, Carol

    2018-02-26

    Online social networks continue to grow in popularity, with 1.7 billion users worldwide accessing Facebook each month. The use of social networking sites such as Facebook for the delivery of health behavior programs is relatively new. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Web-based beginners' running program for adults aged 18 to 50 years, delivered via a Facebook group, in increasing physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. A total of 89 adults with a mean age of 35.2 years (SD 10.9) were recruited online and via print media. Participants were randomly allocated to receive the UniSA Run Free program, an 8-week Web-based beginners' running intervention, delivered via a closed Facebook group (n=41) that included daily interactive posts (information with links, motivational quotes, opinion polls, or questions) and details of the running sessions; or to the control group who received a hard copy of the running program (n=48). Assessments were completed online at baseline, 2 months, and 5 months. The primary outcome measures were self-reported weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Secondary outcomes were social support, exercise attitudes, and self-efficacy. Analyses were undertaken using random effects mixed modeling. Compliance with the running program and engagement with the Facebook group were analyzed descriptively. Both groups significantly increased MVPA across the study period (P=.004); however, this was significantly higher in the Facebook group (P=.04). The Facebook group increased their MVPA from baseline by 140 min/week versus 91 min for the control at 2 months. MVPA remained elevated for the Facebook group (from baseline) by 129 min/week versus a 50 min/week decrease for the control at 5 months. Both groups had significant increases in social support scores at 2 months (P=.02); however, there were no group by time differences (P=.16). There were

  9. Proposal for an absolute, atomic definition of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.

    1991-11-01

    It is proposed that the mass of a particle be defined absolutely as its de Broglie frequency, measured as the mean de Broglie wavelength of the particle when it has a mean speed (v) and Lorentz factor γ; the masses of systems too large to have a measurable de Broglie wavelength mean are then to be derived by specifying the usual inertial and additive properties of mass. This definition avoids the use of an arbitrary macroscopic standard such as the prototype kilogram, and, if present theory is correct, does not even require the choice of a specific particle as a mass standard. Suggestions are made as to how this absolute mass can be realized and measured at the macroscopic level and, finally, some comments are made on the effect of the new definition on the form of the equations of physics. 19 refs

  10. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-01-01

    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  11. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  12. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  13. Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation

  14. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  15. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  16. Limitations of absolute activity determination of I-125 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelled, O; German, U; Kol, R; Levinson, S; Weinstein, M; Laichter, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Alphasy, Z [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    A method for absolute determination of the activity of a I-125 source, based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the coincidence photon peak is given in the literature. It is based on the principle that if a radionuclide emits two photons in coincidence , a measurement of its disintegration rate in the photopeak and in the sum- peak can determinate it`s absolute activity. When using this method , the system calibration is simplified and parameters such as source geometry or source position relative to the detector have no significant influence. However, when the coincidence rate is very low, the application of this method is limited because of the statistics of the coincidence peak (authors).

  17. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  18. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  19. Synesthesia and rhythm. The road to absolute cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roncero Palomar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cinema, developed during the historical avant-garde, con-tinued with a long artistic tradition that linked musical with visual experience. Due to cinema as médium of expression, this filmmakers were able to work with the moving image to develop concepts such as rhythm, also with more complex figures than the colored spots that other devices could create at those time. This study starts with the published texts in 1704 by Newton about color, and provides an overview of those artistic highlights that link image and sound, and which creates the origins of absolute cinema. The connections and equivalences between the visual and sound experiences used by these filmmakers are also studied in order to know if there was a continuous line with the origins of these studies or if there was a rupture and other later investigations were able to have more repercussion in their works.

  20. Purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost Mathieu operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulaevsky, V.; Delyon, F.

    1989-01-01

    Using a recent result of Sinai, the authors prove that the almost Mathieu operators acting on l 2 (Z), (H αλ Psi)(n) = Ψ(n + 1) + Ψ(n - 1) + λ cos(ωn + α) Ψ(n), have a purely absolutely continuous spectrum for almost all α provided that ω is a good irrational and λ is sufficiently small. Furthermore, the generalized eigenfunctions are quasiperiodic

  1. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment

  2. Results from a U.S. Absolute Gravity Survey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards. La . ... ,., 831A08 NOV -2- 1. Introduction We have recently completed an absolute gravity survey at twelve sites in the...Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) and the Istituto di Metrologia -7- "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC) [Marson and Alasia, 1978, 19801. All three...for ab- solute measurements of the earth’s gravity, Metrologia , in press, 1982. L 4 !" Table 1. Gravity values transferred to the floor in gal (cm

  3. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  4. Definition of correcting factors for absolute radon content measurement formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Xiao Ziyun; Yang Jianfeng

    1992-01-01

    The absolute method of radio content measurement is based on thomas radon measurement formula. It was found in experiment that the systematic error existed in radon content measurement by means of thomas formula. By the analysis on the behaviour of radon daughter five factors including filter efficiency, detector construction factor, self-absorbance, energy spectrum factor, and gravity factor were introduced into the thomas formula, so that the systematic error was eliminated. The measuring methods of the five factors are given

  5. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ∼2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ∼ 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ∼2000-2400 A). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ∼0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ∼1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  6. Mylar sources for the absolute determination of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenillas, Pablo A.

    1999-01-01

    Strong Mylar foils 2.5 μm thick are proposed as an alternative to the very fragile Vyns foils for the preparation of the radioactive sources for absolute counting. Several experiments have been carried out with β and X-ray emitters to demonstrate the suitability of this material. The results show that Mylar can replace Vyns foils even for low energy β emitters. (author)

  7. Improved Harmony Search Algorithm with Chaos for Absolute Value Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouheng Tuo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved harmony search with chaos (HSCH is presented for solving NP-hard absolute value equation (AVE Ax - |x| = b, where A is an arbitrary square matrix whose singular values exceed one. The simulation results in solving some given AVE problems demonstrate that the HSCH algorithm is valid and outperforms the classical HS algorithm (CHS and HS algorithm with differential mutation operator (HSDE.

  8. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  9. Absolute efficiency calibration of HPGe detector by simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayani, K.; Pant, Amar D.; Verma, Amit K.; Bhosale, N.A.; Anilkumar, S.

    2018-01-01

    High resolution gamma ray spectrometry by HPGe detectors is a powerful radio analytical technique for estimation of activity of various radionuclides. In the present work absolute efficiency calibration of the HPGe detector was carried out using Monte Carlo simulation technique and results are compared with those obtained by experiment using standard radionuclides of 152 Eu and 133 Ba. The coincidence summing correction factors for the measurement of these nuclides were also calculated

  10. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  11. Assembler absolute forward thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculescu, V.I.R.; Baciu, G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    1981-12-01

    The program is intended to compute the absolute forward thick-target bremsstrahlung spectrum for electrons in the energy range 1-24 MeV. The program takes into account the following phenomena: multiple scattering, energy loss and the attenuation of the emitted gamma rays. The computer program is written in Assembler having a higher degree of generality and is more performant than the FORTRAN version. (authors)

  12. Effect of pre-entry instruction as an additional part of radiation training beginner's course on reduction of radioactive contamination in two independent unsealed radioisotope facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Okumura, Yutaka; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Kojima, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Yoshioki; Horiuchi, Seikoh

    2005-01-01

    The education for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. Japanese laws concerning radiation safety requires each radiation worker attending the 6 hours beginner's training course before entering the control area. However, in unsealed radioisotope facilities, radioactive contaminations in the control area may still take place because practical procedures for radiation safety vary depending on the type of experiments and the characteristics of radioisotopes. Therefore, an additional and practical training for each radiation worker is needed. In an attempt to give the workers an additional training of this kind, the pre-entry instruction was performed independently in Center for Frontier Life Sciences, Nagasaki University and in Institute of Resource Development and Analysis Kumamoto University. In this study, the efficacy of the instruction in each facility was assessed quantitatively on the basis of the incidence of contamination in the control area. The instruction covered laboratory rules, radioisotope ordering information, description of sign-up sheets, radioactive waste management, use of survey meters, and lab tour with an appropriate modification to meet with a specificity of each experiment. The instruction was given to beginners and to refreshers who have not handled radioisotopes for a long period, in a face-to-face manner for 1 hour before they start working radioisotopes. To examine the education effect on the reduction of contamination in a typical and frequently used laboratory, the contamination in molecular biology room of Nagasaki University was surveyed directly by a GM survey meter on a daily basis. In Kumamoto University, contamination on the surface of the entire floor in the control area was surveyed monthly by the smear method to know the education effect on general reduction of contamination. The results revealed that the number of contamination decreased

  13. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  14. Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Snarskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  16. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s-2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  17. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  18. An absolute distance interferometer with two external cavity diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L; Meiners-Hagen, K; Abou-Zeid, A

    2008-01-01

    An absolute interferometer for length measurements in the range of several metres has been developed. The use of two external cavity diode lasers allows the implementation of a two-step procedure which combines the length measurement with a variable synthetic wavelength and its interpolation with a fixed synthetic wavelength. This synthetic wavelength is obtained at ≈42 µm by a modulation-free stabilization of both lasers to Doppler-reduced rubidium absorption lines. A stable reference interferometer is used as length standard. Different contributions to the total measurement uncertainty are discussed. It is shown that the measurement uncertainty can considerably be reduced by correcting the influence of vibrations on the measurement result and by applying linear regression to the quadrature signals of the absolute interferometer and the reference interferometer. The comparison of the absolute interferometer with a counting interferometer for distances up to 2 m results in a linearity error of 0.4 µm in good agreement with an estimation of the measurement uncertainty

  19. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  20. Absolutely minimal extensions of functions on metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, V A

    1999-01-01

    Extensions of a real-valued function from the boundary ∂X 0 of an open subset X 0 of a metric space (X,d) to X 0 are discussed. For the broad class of initial data coming under discussion (linearly bounded functions) locally Lipschitz extensions to X 0 that preserve localized moduli of continuity are constructed. In the set of these extensions an absolutely minimal extension is selected, which was considered before by Aronsson for Lipschitz initial functions in the case X 0 subset of R n . An absolutely minimal extension can be regarded as an ∞-harmonic function, that is, a limit of p-harmonic functions as p→+∞. The proof of the existence of absolutely minimal extensions in a metric space with intrinsic metric is carried out by the Perron method. To this end, ∞-subharmonic, ∞-superharmonic, and ∞-harmonic functions on a metric space are defined and their properties are established

  1. Absolute total cross sections for noble gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, P. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with experiments on the elastic scattering of Ar, Kr and Xe, using the molecular beam technique. The aim of this work was the measurement of the absolute value of the total cross section and the behaviour of the total cross section, Q, as function of the relative velocity g of the scattering partners. The author gives an extensive analysis of the glory structure in the total cross section and parametrizes the experimental results using a semiclassical model function. This allows a detailed comparison of the phase and amplitude of the predicted and measured glory undulations. He indicates how the depth and position of the potential well should be changed in order to come to an optimum description of the glory structure. With this model function he has also been able to separate the glory and attractive contribution to Q, and using the results from the extrapolation measurements he has obtained absolute values for Qsub(a). From these absolute values he has calculated the parameter C 6 that determines the strength of the attractive region of the potential. In two of the four investigated gas combinations the obtained values lie outside the theoretical bounds. (Auth.)

  2. Local absolute alcohol ablation for the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Mingyi; Wang Peijun; Lu Ying; Ma Jun; Tang Junjun; Xi Qian; Huang Zongliang; Gao Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical value of local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance in treating recurrent pheochromocytoma. Methods: Five patients with benign recurrent pheochromocytoma were enrolled in this study. Of the five cases, the lesions were located on the right side in three, on the left in one and on both sides in one. All the lesions were pathologically proved to be benign ones. Under CT guidance the ablation therapy with local injection of absolute alcohol was performed. The therapeutic results were observed and evaluated. Results: Thirty days after the treatment, different degrees of decrease in tumor size was observed on follow-up CT scans. All the patients were followed up for 9-42 months. During the follow-up period, both the blood pressure and the vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) level in urine remained normal and no paroxysmal dizziness, headache or syncope occurred in all patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma the ablation therapy by using local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance is a safe and practical therapeutic means with definite and reliable effectiveness. (authors)

  3. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  4. The integration of Mathematics, Science and Technology in early childhood education and the foundation phase: The role of the formation of the professional identities of beginner teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Botha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the professional identity formation of six beginner teachers (three in early childhood education and three in the foundation phase, involved in the teaching of Mathematics, Science and Technology (MST. Attention is in particular being paid to the role of professional identity in how they applied innovative teaching methods such as enquiry-based teaching. The study is based on the personal narratives of the six teachers, regarding their own learning experiences in MST, the impact of their professional training at an institution of higher education, as well as their first experiences as MST teachers in the workplace. A qualitative research design was applied and data was obtained through visual (photo collages and written stories, observation and interviews. Whilst all the teachers held negative attitudes towards Mathematics, this situation was turned around during their university training. The three teachers in early childhood education experienced their entrance to the profession as positive, due mainly to the support of colleagues in their application of innovative teaching methods. Two teachers in the foundation phase, however, experienced the opposite. The findings emphasise the complex processes in the moulding of a professional teacher identity and how teaching practices are influenced by these processes.

  5. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  6. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Gratton

    Full Text Available The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT. Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task, in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task. A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  7. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  8. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  9. Ablation of tumor and inflammatory tissue with absolute ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uflacker, R.; Paolini, R.M.; Nobrega, M.

    Absolute ethanol was used to ablate tumors, inflammatory lesions, and end-stage nephrosclerotic kidneys in 38 patients. Thirty patients had various types of renal tumors, and 3 had chronic end-stage renal failure with malignant hypertension. One patient had a fibrosarcoma of the right leg and one had a metastatis in the humerus from a renal carcinoma. A large adrenal carcinoma was treated with absolute ethanol in a patient who had liver metastases that were ablated one year after the first procedure. An additional patient had metastatic liver disease from a non-functioning adrenal carcinoma. The remaining patient had an extensive hypervascular inflammatory lesion (tuberculosis and aspergilloma) of the right upper pulmonary lobe. In addition to ethanol, coils were introduced in one patient and Gelfoam in another. The amount of ethanol used ranged from 5 to 50 ml. Twenty-two patients suffered from considerable transient pain during ethanol injection, but sedation was necessary in only 3 of them. Skin necrosis appeared in 2 patients requiring plastic reconstruction in one of them. Two patients died within 5 days of the procedure unrelated to the ablation. Two patients presented upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 2 days of the ethanol injection and one of these died in acute renal failure. One patient suffered from left colonic infarction after left renal tumor ablation, but survived for several months. Absolute ethanol was a useful and efficient sclerosing agent causing extensive tumor destruction and marked reduction of the vascularity in tumor and inflammatory lesions, but caused an 18% complication rate.

  10. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, J V; Warrington, A P; Partridge, M; Philps, A; Leach, M O; Webb, S

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry

  11. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  12. Absolute vibrational numbering from isotope shifts in fragmentary spectroscopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, A.; Kowalczyk, P.; Jastrzebski, W.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss application of the isotope effect to establish the absolute vibrational numbering in electronic states of diatomic molecules. This is illustrated by examples of states with potential energy curves of both regular and irregular shape, with one or two potential minima. The minimum number of spectroscopic data (either term values or spectral line positions) necessary to provide a unique numbering is considered. We show that at favourable conditions just four term energies (or spectral lines) in one isotopologue and one term energy in the other suffice.

  13. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Selby, Talitha M; Meloni, Giovanni; Fan, Haiyan; Pratt, Stephen T

    2008-10-02

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH3 photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; sigma(CH3)(10.2 eV) = (5.7 +/- 0.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) and sigma(CH3)(11.0 eV) = (6.0 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2). The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH3 and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.460 eV, (5.5 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 +/- 2.0) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  14. Absolute X-distribution and self-duality

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horváth, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Various models of QCD vacuum predict that it is dominated by excitations that are predominantly self-dual or anti-self-dual. In this work we look at the tendency for self-duality in the case of pure-glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based definition of the field-strength tensor. To gauge this property, we use the absolute X-distribution method which is designed to quantify the dynamical tendency for polarization for arbitrary random variables that can be decomposed in a pair of orthog...

  15. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  16. Including district heating pipelines in absolute liability laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, W

    1977-10-01

    On January 1, 1978 the provisions of the Act Amending the Rules of Liability Damages have entered into force. Formally this means that the provisions of the Reich Liability Act (Reichshaftpflichtgesetz, RHG) and those of the Act on Liability with Respect to Property Damage of Railways and Tramways (SHG) are now combined under the new term of Liability Act (Haftpflichtgesetz). In material terms it means that the district heat industry with its supply pipelines is subject to absolute liability. This creates a liability situation for this industry which has been existing for the electricity and gas industries since 1943 as a result of an amendment of the Reich Liability Act.

  17. Absolute continuity of the distribution of some Markov geometric series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-hua; FAN; Ji-hong; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Let (∈n)≥0 be the Markov chain of two states with respect to the probability measure of the maximal entropy on the subshift space ∑A defined by Fibonacci incident matrix A.We consider the measure μλ of the probability distribution of the random series ∑∞n=0 εnλn (0 <λ< 1).It is proved that μλ is singular if λ∈ (0,√5-1/2) and that μλ is absolutely continuous for almost all λ∈ (√5-1/2,0.739).

  18. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10 −3 at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively

  19. Absolute exposure determination of cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Ali, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    The report describes the procedure for the determination of absolute exposure for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. A graphite cavity chamber, nominal volume of 1 cm 3 , manufactured by Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been used. The exposure rate at reference distance determined with the graphite chamber was compared with mean exposure rate measured with NPL-Therapy level X-ray exposure meter normalized to same date. An agreement of 0.39% was found between the two measuring systems, which seems to be very encouraging and quite satisfactory. (authors)

  20. Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Margarone, D.; Schillaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.

  1. An Algorithm for Solving the Absolute Value Equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 589-599 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : absolute value equation * algorithm * regularity * singularity * theorem of the alternatives Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp589-599.pdf

  2. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A116

  3. The cathode-fall of low-pressure hydrogen discharges: Absolute spectral emission and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelenkovic, B. M. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zenum Belgrade (Serbia); Phelps, A. V. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Absolute excitation probabilities from very low to moderate-current hydrogen discharges in parallel-plane geometry are measured and used to test models. Relative emission data are obtained for the H{sub {alpha}} line, the H{sub 2} (a{sup 3}{Sigma}{yields}b{sup 3}{Pi}) near-UV continuum, and the H{sub 2} (G{sup 1}{Sigma}{yields}B{sup 1}{Pi}{sub u}{sup +}) band at pressures of 0.5 and 2 Torr, a 1.05 cm gap, and voltages from 300 to 900 V. Electron behavior is traced using the first negative (A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{yields} X{sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}, {nu}'' = 0 {yields}{nu}' = 0) band of N{sub 2}{sup +} by adding 2% N{sub 2}. Relative measurements of H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub 2} near-UV, and N{sub 2} 1st negative emission are placed on a absolute scale by normalization to published measurements and Boltzmann calculations of electron excitation. Emission probabilities calculated using a multi-beam kinetics model for the electrons, H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, H{sup -}, H, and H{sub 2} are compared with the calibrated experiments. Fast H atoms are calculated to produce H{sub {alpha}} excitation that is comparable with that of electrons. The calculated emission intensities for H{sub {alpha}} and H{sub 2} near-UV continuum are within a factor of three of the absolute measurements for a range of 5000:1 in current and 4:1 in hydrogen pressure. Calculations at 2 Torr show that most of the space charge electric field responsible for the cathode fall is produced by H{sub 3}{sup +} ions.

  4. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth, E-mail: kenneth.ruud@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  5. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  6. DI3 - A New Procedure for Absolute Directional Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Geese

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard observatory procedure for determining a geomagnetic field's declination and inclination absolutely is the DI-flux measurement. The instrument consists of a non-magnetic theodolite equipped with a single-axis fluxgate magnetometer. Additionally, a scalar magnetometer is needed to provide all three components of the field. Using only 12 measurement steps, all systematic errors can be accounted for, but if only one of the readings is wrong, the whole measurement has to be rejected. We use a three-component sensor on top of the theodolites telescope. By performing more measurement steps, we gain much better control of the whole procedure: As the magnetometer can be fully calibrated by rotating about two independent directions, every combined reading of magnetometer output and theodolite angles provides the absolute field vector. We predefined a set of angle positions that the observer has to try to achieve. To further simplify the measurement procedure, the observer is guided by a pocket pc, in which he has only to confirm the theodolite position. The magnetic field is then stored automatically, together with the horizontal and vertical angles. The DI3 measurement is periodically performed at the Niemegk Observatory, allowing for a direct comparison with the traditional measurements.

  7. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. Achilles: A Homeric hero enamoured with the absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evzonas, Nicolas

    2017-07-21

    This article explores through a psychoanalytical lens the character of Achilles in Homer's Iliad, the matrix behind the Western conception of heroism. The contribution reveals the psychological link binding the words and acts of the most valiant of warriors in Antiquity, which is situated in myth and termed "the Eros of the absolute." The paroxystic ideality underlying the aforementioned myth, which is rooted in the anthropological need to believe, is at the origin of Achilles' legendary μῆνις, that is, the flood of rage triggered by contests for supremacy, aggravated by the loss of his war comrade, aroused by the drama of aging and death, and then transfigured through song and memory. The main claim of the author is that Iliad, despite its seeming lack of attention to interiority, is launched by the archetypal emotion of wrath and owes its appeal to its hero's embrace of heroic idealism in an excessive, radical and absolute way that results in a captivating narcissism and sadomasochistic antithesis of ideality. This argument leads to the conclusion that Homer is the Father of the "primitive horde" of affects. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT – SYNTHETIC EXPRESSION OF ABSOLUTE RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE CRISTIAN IOACHIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has as main objective the presentation of the current state of knowledge regarding the profit and loss account as part of the financial statements which express in absolute value the profitability of companies and the empirical analysis of these concepts based on the information submitted by OMV Petrom between 2011 and 2015. Thus, in the first part we present several approaches from the specialized literature regarding the aspects mentioned above. The second part follows a vertical and horizontal analysis of key indicators used for measuring the absolute return. For the horizontal analysis we pursued the evolution in time of the following indicators: Gross Margin, Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT, Financial Result, Gross and Net Result. The vertical analysis aimed to explain the formation of the Gross Result via EBIT (which was also analyzed through the Gross Margin and other specific elements and of the Financial Result (which was also analyzed through the different types of financial income and expenses. The results of the study revealed problems of profitability in the years 2014 and 2015 which, in our opinion, can be attributed to poor management of the commercial activity, exploration activity (research and development, distribution and financial activity.

  10. PLEIADES ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION : INFLIGHT CALIBRATION SITES AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lachérade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  11. Absolute values of neutrino masses: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Giunti, C.; Grifols, J.A.; Masso, E.

    2003-01-01

    Compelling evidences in favor of neutrino masses and mixing obtained in the last years in Super-Kamiokande, SNO, KamLAND and other neutrino experiments made the physics of massive and mixed neutrinos a frontier field of research in particle physics and astrophysics. There are many open problems in this new field. In this review we consider the problem of the absolute values of neutrino masses, which apparently is the most difficult one from the experimental point of view. We discuss the present limits and the future prospects of β-decay neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double-β decay. We consider the important problem of the calculation of nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double-β decay and discuss the possibility to check the results of different model calculations of the nuclear matrix elements through their comparison with the experimental data. We discuss the upper bound of the total mass of neutrinos that was obtained recently from the data of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and other cosmological data and we discuss future prospects of the cosmological measurements of the total mass of neutrinos. We discuss also the possibility to obtain information on neutrino masses from the observation of the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (beyond the GZK cutoff). Finally, we review the main aspects of the physics of core-collapse supernovae, the limits on the absolute values of neutrino masses from the observation of SN1987A neutrinos and the future prospects of supernova neutrino detection

  12. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  13. On the absolute photoionization cross section and dissociative photoionization of cyclopropenylidene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeier, Fabian; Fischer, Ingo; Kiendl, Benjamin; Krueger, Anke; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick

    2016-04-07

    We report the determination of the absolute photoionization cross section of cyclopropenylidene, c-C3H2, and the heat of formation of the C3H radical and ion derived by the dissociative ionization of the carbene. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation as provided by the Swiss Light Source and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) were employed. Cyclopropenylidene was generated by pyrolysis of a quadricyclane precursor in a 1 : 1 ratio with benzene, which enabled us to derive the carbene's near threshold absolute photoionization cross section from the photoionization yield of the two pyrolysis products and the known cross section of benzene. The cross section at 9.5 eV, for example, was determined to be 4.5 ± 1.4 Mb. Upon dissociative ionization the carbene decomposes by hydrogen atom loss to the linear isomer of C3H(+). The appearance energy for this process was determined to be AE(0K)(c-C3H2; l-C3H(+)) = 13.67 ± 0.10 eV. The heat of formation of neutral and cationic C3H was derived from this value via a thermochemical cycle as Δ(f)H(0K)(C3H) = 725 ± 25 kJ mol(-1) and Δ(f)H(0K)(C3H(+)) = 1604 ± 19 kJ mol(-1), using a previously reported ionization energy of C3H.

  14. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (B z ) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (B x , B y , B z ). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T 2 or T* 2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy B z data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured B z data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging

  15. Changes in self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being in healthy individuals following a Taiji beginner course - Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schitter, Agnes Maria; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Taiji is a mind-body practice being increasingly investigated for its therapeutic benefits in a broad range of mental and physical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effects of Taiji practice in healthy individuals with regard to their depressive symptomatology and physical well-being. Seventy healthy Taiji novices were randomly assigned to a Taiji intervention group, that is, Taiji beginner course (Yang-Style Taiji, 2 h per week, 12 weeks) or a control group comprised of the waiting list for the course. Self-reported symptoms of depression (CES-D) and physical well-being (FEW-16) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, as well as 2 months later. The included participants had a mean age of 35.5 years. Physical well-being in the Taiji group significantly increased when comparing baseline to follow-up (FEW-16 sum score T(27) = 3.94, P = 0.001, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.55). Pearson's correlation coefficients displayed a strong negative relationship between self-reported symptoms of depression and physical well-being (P's healthy individuals, with improvements pronouncing over time. Physical well-being was shown to have a strong relationship with depressive symptoms. Based on these results, the consideration of Taiji as one therapeutic option in the development of multimodal approaches in the prevention of depression seems justifiable.

  16. For beginners in anaesthesia, self-training with an audiovisual checklist improves safety during anaesthesia induction: A prospective, randomised, controlled two-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie; Reich, Christian; Krause, Dorothea; Ruhnke, Bjarne; Daubmann, Anne; Weimann, Jörg; Zöllner, Christian; Kubitz, Jens

    2018-01-31

    Beginners in residency programmes in anaesthesia are challenged because working environment is complex, and they cannot rely on experience to meet challenges. During this early stage, residents need rules and structures to guide their actions and ensure patient safety. We investigated whether self-training with an electronic audiovisual checklist app on a mobile phone would produce a long-term improvement in the safety-relevant actions during induction of general anaesthesia. During the first month of their anaesthesia residency, we randomised 26 residents to the intervention and control groups. The study was performed between August 2013 and December 2014 in two university hospitals in Germany. In addition to normal training, the residents of the intervention group trained themselves on well tolerated induction using the electronic checklist for at least 60 consecutive general anaesthesia inductions. After an initial learning phase, all residents were observed during one induction of general anaesthesia. The primary outcome was the number of safety items completed during this anaesthesia induction. Secondary outcomes were similar observations 4 and 8 weeks later. Immediately, and 4 weeks after the first learning phase, residents in the intervention group completed a significantly greater number of safety checks than residents in the control group 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 5.1, P = 0.021, Cohen's d = 0.47] and 3.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 6.1, P = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.61), respectively. The difference between the groups had disappeared by 8 weeks: mean difference in the number of safety checks at 8 weeks was 0.4, 95% CI -2.0 to 2.8, P = 0.736, Cohen's d = 0.07). The use of an audiovisual self-training checklists improves safety-relevant behaviour in the early stages of a residency training programme in anaesthesia.

  17. Absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb with beam-gas imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Barschel, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam-Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used *van der Meer scan* method (VDM). The technique has been used in 10 LHC fills during 2012 including and also provided a first luminosity measurement for proton-lead collisions. This talk presents the principles of the gas injection and the improvements reached with the increased pressure. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch. Those uncertainties are becoming the dominating factor because the uncertainty on the total beam current have been reduced.

  18. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  19. ANALISIS ABSOLUTE DAN OBLIQUE DALAM BAHASA KERINCI ISOLEK PULAU TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Rina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research study in phonological field, aims of this research to discribe rhyme alternation on form of absolute and oblique in Kerinci language isolect pulau tengah. The purpose of this research are 1 to documenting Kerinci language isolect Pulau Tengah that threatened by Indonesian standart, Jakarta Indonesia, Minangkabau language, and most seriously threathened by Kerinci koine 2 the result of this research about description of Kerinci language isolect Pulau Tengah will be useful for other Malayic language researcher especially in remote areas of Sumatera and 3 give langauge contribution significantly for Kerinci society especially for Pulau Tengah society. This research found 19 rhyme alternation in G-words, 20 rhyme alternation in K-words, 16 vocal sequences, 28 consonant clusters, 12 consonant sequences, and base on silable phonotactic rules in Kerinci language isolect Pulau Tengah, it found six rules; V, VC, CV, CVC, CCV, and CCVC.

  20. Absolute dimensions and evolutionary status of UW CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric B and V light curves of close binary system UW Canis Majoris (08.5 If + O-B) are analysed. Combining the photoelectric elements and the spectroscopic orbit absolute dimensions of the system are determined. The mass of the bright primary (08.5 If) component is found to be 19.3 solar masses and that of the faint secondary to be 23.2 solar masses. The primary has filled the Roche lobe and it is 1 to 2 mag over-luminous for its mass. The massive secondary component is most likely a main sequence star. Comparison with the theoretical evolutionary models of massive close binary systems undergoing case A of mass exchange indicate that UW CMa is close to the contact stage of evolution. (author)

  1. Moral foundations, worldviews, moral absolutism and belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Luigi; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Lauriola, Marco

    2017-09-05

    In the present research, we examined whether individual differences in basic moral concerns might be related to a greater endorsement of conspiracy theories. Building on the notion that conspiracy theories often deal with super-individual relevant events in which a group perspective is central, we proposed that individual differences in moral concerns pertaining to group- and community-concerns (i.e., binding moral foundations) rather than to individual well-being (i.e., individualising moral foundations) would be positively associated with conspiracy beliefs. We further hypothesised that such relations would be totally mediated by beliefs in a dangerous world and by embracing moral absolutism. We found support for these predictions in two community samples (Ns: 319; 514). Theoretical implications were discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Absolutism versus doceañista liberalism. The Visual Counterattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Reyero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify some dominants themes within absolutists discourses and to sketch out how they are translated to images, in order to persuade against and to denigrate liberalism. Descriptions of public ornaments in events honoring king Ferdinand VII in 1814 and 1823 are used as the main reference sources. Absolutism is recognized looking for associations between images and words, resemblances, metaphors, symbols and iconographic matches. Visual imagery to achieve absolutist goal emphasized the primacy of the king, the rhetoric of vassalage, a strong motherland, the uniqueness of religion, and the exclusion of the political enemy. In order to totally eliminate the constitutional risk, the tradition was presented as a paradise of peace and happiness.

  3. Absolute Astrometry in the next 50 Years - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, E.

    2018-01-01

    With the Gaia astrometric satellite in orbit since December 2013 it is time to look at the future of fundamental astrometry and a time frame of 50 years is needed in this matter. A space mission with Gaia-like astrometric performance is required, but not necessarily a Gaia-like satellite. A dozen science issues for a Gaia successor mission in twenty years, with launch about 2035, are presented and in this context also other possibilities for absolute astrometry with milliarcsecond (mas) or sub-mas accuracies are discussed in my report at http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2190. In brief, the two missions (2013 and 2035) would provide an astrometric foundation for all branches of astronomy from the solar system and stellar systems, including exo-planet systems with long periods, to compact galaxies, quasars and Dark Matter substructures by data which cannot be surpassed in the next 50 years.

  4. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  5. A SOLAR SPECTROSCOPIC ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCE OF ARGON FROM RESIK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of He-like and H-like Ar (Ar XVII and Ar XVIII) lines at 3.949 A and 3.733 A, respectively, with the RESIK X-ray spectrometer on the CORONAS-F spacecraft, together with temperatures and emission measures from the two channels of GOES, have been analyzed to obtain the abundance of Ar in flare plasmas in the solar corona. The line fluxes per unit emission measure show a temperature dependence like that predicted from theory and lead to spectroscopically determined values for the absolute Ar abundance, A(Ar) = 6.44 ± 0.07 (Ar XVII) and 6.49 ± 0.16 (Ar XVIII), which are in agreement to within uncertainties. The weighted mean is 6.45 ± 0.06, which is between two recent compilations of the solar Ar abundance and suggests that the photospheric and coronal abundances of Ar are very similar.

  6. Ensuring long-term stability of infrared camera absolute calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Alain; Thetas, Sophie; Primot, Jérôme

    2015-07-13

    Absolute calibration of cryogenic 3-5 µm and 8-10 µm infrared cameras is notoriously instable and thus has to be repeated before actual measurements. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio of the imagery is lowered, decreasing its quality. These performances degradations strongly lessen the suitability of Infrared Imaging. These defaults are often blamed on detectors reaching a different "response state" after each return to cryogenic conditions, while accounting for the detrimental effects of imperfect stray light management. We show here that detectors are not to be blamed and that the culprit can also dwell in proximity electronics. We identify an unexpected source of instability in the initial voltage of the integrating capacity of detectors. Then we show that this parameter can be easily measured and taken into account. This way we demonstrate that a one month old calibration of a 3-5 µm camera has retained its validity.

  7. Absolute measurement of undulator radiation in the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, H.; Kitamura, H.; Sasaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Osaka City Univ.; Suzuki, Y.; Kanamori, H.; Tamamushi, S.; Tokyo Univ.; Mikuni, A.; Tokyo Univ., Tanashi

    1983-01-01

    The spectral brightness of undulator radiation emitted by the model PMU-1 incorporated in the SOR-RING, the dedicated synchrotron radiation source in Tokyo, has been studied in the extreme ultraviolet region from 21.6 to 72.9 eV as a function of the electron energy #betta#, the field parameter K, and the angle of observation THETA in the absolute scale. A series of measurements covering the first and the second harmonic component of undulator radiation was compared with the fundamental formula lambdasub(n)=lambda 0 /2n#betta# 2 (1+K 2 /2+#betta# 2 THETA 2 ), and the effects of finite emittance were studied. The brightness at the first peak was smaller than the theoretical value, while an enhanced second harmonic component was observed. (orig.)

  8. Absolute measurement of the critical scattering cross section in cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinka, C.J.; Minkiewicz, V.J.; Passell, L.

    1975-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering techniques have been used to study the angular distribution of the critical scattering from cobalt above T/sub c/. These measurements have been put on an absolute scale by calibrating the critical scattering directly against the nuclear incoherent scattering from cobalt. In this way the interaction range r 1 , which appears in the classical and modified Ornstein--Zernike expressions for the asymptotic form of the spin pair correlation function and is related to the strength of the spin correlations, has been determined. We obtain r 1 /a = 0.46 +- 0.03 for the ratio of the interaction range to the nearest-neighbor distance in cobalt. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Lack of agreement among previous determinations of the ratio r 1 /a made in iron failed to provide a definitive comparison with theory

  9. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G. [Department of Quantum Detection, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena 07745 (Germany); Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M. [Supracon AG, An der Lehmgrube 11, Jena 07751 (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  10. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  11. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  12. Sub-nanometer periodic nonlinearity error in absolute distance interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxing; Huang, Kaiqi; Hu, Pengcheng; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Fan, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.

  13. Absolute cross-section measurements of inner-shell ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hans; Tobehn, Ingo; Ebel, Frank; Hippler, Rainer

    1994-12-01

    Cross section ratios for K- and L-shell ionization of thin silver and gold targets by positron and electron impact have been determined at projectile energies of 30 70 keV. The experimental results are confirmed by calculations in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) which include an electron exchange term and account for the deceleration or acceleration of the incident projectile in the nuclear field of the target atom. We report first absolute cross sections for K- and L-shell ionization of silver and gold targets by lepton impact in the threshold region. We have measured the corresponding cross sections for electron (e-) impact with an electron gun and the same experimental set-up.

  14. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  15. Absolute negative mobility induced by white Poissonian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiechowicz, J; Łuczka, J; Hänggi, P

    2013-01-01

    We study the transport properties of inertial Brownian particles which move in a symmetric periodic potential and are subjected to both a symmetric, unbiased time-periodic external force and a biased Poissonian white shot noise (of non-zero average F) which is composed of a random sequence of δ-shaped pulses with random amplitudes. Upon varying the parameters of the white shot noise, one can conveniently manipulate the transport direction and the overall nonlinear response behavior. We find that within tailored parameter regimes the response is opposite to the applied average bias F of such white shot noise. This particular transport characteristic thus mimics that of a nonlinear absolute negative mobility (ANM) regime. Moreover, such white shot noise driven ANM is robust with respect to the statistics of the shot noise spikes. Our findings can be checked and corroborated experimentally by the use of a setup that consists of a single resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction device. (paper)

  16. The Absolute Reflectance and New Calibration Site of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Wang, Zhenchao; Cai, Wei; Lu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    How bright the Moon is forms a simple but fundamental and important question. Although numerous efforts have been made to answer this question such as use of sophisticated electro-optical measurements and suggestions for calibration sites, the answer is still debated. An in situ measurement with a calibration panel on the surface of the Moon is crucial for obtaining the accurate absolute reflectance and resolving the debate. China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) “Yutu” rover accomplished this type of measurement using the Visible-Near Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS). The measurements of the VNIS, which were at large emission and phase angles, complement existing measurements for the range of photometric geometry. The in situ reflectance shows that the CE-3 landing site is very dark with an average reflectance of 3.86% in the visible bands. The results are compared with recent mission instruments: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC), the Spectral Profiler (SP) on board the SELENE, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on board the Chandrayaan-1, and the Chang’E-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM). The differences in the measurements of these instruments are very large and indicate inherent differences in their absolute calibration. The M3 and IIM measurements are smaller than LROC WAC and SP, and the VNIS measurement falls between these two pairs. When using the Moon as a radiance source for the on-orbit calibration of spacecraft instruments, one should be cautious about the data. We propose that the CE-3 landing site, a young and homogeneous surface, should serve as the new calibration site.

  17. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grobner, Julian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Thomann, Christian [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; McComiskey, Allison [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hall, Emiel [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wacker, Stefan [Deutscher Wetterdienst

    2018-03-05

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.

  18. Cylindrical Taylor states conserving total absolute magnetic helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, B. C.; Fang, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Taylor state of a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field in an upright cylindrical domain V is derived from first principles as an extremum of the total magnetic energy subject to a conserved, total absolute helicity Habs. This new helicity [Low, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052901 (2011)] is distinct from the well known classical total helicity and relative total helicity in common use to describe wholly-contained and anchored fields, respectively. A given field B, tangential along the cylindrical side of V, may be represented as a unique linear superposition of two flux systems, an axially extended system along V and a strictly transverse system carrying information on field-circulation. This specialized Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation defines Habs and permits a neat formulation of the boundary-value problem (BVP) for the Taylor state as a constant-α force-free field, treating 3D wholly-contained and anchored fields on the same conceptual basis. In this formulation, the governing equation is a scalar integro-partial differential equation (PDE). A family of series solutions for an anchored field is presented as an illustration of this class of BVPs. Past treatments of the constant-α field in 3D cylindrical geometry are based on a scalar Helmholtz PDE as the governing equation, with issues of inconsistency in the published field solutions discussed over time in the journal literature. The constant-α force-free equation reduces to a scalar Helmholtz PDE only as special cases of the 3D integro-PDE derived here. In contrast, the constant-α force-free equation and the scalar Helmholtz PDE are absolutely equivalent in the spherical domain as discussed in Appendix. This theoretical study is motivated by the investigation of the Sun's corona but the results are also relevant to laboratory plasmas.

  19. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M V,RRc = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M V,RRab = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M V,RRc = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W π , W θ , W z ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s –1 in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ W π ,σ W θ ,σ W z ) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s -1 . For the disk, we find (W π , W θ , W z ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s –1 relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ W π ,σ W θ ,σ W z ) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s -1 . Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4

  20. Absolute spectrophotometry of the IC 2149, 4593, and NGC 6210 planetary nebulae in near infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute monochromatic energy flux (in ergs.cm -2 sec -1 ) was determined for the emission lines of the planetary nebulae IC2149, 4593 and NGC 6210 in the spectral interval lambda 6300-11000 A. The interstellar extinction Asub(β)=1.sup(m)3; O.sup(m)4; O.sup(m)6, accordingly, was estimated by using spectral lines HI of the Paschen and Balmer series. The energy distribution (in ergsxcm -2 xsec -1 1A -1 ) was found in summary continuous spectrum in the interval lambda 4000-10000 A. The attempt was made to separate the continuum of the nucleus and the nebula. The theoretical nebula continuous spectrum was calculated from lambda 3000 A to the radio range. The continuum, calibrated by menas of the flat part of the radiospectrum, linked well enough with the optical spectrum calculated here

  1. Regional and site-specific absolute humidity data for use in tritium dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Due to the potential variability in average absolute humidity over the continental U.S., and the dependence of atmospheric 3 H specific activity on absolute humidity, availability of regional absolute humidity data is of value in estimating the radiological significance of 3 H releases. Most climatological data are in the form of relative humidity, which must be converted to absolute humidity for dose calculations. Absolute humidity was calculated for 218 points across the U.S., using the 1977 annual summary of U.S. Climatological Data, and is given in a table. Mean regional values are shown on a map. (author)

  2. An Absolute Valve for the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Ch.; Chuilon, B.; Michael, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the ITER reference design a fast shutter was included to limit tritium migration into the beamline vacuum enclosures. The need was recently identified to extend the functionality of the fast shutter to that of an absolute valve in order to facilitate injector maintenance procedures and to satisfy safety requirements in case of an in-vessel loss of coolant event. Three concepts have been examined satisfying the ITER requirements for speed of actuation, sealing performance over the required lifetime, and pressure differential in fault scenarios, namely: a rectangular closure section; a circular cross section; and a rotary JET-type valve. The rectangular section represents the most efficient usage of the available space envelope and leads to a minimum-mass system, although it requires greater total force for a given load per unit length of seal. However, a metallic seal of the '' hard/hard '' type, where the seal relies on the elastic properties of the material and does not utilise any type of spring device, can provide the required seal performance with typical loading of 200 kg/cm. The conceptual design of the proposed absolute valve will be presented. The aperture dimensions are 1.45 m high by 0.6 m wide, with minimum achievable leak rate of 1 · 10 -9 mbarl/s and maximum pressure differential of 3 bar across the valve. Sealing force is provided using two seal plates, linked by a 3 mm thick ' omega ' diaphragm, by pressurisation of the interspace to 8 bar; this allows for a relative movement of the plates of 2 mm. Movement of the device perpendicular to the beam direction is carried out using a novel magnetic drive in order to transmit the motive force across the vacuum boundary, similar to that demonstrated on a test-rig in an earlier study. The conceptual design includes provision of all the services such as pneumatics and water cooling to cope with the heat loads from neutral beams in quasi steady-state operation and from the ITER plasma. A future programme

  3. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dong, Subo [Institute for Advanced Study, 500 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  4. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  5. Athermal fiber laser for the SWARM absolute scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcault, W.; Léger, J.-M.; Costes, V.; Fratter, I.; Mondin, L.

    2017-11-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) developed by CEA-LETI/CNES is an optically pumped 4He magnetic field sensor based on the Zeeman effect and an electronic magnetic resonance whose effects are amplified by a laser pumping process [1-2]. Consequently, the role of the laser is to pump the 4He atoms at the D0 transition as well as to allow the magnetic resonance signal detection. The ASM will be the scalar magnetic reference instrument of the three ESA Swarm satellites to be launched in 2012 in order to carry out the best ever survey of the Earth magnetic field and its temporal evolution. The sensitivity and accuracy of this magnetometer based on 4He optical pumping depend directly on the characteristics of its light source, which is the key sub-system of the sensor. We describe in this paper the selected fiber laser architecture and its wavelength stabilization scheme. Its main performance in terms of spectral emission, optical power at 1083 nm and intensity noise characteristics in the frequency bands used for the operation of the magnetometer, are then presented. Environmental testing results (thermal vacuum cycling, vibrations, shocks and ageing) are also reported at the end of this paper.

  6. Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.

  7. Absolute measurement of neutron fluxes inside the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, S. V.

    1964-10-01

    The subject of this work is the development and study of two methods of neutron measurements in nuclear reactors, the new method of high neutron flux measurements and the Li 6 -semiconductor neutron spectrometer. This work is presented in four sections: Section I. The introduction explains the need for neutron measurements in reactors. A critical survey is given of the existing methods of high neutron flux measurement and methods of fast neutron spectrum determination. Section II. Theoretical basis of the work of semiconductor counters and their most important characteristics are given. Section III. The main point of this section is in presenting the basis of the new method which the author developed, i.e., the long-tube method, and the results obtained by it, with particular emphasis on absolute measurement of high neutron fluxes. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed in details at the end of this section. Section IV. A comparison of the existing semiconductor neutron spectrometers is made and their advantages and shortcomings underlined. A critical analysis of the obtained results with the Li 6 -semiconductor spectrometer with plane geometry is given. A new type of Li 6 -semiconductor spectrometer is described, its characteristics experimentally determined, and a comparison of it with a classical Li 6 -spectrometer made (author)

  8. Praising the Ruler: Panegyrical Poetry and Russian Absolutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Klein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to overrate the importance of the panegyric tradition for early modern Russian literature. Between the middle of the 17th to the end of the 18th century, it was practiced in many different genres—almost all Russian poets praised the ruler. This poetry deserves our interest as a specific form of political literature. As such it is not only relevant for the cult of the Russian monarchs, but it also sheds some light on the political mentality of their loyal—and literate—subjects in the age of Russian absolutism. Panegyrical poetry is per definitionem a thoroughly affirmative, noncritical form of political literature. But this did not prevent it from offering a certain scope for the expression of diverse and even contradictory political ideals. This can be exemplified by the panegyrical poems written in the early 1760s in the context of the coup d’état staged by Catherine II and against the backdrop of the Russo-Prussian peace treaty initiated by her predecessor, Peter III. In this situation, a fundamental difference of opinion about the tasks of the monarch and the mission of the Russian state emerged.

  9. Estimation of Cumulative Absolute Velocity using Empirical Green's Function Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Hee; Yun, Kwan Hee; Chang, Chun Joong; Park, Se Moon

    2009-01-01

    In recognition of the needs to develop a new criterion for determining when the OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake) has been exceeded at nuclear power plants, Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) was introduced by EPRI. The concept of CAV is the area accumulation with the values more than 0.025g occurred during every one second. The equation of the CAV is as follows. CAV = ∫ 0 max |a(t)|dt (1) t max = duration of record, a(t) = acceleration (>0.025g) Currently, the OBE exceedance criteria in Korea is Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA, PGA>0.1g). When Odesan earthquake (M L =4.8, January 20th, 2007) and Gyeongju earthquake (M L =3.4, June 2nd, 1999) were occurred, we have had already experiences of PGA greater than 0.1g that did not even cause any damage to the poorly-designed structures nearby. This moderate earthquake has motivated Korea to begin the use of the CAV for OBE exceedance criteria for NPPs. Because the present OBE level has proved itself to be a poor indicator for small-to-moderate earthquakes, for which the low OBE level can cause an inappropriate shut down the plant. A more serious possibility is that this scenario will become a reality at a very high level. Empirical Green's Function method was a simulation technique which can estimate the CAV value and it is hereby introduced

  10. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-01-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  11. Characterization of a digital camera as an absolute tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Verdu, Francisco; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Capilla, Pascual

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the spectral and colorimetric characterization of digital still cameras (DSC) which allows to use them as tele-colorimeters with CIE-XYZ color output, in cd/m2. The spectral characterization consists of the calculation of the color-matching functions from the previously measured spectral sensitivities. The colorimetric characterization consists of transforming the RGB digital data into absolute tristimulus values CIE-XYZ (in cd/m2) under variable and unknown spectroradiometric conditions. Thus, at the first stage, a gray balance has been applied over the RGB digital data to convert them into RGB relative colorimetric values. At a second stage, an algorithm of luminance adaptation vs. lens aperture has been inserted in the basic colorimetric profile. Capturing the ColorChecker chart under different light sources, the DSC color analysis accuracy indexes, both in a raw state and with the corrections from a linear model of color correction, have been evaluated using the Pointer'86 color reproduction index with the unrelated Hunt'91 color appearance model. The results indicate that our digital image capture device, in raw performance, lightens and desaturates the colors.

  12. Targeting LDL Cholesterol: Beyond Absolute Goals Toward Personalized Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Morton; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Basu, Sanjay; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk. Population-based risk models serve as the basis for statin initiation in primary prevention. Reviews of current population risk models for primary prevention show moderate ability to discriminate [with c-statistics ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 (95% CIs from 0.62 to 0.83) for men and women] with poor calibration and overestimation of risk. Individual clinical trial data are not compelling to support specific LDL-C targets and percent reductions in secondary prevention. Increasing utilization of electronic health records and data analytics will enable the development of individualized treatment goals in both primary and secondary prevention.

  13. ATLAS ALFA—measuring absolute luminosity with scintillating fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, S

    2009-01-01

    ALFA is a high-precision scintillating fibre tracking detector under construction for the absolute determination of the LHC luminosity at the ATLAS interaction point. This detector, mounted in so-called Roman Pots, will track protons elastically scattered under μrad angles at IP1.In total there are four pairs of vertically arranged detector modules which approach the LHC beam axis to mm distance. Each detector module consists of ten layers of two times 64 scintillating fibres each (U and V planes). The fibres are coupled to 64 channels Multi-Anodes PhotoMultipliers Tubes read out by compact front-end electronics. Each detector module is complemented by so-called overlap detectors: Three layers of two times 30 scintillating fibres which will be used to measure the relative positioning of two vertically arranged main detectors. The total number of channels is about 15000. Conventional plastic scintillator tiles are mounted in front of the fibre detectors and will serve as trigger counter. The extremely restric...

  14. Absolute measurement of neutron fluxes inside the reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajdacic, S V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-10-15

    The subject of this work is the development and study of two methods of neutron measurements in nuclear reactors, the new method of high neutron flux measurements and the Li{sup 6}-semiconductor neutron spectrometer. This work is presented in four sections: Section I. The introduction explains the need for neutron measurements in reactors. A critical survey is given of the existing methods of high neutron flux measurement and methods of fast neutron spectrum determination. Section II. Theoretical basis of the work of semiconductor counters and their most important characteristics are given. Section III. The main point of this section is in presenting the basis of the new method which the author developed, i.e., the long-tube method, and the results obtained by it, with particular emphasis on absolute measurement of high neutron fluxes. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed in details at the end of this section. Section IV. A comparison of the existing semiconductor neutron spectrometers is made and their advantages and shortcomings underlined. A critical analysis of the obtained results with the Li{sup 6}-semiconductor spectrometer with plane geometry is given. A new type of Li{sup 6}-semiconductor spectrometer is described, its characteristics experimentally determined, and a comparison of it with a classical Li{sup 6}-spectrometer made (author)

  15. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  16. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  17. Simple method for absolute calibration of geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kann, Frank van; Winterflood, John

    2005-01-01

    A simple but powerful method is presented for calibrating geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors, including passive accelerometers. The method requires no cumbersome or expensive fixtures such as shaker platforms and can be performed using a standard instrument commonly available in the field. An absolute calibration is obtained using the reciprocity property of the device, based on the standard mathematical model for such inertial sensors. It requires only simple electrical measurement of the impedance of the sensor as a function of frequency to determine the parameters of the model and hence the sensitivity function. The method is particularly convenient if one of these parameters, namely the suspended mass is known. In this case, no additional mechanical apparatus is required and only a single set of impedance measurements yields the desired calibration function. Moreover, this measurement can be made with the device in situ. However, the novel and most powerful aspect of the method is its ability to accurately determine the effective suspended mass. For this, the impedance measurement is made with the device hanging from a simple spring or flexible cord (depending on the orientation of its sensitive axis). To complete the calibration, the device is weighed to determine its total mass. All the required calibration parameters, including the suspended mass, are then determined from a least-squares fit to the impedance as a function of frequency. A demonstration using both a 4.5 Hz geophone and a 1 Hz seismometer shows that the method can yield accurate absolute calibrations with an error of 0.1% or better, assuming no a priori knowledge of any parameters

  18. Absolute Paleointensity Techniques: Developments in the Last 10 Years (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J. A.; Brown, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to determine variations in absolute intensity of the Earth’s paleomagnetic field has greatly enhanced our understanding of geodynamo processes, including secular variation and field reversals. Igneous rocks and baked clay artifacts that carry a thermal remanence (TRM) have allowed us to study field variations over timescales ranging from decades to billions of years. All absolute paleointensity techniques are fundamentally based on repeating the natural process by which the sample acquired its magnetization, i.e. a laboratory TRM is acquired in a controlled field, and the ratio of the natural TRM to that acquired in the laboratory is directly proportional to the ancient field. Techniques for recovering paleointensity have evolved since the 1930s from relatively unsophisticated (but revolutionary for their time) single step remagnetizations to the various complicated, multi-step procedures in use today. These procedures can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1) “Thellier-type” experiments that step-wise heat samples at a series of temperatures up to the maximum unblocking temperature of the sample, progressively removing the natural remanence (NRM) and acquiring a laboratory-induced TRM; and 2) “Shaw-type” experiments that combine alternating field demagnetization of the NRM and laboratory TRM with a single heating to a temperature above the sample’s Curie temperature, acquiring a total TRM in one step. Many modifications to these techniques have been developed over the years with the goal of identifying and/or accommodating non-ideal behavior, such as alteration and multi-domain (MD) remanence, which may lead to inaccurate paleofield estimates. From a technological standpoint, perhaps the most significant development in the last decade is the use of microwave (de)magnetization in both Thellier-type and Shaw-type experiments. By using microwaves to directly generate spin waves within the magnetic grains (rather than using phonons

  19. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchington, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  20. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2010-11-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  1. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de; Jimenez S, S.

    2007-01-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration (σ + - σ - ) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10 7 Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  2. Intraplate Vertical Land Movements Constrained by Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M.; Williams, S. D.; Hinzen, K. G.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have conducted repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements across the tectonically active intraplate regions in Northwest Europe: the Ardenne and the Roer Graben. At most of the stations measurements were undertaken since 2000 and repeated twice a year. Our analysis of these measurements, performed in Belgium and Germany, show that at all stations except Jülich, there is no detectable gravity variation higher than 10 nm s-2 at the 95% confidence level. This is equivalent to vertical movements of 5 mm/yr. Although not yet significant, the observed rates do not contradict the subsidence predicted by glacial isostatic adjustment models and provide an upper limit on the possible uplift of the Ardennes. In Jülich, a gravity rate of change of 36.7 nm s-2/year equivalent to 18.4 mm/yr is due to anthropogenic subsidence. The amplitudes of the seasonal variations range from 18±0.8 nms-2 to 43±29 nms-2, depending on the location. These variations should have a negligible effect on the long-term trend, but at the Membach reference station, were a longer time series is available, differences in the rates observed since 1996 and 1999 indicate that long-term environmental effects may influence the inferred trend. The observed seasonal effects also demonstrate the repeatability of AG measurements. In Ostend, the AG time series agrees with tide gauge data, global mean sea level and altimeter measurements but disagrees with the CGPS. This study indicates that, even in difficult conditions, AG measurements repeated once a year can resolve vertical land movements at a few mm level after 5 years. This also confirms the need to measure for decades, using accurate and stable geodetic techniques like AG, in order to constrain slow deformation processes in an intraplate context.

  3. Vertical Land Movements Constrained by Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M.; Williams, S. D.; Hinzen, K.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-05-01

    Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed across the tectonically active intraplate regions in Northwest Europe: the Ardenne and the Roer Graben. At most of the stations measurements were undertaken in 2000 and repeated twice a year. Analysis of these measurements, performed in Belgium and Germany, show that at all stations except Jülich, there is no detectable gravity variation higher than 10 nm s-2 at the 95% confidence level. This is equivalent to vertical movements of 5 mm/yr. Although not yet significant, the observed rates do not contradict the subsidence predicted by glacial isostatic adjustment models and provide an upper limit on the possible uplift of the Ardennes. In Jülich, a gravity rate of change of 36 nm -2/year, equivalent to 18 mm/yr, is at least in parts due to anthropogenic subsidence. The amplitudes of the seasonal variations range from 18±0.8 nm s-2 to 43±29 nm s-2, depending on the location. These variations should have a negligible effect on the long-term trend, but at the Membach reference station, were a longer time series is available, differences in the rates observed since 1996 and 1999 indicate that long-term environmental effects may influence the inferred trend. The observed seasonal effects also demonstrate the repeatability of AG measurements. This study indicates that, even in difficult conditions, AG measurements repeated once a year can resolve vertical land movements at a few mm level after 5 years. This also confirms the need to measure for decades, using accurate and stable geodetic techniques like AG, in order to constrain slow deformation processes.

  4. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP.A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age.Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  5. The need for an established allocation method when assessing absolute sustainability on a product level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of absolute sustainability within life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is operational on the country scale. However, it is difficult to apply the existing approaches to products, which are typically the scope of LCAs. How should we assess whether a chair is (absolutely) sustainable? I...... allocation keys specific to each product group, e.g. mass for furniture, or economic revenue for IT. The proposed method facilitates assessment of absolute sustainability of products within the LCA framework....

  6. Absolute measurement of the viscosity of classical and quantum fluids by rotating-cylinder viscometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.; LaMar, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the use of rotating-cylinder viscometers to determine absolute shear viscosities of classical fluids and of helium II in the context of past and current knowledge of the stability and flow of these fluids between concentric cylinders. We identify a problem in measuring the absolute viscosity when the inner cylinder is rotating and the outer cylinder is at rest. We conclude by discussing the design of viscometers for absolute viscosity measurements in helium I and helium II

  7. Binomial Distribution Sample Confidence Intervals Estimation 7. Absolute Risk Reduction and ARR-like Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ACHIMAŞ CADARIU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.

  8. Autoshaping as a psychophysical paradigm: Absolute visual sensitivity in the pigeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Dennis H.

    1981-01-01

    A classical conditioning procedure (autoshaping) was used to determine absolute visual threshold in the pigeon. This method provides the basis for a standardized visual psychophysical paradigm. PMID:16812228

  9. Absolute carrier phase effects in the two-color excitation of dipolar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Alex; Meath, W.J.; Kondo, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The pump-probe excitation of a two-level dipolar (d≠0) molecule, where the pump frequency is tuned to the energy level separation while the probe frequency is extremely small, is examined theoretically as an example of absolute phase control of excitation processes. The state populations depend on the probe field's absolute carrier phase but are independent of the pump field's absolute carrier phase. Interestingly, the absolute phase effects occur for pulse durations much longer and field intensities much weaker than those required to see such effects in single pulse excitation

  10. Absolute cross sections from the ''boomerang model'' for resonant electron-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, L.; Herzenberg, A.

    1979-01-01

    The boomerang model is used to calculate absolute cross sections near the 2 Pi/sub g/ shape resonance in e-N 2 scattering. The calculated cross sections are shown to satisfy detailed balancing. The exchange of electrons is taken into account. A parametrized complex-potential curve for the intermediate N 2 /sup ts-/ ion is determined from a small part of the experimental data, and then used to calculate other properties. The calculations are in good agreement with the absolute cross sections for vibrational excitation from the ground state, the absolute cross section v = 1 → 2, and the absolute total cross section

  11. Development of a Shear Deformable Element Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    .... The effect of the shear deformation is accounted for without the need for introducing Timoshenko's shear coefficient By using the absolute coordinates, the nonlinear strain-displacement relationships...

  12. Planet earth a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2012-01-01

    In this incredible expedition into the origins, workings, and evolution of our home planet, John Gribbin, bestselling author of In Search of Schrödinger's Cat, The Scientists, and In Search of the Multiverse, does what he does best: taking four and a half billion years of mind-boggling science and digging out the best bits. From the physics of Newton and the geology of Wegener, to the environmentalism of Lovelock, this is a must read for Earth's scientists and residents alike. Trained as an astrophysicist at Cambridge University, John Gribbin is currently Visiting Fellow in Astronomy at the University of Sussex, England.

  13. Quantum physics a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2005-01-01

    As Alastair Rae points out in his introduction, ""quantum physics is not rocket science"". It may have gained a reputation as the theory that no one really understands, but its practical applications are all around us in everyday life. If it were not for quantum physics, computers would not function, metals would not conduct electricity, and the power stations that heat our homes would not produce energy. Assuming no prior scientific or mathematical knowledge, this clear and concise introduction provides a step-by-step guide to quantum theory, right from the very basic principles to the most c

  14. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  15. Java 7 A Beginner's Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, Budi

    2011-01-01

    A Books24x7's TOP 10 title for 4 consecutive years! Java is an easy language to learn. However, you need to master more than the language syntax to be a professional Java programmer. For one, object-oriented programming (OOP) skill is key to developing robust and effective Java applications. In addition, knowing how to use the vast collection of libraries makes development more rapid. This book introduces you to important programming concepts and teaches how to use the Java core libraries. It is a guide to building real-world applications, both desktop and Web-based. The coverage is the

  16. Livecode mobile development beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The ideal reader for this book would be someone who already knows LiveCode, is interested in creating mobile apps, and wants to save the many hours it took for me to track down all of the information on how to get started! Chapter 1, LiveCode Fundamentals, will help those of you who know programming but are not familiar with LiveCode. The knowledge you've acquired should be enough for you to benefit from the remainder of the book.

  17. Minimal Materials for ESL Beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In November 2006, the government of the state of Karnataka in India announced its decision to start teaching English as a school subject from class 1 onwards in all primary schools in the state, instead of from class 5 as hitherto.

  18. Pentaho data integration beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Roldán, María Carina

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on teaching you by example. The book walks you through every aspect of Pentaho Data Integration, giving systematic instructions in a friendly style, allowing you to learn in front of your computer, playing with the tool. The extensive use of drawings and screenshots make the process of learning Pentaho Data Integration easy. Throughout the book, numerous tips and helpful hints are provided that you will not find anywhere else.This book is a must-have for software developers, database administrators, IT students, and everyone involved or interested in developing ETL solutions,

  19. Artificial intelligence a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whitby, Blay

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow begins right here as we embark on an enthralling and jargon-free journey into the world of computers and the inner recesses of the human mind. Readers encounter everything from the nanotechnology used to make insect-like robots, to computers that perform surgery, in addition to discovering the biggest controversies to dog the field of AI. Blay Whitby is a Lecturer on Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex UK. He is the author of two books and numerous papers.

  20. Seven Myths about Beginners' Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Karen; Kirkebæk, Mads Jakob

    2015-01-01

    In the article the authors have selected seven myths about beginners’ language for discussion, reflection and possible rejection. These are (1) the myth about the necessity of mastering the system before being able to speak the language, (2) the myth about limited capacity on the ‘hard disc’, (3......) the myth about ‘the only thing’ (the method), (4) the myth about “we tried that before”, (5) the myth about “one people and one teaching method, (6) the myth about easy and difficult languages, and (7) the myth about students with no competences and a worthless past. The article suggests language teachers...

  1. Kayh am Beginn der Neuzeit

    OpenAIRE

    Trugenberger, Volker

    1990-01-01

    Die Kayher Gegend barg in ihrem Boden einen besonderen Schatz: Alabaster. Herzog Ludwig von Württemberg kaufte eigens zwischen 1581 und 1586 von den Kayher Bürgern Urban Binder, Jakob Schwarz und Martin Noppel deren auf Altinger Markung uffm kreidengraben gelegene Äcker mit alapasterstein, insgesamt 2 Morgen. Der darauf gebrochene Alabaster wurde für Kunstwerke verwandt, die im Auftrag des Herzogs angefertigt wurden; er wurde nicht abgebaut, um ihn anderweitig zu verkaufen und damit Gewinne z...

  2. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  3. PIC microcomputer guide for beginner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chulho

    2001-03-01

    This book comprised of four parts. The first part deals with computer one chip, voltage current, resistance, electronic components, logical element, TTL and CMOS, memory and I/O and MDS. The second part is about PIC16C84 which describes its memory structure, registers and PIC16C84 command. The third part deals with LED control program, jet car LED, quiz buzzer program, LED spectrum, digital dice, two digital dices and time bomb. The last part introduces PIC16C71 and temperature controller.

  4. Neural Networks for the Beginner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    Motivated by the brain, neural networks are a right-brained approach to artificial intelligence that is used to recognize patterns based on previous training. In practice, one would not program an expert system to recognize a pattern and one would not train a neural network to make decisions from rules; but one could combine the best features of…

  5. Absolute cardiovascular risk in a Fiji medical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Naidu, Swaran; Raban, Magdalena Z; Naidu, Sheetal; Linhart, Christine; Morrell, Stephen; Tukana, Isimeli; Taylor, Richard

    2016-02-09

    The population of Fiji has experienced emergence of non-communicable disease (NCD) and a plateau in life expectancy over the past 20 years. A mini-STEPS survey (n = 2765) was conducted in Viseisei in Western Fiji to assess NCD risk factors (RFs) in i-Taukei (Melanesians) and those of Indian descent aged 25-64 years (response 73 %). Hypertension (HT) was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on medication for HT; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or on medication for T2DM; and obesity as a body mass index (kilograms/height(metres)(2)) ≥30. Data were age-adjusted to 2007 Fiji Census. Associations between RFs and ethnicity/education were investigated. Comparisons with Fiji STEPS surveys were undertaken, and the absolute risk of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) event/death in 10 years was estimated from multiple RF charts. NCD/RFs increased with age except excessive alcohol intake and daily smoking (women) which declined. Daily smoking was higher in men 33 % (95 % confidence interval: 31-36) than women 14 % (12-116); women were more obese 40 % (37-43) than men 23 % (20-26); HT was similar in men 37 % (34-40) and women 34 % (31-36), as was T2DM in men 15 % (13-17) and women 17 % (15-19). i-Taukei men had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for T2DM compared to Indians (1.00); and i-Taukei (both sexes) had a higher OR for obesity and low fruit/vegetable intake, daily smoking, excessive alcohol intake and HT in females. Increasing education correlated with lesser smoking, but with higher obesity and lower fruit/vegetable intake. Compared to the 2011 Fiji STEPS survey, no significant differences were evident in obesity, HT or T2DM prevalences. The proportion (40-64 years) classified at high or very high risk (≥20 %) of a CVD event/death (over 10 years) based on multiple RFs was 8.3 % for men (8.1 % i-Taukei, 8.5 % Indian), and 6.7 % for women (7.9 % i-Taukei, 6.0 % Indian). The results

  6. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  7. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α 1 =1.5 −0.2 +0.4 , and break magnitude, H B =6.9 −0.2 +0.1 (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α 1 =0.87 −0.2 +0.07 , and break magnitude H B =7.7 −0.5 +1.0 . Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α 2 ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10 –4 M ⊕ . The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α 1 = 1.0 ± 0.2, α 2 = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H B = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H r ′ ≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  8. Global change and the measurement of absolute sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, John M.; Pyle, Thomas E.; Carter, William E.; Scherer, Wolfgang

    -300) required for global climate research programmes (WYRTKI and PUGH, 1984) need to be upgraded to “sea-level observatory” status, in terms of sensors and geodetic control, to build a two tier sea-level network that will provide the data needed to solve many problems of both relative and absolute sea-level change. Such a network will provide basic information supporting research on a wide range of questions related to “global change”.

  9. Using a Blog to Guide Beginner Students to Use Adjectives Appropriately When Writing Descriptions in English (El uso de una bitácora o "blog" para guiar a estudiantes principiantes en el uso apropiado de los adjetivos cuando escriben descripciones en inglés)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazo Jara, Omar Yesid

    2012-01-01

    Beginner students often have difficulties using adjectives when they write descriptions in English. This article focuses on the procedures used to help my sixth grade students understand and use adjectives in the correct order by using a blog. To achieve the objective of the project I decided to implement an innovation in and out of class…

  10. [MRI changes of Achilles tendon and hindfoot in experienced runners and beginners during training and after a (half)-marathon competition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, W; Billich, C; Brambs, H-J; Weber, F; Schütz, U H

    2011-08-01

    Marathon running is gaining in popularity. Its benefits regarding the cardiovascular system as well as the metabolism are beyond doubt. However, whether or not there are detrimental side effects to the musculoskeletal system such as wear and tear is an unsolved question. We therefore prospectively looked at beginners and experienced runners at a city marathon during training and after the competition for lesions to the Achilles tendon (AT) or hindfoot. 73 healthy subjects were prospectively included in our study. They were recruited from the applicants of the city marathon or half-marathon. They underwent an initial clinical orthopaedic as well as three magnetic resonance (MRI) examinations. The MRI were conducted at the time point of study enrolment, near the end of training and directly (up to 72 hours) after the run. MRI evaluation (fat saturated T (2)-weighted sagittal STIR sequence) was performed by two independent experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical context. The results were compared for subgroups of runners, also a factorial analysis was performed. Statistical results were deemed significant for p ≤ 0.05. 32 women and 41 men were included. In the end there were 53 finishers and 20 non-finishers; 28 seasoned runners and 25 novices. 57 runners had no foot complaints, while 14 had foot pain during training and 13 during the marathon. Mean body weight was 71.6 kg, height was 173 cm, age was 40.2 years. Mean AT diameter was 7.0 mm and showed no change during training or after the marathon. There was no significant influence of gender on other variables investigated. There was a significant and positive correlation between AT diameter and weight (r = 0.37), also AT and height (r = 0.34), while there was negative correlation between height and signal intensity of calcaneus (r = -0.50). The signal intensity of the AT decreased during training. The signal intensity of the calcaneus decreased from inclusion until after the marathon

  11. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  12. Study on the effect factor of the absolute fission rates measured by depleted uranium fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun; Wang Mei; Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei

    2003-01-01

    The absolute fission rates was measured by the depleted uranium fission chamber. The efficiency of the fission fragments recorded in the fission chamber was analyzed. The factor influencing absolute fission rates was studied in the experiment, including the disturbing effect between detectors and the effect of the structural of the fission chamber, etc

  13. Assessing Epistemic Sophistication by Considering Domain-Specific Absolute and Multiplicistic Beliefs Separately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Leichner, Nikolas; Krampen, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particularly in higher education, not only a view of science as a means of finding absolute truths (absolutism), but also a view of science as generally tentative (multiplicism) can be unsophisticated and obstructive for learning. Most quantitative epistemic belief inventories neglect this and understand epistemic sophistication as…

  14. Absolute stability of nonlinear systems with time delays and applications to neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhi Liu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, absolute stability of nonlinear systems with time delays is investigated. Sufficient conditions on absolute stability are derived by using the comparison principle and differential inequalities. These conditions are simple and easy to check. In addition, exponential stability conditions for some special cases of nonlinear delay systems are discussed. Applications of those results to cellular neural networks are presented.

  15. Absolute migration of Pacific basin mid-ocean ridges since 85 Ma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-ocean ridges are major physiographic features that dominate the world seafloor. Their absolute motion and tectonics are recorded in magnetic lineations they created. The absolute migration of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific basin since 85 Ma and their tectonic implications was investigated in this work and the results ...

  16. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  17. Strong laws for generalized absolute Lorenz curves when data are stationary and ergodic sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); R. Zitikis

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe consider generalized absolute Lorenz curves that include, as special cases, classical and generalized L - statistics as well as absolute or, in other words, generalized Lorenz curves. The curves are based on strictly stationary and ergodic sequences of random variables. Most of the

  18. The absolute magnetometers on board Swarm, lessons learned from more than two years in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, Gauthier; Leger, Jean-Michel; Vigneron, Pierre

    ESA's Swarm satellites carry 4He absolute magnetometers (ASM), designed by CEA-Léti and developed in partnership with CNES. These instruments are the first-ever space-borne magnetometers to use a common sensor to simultaneously deliver 1Hz independent absolute scalar and vector readings of the ma...

  19. Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent reanalysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here, we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions.

  20. Study on absolute humidity influence of NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi; Zhou Qingzhi; Liu Yan; Qiu Shoukang; Meng Yecheng; Xiong Xinming; Liu Xiaosong; Ma Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    The absolute humidity and temperature's effects on the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon were studied in this paper. By controlling the radon activity concentration of the radon laboratory in University of South China and improving the temperature and humidity adjust strategy, different correction factor values under different absolute humidities were obtained. Moreover, a correction curve between 1.90 and 14.91 g/m"3 was also attained. The results show that in the case of absolute humidity, when it is less than 2.4 g/m"3, collection efficiency of the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon tends to be constant, and the correction factor of the absolute humidity closes to 1. However, the correction factor increases nonlinearly along with the absolute humidity. (authors)

  1. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  2. An absolute dose determination of helical tomotherapy accelerator, TomoTherapy High-Art II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailat, Claude J.; Buchillier, Thierry; Pachoud, Marc; Moeckli, Raphaeel; Bochud, Francois O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A helical tomotherapy accelerator presents a dosimetric challenge because, to this day, there is no internationally accepted protocol for the determination of the absolute dose. Because of this reality, we investigated the different alternatives for characterizing and measuring the absolute dose of such an accelerator. We tested several dosimetric techniques with various metrological traceabilities as well as using a number of phantoms in static and helical modes. Methods: Firstly, the relationship between the reading of ionization chambers and the absorbed dose is dependent on the beam quality value of the photon beam. For high energy photons, the beam quality is specified by the tissue phantom ratio (TPR 20,10 ) and it is therefore necessary to know the TPR 20,10 to calculate the dose delivered by a given accelerator. This parameter is obtained through the ratio of the absorbed dose at 20 and 10 cm depths in water and was measured in the particular conditions of the tomotherapy accelerator. Afterward, measurements were performed using the ionization chamber (model A1SL) delivered as a reference instrument by the vendor. This chamber is traceable in absorbed dose to water in a Co-60 beam to a water calorimeter of the American metrology institute (NIST). Similarly, in Switzerland, each radiotherapy department is directly traceable to the Swiss metrology institute (METAS) in absorbed dose to water based on a water calorimeter. For our research, this traceability was obtained by using an ionization chamber traceable to METAS (model NE 2611A), which is the secondary standard of our institute. Furthermore, in order to have another fully independent measurement method, we determined the dose using alanine dosimeters provided by and traceable to the British metrology institute (NPL); they are calibrated in absorbed dose to water using a graphite calorimeter. And finally, we wanted to take into account the type of chamber routinely used in clinical practice and

  3. Superheterodyne configuration for two-wavelength interferometry applied to absolute distance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Floch, Sebastien; Salvade, Yves; Droz, Nathalie; Mitouassiwou, Rostand; Favre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new superheterodyne technique for long-distance measurements by two-wavelength interferometry (TWI). While conventional systems use two acousto-optic modulators to generate two different heterodyne frequencies, here the two frequencies result from synchronized sweeps of optical and radio frequencies. A distributed feedback laser source is injected in an intensity modulator that is driven at the half-wave voltage mode. A radio-frequency signal is applied to this intensity modulator to generate two optical sidebands around the optical carrier. This applied radio frequency consists of a digital ramp between 13 and 15 GHz, with 1 ms duration and with an accuracy of better than 1 ppm. Simultaneously, the laser source is frequency modulated by a current modulation that is synchronized on the radio-frequency ramp as well as on a triangle waveform. These two frequency-swept optical signals at the output of the modulator illuminate a Michelson interferometer and create two distinct distance-dependent heterodyne frequencies on the photodetector. The superheterodyne signal is then detected and bandpass filtered to retrieve the absolute distance measurement. Experiments between 1 and 15 m confirm the validity of this new concept, leading to a distance accuracy of ± 50 μm for a 1 ms acquisition time.

  4. Absolute frequency shifts of iodine cells for laser stabilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, Josef; Hrabina, Jan; Jedlička, Petr; Číp, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2009), s. 450-456 ISSN 0026-1394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650504; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk 2C06012; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MPO FT-TA3/133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : laser stabilization * Nd :YAG laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2009

  5. Behavior of Multiclass Pesticide Residue Concentrations during the Transformation from Rose Petals to Rose Absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascone, Oriane; Fillâtre, Yoann; Roy, Céline; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-05-27

    This study investigates the concentrations of 54 multiclass pesticides during the transformation processes from rose petal to concrete and absolute using roses spiked with pesticides as a model. The concentrations of the pesticides were followed during the process of transforming the spiked rose flowers from an organic field into concrete and then into absolute. The rose flowers, the concrete, and the absolute, as well as their transformation intermediates, were analyzed for pesticide content using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that all the pesticides were extracted and concentrated in the absolute, with the exception of three molecules: fenthion, fenamiphos, and phorate. Typical pesticides were found to be concentrated by a factor of 100-300 from the rose flowers to the rose absolute. The observed effect of pesticide enrichment was also studied in roses and their extracts from four classically phytosanitary treated fields. Seventeen pesticides were detected in at least one of the extracts. Like the case for the spiked samples in our model, the pesticides present in the rose flowers from Turkey were concentrated in the absolute. Two pesticides, methidathion and chlorpyrifos, were quantified in the rose flowers at approximately 0.01 and 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, depending on the treated field. The concentrations determined for the corresponding rose absolutes were 4.7 mg kg(-1) for methidathion and 0.65-27.25 mg kg(-1) for chlorpyrifos.

  6. Fingerprints of flower absolutes using supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, Cyrille; Vallet, Nadine; Touboul, David

    2018-06-02

    Supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated with high resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-HRMS) was developed for fingerprint analysis of different flower absolutes commonly used in cosmetics field, especially in perfumes. Supercritical fluid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-APPI-HRMS) technique was employed to identify the components of the fingerprint. The samples were separated with a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) Hypercarb™ column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) by gradient elution using supercritical CO 2 and ethanol (0.0-20.0 min (2-30% B), 20.0-25.0 min (30% B), 25.0-26.0 min (30-2% B) and 26.0-30.0 min (2% B)) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. In order to compare the SFC fingerprints between five different flower absolutes: Jasminum grandiflorum absolutes, Jasminum sambac absolutes, Narcissus jonquilla absolutes, Narcissus poeticus absolutes, Lavandula angustifolia absolutes from different suppliers and batches, the chemometric procedure including principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to classify the samples according to their genus and their species. Consistent results were obtained to show that samples could be successfully discriminated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decommissioning of NPP A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the Operation history of A1 NPP, Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP' - I stage, Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP ' - II stage and Next stages of Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP ' are discussed.

  8. Amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by streptococcal IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batten, MR; Senior, BW; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    The amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by IgA1 proteases of different species of Streptococcus were investigated. Recombinant IgA1 antibodies were generated with point mutations at proline 227 and threonine 228, the residues lying on either...... side of the peptide bond at which all streptococcal IgA1 proteases cleave wild-type human IgA1. The amino acid substitutions produced no major effect upon the structure of the mutant IgA1 antibodies or their functional ability to bind to Fcalpha receptors. However, the substitutions had a substantial...... effect upon sensitivity to cleavage with some streptococcal IgA1 proteases, with, in some cases, a single point mutation rendering the antibody resistant to a particular IgA1 protease. This effect was least marked with the IgA1 protease from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which showed no absolute requirement...

  9. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Nyasol and Hinokiresinol via Synthesis and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    The absolute configuration of the norlignan (+)-nyasol was determined to be S by comparison of the experimental vibrational circular dichroism data with first-principle calculations taking into account the eight lowest energy conformations. The established absolute configuration of (+)-nyasol...... enables establishment of the absolute configuration of (-)-hinokiresinol, which is concluded to be S. A total synthesis and resolution of hinokiresinol has been performed to resolve the conflicting reports of the coupling constant of the vinylic protons of the disubstituted double bond in this molecule...

  10. Nanosatellite High-Precision Magnetic Missions Enabled by Advances in a Stand-Alone Scalar/Vector Absolute Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, G.; Leger, J. M.; Vigneron, P.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Coisson, P.; Deram, P.; Boness, A.; Tomasini, L.; Faure, B.

    2017-12-01

    Satellites of the ESA Swarm mission currently in operation carry a new generation of Absolute Scalar Magnetometers (ASM), which nominally deliver 1 Hz scalar for calibrating the relative flux gate magnetometers that complete the magnetometry payload (together with star cameras, STR, for attitude restitution) and providing extremely accurate scalar measurements of the magnetic field for science investigations. These ASM instruments, however, can also operate in two additional modes, a high-frequency 250 Hz scalar mode and a 1 Hz absolute dual-purpose scalar/vector mode. The 250 Hz scalar mode already allowed the detection of until now very poorly documented extremely low frequency whistler signals produced by lightning in the atmosphere, while the 1 Hz scalar/vector mode has provided data that, combined with attitude restitution from the STR, could be used to produce scientifically relevant core field and lithospheric field models. Both ASM modes have thus now been fully validated for science applications. Efforts towards developing an improved and miniaturized version of this instrument is now well under way with CNES support in the context of the preparation of a 12U nanosatellite mission (NanoMagSat) proposed to be launched to complement the Swarm satellite constellation. This advanced miniaturized ASM could potentially operate in an even more useful mode, simultaneously providing high frequency (possibly beyond 500 Hz) absolute scalar data and self-calibrated 1 Hz vector data, thus providing scientifically valuable data for multiple science applications. In this presentation, we will illustrate the science such an instrument taken on board a nanosatellite could enable, and report on the current status of the NanoMagSat project that intends to take advantage of it.

  11. Determination of the absolute configuration of (+) - surinamensin's via diastereomeric O-methylmandelic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L. da S.; Barata, L.E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute configurarion of (+) surinamensin, a 8.0.4' neolignan, has been determined based on its O-methymandalates esters. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared and mass spectroscopy analysis are presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. The fading American dream: Trends in absolute income mobility since 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raj; Grusky, David; Hell, Maximilian; Hendren, Nathaniel; Manduca, Robert; Narang, Jimmy

    2017-04-28

    We estimated rates of "absolute income mobility"-the fraction of children who earn more than their parents-by combining data from U.S. Census and Current Population Survey cross sections with panel data from de-identified tax records. We found that rates of absolute mobility have fallen from approximately 90% for children born in 1940 to 50% for children born in the 1980s. Increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates alone cannot restore absolute mobility to the rates experienced by children born in the 1940s. However, distributing current GDP growth more equally across income groups as in the 1940 birth cohort would reverse more than 70% of the decline in mobility. These results imply that reviving the "American dream" of high rates of absolute mobility would require economic growth that is shared more broadly across the income distribution. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  14. Combining Near-Subject Absolute and Relative Measures of Longitudinal Hydration in Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cian; McIntyre, Christopher; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Davies, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The feasibility and additional value of combining bioimpedance analysis (BIA) with near-subject absolute measurement of total body water using deuterium dilution (TBWD) in determining longitudinal fluid status was investigated.

  15. Absolute Monotonicity of Functions Related To Estimates of First Eigenvalue of Laplace Operator on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.

  16. Absolute instabilities of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P. N.; van Heijster, P.; Marangell, R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the spectral stability of travelling wave solutions in a Keller-Segel model of bacterial chemotaxis with a logarithmic chemosensitivity function and a constant, sublinear, and linear consumption rate. Linearising around the travelling wave solutions, we locate the essential and absolute spectrum of the associated linear operators and find that all travelling wave solutions have parts of the essential spectrum in the right half plane. However, we show that in the case of constant or sublinear consumption there exists a range of parameters such that the absolute spectrum is contained in the open left half plane and the essential spectrum can thus be weighted into the open left half plane. For the constant and sublinear consumption rate models we also determine critical parameter values for which the absolute spectrum crosses into the right half plane, indicating the onset of an absolute instability of the travelling wave solution. We observe that this crossing always occurs off of the real axis.

  17. Absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    A device was developed at the CEA for the absolute measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulators. It can operate in controlled atmospheres (air, CO 2 , Ar, He) and between 100 and 1050 deg C [fr

  18. Absolute molecular sieve separation of ethylene/ethane mixtures with silver zeolite A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Sonia; Bergeret, Gérard; Daniel, Cecile; Farrusseng, David

    2012-09-12

    Absolute ethylene/ethane separation is achieved by ethane exclusion on silver-exchanged zeolite A adsorbent. This molecular sieving type separation is attributed to the pore size of the adsorbent, which falls between ethylene and ethane kinetic diameters.

  19. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  20. Radii of Redox Components from Absolute Redox Potentials Compared with Covalent and Aqueous Ionic Radii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Raji

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2010), s. 903-907 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Electrochemistry * Absolute redox potentials * Radii of redox components Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  1. Geomagnetic Absolute Mean Values at Hourly Intervals from 220 Observatories Worldwide

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file is comprised of absolute mean hourly values of the geomagnetic components D, H and Z or X, Y and Z. These values, on magnetic tape, are available from...

  2. Utilization of 1H NMR in the determination of absolute configuration of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiros, Marizeth L.; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P. . E-juceni@ufba.br

    2005-01-01

    This review reports the determination of absolute configuration of primary and secondary alcohols by 1 H NMR spectroscopy, using the Mosher method. This method consists in the derivatization of an alcohol possessing unknown absolute configuration with one or both enantiomers of an auxiliary reagent. The resulting diastereoisomer spectra are registered and compared, and the chemical shift differences (Δδ R,S = δ R - δ S ) are measured. The determination of the absolute configuration of the alcohol molecule is based on the correlation between its chiral center and the auxiliary reagent's chiral center. Therefore, the determination of the absolute configuration depends on aromatic ring shielding effects on the substituents of the alcohol as evidenced by the 1 H NMR spectrum. (author)

  3. Effect of Absolute From Hibiscus syriacus L. Flower on Wound Healing in Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Dae Won; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proliferation and migration of keratinocytes are essential for the repair of cutaneous wounds. Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used in Asian medicine; however, research on keratinocytes is inadequate. Objective: To establish the dermatological properties of absolute from Hibiscus syriacus L. flower (HSF) and to provide fundamental research for alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: We identified the composition of HSF absolute using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We also examined the effect of HSF absolute in HaCaT cells using the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, sprout-out growth assay, and western blotting. We conducted an in-vivo wound healing assay in rat tail-skin. Results: Ten major active compounds were identified from HSF absolute. As determined by the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, and sprout-out growth assay results, HSF absolute exhibited similar effects as that of epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and migration patterns of keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), which were significantly increased after HSF absolute treatment. The expression levels of the phosphorylated signaling proteins relevant to proliferation, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and Akt, were also determined by western blot analysis. Conclusion: These results of our in-vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate that HSF absolute induced cell growth and migration of HaCaT cells by phosphorylating both Erk 1/2 and Akt. Moreover, we confirmed the wound-healing effect of HSF on injury of the rat tail-skin. Therefore, our results suggest that HSF absolute is promising for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine. SUMMARY Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute increases HaCaT cell migration and proliferation.Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute regulates phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt in HaCaT cell.Treatment with Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower induced sprout outgrowth.The wound in the tail-skin of rat was reduced by Hisbiscus syriacus

  4. Relative and absolute poverty : the case of México, 1992-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2005-01-01

    This paper advocates that although an absolute notion of poverty should remain an essential ingredient in the evaluation of the standard of living in developing and transition economies, it is time that relative poverty begins to be systematically estimated for those same economies. This prescription is applied to México for the 1992-2004 period, where the Fox Administration has fixed for the first time an absolute poverty line for 2000. To facilitate comparisons with developed countries, the...

  5. Two Accounts of Moral Diversity: The Cognitive Science of Pluralism and Absolutism

    OpenAIRE

    Bolender, Asst. Prof. John

    2004-01-01

    Advances in cognitive science are relevant to the debate between moral pluralism and absolutism. Parametric structure, which plausibly underlies syntax, gives some idea of how pluralism might be true. The cognitive mechanisms underlying mathematical intelligence give some idea of how far absolutism is right. Advances in cognitive science should help us better understand the extent to which we are divided and how far we are potentially harmonious in our values.

  6. The policy relevance of absolute and relative poverty headcounts: What's in a number?

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, Geranda; de Neubourg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Financial poverty indicators still play an important role in policymaking and evaluation. Countries such as the USA and the EU member states use one or several ‘official’ poverty indicators on which success of poverty reduction policy is regularly monitored. Whereas the US poverty indicator is based on an absolute concept of poverty, the EU Laeken indicator is based on a relative concept. But the consequences of such a decision are considerable. As absolute and relative poverty indicators ref...

  7. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz Dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartono, R. Agus; Setiawan, Arie Andika

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952) used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991) introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR) is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attem...

  8. Relationship between Income and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Absolute or Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Khashchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the absolute and relative income in determining the subjective economic well-being. It is shown that the relationship of the income to SEB is curvilinear with the increase of marginal utility for a higher income. At low income levels its effect on SEB is determined not by its absolute, but by its relative value based on the comparisons with the subjective standards of well-being.

  9. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Affan Bin; Reichlin Tobias R.; Twerenbold Raphael; Meister Marc; Moehring Berit; Wildi Karin; Bassetti Stefano; Zellweger Christa; Gimenez Maria Rubini; Hoeller Rebeca; Murray Karsten; Sou SeoungMann; Mueller Mira; Mosimann Tamina; Reiter Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Absolute changes in high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. Methods: In a prospective international multicenter study high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs cTn) was ...

  10. Absolute 3PO triple differential cross sections for electron-helium Wannier threshold ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, D.R.J.; Crothers, D.S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of Crothers is employed to find a final-state 3 P O wave function for threshold electron impact ionisation of helium. The Kohn variational principle is applied perturbatively to evaluate the scattering amplitude and hence the absolute 3 P O contribution to the triple differential cross sections. These plus the previous absolute singlet results of Crothers are compared favourably with the relative experimental results of Selles et al. (orig.)

  11. Memory for musical tempo: Additional evidence that auditory memory is absolute

    OpenAIRE

    Levitin, Daniel J.; Cook, Perry R.

    1996-01-01

    We report evidence that long term memory retains absolute (accurate) features of perceptual events. Specifically, we show that memory for music seems to preserve the absolute tempo of the musical performance. In Experiment 1, 46 subjects sang popular songs from memory, and their tempos were compared to recorded versions of the songs. Seventy-two of the subjects came within 8% of the actual tempo on two consecutive trials (using different songs), demonstrating accuracy near the perceptual thre...

  12. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  13. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XIV: the Absolute Calibration of 2MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Martin; Wheaton, Wm. A.; Megeath, S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Element-by-element we have combined the optical components in the three 2MASS cameras, and incorporated detector quantum efficiency curves and site-specific atmospheric transmissions, to create three relative spectral response curves (RSRs). We provide absolute 2MASS attributes associated with "zero magnitude" in the JHKs bands so that these RSRs may be used for synthetic photometry. The RSRs tie 2MASS to the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn framework of absolute photometry and spectra for the purpose ...

  14. Absolute continuity of autophage measures on finite-dimensional vector spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, C R.E. [Stat-Math Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: creraja@isibang.ac.in

    2002-06-01

    We consider a class of measures called autophage which was introduced and studied by Szekely for measures on the real line. We show that the autophage measures on finite-dimensional vector spaces over real or Q{sub p} are infinitely divisible without idempotent factors and are absolutely continuous with bounded continuous density. We also show that certain semistable measures on such vector spaces are absolutely continuous. (author)

  15. Study of errors in absolute flux density measurements of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, M.

    1975-10-01

    An error analysis for absolute flux density measurements of Cassiopeia A is discussed. The lower-bound quadrature-accumulation error for state-of-the-art measurements of the absolute flux density of Cas A around 7 GHz is estimated to be 1.71% for 3 sigma limits. The corresponding practicable error for the careful but not state-of-the-art measurement is estimated to be 4.46% for 3 sigma limits

  16. Absolute dose measurement Gafchromic R EBT2 movies. Case Study of Kaposis sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Meilan, E.; Azevedo Gomes, J. C. de; Tejeiro Garcia, A. G.; Andrade Alvarez, B.; Vazquez, J.; Nieto, I.; Medal, D.; Lopez Medina, A.; Francisco, S.; Salgado, M.; Munoz, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its high spatial resolution, low energy dependence and good response over a wide energy range, EBT2 Gafchromic films are widely used in many applications in radiotherapy for measuring relative dose. Despite being the most common use can be used to measure absolute dose. This text is an example of using films as EBT2 for in vivo absolute dose in a Kaposis sarcoma.

  17. Absolute and convective instability of a liquid sheet with transverse temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Qing-Fei; Yang, Li-Jun; Tong, Ming-Xi; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The spatial–temporal instability of a liquid sheet with thermal effects was studied. • The flow can transit to absolutely unstable with certain flow parameters. • The effects of non-dimensional parameters on the transition were studied. -- Abstract: The spatial–temporal instability behavior of a viscous liquid sheet with temperature difference between the two surfaces was investigated theoretically. The practical situation motivating this investigation is liquid sheet heated by ambient gas, usually encountered in industrial heat transfer and liquid propellant rocket engines. The existing dispersion relation was used, to explore the spatial–temporal instability of viscous liquid sheets with a nonuniform temperature profile, by setting both the wave number and frequency complex. A parametric study was performed in both sinuous and varicose modes to test the influence of dimensionless numbers on the transition between absolute and convective instability of the flow. For a small value of liquid Weber number, or a great value of gas-to-liquid density ratio, the flow was found to be absolutely unstable. The absolute instability was enhanced by increasing the liquid viscosity. It was found that variation of the Marangoni number hardly influenced the absolute instability of the sinuous mode of oscillations; however it slightly affected the absolute instability in the varicose mode

  18. Telling in-tune from out-of-tune: widespread evidence for implicit absolute intonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Huang, Alex; Rutstein, Brooke; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2017-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to name or produce an isolated musical note without the aid of a reference note. One skill thought to be unique to AP possessors is the ability to provide absolute intonation judgments (e.g., classifying an isolated note as "in-tune" or "out-of-tune"). Recent work has suggested that absolute intonation perception among AP possessors is not crystallized in a critical period of development, but is dynamically maintained by the listening environment, in which the vast majority of Western music is tuned to a specific cultural standard. Given that all listeners of Western music are constantly exposed to this specific cultural tuning standard, our experiments address whether absolute intonation perception extends beyond AP possessors. We demonstrate that non-AP listeners are able to accurately judge the intonation of completely isolated notes. Both musicians and nonmusicians showed evidence for absolute intonation recognition when listening to familiar timbres (piano and violin). When testing unfamiliar timbres (triangle and inverted sine waves), only musicians showed weak evidence of absolute intonation recognition (Experiment 2). Overall, these results highlight a previously unknown similarity between AP and non-AP possessors' long-term musical note representations, including evidence of sensitivity to frequency.

  19. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 7. Grounds of Absolute Pitch Development in Yamaha Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iușcă Dorina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch is defined as the ability to identify the pitch class of a certain given sound without the aid of an external reference pitch (Takeuchi & Hulse, 1993; Deutsch, 2002. The incidence of absolute pitch is extremely rare among the general population, respectively 1 in 10.000 people and it depends on testing conditions such as the number of identified sounds, pitch Chroma, pitch height, timbre, register or requested reaction time, and also on subjects musical training commencing and Eastern-Asian origins. The way absolute pitch develops is described by three models: the tone language theory, the early training theory and the genetic theory. The early training theory states that absolute pitch appears due to the beginning of musical lessons during a critical development period situated before the age of 6. The educational implications of this theory are revealed in the principles and activities of Yamaha Music School which employs didactic strategies that naturally develop absolute pitch. Yamaha Music School is the largest private music education system from Japan, established by Torakusu Yamaha in 1954. Up to this day it has extended in 40 countries from Europe, Asia and the American continents, as it has about 710 million students and 30.000 teachers. The present study aims to illustrate a detailed analysis of the way the learning experiences offered by Yamaha School lead to the development of absolute pitch.

  20. Some things ought never be done: moral absolutes in clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    2005-01-01

    Moral absolutes have little or no moral standing in our morally diverse modern society. Moral relativism is far more palatable for most ethicists and to the public at large. Yet, when pressed, every moral relativist will finally admit that there are some things which ought never be done. It is the rarest of moral relativists that will take rape, murder, theft, child sacrifice as morally neutral choices. In general ethics, the list of those things that must never be done will vary from person to person. In clinical ethics, however, the nature of the physician-patient relationship is such that certain moral absolutes are essential to the attainment of the good of the patient - the end of the relationship itself. These are all derivatives of the first moral absolute of all morality: Do good and avoid evil. In the clinical encounter, this absolute entails several subsidiary absolutes - act for the good of the patient, do not kill, keep promises, protect the dignity of the patient, do not lie, avoid complicity with evil. Each absolute is intrinsic to the healing and helping ends of the clinical encounter.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of xenon EUV emission in the 40-80 nm wavelength range using an absolutely calibrated monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merabet, H [Mathematic and Sciences Unit, Dhofar University, Salalah 211, Sultanate of (Oman); Bista, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Bruch, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Fuelling, S [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    We have measured and identified numerous Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) radiative line structures arising from xenon (Xe) ions in charge state q = 1 to 10 in the wavelength range 40-80 nm. To obtain reasonable intensities of different charged Xe ions, we have used a compact microwave plasma source which was designed and developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The EUV emission of the ECR plasma has been measured by a 1.5 m grazing incidence monochromator that was absolutely calibrated in the 10-80 nm wavelength range using well known and calibrated EUV light at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), LBNL. This calibration has enabled us to determine absolute intensities of previously measured EUV radiative lines in the wavelengths regions investigated for different ionization stages of Xe. In addition, emission spectra of xenon ions for corresponding measured lines have been calculated. The calculations have been carried out within the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. Results of calculations are found to be in good agreement with current and available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. Determination of absolute detection efficiencies for detectors of interest in homeland security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of gamma ray detector materials NaI:Tl, CdZnTe, HPGe, HPXe, LaBr 3 :Ce and LaCl 3 :Ce were simulated and compared to that of polyvinyltoluene (PVT). The dimensions of the PVT detector were 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm, which is a typical size for a single-panel portal monitor. The absolute total and peak detection efficiencies for these detector materials for the point, line and spherical source geometries of 60 Co (1332 keV), 137 Cs (662 keV) and 241 Am (59.5 keV) were simulated at various source-to-detector distances using the Monte Carlo N-Particle software (MCNP5-V1.30). The comparison of the absolute total detection efficiencies for a point, line and spherical source geometry of 60 Co and 137 Cs at different source-to-detector distance showed that the absolute detection efficiency for PVT is higher relative to the other detectors of typical dimensions for that material. However, the absolute peak detection efficiency of some of these detectors are higher relative to PVT, for example the absolute peak detection efficiency of NaI:Tl (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPGe (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPXe (11.43 cm diameterx60.96 cm long), and LaCl 3 :Ce (5.08 cm diameterx5.08 cm long) are all greater than that of a 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm PVT detector for 60 Co and 137 Cs for all geometries studied. The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of a right circular cylinder of NaI:Tl with various diameters and thicknesses were determined for a point source. The effect of changing the solid angle on the NaI:Tl detectors showed that with increasing solid angle and detector thickness, the absolute efficiency increases. This work establishes a common basis for differentiating detector materials for passive portal monitoring of gamma ray radiation

  3. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing absolute and normalized indicators in scientific collaboration: a study in Environmental Science in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrini-Grácio, M.C.; Oliveira, E.F.T.

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis of scientific collaboration proximity trends generated from absolute indicators and indicators of collaboration intensity in the field of Environmental Sciences in Latin America (LA), in order to identify possible existing biases in the absolute indicators of international cooperation, due to the magnitude of scientific production of these countries in mainstream science. More specifically, the objective is to analyze the compared forms of absolute and normalized values of co-authorship among Latin America countries and their main collaborators, in order to observe similarities and differences expressed by two indexes of frequency in relation to scientific collaboration trends in LA countries. In addition, we aim to visualize and analyze scientific collaboration networks with absolute and normalized indexes of co-authorship through SC among Latin America countries and their collaborators, comparing proximity evidenced by two generated collaborative networks - absolute and relative indicators. Data collection comprised a period of 10 years (2006-2015) for the countries from LA: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Colombia as they produced 94% of total production, a percentage considered representative and significant for this study. Then, we verified the co-authorship frequencies among the five countries and their key collaborators and builted the matrix with the indexes of co-authorship normalized through SC. Then, we generated two egocentric networks of scientific collaboration - absolute frequencies and normalized frequencies through SC using Pajek software. From the results, we observed the need for absolute and normalized indicators to describe the scientific collaboration phenomenon in a more thoroughly way, once these indicators provide complementary information. (Author)

  5. Marine natural products. XXXII. Absolute configurations of C-4 of the manoalide family, biologically active sesterterpenes from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Okamoto, T; Hayashi, K; Yokoyama, N; Sasaki, T; Kitagawa, I

    1994-02-01

    Cytotoxic sesterterpenes, manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b), seco-manoalide (2), (E)-neomanoalide (3), (Z)-neomanoalide (4), and heteronemin (6), were isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta (collected at Amami Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan) by bioassay-guided separation and the absolute configurations of these manoalide family members have been determined. Manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b) were shown to exhibit in vivo antitumor activity and to inhibit the DNA-relaxing activity of mouse DNA topoisomerase I and the DNA-unknotting activity of calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II.

  6. Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2009-06-08

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->M(H(2)O)(24)(+)(g) and 2) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) + H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e(-)(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of -265 kcal mol(-1) are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution.

  7. Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Lim Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCentral fat mass (CFM correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.MethodsTotal of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4, leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM. PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.ResultsMedian age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.ConclusionThese results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR

  9. Application of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) absolute analysis method for silica refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Yamada, Yasujiro; Kansai, Kouhei; Tomatsu, Ichirou; Murata, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a rapid and precise quantitative analytical method for the determination of major and trace elements in many industries and academics. XRF analytical values are relative due to the use of the calibration curves calculated from measuring the reference standard materials such as Japanese Refractory Reference Materials (JRRM) series with certified values determined by wet chemical analysis. The development of the XRF analytical method from relative to absolute analysis will help much to determine the absolute values of samples from the fields where reference standard samples have not been prepared, and thus can be applied widely in many industries. The implement of the absolute XRF analysis for silica refractories requires high purity reagents and/or reference standard solution for the binary basic calibration curve, and theoretical matrix correction coefficients for the multi-components silica refractories analysis. The reproducibility and repeatability of this method for Al 2 O 3 5 mass% sample were 0.009 and 0.006 mass% in Al 2 O 3 and showed better values that those of ICP-AES recognized as an absolute method in JIS R 2212-2, which yielded 0.028 and 0.031 mass%, respectively. The XRF absolute analysis for JRRM 200 series, 201a and 205a does not show a bias but coincides with their certified values. (author)

  10. Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation.

  11. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  12. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  13. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  14. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  15. Absolute Hydration Free Energy of Proton from First Principles Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute hydration free energy of the proton, DGhyd298(H+), is one of the fundamental quantities for the thermodynamics of aqueous systems. Its exact value remains unknown despite extensive experimental and computational efforts. We report a first-principles determination of DGhyd298(H+) by using the latest developments in electronic structure theory and massively parallel computers. DGhyd298(H+) is accurately predicted to be -262.4 kcal/mol based on high-level, first-principles solvation-included electronic structure calculations. The absolute hydration free energies of other cations can be obtained by using appropriate available thermodynamic data in combination with this value. The high accuracy of the predicted absolute hydration free energy of proton is confirmed by applying the same protocol to predict DGhyd298(Li+)

  16. Computer-aided-design-model-assisted absolute three-dimensional shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Bell, Tyler; Zhang, Song

    2017-08-20

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement methods are typically generic to all types of objects. Yet, for many measurement conditions, such a level of generality is inessential when having the preknowledge of the object geometry. This paper introduces a novel adaptive algorithm for absolute 3D shape measurement with the assistance of the object computer-aided-design (CAD) model. The proposed algorithm includes the following major steps: (1) export the 3D point cloud data from the CAD model; (2) transform the CAD model into the camera perspective; (3) obtain a wrapped phase map from three phase-shifted fringe images; and (4) retrieve absolute phase and 3D geometry assisted by the CAD model. We demonstrate that if object CAD models are available, such an algorithm is efficient in recovering absolute 3D geometries of both simple and complex objects with only three phase-shifted fringe images.

  17. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  18. Museums theme – Quest for Absolute Zero: A Human Story about Rivalry and Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk van Delft

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 Rijksmuseum Boerhaave organised an exhibition on the occasion of the centennial of the liquefaction of helium by Kamerlingh Onnes in Leiden. Quest for Absolute Zero was the first major temporary exhibition aimed at new target groups. Therefore the focus was on the human scale and the colourful story behind the ‘man of Absolute Zero’. The fierce competition with James Dewar from the Royal Institution was also highlighted. The outcome of Quest for Absolute Zero was extremely positive for Rijksmuseum Boerhaave in terms of visitor numbers, media coverage, collaborations and side events. The project also proved to be a very useful lever for the renewal of the permanent exhibition, scheduled to open in December 2017.

  19. Wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity mapping in vessel centerline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nanshou; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Bifeng; Guan, Caizhong; Wang, Mingyi; Han, Dingan; Tan, Haishu; Zeng, Yaguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a wide-field absolute transverse blood flow velocity measurement method in vessel centerline based on absorption intensity fluctuation modulation effect. The difference between the light absorption capacities of red blood cells and background tissue under low-coherence illumination is utilized to realize the instantaneous and average wide-field optical angiography images. The absolute fuzzy connection algorithm is used for vessel centerline extraction from the average wide-field optical angiography. The absolute transverse velocity in the vessel centerline is then measured by a cross-correlation analysis according to instantaneous modulation depth signal. The proposed method promises to contribute to the treatment of diseases, such as those related to anemia or thrombosis.

  20. The Absolute Deviation Rank Diagnostic Approach to Gear Tooth Composite Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of the different degree with single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, a method for the diagnosis of absolute deviation of gear faults is presented. The method uses ADAMS, respectively, set-up dynamics model of single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, to obtain the result of different degree of broken teeth, pitting the single fault and compound faults in the meshing frequency, and the amplitude frequency doubling through simulating analysis. Through the comparison with the normal state to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the fault, the absolute value deviation diagnostic approach is used to identify the fault and validate it through experiments. The results show that absolute deviation rank diagnostic approach can realize the recognition of gear single faults and compound faults with different degrees and provide quick reference to determine the degree of gear fault.