WorldWideScience

Sample records for absolute activity measurement

  1. Accurate measurement of the optical activity of alanine crystals and the determination of their absolute chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Terasawa, Yukana; Tanaka, Masahito; Asahi, Toru

    2017-05-01

    Wavelength dependence measurements of the chiroptical properties in alanine crystals have so far been unsuccessful using conventional spectroscopic techniques. We describe our attempts to measure the wavelength dependence of the optical activity in L- and D-alanine crystals along each crystallographic axis, and to determine the absolute chirality of alanine crystals by correlating the absolute structure to the optical activity using an x-ray diffractometer and a generalized high accuracy universal polarimeter. We have succeeded in accurately measuring the optical rotatory dispersion in the direction, which shows that the optical rotation of the D-alanine crystal is dextrorotatory and that of the L-alanine crystal is laevorotatory, thereby determining the absolute chirality. Furthermore, comparison with the optical activity in solution shows that the optical activity in alanine crystals is different not only in value, but also in the sign. These results have led us to conclude that the optical rotatory power in the crystalline state should not be simply the summation of molecular optical rotatory power values. We propose the necessity of a theory, which contains the contribution of molecular interactions within the crystal, in order to calculate the optical rotatory power of the crystalline state.

  2. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)

    1991-01-01

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).

  3. On the absolute measure of Beta activities; Sobre la medida absoluta de actividades Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.; Jimenez Reynaldo, O.; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1956-07-01

    A new method for absolute beta counting of solid samples is given. The measurements is made with an inside Geiger-Muller tube of new construction. The backscattering correction when using an infinite thick mounting is discussed and results for different materials given. (Author)

  4. ABSOLUTE STANDARDS FOR CLIMATE MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leckey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material’s melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  5. Measurements of absolute long distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Doloca, Nicolae Radu; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Wedde, Martin; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    The production of large components, e. g. in aerospace industries, requires flexible and yet highly precise measurement techniques to determine absolute lengths of up to one hundred metres. Two different approaches are presented in this paper. One is based on a time-of-flight measurement, using a femtosecond frequency comb as an advanced modulator. By the combined phase analysis of lines of different distinct frequencies in the Mega- and Gigahertz frequency range, a measurement distance of one hundred metres with a relative measurement uncertainty of 1x10-7 was achieved in laboratory conditions. In a second approach to long distance measurements, two standard interferometric measurement techniques, i.e. variable synthetic and fixed synthetic wavelength interferometry, were combined. The two interferometry techniques were realised within a single set-up, using two external cavity diode lasers as sources. Experimentally, lengths of up to twenty metres could thus be determined with relative uncertainties below 1x10-6, in good agreement with theoretical analysis. Both techniques, femtosecond fibre laser-based time-of-flight and diode laser-based multiwavelength interferometry, are therefore capable of absolute, guidance-free long distance measurements and have achieved demonstrated relative measurement uncertainties below 1x10-6 for distances over ten metres.

  6. Absolute measurement of D-T neutron flux with a monitor using activation of flowing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Y. E-mail: uno@cens.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Kaneko, J.; Nishitani, T.; Maekawa, F.; Tanaka, T.; Shibata, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Khripunov, V.; Walker, C.; Ebisawa, K.; Takeuchi, H

    2001-10-01

    Neutron activation with water flow based on the {sup 16}O(n, p){sup 16}N reaction (T{sub 1/2}=7.13 s) has been proposed for the accurate fusion power monitor with reasonable time resolution in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)-FEAT. The experiment for validation of the method for determining the neutron flux was carried out at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The stainless steel (SS316)/Water assembly was utilized to simulate a neutron field in the blanket region of ITER. The closed water loop was laid between the assembly and the shielded measurement area. The {gamma}-rays from the irradiated water were measured by Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillator which was {approx}12 m away from the irradiation point. The range of the flow velocity was 2-11 m/s. The neutron spectrum at the probe section in the SS316/Water assembly was calculated by the MCNP-4B code with the FENDL/E-2.0 library. The cross section data of the {sup 16}O(n, p){sup 16}N reaction was taken from the FENDL/A-2.0 file. The counting response of the BGO detector including the effect of the shielding lead blocks surrounding it was calculated by MCNP-4B. The neutron yield from the water activation has a good agreement with that from associated {alpha} particle detector.

  7. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE GANIL BEAM ENERGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CASANDJIAN, JM; MITTIG, W; BEUNARD, R; GAUDARD, L; LEPINESZILY, A; VILLARI, ACC; AUGER, G; BIANCHI, L; CUNSOLO, A; FOTI, A; LICHTENTHALER, R; PLAGNOL, E; SCHUTZ, Y; SIEMSSEN, RH; WIELECZKO, JP

    1993-01-01

    The energy of the GANIL cyclotron beam was measured on-line during the Pb-208 + Pb-208 elastic scattering experiment ''Search for Color van der Waals Force in the Pb-208 + Pb-208 Mott scattering'' with an absolute precision of 7 x 10(-5) at approximately 1.0 GeV, which represents an improvement of

  8. Absolute measurement of {beta} activities and application to the determination of neutronic densities; Mesure absolue d'activites {beta} et application a la determination des densites neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1951-01-15

    M. Berthelot, to my entrance to the ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', proposed me to study the absolute measurement of neutron densities. Very quickly the problem of the absolute activity of {beta} sources became the central object of this work. In a first part, we will develop the methods of absolute determination for {beta} activities. The use of a 4{pi} counter permits to get the absolute activity of all beta radioactive source, susceptible to be put as thin leaf and of period superior than some minutes. The method is independent of the spectra of the measured radioelement. we will describe in the second part some applications which use neutron densities measurement, neutron sources intensities and ratio of cross sections of capture of thermal neutrons. (M.B.) [French] M. Berthelot, a mon entree au ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', m'a propose d'etudier la mesure absolue des densites neutroniques. Tres rapidement le probleme de l'activite absolue des sources beta est devenu l'objet central de ce travail. Dans une premiere partie, on abordera les methodes de determination absolue des activites beta. L'utilisation d'un compteur 4{pi} permet d 'obtenir l'activite absolue de toute source radioactive beta, susceptible d'etre mise sous forme de feuille mince et de periode superieure a quelques minutes. La methode est independante du spectre du radioelement mesure. On decrira dans la seconde partie quelques applications a des mesures de densites neutroniques, d'intensites de sources de neutrons et de rapport de sections efficaces de capture de neutrons thermiques. (M.B.)

  9. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

    2012-06-01

    Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

  11. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... these abilities. Using a novel computerized pitch adjustment test, we investigated active AP ability in musicians with and without AP (ages 18-43). We found a significant correlation between active and passive AP indicating that AP possessors (APs) identify and produce pitch equally well. Furthermore, we found...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  12. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  13. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO's Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating's first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of "uncalibrated" first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the "uncalibrated" first-order "solar" component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  14. Alpha absolute power measurement in panic disorder with agoraphobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Freire, Rafael C; Cagy, Maurício; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Rangé, Bernard P; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Akiskal, Hagop Souren

    2013-10-01

    Panic attacks are thought to be a result from a dysfunctional coordination of cortical and brainstem sensory information leading to heightened amygdala activity with subsequent neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral activation. Prefrontal areas may be responsible for inhibitory top-down control processes and alpha synchronization seems to reflect this modulation. The objective of this study was to measure frontal absolute alpha-power with qEEG in 24 subjects with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA) compared to 21 healthy controls. qEEG data were acquired while participants watched a computer simulation, consisting of moments classified as "high anxiety"(HAM) and "low anxiety" (LAM). qEEG data were also acquired during two rest conditions, before and after the computer simulation display. We observed a higher absolute alpha-power in controls when compared to the PDA patients while watching the computer simulation. The main finding was an interaction between the moment and group factors on frontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the decreased alpha-power in the frontal cortex for the PDA group may reflect a state of high excitability. Our results suggest a possible deficiency in top-down control processes of anxiety reflected by a low absolute alpha-power in the PDA group while watching the computer simulation and they highlight that prefrontal regions and frontal region nearby the temporal area are recruited during the exposure to anxiogenic stimuli. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of the absolute luminosity with the ALEPH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, D.; Deschizeaux, B.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Alemany, R.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mir, Ll. M.; Pacheco, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Ruan, T.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Bird, F.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Brown, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Grab, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jost, B.; Kasemann, M.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Marchioro, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Menary, S.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Rotscheidt, H.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Takashima, M.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Harvey, J.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Bertelsen, H.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Lindhal, A.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Petersen, G.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Bourotte, J.; Braems, F.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Guirlet, R.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Zografou, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Hearns, J. L.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Taylor, G.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Rowlingson, B. S.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Becker, H.; Blum, W.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Jahn, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lange, E.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Pan, Y.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Stierlin, U.; Denis, R. St.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Ganis, G.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Gatto, C.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Thomas, R. M.; West, L. R.; Wildish, T.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Klopfenstein, C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Vallage, B.; Ashman, J. G.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dinsdale, M.; Dogru, M.; Hatfield, F.; Martin, J.; Parker, D.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Bach, E.; Barberio, E.; Brandt, S.; Burkhardt, H.; Gillessen, G.; Grupen, C.; Heitner, G.; Meinhard, H.; Mirabito, L.; Schäfer, U.; Seywerd, H.; Stupperich, C.; Trier, H.; Zeuner, V.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stiegler, U.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, X.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jacobsen, J. E.; Jared, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Leclaire, B. W.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Tang, Y. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Wear, J. A.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Wu, Sau Lan; Zobernig, G.

    1992-09-01

    We report on the absolute luminosity measurement performed with the ALEPH detector at LEP. The systematic errors of the measurements in 1990 are estimated to be 0.6% (experimental) and 0.3% (theoretical).

  16. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ) En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ) cross section.

  17. 242Pu absolute neutron-capture cross section measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckner M.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. During target fabrication, a small amount of 239Pu was added to the active target so that the absolute scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section could be set according to the known 239Pu(n,f resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section covers four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. The cross section reported in ENDF/B-VII.1 for the 242Pu(n,γ En,R = 2.68 eV resonance was found to be 2.4% lower than the new absolute 242Pu(n,γ cross section.

  18. Precise absolute gamma-ray wavelength measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, E. G.; Dewey, M. S.; Greene, G. L.; Deslattes, R. D.; Börner, H.

    1991-10-01

    Gamma-ray wavelengths measured with the joint NIST/ILL GAMS4 facility at the High Flux Reactor, Grenoble, France, are discussed. This primary goal of these measurements is gamma-ray wavelengths which are consistent with the optical wavelength scale and the Rydberg constant with an uncertainty no larger than 0.1 ppm for energies up to 5 MeV. The current status of the Bragg angle and crystal lattice spacing measurements on reference energy values, the neutron mass, and the determination of fundamental constants is reviewed. Measurement of structure factors at high energies is also considered.

  19. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  20. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  1. Absolute and Relative Measures of Instructional Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Alexander; Hartig, Johannes; Hochweber, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Valid inferences on teaching drawn from students' test scores require that tests are sensitive to the instruction students received in class. Accordingly, measures of the test items' instructional sensitivity provide empirical support for validity claims about inferences on instruction. In the present study, we first introduce the concepts of…

  2. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul-Antoine Moreau; Javier Sabines-Chesterking; Rebecca Whittaker; Siddarth K Joshi; Patrick M Birchall; Alex McMillan; John G Rarity; Jonathan C F Matthews

    2017-01-01

    ... strategies can be improved. Here, for optical direct absorption measurement, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of an absolute advantage per photon probe that is exposed to the absorbative sample...

  4. Composite phase-shifting algorithm for absolute phase measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a method to recover absolute phase by using only four images: three phase-shifted patterns and one stair pattern. The stair pattern is designed in such a way that the stair changes are perfectly aligned with the phase jumps, and thus absolute phase can be recovered by referring to the stair pattern. Due to system noises and camera and/or projector blurring, a computational framework is also proposed. Because this technique only requires four fringe images for absolute phase recovery, it has the merit of measurement speed. And since the absolute phase is obtained, this technique is suitable for measuring step-height objects. We have developed a digital fringe projection system to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  5. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  6. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  7. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; hide

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  8. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  9. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  10. Absolute activity measurement of the electron-capture-based radionuclides Ce-139, I-125, Ir-192 and Zn-65 by liquid scintillation coincidence counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Wyngaardt, B.R.S. Simpson / Applied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 1454?1458 1457 References Eldridge, J.S., Crowther, P., 1964. Absolute determination of 125I. Nucleonics 22 (6), 56. Funck, E., Larsen, A.N., 1983. The influence from low energy X...

  11. Absolute frequency measurements on Mg{sup +} cooling transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batteiger, Valentin; Herrmann, Maximilian; Knuenz, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Udem, Thomas; Haensch, Theodor W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Zhu, Feng; Schuessler, Hans [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We present isotopically resolved absolute frequency measurements of both fine structure components of the 3s-3p transition in single, trapped magnesium ions. The transitions are observed in the limit of unresolved sidebands, which would lead to strongly asymmetric line shapes due to cooling and heating if only one laser were swept over the resonance. A novel spectroscopy scheme based on sympathetic cooling and spatially resolved detection allows to observe symmetric lines. The measurements contribute to astronomical searches for drifts of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra and improve the accuracy over previous measurements by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Absolute measurement of rates of capture of neutrons in 238U and fission in 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, V. A.

    1981-04-01

    The absolute rate of capture of neutrons in U-238 was measured in terms of the Np-239 activity found (gamma radiation), using a calibrated Am-243 source to determine the efficiency of gamma recording in the detector. The absolute rate of fission of Pu-239 was determined by means of a fission chamber with a known number of Pu-239 nuclei, and the efficiency of fission fragment recording in the chamber was calculated.

  13. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Sabines-Chesterking, Javier; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick M; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2017-07-24

    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory promises to offer practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, for optical direct absorption measurement, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of an absolute advantage per photon probe that is exposed to the absorbative sample. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with 100% efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to 50% absorption, with a maximum observed factor of improvement of 1.46. This equates to around 32% reduction in the total number of photons traversing an optical sample, compared to any future direct optical absorption measurement using classical light.

  14. First absolute mass measurements of short-lived isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, G.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kern, F.; Schnatz, H.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R. B.; Kluge, H.-J.; Temmer, G. M.; Ulm, G.

    1987-12-01

    Absolute mass measurements of short-lived isotopes have been performed at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN by determining the cyclotron frequencies of ions confined in a Penning trap. The cyclotron frequencies for77,78,85,86,88Rb and88Sr ions could be determined with a resolving power of 3×105 and an accuracy of better than 10-6, which corresponds to 100 keV for mass A=100. The shortest-lived isotope under investigation was77Rb with a half-life of 3.7 min. The resonances obtained for the isobars88Rb and88Sr were clearly resolved.

  15. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, J. V.; Warrington, A. P.; Partridge, M.; Philps, A.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  16. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  17. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  18. Absolute measurement of gene transcripts with Selfie-digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesniy, Petar; Trullas, Ramon

    2017-08-21

    Absolute measurement of the number of RNA transcripts per gene is necessary to compare gene transcription among different tissues or experimental conditions and to assess transcription of genes that have a variable copy number per cell such as mitochondrial DNA. Here, we present a method called Selfie-digital PCR that measures the absolute amount of an RNA transcript produced by its own coding DNA at a particular moment. Overcoming the limitations of previous approaches, Selfie-digital PCR allows for the quantification of nuclear and mitochondrial gene transcription in a strand-specific manner that is comparable among tissues and cell types that differ in gene copy number or metabolic state. Using Selfie-digital PCR, we found that, with the exception of the liver, different organs exhibit marked variations in mitochondrial DNA copy number but similar transcription of mitochondrial DNA heavy and light chains, thus suggesting a preferential role of mitochondrial DNA abundance over its transcription in organ function. Moreover, the strand-specific analysis of mitochondrial transcription afforded by Selfie-digital PCR showed that transcription of the heavy strand was significantly higher than that of the light strand in all the tissues studied.

  19. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  20. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response knownas glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change.For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used......, the study ofGIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter onthe surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recentlydeveloped ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change...... in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the GNET...

  1. Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We report new estimates of measures of absolute poverty for the developing world for the period 1981–2004. A clear trend decline in the percentage of people who are absolutely poor is evident, although with uneven progress across regions. We find more mixed success in reducing the total number of poor. Indeed, the developing world outside China has seen little or no sustained progress in reducing the number of poor, with rising poverty counts in some regions, notably sub-Saharan Africa. There are encouraging signs of progress in all regions after 2000, although it is too early to say whether this is a new trend. We also summarize results from estimating a new series incorporating an allowance for the higher cost of living facing poor people in urban areas. This reveals a marked urbanization of poverty in the developing world, which is stronger in some regions than others, although it remains that three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas. PMID:17942698

  2. Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin

    2007-10-23

    We report new estimates of measures of absolute poverty for the developing world for the period 1981-2004. A clear trend decline in the percentage of people who are absolutely poor is evident, although with uneven progress across regions. We find more mixed success in reducing the total number of poor. Indeed, the developing world outside China has seen little or no sustained progress in reducing the number of poor, with rising poverty counts in some regions, notably sub-Saharan Africa. There are encouraging signs of progress in all regions after 2000, although it is too early to say whether this is a new trend. We also summarize results from estimating a new series incorporating an allowance for the higher cost of living facing poor people in urban areas. This reveals a marked urbanization of poverty in the developing world, which is stronger in some regions than others, although it remains that three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas.

  3. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.

  4. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  5. Absolute interferometric distance measurement using a FM-demodulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edgar; Dalhoff, Ernst; Heim, Silke; Hofbauer, Ulrich; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1995-09-01

    We propose an interferometric method for measuring absolute distances larger than the wavelength. A laser diode is used as a light source. The principle of operation is based on multiple-wavelength interferometry that uses a modulated light source. This method uses the fact that the wavelength of light emitted by the laser diode can be varied by means of the injection current. The modulation of the injection current in combination with the optical heterodyne technique causes a high-frequency phase-modulated detector signal. The phase deviation of the signal is a measure of the optical path difference in the interferometer. By FM demodulation of the detector output with a phase-locked loop demodulator, the optical path difference can be determined directly without the classical ambiguity problem of interferometry. The measuring range in the experiments was limited to 50 mm by the maximum travel range of the used specimen translation stage. Because of the inherent light sensitivity of the method described, the rangefinder can be used for three-dimensional profile measurements on a wide variety of objects, even on diffuse scattering surfaces.

  6. An absolute calibration for gas-phase hydroxyl measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Thomas M; George, Linda A; O'Brien, Robert J

    2002-04-15

    We describe a new method of calibrating tropospheric hydroxyl (OH) instruments. Ozone-alkene mixtures produce steady-state OH radical concentrations. The steady state is governed by competition between OH production in the reaction of ozone with the alkene and OH removal by reactions with the alkene, ozone, and the reactor wall. In a flowtube reactor transporting an ozone-alkene mixture, the OH wall loss rate can be measured by varying the alkene concentration. Delivery of the reaction mixture to the sampling entry of an atmospheric OH measurement instrument provides an absolute calibration of the instrument's response to OH. The present precision of calibration is +/-8% (1-sigma), based on reproducibility over a wide range of ozone concentrations. The accuracy (+/-43%) is limited by uncertainties in kinetic rate coefficients and OH yield, which can be improved. The calibration requires no photon flux measurements or lamp-dependent absorption coefficients, which have inherent, variable, systematic uncertainties, and it has been tested in field experiments.

  7. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (ACS delivers photons to the APOLLO detector at exquisitely well-defined time intervals as a ‘truth’ input against which APOLLO’s timing performance may be judged and corrected. Preliminary analysis indicates no inaccuracies in APOLLO data beyond the  ∼3 mm level, suggesting that historical APOLLO data are of high quality and motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  8. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  9. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  10. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-07-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  11. A proposal to measure absolute environmental sustainability in lifecycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, Manuele; Roy, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Environmental monitoring indicates that progress towards the goal of environmental sustainability in many cases is slow, non-existing or negative. Indicators that use environmental carrying capacity references to evaluate whether anthropogenic systems are, or will potentially be, environmentally......) can potentially reduce or eliminate these shortcomings. We developed a generic mathematical framework for the use of carrying capacity as environmental sustainability reference in spatially resolved life cycle impact assessment models and applied this framework to the LCA impact category terrestrial...... in supporting decisions aimed at simultaneously reducing environmental impacts efficiently and maintaining or achieving environmental sustainability. We have demonstrated that LCA indicators can be modified from being relative to being absolute indicators of environmental sustainability. Further research should...

  12. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  13. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Connolly, R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Summers, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  14. Technological Basis and Scientific Returns for Absolutely Accurate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2006 NRC Decadal Survey fostered a new appreciation for societal objectives as a driving motivation for Earth science. Many high-priority societal objectives are dependent on predictions of weather and climate. These predictions are based on numerical models, which derive from approximate representations of well-founded physics and chemistry on space and timescales appropriate to global and regional prediction. These laws of chemistry and physics in turn have a well-defined quantitative relationship with physical measurement units, provided these measurement units are linked to international measurement standards that are the foundation of contemporary measurement science and standards for engineering and commerce. Without this linkage, measurements have an ambiguous relationship to scientific principles that introduces avoidable uncertainty in analyses, predictions, and improved understanding of the Earth system. Since the improvement of climate and weather prediction is fundamentally dependent on the improvement of the representation of physical processes, measurement systems that reduce the ambiguity between physical truth and observations represent an essential component of a national strategy for understanding and living with the Earth system. This paper examines the technological basis and potential science returns of sensors that make measurements that are quantitatively tied on-orbit to international measurement standards, and thus testable to systematic errors. This measurement strategy provides several distinct benefits. First, because of the quantitative relationship between these international measurement standards and fundamental physical constants, measurements of this type accurately capture the true physical and chemical behavior of the climate system and are not subject to adjustment due to excluded measurement physics or instrumental artifacts. In addition, such measurements can be reproduced by scientists anywhere in the world, at any time

  15. The new IMGC-02 transportable absolute gravimeter: measurement apparatus and applications in geophysics and volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’errico

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (formerly Istituto di Metrologia «G. Colonnetti» aiming to develop a transportable ballistic absolute gravimeter ended with a new version of the instrument, called the IMGC-02. It uses laser interferometry to measure the symmetrical free rising and falling motion of a test mass in the gravity field. Providing the same accuracy achieved with previous versions, the instrumental improvements mainly concern size, weight, data processing algorithms and operational simplicity. An uncertainty of 9 ?Gal (1 ?Gal=1×10–8 m·s?2 can be achieved within a single observation session, lasting about 12 h, while the time series of several observation sessions show a reproducibility of 4 ?Gal. At this level, gravity measurements provide useful information in Geophysics and Volcanology. A wide set of dynamic phenomena, i.e. seismicity and volcanic activity, can produce temporal gravity changes, often quite small, with an amplitude ranging from a few to hundreds of microgals. Therefore the IMGC absolute gravimeter has been employed since 1986 in surveying the Italian active volcanoes. A brief history of the gravimeter and the description of the new apparatus, together with the main results of ongoing applications in Geophysics and Volcanology are presented.

  16. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... under collision-free conditions by vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence. The use of narrow-band probe laser radiation, generated via resonant third-order sum-difference frequency conversion of dye laser radiation in Krypton, allowed the measurement of the nascent O(3P=2,1,0) fine-structure state distribution: ...

  17. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    -BAJEHa ... third-order sum-difference frequency conversion of dye laser radiation in Krypton, allowed the measurement of the ... combustion in power plants, is the largest individual source of sulphur in the earth's troposphere.1 Due to its ...

  18. Relative versus absolute measures of explicit attitudes: Implications for predicting diverse attitude-relevant criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M; Goffin, Richard D; Haynes, Graeme A

    2007-12-01

    The authors report 4 studies exploring a self-report strategy for measuring explicit attitudes that uses "relative" ratings, in which respondents indicate how favorable or unfavorable they are compared with other people. Results consistently showed that attitudes measured with relative scales predicted relevant criterion variables (self-report of behavior, measures of knowledge, peer ratings of attitudes, peer ratings of behavior) better than did attitudes measured with more traditional "absolute" scales. The obtained pattern of differences in prediction by relative versus absolute measures of attitudes did not appear to be attributable to differential variability, social desirability effects, the clarity of scale-point meanings, the number of scale points, or overlap with subjective norms. The final study indicated that relative measures induce respondents to consider social comparison information and behavioral information when making their responses more than do absolute measures, which may explain the higher correlations between relative measures of attitudes and relevant criteria. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  20. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  1. Measurement of absolute optical thickness of mask glass by wavelength-tuning Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hbino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Optical thickness is a fundamental characteristic of an optical component. A measurement method combining discrete Fourier-transform (DFT) analysis and a phase-shifting technique gives an appropriate value for the absolute optical thickness of a transparent plate. However, there is a systematic error caused by the nonlinearity of the phase-shifting technique. In this research the absolute optical-thickness distribution of mask blank glass was measured using DFT and wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometry without using sensitive phase-shifting techniques. The error occurring during the DFT analysis was compensated for by using the unwrapping correlation. The experimental results indicated that the absolute optical thickness of mask glass was measured with an accuracy of 5 nm.

  2. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme UV photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 A. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm per s. Based on a nominal probable error of 7 percent for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-A region (5 percent on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 A), and based on experimental errors associated with the present rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of about 14 percent is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  3. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  4. Absolute Wavelength Control of Lasers for Active Sensing in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop compact absolute wavelength references to weak molecular transitions, which is a challenge characteristic to space-based active sensing. The...

  5. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron

  6. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity. If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute ... ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL ...

  11. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  12. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  13. Measurement of phenotype and absolute number of circulating heparin-binding hemagglutinin, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and purified protein derivative antigen-specific CD4 T cells can discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Barkham, Timothy M S; Tang, Wenying; Kemeny, David M; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee T

    2015-02-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used as adjunctive tests for the evaluation of suspected cases of active tuberculosis (TB). However, a positive test does not differentiate latent from active TB. We investigated whether flow cytometric measurement of novel combinations of intracellular cytokines and surface makers on CD4 T cells could differentiate between active and latent TB after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific proteins. Blood samples from 60 patients referred to the Singapore Tuberculosis Control Unit for evaluation for active TB or as TB contacts were stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6 and CFP-10, or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA). The CD4 T cell cytokine response (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], interleukin-17A [IL-17A], interleukin-22 [IL-22], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and surface marker expression (CD27, CXCR3, and CD154) were then measured. We found that the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T cells, defined as CD154(+) TNF-α(+) cells that were negative for CD27 and positive for GM-CSF, gave the strongest discrimination between subjects with latent and those with active TB (area under the receiver operator characteristic [ROC] curve of 0.9277; P CFP-10-responding to HBHA-responding CD4 T cells was significantly different between the two study populations. In conclusion, we found novel markers of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 cells which differentiate between active and latent TB. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential measured by reduction of aqueous nanodrops in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Bush, Matthew F; Williams, Evan R

    2008-03-19

    In solution, half-cell potentials are measured relative to those of other half cells, thereby establishing a ladder of thermochemical values that are referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is arbitrarily assigned a value of exactly 0 V. Although there has been considerable interest in, and efforts toward, establishing an absolute electrochemical half-cell potential in solution, there is no general consensus regarding the best approach to obtain this value. Here, ion-electron recombination energies resulting from electron capture by gas-phase nanodrops containing individual [M(NH3)6]3+, M = Ru, Co, Os, Cr, and Ir, and Cu2+ ions are obtained from the number of water molecules that are lost from the reduced precursors. These experimental data combined with nanodrop solvation energies estimated from Born theory and solution-phase entropies estimated from limited experimental data provide absolute reduction energies for these redox couples in bulk aqueous solution. A key advantage of this approach is that solvent effects well past two solvent shells, that are difficult to model accurately, are included in these experimental measurements. By evaluating these data relative to known solution-phase reduction potentials, an absolute value for the SHE of 4.2 +/- 0.4 V versus a free electron is obtained. Although not achieved here, the uncertainty of this method could potentially be reduced to below 0.1 V, making this an attractive method for establishing an absolute electrochemical scale that bridges solution and gas-phase redox chemistry.

  15. Metrological activity determination of {sup 133}Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.L. da; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; Veras, E.V. de; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O.L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: candida@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. {sup 133}Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods do not calibrate {sup 133}Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes {sup 133}Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  16. Absolute gravity measurements at three sites characterized by different environmental conditions using two portable ballistic gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Filippo; Biolcati, Emanuele; Pistorio, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Germak, Alessandro; Origlia, Claudio; Del Negro, Ciro

    2015-03-01

    The performances of two absolute gravimeters at three different sites in Italy between 2009 and 2011 is presented. The measurements of the gravity acceleration g were performed using the absolute gravimeters Micro-g LaCoste FG5#238 and the INRiM prototype IMGC-02, which represent the state of the art in ballistic gravimeter technology (relative uncertainty of a few parts in 109). For the comparison, the measured g values were reported at the same height by means of the vertical gravity gradient estimated at each site with relative gravimeters. The consistency and reliability of the gravity observations, as well as the performance and efficiency of the instruments, were assessed by measurements made in sites characterized by different logistics and environmental conditions. Furthermore, the various factors affecting the measurements and their uncertainty were thoroughly investigated. The measurements showed good agreement, with the minimum and maximum differences being 4.0 and 8.3 μGal. The normalized errors are very much lower than 1, ranging between 0.06 and 0.45, confirming the compatibility between the results. This excellent agreement can be attributed to several factors, including the good working order of gravimeters and the correct setup and use of the instruments in different conditions. These results can contribute to the standardization of absolute gravity surveys largely for applications in geophysics, volcanology and other branches of geosciences, allowing achieving a good trade-off between uncertainty and efficiency of gravity measurements.

  17. Three-dimensional electromagnetic-model-based absolute attitude measurement using monostatic wideband radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XiaoLiang; Wen, GongJian; Ma, CongHui; Hui, BingWei

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an absolute attitude measurement approach by utilizing a monostatic wideband radar. In this approach, the three-dimensional electromagnetic-model (3-D em-model) and the parametric motion model of a target are combined to estimate absolute attitude. The 3-D em-model is established offline based on the target's geometric structure. Scattering characteristics such as radar cross section and radar images from one-dimension to 3-D can be conveniently predicted by this model. By matching the high-resolution range profiles (HRRPs) of measurements with the HRRPs predicted by the 3-D em-model, the directions of the lines of sight relative to the target at different measuring times are first obtained. Then, based on the obtained directions and the parametric motion model of the target, the target absolute attitude at each measuring time can be acquired. Experiments using both data predicted by a high-frequency em-code and data measured in an anechoic chamber verify the validity of the proposed method.

  18. High-precision gravity measurements using absolute and relative gravimeters at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of time gravity changes attributable to the dynamics of volcanoes requires high-precision gravity measurements. With the aim of improving the quality of data from the Mount Etna gravity network, we used both absolute and relative gravimeters in a hybrid method. In this report, some of the techniques for gravity surveys are reviewed, and the results related to each method are compared. We show how the total uncertainty estimated for the gravity measurements performed with this combined use of absolute and relative gravimeters is roughly comparable to that calculated when the measurements are acquired using only relative gravimeters (the traditional method. However, the data highlight how the hybrid approach improves the measurement capabilities for surveying the Mount Etna volcanic area. This approach enhances the accuracy of the data, and then of the four-dimensional surveying, which minimizes ambiguities inherent in the gravity measurements. As a case study, we refer to two gravity datasets acquired in 2005 and 2010 from the western part of the Etna volcano, which included five absolute and 13 relative stations of the Etna gravity network.

  19. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe

    2011-03-20

    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  20. Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation.

  1. Absolute measurement method for correction of low-spatial frequency surface figures of aspherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chien-Kai; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Sung, Cheng-Kuo

    2017-05-01

    An absolute measurement method involving a computer-generated hologram to facilitate the identification of manufacturing form errors and mounting- and gravity-induced deformations of a 300-mm aspheric mirror is proposed. In this method, the frequency and magnitude of the curve graph plotted from each Zernike coefficient obtained by rotating the mirror with various orientations about optical axis were adopted to distinguish the nonrotationally symmetric aberration. In addition, the random ball test was used to calibrate the rotationally symmetric aberration (spherical aberration). The measured absolute surface figure revealed that a highly accurate aspheric surface with a peak-to-valley value of 1/8 wave at 632.8 nm was realized after the surface figure was corrected using the reconstructed error map.

  2. The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) for Total Solar Irradiance Measurements on the NORSAT-1 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Koller, Silvio; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Pfiffner, Daniel; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Continuous and precise Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements are indispensable to evaluate the influence of short- and long-term solar variability on the Earth's energy budget. The existence of a potential long-term trend in the suns activity and whether or not such a trend could be climate effective is still a matter of debate. The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) is one of PMOD/WRC's future contributions to the almost seamless series of space borne TSI measurements since 1978. CLARA was designed and built by PMOD/WRC and characterized and calibrated by PMOD/WRC as part of the "European Metrology Research Program" (EMRP) project "European Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate" (MetEOC-2) funded by the European Commission. The main goals of the CLARA experiment are to continue the TSI data record with high accuracy and precision and to facilitate monitoring with its compact and adaptable design. CLARA will be one of three payloads of the Norwegian micro satellite NORSAT-1, along with Langmuir probes for space plasma research and an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver to monitor maritime traffic in Norwegian waters. The launch of NORSAT-1 is planned for March 2017. We present the design and calibration of CLARA, a new generation of Electrical Substitution Radiometers (ESR) comprising the latest radiometer developments of PMOD/WRC: i) A three-detector design for degradation tracking and redundancy, ii) a digital control system, iii) a new reference block and detector design to minimize size and weight of the instrument. The characterization of the CLARA instrument components provides an overview on the improvements that were achieved with the latest radiometer developments. An end-to-end calibration of CLARA against the SI-traceable cryogenic radiometer of the TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder (Colorado) results in a combined measurement uncertainty of 0.05% (k = 1

  3. Absolute measurement of the $\\beta\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{16}$N at ISOLDE with the aim of determining the branching ratio for $\\beta\\alpha$ decay on an absolute scale. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty. This limits the precision with which the S-factor of the astrophysically important $^{12}$C($\\alpha, \\gamma)^{16}$O reaction can be determined.

  4. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements for Exclusive $D_s$ Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, J

    2009-01-01

    We measure the absolute branching fractions of $\\Ds$ semileptonic decays where the hadron in the final state is one of $\\phi$, $\\eta$, $\\etap$, $\\Ks$, $\\Kstar$, and $f_0$, using $2.8 \\times 10^5$ $\\epm \\to \\Ds\\Dsstar$ decays collected in the CLEO-c detector at a center-of-mass energy close to 4170 MeV. We obtain ${\\cal B}(\\Dsp\\to \\phi e^+ \

  5. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  6. Relative Gravity Measurement Campaign during the 8th International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Pálinkáš, V.; Francis, O.; Jousset, P.; Mäkinen, J.; Merlet, S.; Becker, M.; Coulomb, A.; Kessler-Schulz, K. U.; Schulz, H. R.; Rothleitner, Ch; Tisserand, L.; Lequin, D.

    2012-02-01

    The 8th International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters (ICAG-2009) and the associated Relative Gravity Campaign (RGC2009) took place at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) between July and October 2009. Altogether 24 institutes with 22 absolute gravimeters and 9 relative gravimeters participated in the ICAG/RGC campaign. Accurate absolute and relative gravity measurements as well as precision levelling measurements were performed on the micro-gravity 3D-grid at the BIPM. The 2009 comparison was the first to be organized as a Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) metrological Key Comparison under the CIPM MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement), which means that the result will be officially recognized by the governmental organizations responsible. As a consequence, the relative gravimeters employed were carefully selected and the measurement schedules were rigorously enforced compared with earlier campaigns. Thus the quality of the RGC2009 and the determination of the BIPM local gravity network were improved. After 30 years and eight successive ICAGs, the BIPM has decided to transfer its role to the national metrological institutes, although the CIPM will continue to organize the key comparison as ICAGs. The background to the RGC2009, and the organization, data processing and final results of the gravity and vertical gravity gradients, are presented in this paper. This report is more detailed than previous final reports of the RGCs.

  7. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn, E-mail: gwells@ottawaheart.ca [Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada); Wei, Lihui [Nordion, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario K2K 1X8 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of dynamic SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: Dynamic SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision.

  8. LHCb: A novel method for an absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb using beam-gas imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Barschel, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used van der Meer scan method (VDM). This poster presents the principles of the Beam Gas Imaging method used to measure the beam overlap integral. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch.

  9. Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements of Rb 2+ ions: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macaluso, D. A. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Bogolub, K. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Johnson, A. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Aguilar, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Kilcoyne, A. L. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Bilodeau, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bautista, M. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kerlin, A. B. [Univ. of West Georgia, Carrolton, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sterling, N. C. [Univ. of West Georgia, Carrolton, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-05

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements of Rb 2+ ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using synchrotron radiation and the photo-ion, merged-beams technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 13.5 2.5 meV from 37.31 to 44.08 eV spanning the 2 P ground state and 2 P metastable state ionization thresholds. Multiple autoionizing resonance series arising from each initial state are identified using quantum defect theory. The measurements are compared to Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculations with excellent agreement between theory and experiment.

  10. Frontal cortex absolute beta power measurement in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcele Regine; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Freire, Rafael C; Cagy, Maurício; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Thomaz, Rafael; Rangé, Bernard P; Piedade, Roberto; Akiskal, Hagop Souren; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-09-15

    Panic disorder patients are hypervigilant to danger cues and highly sensitive to unpredictable aversive events, what leads to anticipatory anxiety, that is one key component of the disorder maintenance. Prefrontal cortex seems to be involved in these processes and beta band activity may be related to the involvement of top-down processing, whose function is supposed to be disrupted in pathological anxiety. The objective of this study was to measure frontal absolute beta-power (ABP) with qEEG in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA) patients compared to healthy controls. qEEG data were acquired while participants (24 PDA patients and 21 controls) watched a computer simulation (CS), consisting of moments classified as "high anxiety" (HAM) and "low anxiety" (LAM). qEEG data were also acquired during two rest conditions, before and after the computer simulation display. The statistical analysis was performed by means of a repeated measure analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) and ABP was the dependent variable of interest. The main hypothesis was that a higher ABP in PDA patients would be found related to controls. Moreover, in HAM the ABP would be different than in LAM. the main finding was an interaction between the moment and group for the electrodes F7, F8, Fp1 and Fp2. We observed a higher ABP in PDA patients when compared to controls while watching the CS. The higher beta-power in the frontal cortex for the PDA group may reflect a state of high excitability, together with anticipatory anxiety and maintenance of hypervigilant cognitive state. our results suggest a possible deficiency in top-down processing reflected by a higher ABP in the PDA group while watching the CS and they highlight the recruitment of prefrontal regions during the exposure to anxiogenic stimuli. the small sample, the wide age range of participants and the use of psychotropic medications by most of the PDA patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Absolute measurement of internal volume changes inside the pulse damper: discrepancy between delay and dwell volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatsky, Eduard; Zheng, Zheng; Stein, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    We have developed a novel technique for the absolute determination of the mobile phase volume stored inside of a variable volume pulse damper at different pressures. Using an Agilent HPLC pulse damper we found a linear volume increase of approximately 1 microL/bar. We found that pump pressurization is a relatively slow process and takes approximately 1 min to reach 90% and takes approximately 2 min to reach 99% equilibration at flow rates below 1 mL/min. During pump pressurization, column flow rate will be less than the pre-set, since part of the mobile phase is retained inside of the pulse damper. During our experiments we observed a discrepancy between data obtained by UV techniques and direct absolute measurements. This difference can be explained by a fundamental difference between the gradient delay volume and dead (dwell) volume.

  12. Characterization of Fricke-gel layers for absolute dose measurements in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics, ' Universita degli Studi' of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Section Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Carrara, M. [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Rrushi, B.; Guilizzoni, R. [Dept. of Physics, ' Universita degli Studi' of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Borroni, M.; Tomatis, S. [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pirola, L. [Dept. of Physics, ' Universita degli Studi' of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Section Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Fricke-gel layer dosimeters (FGLDs) have shown promising features for attaining absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in radiotherapy. Good precision of results (within 3%) is achieved by means of calibration of each single dosimeter before measurement. The calibration is performed irradiating the dosimeter at a uniform and precisely known dose, in order to get a calibration matrix that must be used, with pixel-to-pixel manipulation, to obtain the dose image. A study of the trend in time of dosimeter response after one or more exposures was carried out and calibration protocols were suitably established and verified. (authors)

  13. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  14. Reduced Haemodynamic Response in the Ageing Visual Cortex Measured by Absolute fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McKernan Ward

    Full Text Available The effect of healthy ageing on visual cortical activation is still to be fully explored. This study aimed to elucidate whether the haemodynamic response (HDR of the visual cortex altered as a result of ageing. Visually normal (healthy participants were presented with a simple visual stimulus (reversing checkerboard. Full optometric screening was implemented to identify two age groups: younger adults (n = 12, mean age 21 and older adults (n = 13, mean age 71. Frequency-domain Multi-distance (FD-MD functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS was used to measure absolute changes in oxygenated [HbO] and deoxygenated [HbR] haemoglobin concentrations in the occipital cortices. Utilising a slow event-related design, subjects viewed a full field reversing checkerboard with contrast and check size manipulations (15 and 30 minutes of arc, 50% and 100% contrast. Both groups showed the characteristic response of increased [HbO] and decreased [HbR] during stimulus presentation. However, older adults produced a more varied HDR and often had comparable levels of [HbO] and [HbR] during both stimulus presentation and baseline resting state. Younger adults had significantly greater concentrations of both [HbO] and [HbR] in every investigation regardless of the type of stimulus displayed (p<0.05. The average variance associated with this age-related effect for [HbO] was 88% and [HbR] 91%. Passive viewing of a visual stimulus, without any cognitive input, showed a marked age-related decline in the cortical HDR. Moreover, regardless of stimulus parameters such as check size, the HDR was characterised by age. In concurrence with present neuroimaging literature, we conclude that the visual HDR decreases as healthy ageing proceeds.

  15. Absolute measurement of the Hugoniot and sound velocity of liquid copper at multimegabar pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Root, Seth

    2017-11-01

    Measurement of the Hugoniot and sound velocity provides information on the bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter of a material at extreme conditions. The capability to launch multilayered (copper/aluminum) flyer plates at velocities in excess of 20 km/s with the Sandia Z accelerator has enabled high-precision sound-velocity measurements at previously inaccessible pressures. For these experiments, the sound velocity of the copper flyer must be accurately known in the multi-Mbar regime. Here we describe the development of copper as an absolutely calibrated sound-velocity standard for high-precision measurements at pressures in excess of 400 GPa. Using multilayered flyer plates, we performed absolute measurements of the Hugoniot and sound velocity of copper for pressures from 500 to 1200 GPa. These measurements enabled the determination of the Grüneisen parameter for dense liquid copper, clearly showing a density dependence above the melt transition. Combined with earlier data at lower pressures, these results constrain the sound velocity as a function of pressure, enabling the use of copper as a Hugoniot and sound-velocity standard for pressures up to 1200 GPa.

  16. Robust absolute stability analysis for interval nonlinear active disturbance rejection based control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xia, Yuanqing; Qi, Xiaohui; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2017-07-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is a relatively new, quite different but very practical control technology, which shows much promise in replacement of proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) with unmistakable advantage in performance and practicality. This paper mainly concerns with the robust absolute stability of the ADRC based control system with parameter perturbations of the plant, i.e., ADRC based interval control system. Firstly, the system is transformed into a perturbed indirect Lurie system. Then, the Popov criterion and its robust version are presented and some new methods are developed to analyze the (robust) absolute stability for the interval control system. Furthermore, an example is presented to illustrate (robust) absolute stability analysis via the above methods, which verifies the convenience and practicability of these methods and shows the strong stability robustness of ADRC in the presence of parametric uncertainties. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Dance Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n ,γ ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n ,f ) resonance at En ,R=7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the cross section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section at the En ,R=2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4 % of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30 % lower than the evaluated data at En≈1 keV and are approximately 2 σ away from the previous measurement at En≈20 keV.

  18. Intercomparison of the LBIR Absolute Cryogenic Radiometers to the NIST Optical Power Measurement Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedchak, James A; Carter, Adriaan C; Datla, Raju

    2006-01-01

    The Low Background Infrared calibration (LBIR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) presently maintains four absolute cryogenic radiometers (ACRs) which serve as standard reference detectors for infrared calibrations performed by the facility. The primary standard for optical power measurements at NIST-Gaithersburg has been the High Accuracy Cryogenic Radiometer (HACR). Recently, an improved radiometer, the Primary Optical Watt Radiometer (POWR), has replaced the HACR as the primary standard. In this paper, we present the results of comparisons between the radiometric powers measured by the four ACRs presently maintained by the LBIR facility to that measured by the HACR and POWR. This was done by using a Si photodiode light-trapping detector as a secondary transfer standard to compare the primary national standards to the ACRs maintained by the LBIR facility. The technique used to compare an ACR to the trap detector is described in detail. The absolute optical power measurements are found to be within 0.1 % of the primary standard for all the ACRs examined in this study.

  19. Accurate measurement of absolute experimental inelastic mean free paths and EELS differential cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Alan J.; Bobynko, Joanna; Sala, Bianca; MacLaren, Ian, E-mail: ian.maclaren@glasgow.ac.uk

    2016-11-15

    Methods are described for measuring accurate absolute experimental inelastic mean free paths and differential cross-sections using DualEELS. The methods remove the effects of surface layers and give the results for the bulk materials. The materials used are VC{sub 0.83}, TiC{sub 0.98}, VN{sub 0.97} and TiN{sub 0.88} but the method should be applicable to a wide range of materials. The data was taken at 200 keV using a probe half angle of 29 mrad and a collection angle of 36 mrad. The background can be subtracted from under the ionisation edges, which can then be separated from each other. This is achieved by scaling Hartree-Slater calculated cross-sections to the edges in the atomic regions well above the threshold. The average scaling factors required are 1.00 for the non-metal K-edges and 1.01 for the metal L-edges (with uncertainties of a few percent). If preliminary measurements of the chromatic effects in the post-specimen lenses are correct, both drop to 0.99. The inelastic mean free path for TiC{sub 0.98} was measured as 103.6±0.5 nm compared to the prediction of 126.9 nm based on the widely used Iakoubovskii parameterisation. - Highlights: • We show how to extract absolute cross sections for EELS edges using DualEELS. • The method removes the effects of any surface layers on standards. • We use a needle specimen to determining the mean free path for inelastic scattering. • Constrained background fitting is essential to correct background subtraction. • Absolute cross sections are determined for TiC, TiN, VC and VN.

  20. Recent improvements of ISOLTRAP Absolute mass measurements of exotic nuclides at $10^{-8}$ precision

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G

    2003-01-01

    In the past three years, the sensitivity and the performance of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP have been enhanced significantly. These improvements, which range from technical developments to systematic studies of the various factors contributing to the uncertainty of the final mass result, now allow mass measurements of short-lived radionuclides with half-lives of less than 100 ms and with a precision of better than 10$^{-8}$. Using a newly developed carbon cluster ion source, ISOLTRAP can perform absolute mass measurements relative to the microscopic mass standard $^{12}$C. These developments are reviewed as pertaining to the extension of ISOLTRAP mass measurements to higher precision and shorter half-lives and to molecular mass measurements.

  1. Motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal cortex is modulated by subjective absolute value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Asha; Lindner, Axel; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2010-08-03

    For optimal response selection, the consequences associated with behavioral success or failure must be appraised. To determine how monetary consequences influence the neural representations of motor preparation, human brain activity was scanned with fMRI while subjects performed a complex spatial visuomotor task. At the beginning of each trial, reward context cues indicated the potential gain and loss imposed for correct or incorrect trial completion. FMRI-activity in canonical reward structures reflected the expected value related to the context. In contrast, motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal and premotor cortex peaked in high "absolute value" (high gain or loss) conditions: being highest for large gains in subjects who believed they performed well while being highest for large losses in those who believed they performed poorly. These results suggest that the neural activity preceding goal-directed actions incorporates the absolute value of that action, predicated upon subjective, rather than objective, estimates of one's performance.

  2. Absolute and relative temporal order memory for performed activities following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Linda A; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Reijmer, Yael D; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L Jaap; Postma, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the temporal order of events is a crucial part of episodic memory. The temporal dimension, however, is often discarded in clinical settings, and measurements of true temporal aspects of episodic memory are scarce. The present study assessed temporal memory in stroke patients and in age- and education-matched healthy controls. Both groups underwent a standardized neuropsychological examination. We asked participants afterwards to reconstruct the order of tests they had performed, measured in absolute temporal order (event placed on correct moment in sequence) and relative temporal order (event placed correctly relative to directly preceding and following events). The aim of the study was to examine how serial-position curve effects (measuring absolute temporal order anchored in exact time) and how relative temporal order memory (anchored to other events) may differ in a group of cerebral stroke patients. Another aim was to link temporal order memory deficits with established neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning. Although item identification was comparable in both groups, absolute temporal order memory was impaired in patients: A total of 43% of the patients lacked the expected primacy and recency effects (serial position effect). In addition, relative temporal order memory was affected in this group as well, F(1, 70) = 4.08, p < .05; 25% of the patients were impaired in reconstructing the relative temporal order (p = .019, Fisher's Exact Test). Both absolute and relative temporal order memory performance related to the domains of executive functioning and memory. Our results suggest that it is important to test both absolute and relative temporal order memory, especially because these types of memory depend on different anchors, either on time or on adjacent events.

  3. A Model for Converting Solid State Fermentation Growth Profiles Between Absolute and Relative Measurement Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Viccini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for converting between the two measurement bases commonly used in the construction of growth profiles in solid-state fermentation, namely absolute mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(initial dry matter and relative mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(dry matter. These are not equivalent, due to the loss of dry matter as CO2 during the fermentation. The model is equally applicable to any biomass component used in indirect measurements of growth, such as protein. Use of the model to convert absolute mass ratio of the biomass profiles for the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus to a relative basis gave profiles that agreed well with the experimentally determined relative biomass profiles. This agreement was obtained for three different fermentations using the same set of parameter values in the model, namely a yield coefficient of m(protein/m(dry substrate = 0.2 g/g and a maintenance coefficient of zero, giving confidence in the reliability of the model. The model was then used to show that the measurement basis used can affect the form of the curve and therefore can also affect the conclusion drawn about the type of kinetics shown by the organism, with the extent of this effect depending on the length of time that growth occurs and the values of the yield and maintenance coefficients. This work shows that great care must be taken in drawing conclusions about growth kinetics in solid-state fermentation.

  4. Absolute scale power measurements of frequency-locked coherent transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roark A. Marsh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the absolute power measurement of frequency-locked terahertz coherent transition radiation (CTR from a train of electron bunches produced by a 17.14 GHz accelerator. Frequency measurements were obtained by two independent techniques: a wave meter with a video diode detector, and a double heterodyne system. Good agreement was seen between these two techniques. The emitted radiation was observed to be a comb of frequencies that are harmonics of the 17.14 GHz accelerator frequency. The heterodyne receiver system showed that each of the emitted harmonics has a very narrow bandwidth, about 25 MHz, which corresponds to the transform-limited bandwidth for the bunch train length of 40 ns. The highest observed frequency was 377.08 GHz, the 22nd harmonic of the 17.14 GHz accelerator frequency. The emitted CTR power was measured on an absolute scale to test the theory of CTR. The power was compared with calculations made using an electric field integral equation (EFIE formulation and excellent agreement was obtained. This agreement serves as a valuable benchmark of the EFIE code, proof of both its validity and usefulness.

  5. Absolute Quantification of Bionanoparticles by Electrospray Differential Mobility Analysis: An Application to Lipoprotein Particle Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet-Foraison, Noémie; Gaie-Levrel, Francois; Coquelin, Loic; Ebrard, Géraldine; Gillery, Philippe; Delatour, Vincent

    2017-02-21

    This study presents an upgraded electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) setup for the absolute quantification of bionanoparticle concentrations in biological samples, with a special focus on non-high-density-lipoprotein particle concentrations (non-HDL-P). Metrological characterization of the system's analytical performances for concentration measurements shows that the mean intermediate precision relative standard deviation is 14% for biological samples, 6% for silica nanoparticles, and less than 1% for diameter measurements. This study also demonstrates that the most accurate method for non-HDL-P quantification in native serum samples implies daily calculation of the electrospray transmission efficiency (E) of the system with the WHO SP3-08 reference material. The establishment of the uncertainty budget reveals that the main contribution to particle concentration measurement uncertainties is the electrospray transmission efficiency. This data additionally shows that E is not only low (approximately 15-20%) but also highly variable over time and strongly affected by sample composition. This work suggests that absolute enumeration of bionanoparticles is achievable with ES-DMA but provided that a special care is taken to quantifying E with a calibrator of nature and matrix highly similar to the samples ones.

  6. Ross filter development for absolute measurement of Al line radiation on MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauersdorf, N.; Reusch, L. M.; den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Franz, P.; Vanmeter, P.

    2017-10-01

    The MST has a two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic that, using the double-filter technique, measures electron temperature (Te) from the slope of the soft x-ray (SXR) continuum. Because MST has an aluminum plasma-facing surface, bright Al line radiation occurs in the SXR spectrum. In past application of the double-filter technique, these lines have been filtered out using thick Be filters ( 400 μm and 800 μm), restricting the measurement temperature range to >=1 keV due to the signal strength having a positive correlation with Te. Another way to deal with the line radiation is to explicitly include it into the SXR spectrum analysis from which Te is derived. A Ross filter set has been designed to measure this line radiation, and will enable the absolute intensities of the aluminum lines to be quantified and incorporated into the analysis. The Ross filter will be used to measure Al+11 and Al+12 lines, occurring between 1.59 and 2.04 keV. By using multiple detectors with filters made of varying element concentrations, we create spectral bins in which the dominant transmission is the line radiation. Absolute measurement of Al line intensities will enable use of thinner filters in the SXT diagnostic and accurate measurement of Te < 1 keV. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.

  7. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  9. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  11. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λc+→Λμ+νμ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ablikim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λc+→Λμ+νμ. This measurement is based on a sample of e+e− annihilation data produced at a center-of-mass energy s=4.6 GeV, collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 567 pb−1. The branching fraction is determined to be B(Λc+→Λμ+νμ=(3.49±0.46(stat±0.27(syst%. In addition, we calculate the ratio B(Λc+→Λμ+νμ/B(Λc+→Λe+νe to be 0.96±0.16(stat±0.04(syst.

  12. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2015-11-27

    We report the first measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e}. This measurement is based on 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} annihilation data produced at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV, which is just above the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} threshold. The data were collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. The branching fraction is determined to be B(Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e})=[3.63±0.38(stat)±0.20(syst)]%, representing a significant improvement in precision over the current indirect determination. As the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e} is the benchmark for those of other Λ_{c}^{+} semileptonic channels, our result provides a unique test of different theoretical models, which is the most stringent to date.

  13. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of 4-trifluoromethylimidazole derivatives with the concept of absolute hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Mariko; Kawase, Masami; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A semiempirical molecular-orbital method (CAChe) was applied to delineate the relationship between the cytotoxicity (evaluated by 50% cytotoxic concentration, CC50) of thirteen 4-trifluoromethylimidazole derivatives and thirteen chemical descriptors derived by the CONFLEX/PM3 method. There was a highly significant relationship between CC50 and absolute electron negativity (chi). When the CC50 was plotted vs. the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log-P), a parabolic curve was produced, with a maximum cytotoxicity (or the least CC50 value) at log-P of 4.4. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between CC50 and heat of formation, stability of hydration, dipole moment, ionization potential, energy of highest occupied moleculer orbital (E(HOMO)), molecular weight, or absolute hardness (eta). The present study demonstrates that the biological activity of 4-trifluoromethylimidazole derivatives can be estimated by an eta-chi activity diagram.

  15. Optical parameters Determination for absolute luminosity and total cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalier, Sophie

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims at measuring the absolute luminosity for the ATLAS experiment with an incertitude down to 2-3 \\% and the total elastic cross section. The luminosity is related to the number of events, the highest the luminosity, the highest the number of events. This is, then, an important quantity for colliders like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). LHC is made of two beams circulating in two different beam pipes and colliding at four interaction points where the four physics experiments are located (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb). ALFA detectors inserted into Roman Pots (RPs), have been placed around ATLAS at 240 m distance from the collision point (IP1) after six quadrupoles magnets and two dipoles defining the ALFA beam line which is part of the LHC ring.The detectors are made of scintillating optics fibers to catch elastic protons generated at IP1. These protons are tracked through the LHC magnets beam line which needs to be optimized in terms of optics parameters. We call high β optics, ...

  16. A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV-vis measurements of scattered sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Penning de Vries, M.; Remmers, J.; Rozanov, A.; Shaiganfar, R.

    2015-10-01

    Absolute radiometric calibrations are important for measurements of the atmospheric spectral radiance. Such measurements can be used to determine actinic fluxes, the properties of aerosols and clouds, and the shortwave energy budget. Conventional calibration methods in the laboratory are based on calibrated light sources and reflectors and are expensive, time consuming and subject to relatively large uncertainties. Also, the calibrated instruments might change during transport from the laboratory to the measurement sites. Here we present a new calibration method for UV-vis instruments that measure the spectrally resolved sky radiance, for example zenith sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments or multi-axis (MAX)-DOAS instruments. Our method is based on the comparison of the solar zenith angle dependence of the measured zenith sky radiance with radiative transfer simulations. For the application of our method, clear-sky measurements during periods with almost constant aerosol optical depth are needed. The radiative transfer simulations have to take polarisation into account. We show that the calibration results are almost independent from the knowledge of the aerosol optical properties and surface albedo, which causes a rather small uncertainty of about ozone column density during the measurements be constant and known.

  17. Integration of Absolute Orientation Measurements in the KinectFusion Reconstruction pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-02-12

    In this paper, we show how absolute orientation measurements provided by low-cost but high-fidelity IMU sensors can be integrated into the KinectFusion pipeline. We show that integration improves both runtime, robustness and quality of the 3D reconstruction. In particular, we use this orientation data to seed and regularize the ICP registration technique. We also present a technique to filter the pairs of 3D matched points based on the distribution of their distances. This filter is implemented efficiently on the GPU. Estimating the distribution of the distances helps control the number of iterations necessary for the convergence of the ICP algorithm. Finally, we show experimental results that highlight improvements in robustness, a speed-up of almost 12%, and a gain in tracking quality of 53% for the ATE metric on the Freiburg benchmark.

  18. Preliminary results of absolute and high-precision gravity measurements at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Harris, R. N.; Oliver, H. W.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Ponce, D. A.

    Absolute gravity measurements were made at 4 sites in southern Nevada using the absolute gravity free-fall apparatus. Three of the sites are located on the Nevada Test Site at Mercury, Yucca Pass, and in northern Jackass Flats. The fourth site is at Kyle Canyon ranger station near Charleston Park where observed gravity is 216.19 mGal lower than at Mercury. Although there is an uncertainty of about 0.02 mGal in the absolute measured values, their gravity differences are considered accurate to about 0.03 mGal. Therefore, the absolute measurements should provide local control for the calibration of gravity meters between Mercury and Kyle Canyon ranger station to about 1 to 2 parts in 10,000. The average gravity differences between Mercury and Kyle Canyon obtained using LaCoste and Romberg gravity meters is 216.13 mGal, 0.06 mGal lower, or 3 parts in 10,000 lower than using the absolute gravity meter. Because of the discrepancy between the comparison of the absolute and relative gravity meters, more absolute and relative gravity control in southern Nevada, as well as the Mt. Hamilton area where the LaCoste and Romberg instruments were calibrated, is needed. Multiple gravity meter ties were also made between each of the four absolute stations to nearby base stations located on bedrock. These stations were established to help monitor possible real changes in gravity at the absolute sites that could result from seasonal variations in the depth to the water table.

  19. Absolute equation of state measurements up to a gigbar using a converging shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Swift, Damian; Kritcher, Andrea; Lazicki, Amy; Hawreliak, James; Doeppner, Tilo; Saunders, Alison; Bachmann, Benjamin; Collins, Gilbert; Falcone, Roger; Nilsen, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    We are developing laser-driven loading platforms that allow the equation of state (EOS) of matter to be measured to pressures above 10 TPa on the Omega laser and 80 TPa at the National Ignition Facility respectively. These pressures are reached using a spherically-converging shock, with x-ray radiography as the primary diagnostic, enabling absolute EOS measurements to be made. At pressures above 10 TPa, the x-ray opacity drops significantly because of k-shell ionization. Superficially, this would prevent the compression from being measured, but radiographic marker layers can be used to constrain the reconstructed object and enable the opacity and compression to be determined simultaneously. Using these techniques, we have measured the Hugoniot EOS of polystyrene, diamond, and boron to over 50 TPa respectively, enabling their use as reference materials for relative measurements of materials more opaque to x-rays. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. An absolute index (Ab-index to measure a researcher's useful contributions and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Kumar Biswal

    Full Text Available Bibliographic analysis has been a very powerful tool in evaluating the effective contributions of a researcher and determining his/her future research potential. The lack of an absolute quantification of the author's scientific contributions by the existing measurement system hampers the decision-making process. In this paper, a new metric system, Absolute index (Ab-index, has been proposed that allows a more objective comparison of the contributions of a researcher. The Ab-index takes into account the impact of research findings while keeping in mind the physical and intellectual contributions of the author(s in accomplishing the task. The Ab-index and h-index were calculated for 10 highly cited geneticists and molecular biologist and 10 young researchers of biological sciences and compared for their relationship to the researchers input as a primary author. This is the first report of a measuring method clarifying the contributions of the first author, corresponding author, and other co-authors and the sharing of credit in a logical ratio. A java application has been developed for the easy calculation of the Ab-index. It can be used as a yardstick for comparing the credibility of different scientists competing for the same resources while the Productivity index (Pr-index, which is the rate of change in the Ab-index per year, can be used for comparing scientists of different age groups. The Ab-index has clear advantage over other popular metric systems in comparing scientific credibility of young scientists. The sum of the Ab-indices earned by individual researchers of an institute per year can be referred to as Pr-index of the institute.

  1. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion bre...

  2. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λ_{c}^{+} Baryon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Eren, E E; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-02-05

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λ_{c}^{+} baryon at the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λ_{c}^{+} discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λ_{c}^{+} hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λ_{c}^{+} decay modes, the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→pK^{-}π^{+} is determined to be (5.84±0.27±0.23)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved.

  3. On the measurement of relative and absolute income-related health inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Johannesson, Magnus; Bingefors, Kerstin; Smith, Len

    2002-12-01

    In recent work on international comparisons of income-related inequalities in health, the concentration index has been used as a measure of health inequality. A drawback of this measure is that it is sensitive to whether it is estimated with respect to health or morbidity. An alternative would be to use the generalized concentration index that is based on absolute rather than relative health differences. In this methodological paper, we explore the importance of the choice of health inequality measure by comparing the income-related inequality in health status and morbidity between Sweden and Australia. This involves estimating a concentration index and a generalized concentration index for the eight-scale health profile of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey. We then transform the scores for each scale into a measure of morbidity and show that whether the concentration index is estimated with respect to health or morbidity has an impact on the results. The ranking between the two countries is reversed for two of the eight dimensions of SF-36 and within both countries the ranking across the eight SF-36 scales is also affected. However, this change in ranking does not occur when the generalized concentration index is compared and we conclude with the implications of these results for reporting comparisons of income-related health inequality in different populations.

  4. A new method for the absolute measurement of piezoelectric coefficients on thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot; Jarzynski

    2000-08-01

    A new quasistatic method to measure piezoelectric coefficients on thin polymer films is presented. This method is based on a combined experimental/analytical approach, where small polymer samples (6 mm x 3 mm x 110 microm) are encapsulated in a soft silicone rubber and an electric field is applied across their thickness (3-direction). Strains are measured optically along three perpendicular directions using a laser Doppler vibrometer, and the experimental measurements are used in a Rayleigh-Ritz energy minimization procedure implemented symbolically in MATHCAD, which yields the absolute piezoelectric coefficients d(3ii). These measured coefficients are material properties of the polymer and do not depend on the specific boundary conditions of the problem. The validity of the method is established using the ATILA finite element code. Experimental values of d(311), d(322), and d(333) obtained for polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) at room temperature, in the frequency range 500-2000 Hz, are presented and compared with existing data; excellent agreement is found. The extension of the method to the determination of electrostrictive coefficients on soft polyurethane materials is introduced.

  5. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ayers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs. Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods: One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results: Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001; correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001; negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001, reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions: Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the

  6. Cryogenic Current Comparator for Absolute Measurement of the Dark Current of the Superconducting Cavities for Tesla

    CERN Document Server

    Knaack, K; Wittenburg, K

    2003-01-01

    A newly high performance SQUID based measurement system for detecting dark currents, generated by superconducting cavities for TESLA is proposed. It makes use of the Cryogenic Current Comparator principle and senses dark currents in the nA range with a small signal bandwidth of 70 kHz. To reach the maximum possible energy in the TESLA project is a strong motivation to push the gradients of the superconducting cavities closer to the physical limit of 50 MV/m. The field emission of electrons (the so called dark current) of the superconducting cavities at strong fields may limit the maximum gradient. The absolute measurement of the dark current in correlation with the gradient will give a proper value to compare and classify the cavities. This contribution describes a Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) as an excellent and useful tool for this purpose. The most important component of the CCC is a high performance DC SQUID system which is able to measure extremely low magnetic fields, e.g. caused by the extracted ...

  7. Luminosity measurement method for the LHC: Event selection and absolute luminosity determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, M. W.; Chwastowski, J.; Cyz, A.; Słowikowski, K.

    2013-11-01

    In our earlier papers Krasny et al. [1,2] have proposed a new luminosity measurement method which uses lepton pairs produced in peripheral collisions of the LHC beam particles, and identified the requirements for a new, specialized luminosity detector which is indispensable for their efficient on-line selection. In this paper we use the base-line detector model, with no precise timing capabilities, to evaluate the statistical and systematic accuracy of the method. We propose the complete event selection procedure and demonstrate that it allows to collect a sufficiently large sample of e+e- pairs to achieve a better than 1% statistical accuracy of the luminosity measurement over less than one-month-long running time intervals. We argue that the absolute luminosity measurement systematic errors can be kept below 1%. The proposed method can be directly applied to the LHC running periods for which the machine instantaneous luminosity does not exceed the L=1033 s-1 cm-2 value. Two ways extending the method to the large pile-up periods corresponding to higher instantaneous luminosities are proposed.

  8. Absolute brightness modeling for improved measurement of electron temperature from soft x-rays on MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; van Meter, P.

    2017-10-01

    The two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic on MST is now capable of Te measurement down to 500 eV. The previous lower limit was 1 keV, due to the presence of SXR emission lines from Al sputtered from the MST wall. The two-color technique uses two filters of different thickness to form a coarse spectrometer to estimate the slope of the continuum x-ray spectrum, which depends on Te. The 1.6 - 2.0 keV Al emission lines were previously filtered out by using thick Be filters (400 µm and 800 µm), thus restricting the range of the SXT diagnostic to Te >= 1 keV. Absolute brightness modeling explicitly includes several sources of radiation in the analysis model, enabling the use of thinner filters and measurement of much lower Te. Models based on the atomic database and analysis structure (ADAS) agree very well with our experimental SXR measurements. We used ADAS to assess the effect of bremsstrahlung, recombination, dielectronic recombination, and line emission on the inferred Te. This assessment informed the choice of the optimum filter pair to extend the Te range of the SXT diagnostic. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.

  9. A measurement of the absolute neutron beam polarization produced by an optically pumped sup 3 He neutron spin filter

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, D R; Crawford, B E; Delheij, P P J; Espy, M A; Haseyama, T; Jones, G; Keith, C D; Knudson, J; Leuschner, M B; Masaike, A; Masuda, Y; Matsuda, Y; Penttilae, S I; Pomeroy, V R; Smith, D A; Snow, W M; Szymanski, J J; Stephenson, S L; Thompson, A K; Yuan, V

    2002-01-01

    The capability of performing accurate absolute measurements of neutron beam polarization opens a number of exciting opportunities in fundamental neutron physics and in neutron scattering. At the LANSCE pulsed neutron source we have measured the neutron beam polarization with an absolute accuracy of 0.3% in the neutron energy range from 40 meV to 10 eV using an optically pumped polarized sup 3 He spin filter and a relative transmission measurement technique. sup 3 He was polarized using the Rb spin-exchange method. We describe the measurement technique, present our results, and discuss some of the systematic effects associated with the method.

  10. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  11. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. ONE HUNDRED SAMPLES FROM HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA WERE ANALYSED BY CONVENTIONAL FLOW CYTOMETRY (FACSCALIBUR) AND BY THREE FUNCTIONAL MV ASSAYS: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA(®) Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, pflow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive information on the role of MVs in health and disease.

  12. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  13. Absolute coronary blood flow measurement and microvascular resistance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the acute and subacute phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnbergen, Inge; Veer, Marcel van ' t [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lammers, Jeroen; Ubachs, Joey [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pijls, Nico H.J., E-mail: nico.pijls@cze.nl [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Background/Purpose: In a number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), myocardial hypoperfusion, known as the no-reflow phenomenon, persists after primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new quantitative method of measuring absolute blood flow and resistance within the perfusion bed of an infarct-related artery. Furthermore, we sought to study no-reflow by correlating these measurements to the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and the area at risk (AR) as determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Measurements of absolute flow and myocardial resistance were performed in 20 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), first immediately following PPCI and then again after 3–5 days. These measurements used the technique of thermodilution during a continuous infusion of saline. Flow was expressed in ml/min per gram of tissue within the area at risk. Results: The average time needed for measurement of absolute flow, resistance and IMR was 20 min, and all measurements could be performed without complication. A higher flow supplying the AR correlated with a lower IMR in the acute phase. Absolute flow increased from 3.14 to 3.68 ml/min/g (p = 0.25) and absolute resistance decreased from 1317 to 1099 dyne.sec.cm-5/g (p = 0.40) between the first day and fifth day after STEMI. Conclusions: Measurement of absolute flow and microvascular resistance is safe and feasible in STEMI patients and may allow for a better understanding of microvascular (dys)function in the early phase of AMI. - Highlights: • We measured absolute coronary blood flow and microvascular resistance in STEMI patients in the acute phase and in the subacute phase, using the technique of thermodilution with low grade intracoronary continuous infusion of saline. • These measurements are safe and feasible during PPCI in STEMI patients. • In STEMI patients, absolute flow

  14. Operational principle, testing, and applications of the AWID-flat jack for absolute stress determinations using voltage measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.

    1986-07-01

    Stress measurements can be performed with the, measuring principle for a flat jack discussed in this paper without any material parameters of the flat jack being of influence. This means that no calibration measurements are required by this flat jack for absolute measurements and there is no dependence on temperature. It is called “Absolut Widerstands Druckmesskissen” or short AWID-Flat Jack. Basis of evaluation is a change in the electrical resistivity of the flat jack, which is caused by two metal sheets separating from each other when inflated with hydraulic oil as soon as the external pressure is reached. Besides theoretical considerations concerning the mode of operation of the flat jack, this paper presents laboratory measurements performed in an autoclave as well as in a tube filled with salt grit under a uniaxial press. Changes of stress can be measured if the flat jack is cemented into a borehole under initial stress. The absolute stress of the bedrock can be measured after a certain time of adjustment in rock capable of creep (salt, clay, etc.). The advantages of the AWID measuring system are confirmed by in situ-measurements in a salt pillar loadable with variable pressure. In a temperature experiment at the Asse salt mine (Federal Republic of Germany) where the salt was heated up to 200°C, the advantages of the AWID measurement system were confirmed.

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE EXCITED-STATE DENSITY OF A SODIUM TARGET BY MEANS OF BEAM DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSEMA, WP; SCHLATMANN, AR; MORGENSTERN, R

    1994-01-01

    The average deflection of a laser excited, divergent sodium beam with a broad velocity distribution is measured by means of a Langmuir-Taylor detector and exploited for determining the absolute density of the excited state in the interaction area. Simulations of the excitation and deflection process

  16. Absolute navigation for Mars final approach using relative measurements of X-ray pulsars and Mars orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Cui, Pingyuan; Gao, Ai; Yu, Zhengshi; Cao, Menglong

    2017-09-01

    To achieve a precise Mars landing, the autonomous navigation performance of Mars final approach phase need to be further improved. In this paper, an absolute navigation scheme for Mars finial approach phase using relative measurements of X-ray pulsars and Mars orbiter is proposed. By introducing the difference of time of arrival (DTOA) measurement, the states of approach spacecraft and orbiter are estimated at the same time. Compared to the navigation scheme based on the absolute measurements of pulsars, the error sources such as planetary ephemeris error, pulsar parameter uncertainties, and radio beacon position deviations, are correspondingly reduced or eliminated. Through observability analysis, the method of absolute navigation using relative information is proved observable under the condition of reasonable pulsars selection. The design optimization of beacon configuration based on the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) is also carried out for achieving a better observability. Two navigation schemes respectively based on the absolute/relative measurements of X-ray pulsars are compared by numerical simulations, and the navigation performance is assessed and the feasibility of the proposed scheme is verified.

  17. Online absolute pose compensation and steering control of industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juqing; Wang, Dayong; Fan, Baixing; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2017-03-01

    In-situ intelligent manufacturing for large-volume equipment requires industrial robots with absolute high-accuracy positioning and orientation steering control. Conventional robots mainly employ an offline calibration technology to identify and compensate key robotic parameters. However, the dynamic and static parameters of a robot change nonlinearly. It is not possible to acquire a robot's actual parameters and control the absolute pose of the robot with a high accuracy within a large workspace by offline calibration in real-time. This study proposes a real-time online absolute pose steering control method for an industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser tracking measurement, which adopts comprehensive compensation and correction of differential movement variables. First, the pose steering control system and robot kinematics error model are constructed, and then the pose error compensation mechanism and algorithm are introduced in detail. By accurately achieving the position and orientation of the robot end-tool, mapping the computed Jacobian matrix of the joint variable and correcting the joint variable, the real-time online absolute pose compensation for an industrial robot is accurately implemented in simulations and experimental tests. The average positioning error is 0.048 mm and orientation accuracy is better than 0.01 deg. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible, and the online absolute accuracy of a robot is sufficiently enhanced.

  18. Measurement of the Absolute Proton and Helium Flux at the Top of the Atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    1996-01-01

    with ancillary scintillators, time-of-flight, and aerogel cherenkov detectors. High resolution drift chambers and MWPCs were used as the tracking devices. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present the absolute spectra of protons and helium...

  19. Using relative and absolute measures for monitoring health inequalities: experiences from cross-national analyses on maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisman Martijn

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As reducing socio-economic inequalities in health is an important public health objective, monitoring of these inequalities is an important public health task. The specific inequality measure used can influence the conclusions drawn, and there is no consensus on which measure is most meaningful. The key issue raising most debate is whether to use relative or absolute inequality measures. Our paper aims to inform this debate and develop recommendations for monitoring health inequalities on the basis of empirical analyses for a broad range of developing countries. Methods Wealth-group specific data on under-5 mortality, immunisation coverage, antenatal and delivery care for 43 countries were obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys. These data were used to describe the association between the overall level of these outcomes on the one hand, and relative and absolute poor-rich inequalities in these outcomes on the other. Results We demonstrate that the values that the absolute and relative inequality measures can take are bound by mathematical ceilings. Yet, even where these ceilings do not play a role, the magnitude of inequality is correlated with the overall level of the outcome. The observed tendencies are, however, not necessities. There are countries with low mortality levels and low relative inequalities. Also absolute inequalities showed variation at most overall levels. Conclusion Our study shows that both absolute and relative inequality measures can be meaningful for monitoring inequalities, provided that the overall level of the outcome is taken into account. Suggestions are given on how to do this. In addition, our paper presents data that can be used for benchmarking of inequalities in the field of maternal and child health in low and middle-income countries.

  20. Absolute Side-chain Structure at Position 13 Is Required for the Inhibitory Activity of Bromein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Yoriko; Hatano, Ken-ichi; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain isoinhibitor (bromein), a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from pineapple stem, has a unique double-chain structure. The bromein precursor protein includes three homologous inhibitor domains, each containing an interchain peptide between the light and heavy chains. The interchain peptide in the single-chain precursor is immediately processed by bromelain, a target proteinase. In the present study, to clarify the essential inhibitory site of bromein, we constructed 44 kinds of site-directed and deletion mutants and investigated the inhibitory activity of each toward bromelain. As a result, the complete chemical structure of Leu13 in the light chain was revealed to be essential for inhibition. Pro12 prior to the leucine residue was also involved in the inhibitory activity and would control the location of the leucine side chain by the fixed φ dihedral angle of proline. Furthermore, the five-residue length of the interchain peptide was strictly required for the inhibitory activity. On the other hand, no inhibitory activity against bromelain was observed by the substitution of proline for the N terminus residue Thr15 of the interchain peptide. In summary, these mutational analyses of bromein demonstrated that the appropriate position and conformation of Leu13 are absolutely crucial for bromelain inhibition. PMID:18948264

  1. Noninvasive MRI measurement of the absolute cerebral blood volume-cerebral blood flow relationship during visual stimulation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) underlies blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI signal. This study investigates the potential for improved characterization of the CBV-CBF relationship in humans, and examines sex effects as well as spatial variations in the CBV-CBF relationship. Healthy subjects were imaged noninvasively at rest and during visual stimulation, constituting the first MRI measurement of the absolute CBV-CBF relationship in humans with complete coverage of the functional areas of interest. CBV and CBF estimates were consistent with the literature, and their relationship varied both spatially and with sex. In a region of interest with stimulus-induced activation in CBV and CBF at a significance level of the P < 0.05, a power function fit resulted in CBV = 2.1 CBF(0.32) across all subjects, CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.51) in females and CBV = 4.4 CBF(0.15) in males. Exponents decreased in both sexes as ROIs were expanded to include less significantly activated regions. Consideration for potential sex-related differences, as well as regional variations under a range of physiological states, may reconcile some of the variation across literature and advance our understanding of the underlying cerebrovascular physiology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  4. Measuring Absolute RNA Copy Numbers at High Temporal Resolution Reveals Transcriptome Kinetics in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D.L. Owens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcript regulation is essential for cell function, and misregulation can lead to disease. Despite technologies to survey the transcriptome, we lack a comprehensive understanding of transcript kinetics, which limits quantitative biology. This is an acute challenge in embryonic development, where rapid changes in gene expression dictate cell fate decisions. By ultra-high-frequency sampling of Xenopus embryos and absolute normalization of sequence reads, we present smooth gene expression trajectories in absolute transcript numbers. During a developmental period approximating the first 8 weeks of human gestation, transcript kinetics vary by eight orders of magnitude. Ordering genes by expression dynamics, we find that “temporal synexpression” predicts common gene function. Remarkably, a single parameter, the characteristic timescale, can classify transcript kinetics globally and distinguish genes regulating development from those involved in cellular metabolism. Overall, our analysis provides unprecedented insight into the reorganization of maternal and embryonic transcripts and redefines our ability to perform quantitative biology.

  5. Structures of [001] twist boundaries in gold. I. Measurement and use of absolute boundary x-ray structure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. S.; Majid, I.; Bristowe, P. D.; Balluffi, R. W.

    1989-08-01

    An x-ray-diffraction method for measuring absolute grain-boundary structure factors is described. The method is based on ratioing appropriate integrated scattered intensities from the grain-boundary region and from the adjoining perfect-crystal region in a bicrystal specimen containing a flat grain boundary. Common unknown factors then cancel out, and an expression for the absolute structure factor is obtained in which all quantities are either known, can be measured, or can be calculated with acceptable accuracy. A practical experimental technique for making the necessary measurements, which employs a four-circle diffractometer, is described. The technique is applied to an x-ray diffraction study of the atomistic structures of a series of [001] twist boundaries in gold in the following paper of our work. The results obtained there clearly demonstrate that the measurement of absolute structure factors, rather than relative structure factors, provides important information in diffraction studies of the structures of grain boundaries, particularly in cases where a limited number of structure factors is measured.

  6. Structures of (001) twist boundaries in gold. I. Measurement and use of absolute boundary x-ray structure factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.S.; Majid, I.; Bristowe, P.D.; Balluffi, R.W. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (US))

    1989-08-15

    An x-ray-diffraction method for measuring absolute grain-boundary structure factors is described. The method is based on ratioing appropriate integrated scattered intensities from the grain-boundary region and from the adjoining perfect-crystal region in a bicrystal specimen containing a flat grain boundary. Common unknown factors then cancel out, and an expression for the absolute structure factor is obtained in which all quantities are either known, can be measured, or can be calculated with acceptable accuracy. A practical experimental technique for making the necessary measurements, which employs a four-circle diffractometer, is described. The technique is applied to an x-ray diffraction study of the atomistic structures of a series of (001) twist boundaries in gold in the following paper of our work. The results obtained there clearly demonstrate that the measurement of absolute structure factors, rather than relative structure factors, provides important information in diffraction studies of the structures of grain boundaries, particularly in cases where a limited number of structure factors is measured.

  7. Absolute Configurations and NO Inhibitory Activities of Terpenoids from Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ji, Feifei; Kang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Li, Shen; Jin, Da-Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-06-24

    Curcuma longa L., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb and has been used as a spice and a pigment in the food industry. In the ongoing search for inhibitory reagents of NO production and survey of the chemical composition of natural vegetable foods, the chemical constituents of C. longa used as spice were investigated. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 2 new terpenoids and 14 known analogues. Their structures were established on the basis of the extensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by comparison of the calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among them, compound 1 is a rare norditerpene with an ent-labdane skeleton, and 2 is a skeletally novel sesquiterpene having an eight-membered ring. All of the compounds were found to possess NO inhibitory activities in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The discovery of two new compounds in this chemical investigation further disclosed the chemical composition of C. longa used a food spice, and the bioassay implied that the natural food spice C. longa, containing terpenoids with NO inhibitory activities, may be potentially promotive to human health.

  8. The research of a method of absolute measurement for laser-driven high pressure equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Xiu Guang; Gu Yuan; Wu Jian; He Ju Hua; Luo Ping Qing; Ma Min Xun

    2002-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the whole physical process of aluminum flyer-vacuum-target directly driven by high power laser were presented. Simulation results showed that a symmetric impact will be realized between the flyer and the target and there is a wide stable area of shock wave propagation in the target if the parameters of flyer-vacuum-target and the conditions of laser match. And the absolute measurement of equation of state (EOS) may be approached if the structure parameters of flyer both-side-step-target are chosen reasonably. At the same time, the experimental researches of absolute measurement for EOS were conducted, and the experimental results are in accord with the simulation results on the whole

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  10. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma) decay with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Cesario, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Crucianelli, F; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martemyanov, M; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the absolute branching ratio of the K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma) decay, using about 20 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAFNE, the Frascati phi-factory. Signal counts are obtained from the fit of the distribution of the momentum of the charged decay particle in the kaon rest frame. The result, inclusive of final-state radiation, is BR(K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma))=0.2065+/-0.0005_{stat}+/- 0.0008_{syst}.

  11. Making sense of absolute measurement: James Clerk Maxwell, William Thomson, Fleeming Jenkin, and the invention of the dimensional formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel Jon

    2017-05-01

    During the 1860s, the Committee on Electrical Standards convened by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) attempted to articulate, refine, and realize a system of absolute electrical measurement. I describe how this context led to the invention of the dimensional formula by James Clerk Maxwell and subsequently shaped its interpretation, in particular through the attempts of William Thomson and Fleeming Jenkin to make absolute electrical measurement intelligible to telegraph engineers. I identify unit conversion as the canonical purpose for dimensional formulae during the remainder of the nineteenth century and go on to explain how an operational interpretation was developed by the French physicist Gabriel Lippmann. The focus on the dimensional formula reveals how various conceptual, theoretical, and material aspects of absolute electrical measurement were taken up or resisted in experimental physics, telegraphic engineering, and electrical practice more broadly, which leads to the conclusion that the integration of electrical theory and telegraphic practice was far harder to achieve and maintain than historians have previously thought. This ultimately left a confusing legacy of dimensional concepts and practices in physics.

  12. In situ TDLAS measurement of absolute acetylene concentration profiles in a non-premixed laminar counter-flow flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Klein, M.; Kathrotia, T.; Riedel, U.; Kissel, T.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2012-06-01

    Acetylene (C2H2), as an important precursor for chemiluminescence species, is a key to understand, simulate and model the chemiluminescence and the related reaction paths. Hence we developed a high resolution spectrometer based on direct Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) allowing the first quantitative, calibration-free and spatially resolved in situ C2H2 measurement in an atmospheric non-premixed counter-flow flame supported on a Tsuji burner. A fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode laser near 1535 nm was used to measure several absolute C2H2 concentration profiles (peak concentrations up to 9700 ppm) in a laminar non-premixed CH4/air flame ( T up to 1950 K) supported on a modified Tsuji counter-flow burner with N2 purge slots to minimize end flames. We achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 5×10-5 OD (1 σ) in the flame, resulting in temperature-dependent acetylene detection limits for the P17e line at 6513 cm-1 of up to 2.1 ppmṡm. Absolute C2H2 concentration profiles were obtained by translating the burner through the laser beam using a DC motor with 100 μm step widths. Intercomparisons of the experimental C2H2 profiles with simulations using our new hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms show excellent agreement in position, shape and in the absolute C2H2 values.

  13. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity ...

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  20. Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, A., E-mail: aurelien.moy@cea.fr [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Merlet, C. [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Dugne, O. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • The M X-ray production cross sections of Th were measured by electron impact. • The M-subshell ionization cross sections of Th were determined from 3 to 38 keV. • Theoretical ionization cross-sections are in agreement with our experimental results. - Abstract: Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The Mα X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

  1. Assessing the repeatability of absolute CMRO2, OEF and haemodynamic measurements from calibrated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Alberto; Germuska, Michael A; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G

    2018-02-14

    As energy metabolism in the brain is largely oxidative, the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) is a desirable biomarker for quantifying brain activity and tissue viability. Currently, PET techniques based on oxygen isotopes are the gold standard for obtaining whole brain CMRO 2 maps. Among MRI techniques that have been developed as an alternative are dual calibrated fMRI (dcFMRI) methods, which exploit simultaneous measurements of BOLD and ASL signals during a hypercapnic-hyperoxic experiment to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation. In this study we quantified the repeatability of a dcFMRI approach developed in our lab, evaluating its limits and informing its application in studies aimed at characterising the metabolic state of human brain tissue over time. Our analysis focussed on the estimates of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral blood flow (CBF), CBF-related cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and CMRO 2 based on a forward model that describes analytically the acquired dual echo GRE signal. Indices of within- and between-session repeatability are calculated from two different datasets both at a bulk grey matter and at a voxel-wise resolution and finally compared with similar indices obtained from previous MRI and PET measurements. Within- and between-session values of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV intra ) calculated from bulk grey matter estimates 6.7 ± 6.6% (mean ± std.) and 10.5 ± 9.7% for OEF, 6.9 ± 6% and 5.5 ± 4.7% for CBF, 12 ± 9.7% and 12.3 ± 10% for CMRO 2 . Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) maps showed the spatial distribution of the repeatability metrics, informing on the feasibility limits of the method. In conclusion, results show an overall consistency of the estimated physiological parameters with literature reports and a satisfactory level of repeatability considering the higher spatial sensitivity compared to

  2. Accurate radiocarbon age estimation using "early" measurements: a new approach to reconstructing the Paleolithic absolute chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Takayuki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new correction approaches for "early" radiocarbon ages to reconstruct the Paleolithic absolute chronology. In order to discuss time-space distribution about the replacement of archaic humans, including Neanderthals in Europe, by the modern humans, a massive data, which covers a wide-area, would be needed. Today, some radiocarbon databases focused on the Paleolithic have been published and used for chronological studies. From a viewpoint of current analytical technology, however, the any database have unreliable results that make interpretation of radiocarbon dates difficult. Most of these unreliable ages had been published in the early days of radiocarbon analysis. In recent years, new analytical methods to determine highly-accurate dates have been developed. Ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC methods, as new sample pretreatments for bone and charcoal respectively, have attracted attention because they could remove imperceptible contaminates and derive reliable accurately ages. In order to evaluate the reliability of "early" data, we investigated the differences and variabilities of radiocarbon ages on different pretreatments, and attempted to develop correction functions for the assessment of the reliability. It can be expected that reliability of the corrected age is increased and the age applied to chronological research together with recent ages. Here, we introduce the methodological frameworks and archaeological applications.

  3. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  4. Short pulse carrier-envelope phase absolute single-shot measurement by photoionization of gases with a guided laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, V V; Mével, E; Constant, E

    2014-03-24

    We present an all optical approach to measure the value of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of a short intense laser pulse. This method relies on photo-ionization of gases with a guided laser beam. This approach that provides the absolute value of the CEP, is compatible with single shot characterization, is scalable in wavelength, does not suffer from bandwidth limitation and is largely intensity independent. It has also the potential to provide a full characterization of the pulse profile via high order autocorrelation on a single shot basis.

  5. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  6. Effect of self-vibration on accuracy of free-fall absolute gravity measurement with laser interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-yang; Wu, Shu-qing; Li, Chun-jian; Su, Duo-wu; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    A free-fall absolute gravimeter was used to measure the gravity acceleration of a corner-cube released in high vacuum, and the gravity acceleration was determined by fitting the free-falling trajectories obtained through optical interferometry. During the measurement, the self-vibration of an absolute gravimeter caused ground vibration and the change in optical path length due to vibration of vacuum-air interface, which resulted in a measurement error. Numerical simulation was run by introducing vibration disturbance to the trajectories of free-fall. The effect of disturbance under different instrumental self-vibration conditions was analyzed. Simulation results indicated that the deviation of calculated gravity acceleration from the preset value and residuals amplitude after fitting depended on the amplitude and initial phase of the vibration disturbance. The deviation value and fitting residuals amplitude increased with the increasing of amplitude and there was a one-to-one correspondence between the two. The deviation of calculated gravity acceleration decreases by properly setting the initial phase difference of vibration disturbance with respect to the interference fringe signal.

  7. High-accuracy absolute rotation rate measurements with a large ring laser gyro: establishing the scale factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Robert B; Mayerbacher, Marinus; Gebauer, Andre; Schreiber, K Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Large ring lasers have exceeded the performance of navigational gyroscopes by several orders of magnitude and have become useful tools for geodesy. In order to apply them to tests in fundamental physics, remaining systematic errors have to be significantly reduced. We derive a modified expression for the Sagnac frequency of a square ring laser gyro under Earth rotation. The modifications include corrections for dispersion (of both the gain medium and the mirrors), for the Goos-Hänchen effect in the mirrors, and for refractive index of the gas filling the cavity. The corrections were measured and calculated for the 16  m2 Grossring laser located at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell. The optical frequency and the free spectral range of this laser were measured, allowing unique determination of the longitudinal mode number, and measurement of the dispersion. Ultimately we find that the absolute scale factor of the gyroscope can be estimated to an accuracy of approximately 1 part in 108.

  8. Advantages of Relative versus Absolute Data for the Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2017-11-27

    The appropriate selection of a chemical space represented by the data set, the selection of its chemical data representation, the development of a correct modeling process using a robust and reproducible algorithm, and the performance of an exhaustive training and external validation determine the usability and reproducibility of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification model. In this paper, we show that the use of relative versus absolute data in the representation of the data sets produces better classification models when the other processes are not modified. Relative data considers a reference frame to measure the chemical characteristics involved in the classification model, refining the data set representation and smoothing the lack of chemical information. Three data sets with different characteristics have been used in this study, and classifications models have been built applying the support vector machine algorithm. For randomly selected training and test sets, values of accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve close to 100% have been obtained for the generation of the models and external validations in all cases.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  12. Measurement of absolute displacement-amplitude of ultrasonic wave using piezo-electric detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hyun; Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is defined by the ratio of displacement amplitude of the fundamental frequency component to that of the second-order harmonic frequency component. In this study, the ultrasonic displacement amplitude of an SUS316 specimen was measured via a piezo-electric-based method to identify the validity of piezo-electric detection method. For comparison, the ultrasonic displacement was also determined via a laser-based Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The experimental results for both measurements were in good agreement. Additionally, the stability of the repeated test results from the piezo-electric method exceeded that of the laser-interferometric method. This result indicated that the piezo-electric detection method can be utilized to measure a nonlinear ultrasonic parameter due to its excellent stability although it involves a complicated process.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  14. Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Raymond; Roberts, James H.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

  15. Inversion of Multi-Station Schumann Resonance Background Records for Global Lightning Activity in Absolute Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. R.; Mushtak, V. C.; Guha, A.; Boldi, R. A.; Bor, J.; Nagy, T.; Satori, G.; Sinha, A. K.; Rawat, R.; Hobara, Y.; Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Price, C. G.; Neska, M.; Alexander, K.; Yampolski, Y.; Moore, R. C.; Mitchell, M. F.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Every lightning flash contributes energy to the TEM mode of the natural global waveguide that contains the Earth's Schumann resonances. The modest attenuation at ELF (0.1 dB/Mm) allows for the continuous monitoring of the global lightning with a small number of receiving stations worldwide. In this study, nine ELF receiving sites (in Antarctica (3 sites), Hungary, India, Japan, Poland, Spitsbergen and USA) are used to provide power spectra at 12-minute intervals in two absolutely calibrated magnetic fields and occasionally, one electric field, with up to five resonance modes each. The observables are the extracted modal parameters (peak intensity, peak frequency and Q-factor) for each spectrum. The unknown quantities are the geographical locations of three continental lightning 'chimneys' and their lightning source strengths in absolute units (C2 km2/sec). The unknowns are calculated from the observables by the iterative inversion of an evolving 'sensitivity matrix' whose elements are the partial derivatives of each observable for all receiving sites with respect to each unknown quantity. The propagation model includes the important day-night asymmetry of the natural waveguide. To overcome the problem of multiple minima (common in inversion problems of this kind), location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network has been used to make initial guess solutions based on centroids of stroke locations in each chimney. Results for five consecutive days in 2009 (Jan 7-11) show UT variations with the African chimney dominating on four of five days, and America dominating on the fifth day. The amplitude variations in absolute source strength exceed that of the 'Carnegie curve' of the DC global circuit by roughly twofold. Day-to-day variations in chimney source strength are of the order of tens of percent. Examination of forward calculations performed with the global inversion solution often show good agreement with the observed diurnal variations at

  16. Usability of a Fourier transform spectroradiometer for absolute surface spectral solar UV irradiance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Wähmer, Martin; Monte, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The suitability of a commercially available Fourier transform spectrometer equipped with a fiber-coupled global entrance optic as a reference spectroradiometer for the measurement of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance at ground level has been investigated. The instrument has been characterized with respect to the wavelength uncertainty, and a calibration of the spectral irradiance responsivity has been performed by using the calculable irradiance of a high temperature black-body radiator and by using a secondary irradiance standard lamp. The relative standard uncertainty of solar irradiance measurements in the wavelength range from 310 nm to 400 nm with this spectroradiometer, based on the described methodology, is 1.6% for solar zenith angles of less than 60°.

  17. Measurement error correction in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator model when validation data are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Monica M; Hu, Chengcheng; Roe, Denise J; Halonen, Marilyn; Guerra, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of serum biomarkers by multiplex assays may be more variable as compared to single biomarker assays. Measurement error in these data may bias parameter estimates in regression analysis, which could mask true associations of serum biomarkers with an outcome. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) can be used for variable selection in these high-dimensional data. Furthermore, when the distribution of measurement error is assumed to be known or estimated with replication data, a simple measurement error correction method can be applied to the LASSO method. However, in practice the distribution of the measurement error is unknown and is expensive to estimate through replication both in monetary cost and need for greater amount of sample which is often limited in quantity. We adapt an existing bias correction approach by estimating the measurement error using validation data in which a subset of serum biomarkers are re-measured on a random subset of the study sample. We evaluate this method using simulated data and data from the Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease (TESAOD). We show that the bias in parameter estimation is reduced and variable selection is improved.

  18. Measuring Absolute Thermospheric Densities And Accommodation Coefficients Using Paddlewheel Satellites: Past Findings, Present Uses, And Future Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilinski, Marcin D.; Moe, Kenneth; Palo, Scott E.; Argrow, Brian M.

    2011-07-01

    The first absolute measurement of thermospheric density was made by combining simultaneous observations of spin and semimajor axis decay of Explorer VI. Providing two independent measures of the interaction with the airstream enabled the determination of both air density and drag coefficient. Then by using a realistic model of the gas-surface interaction, the energy accommodation coefficient was determined. Only four such measurements were made prior to the time of writing. In this paper, we review the history of paddlewheel measurements and explain their importance to ongoing work in satellite drag. Next, a novel concept for paddlewheel satellites based on the CubeSat platform is discussed along with the relevant design parameters. A rudimentary error analysis for paddlewheel measurements evaluated the feasibility of these designs and it was found that the drag torques generated on a three-kilogram paddlewheel are within the measurement capabilities of today's technologies. For certain types of paddlewheel configurations, the use of direct simulation methods is important for accurately analyzing the data. This is because a paddlewheel with the spin axis oriented in the orbit normal direction undergoes significant flow-shadowing and this is not easily represented by analytical methods. Increasing the availability of accommodation measurements via the paddlewheel method represents an improvement in the accuracy of Earth's total density models as well as the understanding of gas-surface interactions in low Earth orbit. This is of profound importance in the prediction of satellite orbits as well as the understanding of atmospheric phenomena.

  19. A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV/vis measurements of scattered sun light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Penning de Vries, M.; Remmers, J.; Rozanov, A.; Shaiganfar, R.

    2015-05-01

    Absolute radiometric calibrations are important for measurements of the atmospheric spectral radiance. Such measurements can be used to determine actinic fluxes, the properties of aerosols and clouds and the short wave energy budget. Conventional calibration methods in the laboratory are based on calibrated light sources and reflectors and are expensive, time consuming and subject to relatively large uncertainties. Also, the calibrated instruments might change during transport from the laboratory to the measurement sites. Here we present a new calibration method for UV/vis instruments that measure the spectrally resolved sky radiance, like for example zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS-) instruments or Multi-AXis (MAX-) DOAS instruments. Our method is based on the comparison of the solar zenith angle dependence of the measured zenith sky radiance with radiative transfer simulations. For the application of our method clear sky measurements during periods with almost constant aerosol optical depth are needed. The radiative transfer simulations have to take polarisation into account. We show that the calibration results are almost independent from the knowledge of the aerosol optical properties and surface albedo, which causes a rather small uncertainty of about ozone column density during the measurements is constant and known.

  20. Absolute measurement of absorption and scattering coefficients spectra of a multiply scattering medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Gratton, Enrico

    1994-07-01

    On the basis of the diffusion theory model, frequency-domain spectroscopy allows for a quantitative determination of the absorption ((mu) a) and scattering ((mu) s') coefficient spectra of a homogeneous multiple scattering medium. We performed measurements using an intensity modulated light emitting diode (LED) as the light source. The LED's spectral distribution permits the study of a spectral region extending for about 80 nm. Data sets (phase shift and average intensity) at two different source-detector distances are acquired: the absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of the medium are then calculated from analytical expressions for (mu) a and (mu) s'. Methylene blue (peak absorption wavelength 656 nm) is used as a test absorbing material. The methylene blue is dissolved in an aqueous Liposyn solution which serves as the multiple scattering medium. The relative amounts of absorber and scatterer are chosen such that the values of (mu) a and (mu) s' match typical values in tissues. The results obtained for (mu) a((lambda) ) with this LED based technique are in quantitative agreement with those obtained with a standard spectrophotometer in a nonscattering regime.

  1. Absolute Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  2. Micrometry combined with profile mapping for the absolute measurement of Integrated Column Density (ICD) and for accurate X-ray mass attenuation coefficients using XERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Tauhidul; Rae, Nicholas A.; Glover, Jack L.; Barnea, Zwi [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Chantler, Christopher T., E-mail: chantler@physics.unimelb.edu.a [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-07-21

    Absolute values of the column densities [{rho}t]{sub c} of four gold foils were measured using micrometry combined with the 2D X-ray attenuation profile. The absolute calibration of [{rho}t]{sub c} was made with a reference foil and the [{rho}t]{sub c} of other foils were determined following the thickness transfer method. By this method, we obtain absolute calibration to 0.1% or better which was not possible using only the X-ray map of a single foil over its central region.

  3. Absolute and relative accelerometer thresholds for determining the association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in the older adults: The Generation-100 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisko, Nina; Nauman, Javaid; Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Aspvik, Nils Petter; Salvesen, Øyvind; Carlsen, Trude; Viken, Hallgeir; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2017-05-16

    When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional study of 509 men and 567 women aged 70-77. Accelerometer assessed MPA, VPA and MVPA were analyzed using absolute and relative thresholds. Meeting the PA-recommendation was defined as amounting ≥150 min/week in MPA/MVPA or 75 min/week in VPA, respectively. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated waist circumference, fasting glucose, hypertension, triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol or diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension medication. Higher proportion of the population met the recommendation when PA was assessed with relative compared to absolute thresholds: VPA (72.4% vs. 1.7%) and MVPA (75.2% vs. 33.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that men and women not meeting the relative-MVPA or VPA recommendation had higher likelihood of MetS (Men: MVPA OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.08-2.33. 1.81, 95%CI: 1.23-2.67 and Women: MVPA OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.36-3.31; VPA OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.29-2.95), compared to men and women meeting the relative MVPA or VPA recommendation. There was no significant association between MetS and absolute MVPA, MPA or VPA recommendations in the fully adjusted model. The association between meeting/not meeting the PA recommendation and MetS differed with method. Not meeting

  4. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  5. Absolute measurements of the electronic transition moments of seven band systems of the C2 molecule. Ph.D. Thesis - York Univ., Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Electronic transition moments of seven C2 singlet and triplet band systems in the 0.2-1.2 micron spectral region were measured. The measurements were made in emission behind incident shock waves in C2H2-argon mixtures. Narrow bandpass radiometers were used to obtain absolute measurements of shock-excited C2 radiation from which absolute electronic transition moments are derived by a synthetic spectrum analysis. New results are reported for the Ballik-Ramsay, Phillips, Swan, Deslandres-d'Azambuja, Fox-Herzberg, Mulliken, and Freymark systems.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  7. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  8. Comparison of a citation-based indicator and peer review for absolute and specific measures of research-group excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O; Holovatch, Yu; Berche, B

    2013-01-01

    Many different measures are used to assess academic research excellence and these are subject to ongoing discussion and debate within the scientometric, university-management and policy-making communities internationally. One topic of continued importance is the extent to which citation-based indicators compare with peer-review-based evaluation. Here we analyse the correlations between values of a particular citation-based impact indicator and peer-review scores in several academic disciplines, from natural to social sciences and humanities. We perform the comparison for research groups rather than for individuals. We make comparisons on two levels. At an absolute level, we compare total impact and overall strength of the group as a whole. At a specific level, we compare academic impact and quality, normalised by the size of the group. We find very high correlations at the former level for some disciplines and poor correlations at the latter level for all disciplines. This means that, although the citation-ba...

  9. Absolute and Relative Activity of Microencapsulated Natural Essential Oils against the Larvae of Carpet Beetle Anthrenus flavipies (LeConte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Udakhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on finding natural ecofriendly alternatives to the existing commercial Anthrenus flavipies resist chemicals. Eucalyptus, lavender, and citronella microcapsules were explored as natural alternatives. Chemical contents of microcapsules and fragrance releasing property were tested using gas chromatography. Absolute (proofing and relative (repellent activities of microcapsule treated fabrics were tested against the larvae of carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipies (LeConte. Proofing activity test results revealed that natural essential oils act as a deterrent for Anthrenus flavipies, but give lesser protection compared to commercial chemical permethrin. Repellency test results also affirmed these findings and it was observed that Anthrenus flavipies prefers to eat untreated fabric compared to its treated counterpart.

  10. Minimizing the Levelized Cost of Energy in Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems with an Absolute Active Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2015-01-01

    method is demonstrated on a 3-kW single-phase PV system considering a real-field mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature). The optimization results have revealed that superior performance in terms of LCOE and energy production can be obtained by enabling the AAPC strategy......Several countries with considerable PhotoVoltaic (PV) installations are facing a challenge of overloading the power infrastructure during peak-power production hours. Regulations have been imposed on the PV systems, where more active power control should be flexibly performed. As an advanced...... control strategy, the Absolute Active Power Control (AAPC) can effectively solve the overloading issues by limiting the maximum possible PV power to a certain level (i.e., the power limitation), and also benefit the inverter reliability. However, its feasibility is challenged by the energy loss...

  11. Absolute and relative temporal order memory for performed activities following stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoo, Linda A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833215; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229475094; Reijmer, Yael D.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Postma, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08621182X

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the temporal order of events is a crucial part of episodic memory. The temporal dimension, however, is often discarded in clinical settings, and measurements of true temporal aspects of episodic memory are scarce. The present study assessed temporal memory in stroke patients and in

  12. Structure, Absolute Configuration, and Antiproliferative Activity of Abietane and Icetexane Diterpenoids from Salvia ballotiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldomero Esquivel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora, eleven diterpenoids were isolated; among them, four icetexanes and one abietane (1–5 are reported for the first time. Their structures were established by spectroscopic means, mainly 1H- and 13C-NMR, including 1D and 2D homo- and hetero-nuclear experiments. Most of the isolated diterpenoids were tested for their antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and radical scavenging activities using the sulforhodamine B assay on six cancer cell lines, the TPA-induced ear edema test in mice, and the reduction of the DPPH assay, respectively. Some diterpenoids showed anti-proliferative activity, these being icetexanes 6 and 3, which were the most active with IC50 (μM = 0.27 ± 0.08 and 1.40 ± 0.03, respectively, for U251 (human glioblastoma and IC50 (μM = 0.0.46 ± 0.05 and 0.82 ± 0.06 for SKLU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma, when compared with adriamycin (IC50 (μM = 0.08 ± 0.003 and 0.05 ± 0.003, as the positive control, respectively. Compounds 3 and 10 showed significant reduction of the induced ear edema of 37.4 ± 2.8 and 25.4 ± 3.0% (at 1.0 μmol/ear, respectively. Compound 4 was the sole active diterpenoid in the antioxidant assay (IC50 = 98. 4 ± 3.3, using α-tocopherol as the positive control (IC50 (μM = 31.7 ± 1.04. The diterpenoid profile found is of chemotaxonomic relevance and reinforces the evolutionary link of S. ballotiflora with other members of the section Tomentellae.

  13. Absolute stereochemistry of fungal beauveriolide III and ACAT inhibitory activity of four stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Taichi; Namatame, Ichiji; Nagai, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Takafumi; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Rudel, Lawrence L; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-09-29

    Fungal beauveriolide III (BeauIII, 1b), a cyclodepsipeptide inhibiting acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and showing antiatherogenic activity in mouse models, consists of L-Phe, L-Ala, D-allo-Ile, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid (HMA) moieties, but the stereochemistry of the HMA part has not until now been fully defined. To determine it, four HMA stereoisomers were synthesized and labeled with (S)-(+)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)-1-propyl trifluoromethane sulfonate (AP-OTf), a chiral fluorescent reagent. The derivatives were separated by HPLC and compared with the natural HMA derivative, which was thereby identified as (3S,4S)HMA in BeauIII. Furthermore, the four beauveriolide III isomers ((3S,4S)BeauIII (23a), (3R,4R)BeauIII (23b), (3R,4S)BeauIII (23c), and (3S,4R)BeauIII (23d)) were synthesized, and it was shown that all the spectral data for 23a were identical with those for natural 1b. Isomers 23a and 23d showed potent inhibitory activity of lipid droplet accumulation in macrophages, while the other two isomers caused weak inhibition. Thus, the 3S configuration of BeauIII is important for this activity. Furthermore, 23a and 23d showed rather specific inhibition against the ACAT1 isozyme.

  14. Transient conduction-radiation analysis of an absolute active cavity radiometer using finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J. R.; Kowsary, F.; Tira, N.; Gardiner, B. D.

    1987-01-01

    A NASA-developed finite element-based model of a generic active cavity radiometer (ACR) has been developed in order to study the dependence on operating temperature of the closed-loop and open-loop transient response of the instrument. Transient conduction within the sensing element is explored, and the transient temperature distribution resulting from the application of a time-varying radiative boundary condition is calculated. The results verify the prediction that operation of an ACR at cryogenic temperatures results in large gains in frequency response.

  15. Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity and Absolute Configurations of Arylalkenyl α,β-Unsaturated δ/γ-Lactones from Cryptocarya concinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Yuan; Kong, Ling-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-Mei; Li, Rui-Jun; Yang, Ming-Hua; Luo, Jian-Guang

    2016-01-22

    During an ongoing exploration of potential anti-inflammatory agents from medicinal plants, eight new arylalkenyl α,β-unsaturated δ-lactones, cryptoconcatones A-H (1-8), and two unusual arylalkenyl α,β-unsaturated γ-lactones, cryptoconcatones I and J (9 and 10), were identified from the leaves and twigs of Cryptocarya concinna. The structures of these compounds were established based on spectroscopic data (MS, 1D/2D NMR), and their absolute configurations were determined with Riguera's method, the modified Mosher's method, chemical derivatization, and the Snatzke chirality rule. Compounds 4-6 and 8-10 showed inhibitory activity toward nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, particularly compounds 4 and 8-10, with IC50 values of 3.2, 4.2, 3.4, and 7.5 μM, respectively.

  16. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  17. Measurement of Absolute Hydroxyl Radical Concentration in Lean Fuel-Air Mixtures Excited by Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.; Lempert, W. R.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2013-06-01

    The focus in plasma assisted combustion research has been on the evaluation of conventional plasma/combustion mechanisms in predicting oxidation and ignition processes initiated and/or sustained by non-equilibrium, nanosecond discharges. Accurate quantitative data such as temperature and species concentration are needed for assessing and improving numerical modeling. As an important intermediate species, the concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) is very sensitive to the combustion environment (e.g., temperature, equivalence ratio), and therefore is of great interest to kinetic study. In this work, Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used for time-resolved temperature and OH number density measurements in lean H_2-, CH_4-, C_2H_4-, and C_3H_8- air mixtures in a plasma flow reactor inside a tube furnace. The premixed fuel-air flow in the reactor, initially at T_0=500 K and P=100 torr, was excited by a burst of repetitive nanosecond electric pulses in a dielectric-barrier plane-to-plane geometry (˜28 kV peak voltage and ˜5 nsec pulse width, estimated 1.25 mJ/pulse coupled energy). Laser was timed to probe after the discharge burst was over to avoid strong plasma emission interference. Relative fluorescence signal was put on an absolute scale by calibrating against Rayleigh scattering signal in the same flow reactor. Experimental results were compared to predictions from a 0-D plasma/combustion chemistry model employing several well-established combustion mechanisms. 2-D temperature and OH concentration distributions in the discharge volume were obtained by planar LIF and was used to quantitatively evaluate plasma uniformity in the reactor. These results were used to determine the validity of the 0-D model. thanks

  18. Absolute cross section measurements for the scattering of low- and intermediate-energy electrons from PF3. I. Elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishiyama, N.; Hoshino, M.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Tanaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    We report absolute elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron collisions with phosphorus trifluoride, PF3, molecules (e- + PF3) in the impact energy range of 2.0-200 eV and over a scattering angle range of 10°-150°. Measured angular distributions of scattered electron intensities were normalized by reference to the elastic DCSs of He. Corresponding integral and momentum-transfer cross sections were derived by extrapolating the angular range from 0° to 180° with the help of a modified phase-shift analysis. In addition, due to the large dipole moment of the considered molecule, the dipole-Born correction for the forward scattering angles has also been applied. As a part of this study, independent atom model calculations in combination with screening corrected additivity rule were also performed for elastic and inelastic (electronic excitation plus ionization) scattering using a complex optical potential method. Rotational excitation cross sections have been estimated with a dipole-Born approximation procedure. Vibrational excitations are not considered in this calculation. Theoretical data, at the differential and integral levels, were found to reasonably agree with the present experimental results. Furthermore, we explore the systematics of the elastic DCSs for the four-atomic trifluoride molecules of XF3 (X = B, N, and P) and central P-atom in PF3, showing that, owing to the comparatively small effect of the F-atoms, the present angular distributions of elastic DCSs are essentially dominated by the characteristic of the central P-atom at lower impact energies. Finally, these quantitative results for e- - PF3 collisions were compiled together with the previous data available in the literature in order to obtain a cross section dataset for modeling purposes. To comprehensively describe such a considerable amount of data, we proceed by first discussing, in this paper, the vibrationally elastic scattering processes whereas vibrational and electronic

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Listen Watch ...

  20. Human Evoked Cortical Activity to Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Absolute Signal Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Curtis J.; Tremblay, Kelly L.; Stecker, G. Christopher; Tolin, Wendy M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of signal level and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the latency and amplitude of evoked cortical activity to further our understanding of how the human central auditory system encodes signals in noise. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) were recorded from 15 young normal-hearing adults in response to a 1000 Hz tone presented at two tone levels in quiet and while continuous background noise levels were varied in five equivalent SNR steps. These 12 conditions were used to determine the effects of signal level and SNR level on CAEP components P1, N1, P2, and N2. Based on prior signal-in-noise experiments conducted in animals, we hypothesized that SNR, would be a key contributor to human CAEP characteristics. As hypothesized, amplitude increased and latency decreased with increasing SNR; in addition, there was no main effect of tone level across the two signal levels tested (60 and 75 dB SPL). Morphology of the P1-N1-P2 complex was driven primarily by SNR, highlighting the importance of noise when recording CAEPs. Results are discussed in terms of the current interest in recording CAEPs in hearing aid users. PMID:19364526

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ... counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

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  8. Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Lary, Laure; Roy, Céline; Paris, Jean-Philippe; Tournayre, Pascal; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Fernandez, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Absolutes isolated from Viola odorata leaves, valuable materials for the flavor and fragrance industry, were studied. Violets are mainly cultivated in France and Egypt and extracted locally. The absolutes of the two origins showed different olfactory profiles both in top and heart notes, as evidenced by sensory analysis. The aims of this study were i) to characterize the volatile compounds, ii) to determine the odorant-active ones, and iii) to identify some markers of the plant origin. Two complementary analytical methods were used for these purposes, i.e., headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using different fiber coatings followed by GC/MS analysis and gas chromatography - olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) applied to violet leaf extracts. From a total of 70 identified compounds, 61 have never been reported so far for this species, 17 compounds were characterized by both techniques (with seven among them known from the literature), 23 compounds were solely identified by HS-SPME GC/MS (among them only two being already mentioned as components of violet absolutes in the literature), and, finally, 30 compounds were only identified by GC-O/MS. According to the HS-SPME GC/MS analyses, ethyl hexanoate and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienol were specific volatile compounds of the sample with French origin, while (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal, hexanoic acid, limonene, tridecane, and eugenol were specific of the samples with Egyptian origin. Additional compounds that were not detected by HS-SPME GC/MS analysis were revealed by GC-O analyses, some of them being markers of origin. Pent-1-en-3-ol, 3-methylbut-2-enal, 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylethyl)pyrazine, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, β-phenethyl formate, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine revealed to be odorant markers of the French sample, whereas cis-rose oxide, trans-rose oxide, and 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enone were odorant markers of the Egyptian samples. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  10. Measurement of absolute yields of lyman transitions in pionic hydrogen and deuterium as a function of pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusi El Hassani, A.J. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Beer, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Gilot, J.F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Goudsmit, P.F.A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Leisi, H.J. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Thomann, S. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Volken, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Villigen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Teilchenphysik; Aschenauer, E.C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gabathuler, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bovet, E. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Egger, J.P. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Fiorucci, G. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Markushin, V.E. [Kurchatov Inst. (RKI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    Absolute yields of K X-ray transitions in pionic hydrogen and deuterium were determined with accuracies of typically {+-}10% at target pressures of 2.8, 15 and 40 bar and compared with the results of a recently developed cascade code. (orig.)

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

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    Full Text Available ... intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ... Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube ...

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    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of ... 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

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    Full Text Available ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  20. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

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  4. Measuring children's physical activity

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    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

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    Full Text Available ... is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. ... Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, ...

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  4. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Absolute measurement of {beta} emitters with a 4 {pi} counter; Mesure absolue des emetteurs {beta} au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    The object of this work is to investigate the conditions under which the activity of {beta}-emitting radionuclides may be measured with a maximum of precision, and as a result to study the relevant corrections. The various problems relating to activity measurements with a 4 {pi} counter have been examined successively: - comparison of 4 {pi}, GM and proportional counters; - study of the preparation of sources; - corrections on the counting of sources; - self-absorption; - correction for absorption. The precision obtained on these measurements varies from 1.2 to 3 per cent, with the result that the 4 {pi} counter can be considered a very satisfactory calibration instrument. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de rechercher les conditions permettant d'obtenir avec le maximum de precision, la mesure de l'activite des radionuclides se desintegrant par emission et par consequent d'etudier les corrections qui s'y rapportent. Nous avons examine successivement les differents problemes se rapportant aux mesures d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}: - Comparaison des compteurs 4 {pi}, GM et proportionnel; - etude de la preparation des sources; - corrections sur la numeration des sources; - auto-absorption; - correction d'absorption. La precision obtenue dans ces mesures, variant de 1,2 a 3 pour cent, on peut donc considerer le compteur 4 {pi} comme un instrument d'etalonnage tres satisfaisant. (auteur)

  6. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  7. SI-traceable absolute distance measurement over more than 800 meters with sub-nanometer interferometry by two-color inline refractivity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Meyer, Tobias; Mildner, Jutta; Pollinger, Florian

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we demonstrate two-color inline refractivity compensation in a heterodyne synthetic wavelength interferometer for a measurement of absolute distances over several hundred meters with sub-millimeter accuracy. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers with a coherence length of more than 1 km are used as light sources. Direct SI traceability is achieved by controlling the lasers' frequency difference in the radio frequency regime. The resulting synthetic wavelengths at 532 nm and 1064 nm are used for the absolute distance measurement and dispersion-based inline refractive index compensation. A standard deviation of 50 μm is achieved for distances up to 864 m. This performance corresponds to a standard deviation of the observable, the difference of the four optical wavelengths, on a sub-nanometer level. Comparison against white light interferometry confirms sub-millimeter accuracy over this distance. Temporally resolved data over 864 m provide quantitative insights into the influence of chromatic beam paths.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to Action ... doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but ...

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    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant ... page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division ...

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    Full Text Available ... of Perceived Exertion Scale) Videos Glossary of Terms Personal Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, Age 32 Demetrise, Age 42 Susan, Age 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: ...

  15. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e) and D-s(+) -> eta ' e(+)nu(e)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kuhn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 482 pb(-1) of e(+)e(-) collision data collected at root s = 4.009 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we measure the absolute branching fractions for the semileptonic decays D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e) and D-s(+) -> eta ' e(+)nu(e) to be B(D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e)) = (2.30

  16. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53.4% girls, age 11.0±1.0 years, BMI 17.7±2.8 kg*m) across Denmark wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers, one taped...

  17. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ decay with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babusci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is:BR(K+→π+π−π+(γ=0.05565±0.00031stat±0.00025syst a factor ≃ 5 more precise with respect to the previous result. This work completes the program of precision measurements of the dominant kaon branching ratios at KLOE.

  18. Reader variability in breast density estimation from full-field digital mammograms: the effect of image postprocessing on relative and absolute measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M; Nathan, Diane L; Gavenonis, Sara C; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2013-05-01

    Mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, may be measured as either a relative percentage of dense (ie, radiopaque) breast tissue or as an absolute area from either raw (ie, "for processing") or vendor postprocessed (ie, "for presentation") digital mammograms. Given the increasing interest in the incorporation of mammographic density in breast cancer risk assessment, the purpose of this study is to determine the inherent reader variability in breast density assessment from raw and vendor-processed digital mammograms, because inconsistent estimates could to lead to misclassification of an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. Bilateral, mediolateral-oblique view, raw, and processed digital mammograms of 81 women were retrospectively collected for this study (N = 324 images). Mammographic percent density and absolute dense tissue area estimates for each image were obtained from two radiologists using a validated, interactive software tool. The variability of interreader agreement was not found to be affected by the image presentation style (ie, raw or processed, F-test: P > .5). Interreader estimates of relative and absolute breast density are strongly correlated (Pearson r > 0.84, P present in the breast, indicating the need to use standardized tools to mitigate this effect. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing a novel technique for absolute measurements of the principal- and second-shock Hugoniots: a benchmark for the impedance-match methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunjun; Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Li, Chengjun; Li, Jiangtao; Chen, Zhiyun

    2017-06-01

    A novel diagnostics configuration was presented for performing the absolute measurements of the principal- and second-shock Hugoniots of the dense gaseous H2+D2 mixtures under multi-shock compression and probing their thermodynamic properties by a joint diagnostics of multi-channel optical pyrometer (MCOP), Doppler Pin System (DPS), and streak camera. This technique allowed the time-resolved optical radiation histories, interface velocity profiles, and time-resolved spectrum of the multi-compressed sample to be simultaneously measured in a single shot. The shock wave velocities and particle velocities under the former two shock compressions can be directly determined with the help of the above multiple detects instead of the impedance-match methods. So, absolute measurements of the principal- and second-shock Hugoniots for pre-compressed dense gaseous H2+D2 mixtures under multi-shock compression can be achieved, which provides a benchmark for the impedance-match measurement technique. Furthermore, the combination of multiple diagnostics also allows different experimental observables to be cross-checked, which reinforces the reliability of the experimental measurements.

  20. Hydroxyl-radical-induced degradative oxidation of beta-lactam antibiotics in water: absolute rate constant measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Michelle K; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2010-08-19

    The beta-lactam antibiotics are some of the most prevalent pharmaceutical contaminants currently being detected in aquatic environments. Because the presence of any trace level of antibiotic in water may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and contribute to the production of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, active removal by additional water treatments, such as using advanced oxidation and reduction processes (AO/RPs), may be required. However, to ensure that any AOP treatment process occurs efficiently and quantitatively, a full understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of all of the chemical reactions involved under the conditions of use is necessary. In this study, we report on our kinetic measurements for the hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 11 beta-lactam antibiotics obtained using electron pulse radiolysis techniques. For the 5-member ring species, an average reaction rate constant of (7.9 +/- 0.8) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) was obtained, slightly faster than for the analogous 6-member ring containing antibiotics, (6.6 +/- 1.2) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The consistency of these rate constants for each group infers a common reaction mechanism, consisting of the partitioning of the hydroxyl radical between addition to peripheral aromatic rings and reaction with the central double-ring core of these antibiotics.

  1. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  2. Absolute measurement of {beta}{sub eff} and l on weapon-grade MOX fuel at the VENUS critical facility by means of the RAPJA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeten, P. E-mail: pbaeten@sckcen.be; Paepen, J.; Meer, K. van der; Abderrahim, H.A

    2001-03-01

    Measurements were performed at the VENUS critical facility for the validation of neutron codes in the case of a reactor core loaded with weapon-grade plutonium. Since the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} and the mean neutron lifetime l are two important parameters in the characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of a reactor, an absolute measurement of these parameters is necessary to assure the correct validation of neutron transport codes. To meet this requirement, the RAPJA-technique was used. The RAPJA technique combines a Prompt Jump with a Rossi-Alpha measurement at the stationary subcritical level associated with the antireactivity level obtained after the Prompt Jump. The obtained results are well in accordance with calculated values for MOX-cores at VENUS. The measurements also show that uncertainties of 3 and 1.5% on respectively {beta}{sub eff} and l are achievable on a core loaded with weapon-grade plutonium.

  3. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m-1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  4. An ensemble average method to estimate absolute TEC using radio beacon-based differential phase measurements: Applicability to regions of large latitudinal gradients in plasma density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Bagiya, Mala S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Acharya, Y. B.; Yamamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    A GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) system for total electron content (TEC) measurements using 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from Low-Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOS) is fabricated in house and made operational at Ahmedabad (23.04°N, 72.54°E geographic, dip latitude 17°N) since May 2013. This system receives the 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from high-inclination LEOS. The first few days of observations are presented in this work to bring out the efficacy of an ensemble average method to convert the relative TECs to absolute TECs. This method is a modified version of the differential Doppler-based method proposed by de Mendonca (1962) and suitable even for ionospheric regions with large spatial gradients. Comparison of TECs derived from a collocated GPS receiver shows that the absolute TECs estimated by this method are reliable estimates over regions with large spatial gradient. This method is useful even when only one receiving station is available. The differences between these observations are discussed to bring out the importance of the spatial differences between the ionospheric pierce points of these satellites. A few examples of the latitudinal variation of TEC during different local times using GRBR measurements are also presented, which demonstrates the potential of radio beacon measurements in capturing the large-scale plasma transport processes in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  5. Are sap flow measurements useful for determining water use of fruit orchards, when absolute values are important?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, NJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available in a macadamia orchard. The use of a visually measured wounding width yielded water use figures much lower than expected and as a result a wound effect calibration coefficient was determined by calibrating the sap flow measurements against...

  6. Using relative and absolute measures for monitoring health inequalities: Experiences from cross-national analyses on maternal and child health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A.E. Kunst (Anton); M. Huisman (Martijn); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. As reducing socio-economic inequalities in health is an important public health objective, monitoring of these inequalities is an important public health task. The specific inequality measure used can influence the conclusions drawn, and there is no consensus on which measure

  7. Two-photon LIF on the HIT-SI3 experiment: Absolute density and temperature measurements of deuterium neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Drew, E-mail: dbelliott@mix.wvu.edu; Siddiqui, Umair; Scime, Earl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26056 (United States); Sutherland, Derek; Everson, Chris; Morgan, Kyle; Hossack, Aaron; Nelson, Brian; Jarboe, Tom [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence measurements were performed on the helicity injected torus (HIT-SI3) device to determine the density and temperature of the background neutral deuterium population. Measurements were taken in 2 ms long pulsed plasmas after the inductive helicity injectors were turned off. Attempts to measure neutrals during the main phase of the plasma were unsuccessful, likely due to the density of neutrals being below the detection threshold of the diagnostic. An unexpectedly low density of atomic deuterium was measured in the afterglow; roughly 100 times lower than the theoretical prediction of 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. The neutral temperatures measured were on the order of 1 eV. Temporally and spatially resolved neutral density and temperature data are presented.

  8. Repeated Measurement of Absolute and Relative Judgments of Loudness: Clinical Relevance for Prescriptive Fitting of Aided Target Gains for soft, Comfortable, and Loud, But Ok Sound Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Craig; Payne, JoAnne; Yang, Xin; Wu, Delphanie; Parton, Jason M

    2017-02-01

    This study was undertaken with the purpose of streamlining clinical measures of loudness growth to facilitate and enhance prescriptive fitting of nonlinear hearing aids. Repeated measures of loudness at 500 and 3,000 Hz were obtained bilaterally at monthly intervals over a 6-month period from three groups of young adult listeners. All volunteers had normal audiometric hearing sensitivity and middle ear function, and all denied problems related to sound tolerance. Group 1 performed judgments of soft and loud, but OK for presentation of ascending sound levels. We defined these judgments operationally as absolute judgments of loudness. Group 2 initially performed loudness judgments across a continuum of seven loudness categories ranging from judgments of very soft to uncomfortably loud for presentation of ascending sound levels per the Contour Test of Loudness; we defined these judgments as relative judgments of loudness. In the same session, they then performed the absolute judgments for soft and loud, but OK sound levels. Group 3 performed the same set of loudness judgments as did group 2, but the task order was reversed such that they performed the absolute judgments initially within each test session followed by the relative judgments. The key findings from this study were as follows: (1) Within group, the absolute and relative tasks yielded clinically similar judgments for soft and for loud, but OK sound levels. These judgments were largely independent of task order, ear, frequency, or trial order within a given session. (2) Loudness judgments increased, on average, by ∼3 dB between the first and last test session, which is consistent with the commonly reported acclimatization effect reported for incremental changes in loudness discomfort levels as a consequence of chronic bilateral hearing aid use. (3) Measured and predicted comfortable judgments of loudness were in good agreement for the individual listener and for groups of listeners. These comfortable

  9. Absolute measurement of anti. nu. /sub p/ for /sup 252/Cf using the ORNL large liquid scintillator neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.R.; Gwin, R.; Ingle, R.

    1981-08-01

    The ORNL large liquid scintillator detector was used in a precise determination of anti ..nu../sub p/, the number of neutrons emitted promptly, for spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf. Measurements of the detector efficiency over a broad energy region were made by means of a proton-recoil technique employing the ORELA white neutron source. Monte Carlo calculation of the detector efficiency for a spectrum representative of /sup 252/Cf fission neutrons was calibrated with these elaborate measurements. The unusually flat response of the neutron detector resulted in elimination of several known sources of error. Experimental measurement was coupled with calculational methods to correct for other known errors. These measurements lead to an unusually small estimated uncertainty of 0.2% in the value obtained, anti ..nu../sub p/ = 3.773 +- 0.007.

  10. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  11. Measurement procedure for absolute broadband infrared up-conversion photoluminescent quantum yields: correcting for absorption/re-emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Sean K W; Ivaturi, Aruna; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Richards, Bryce S

    2014-06-01

    The internal photoluminescent quantum yield (iPLQY)--defined as the ratio of emitted photons to those absorbed--is an important parameter in the evaluation and application of luminescent materials. The iPLQY is rarely reported due to the complexities in the calibration of such a measurement. Herein, an experimental method is proposed to correct for re-emission, which leads to an underestimation of the absorption under broadband excitation. Although traditionally the iPLQY is measured using monochromatic sources for linear materials, this advancement is necessary for nonlinear materials with wavelength dependent iPLQY, such as the application of up-conversion to solar energy harvesting. The method requires an additional measurement of the emission line shape that overlaps with the excitation and absorption spectra. Through scaling of the emission spectrum, at the long wavelength edge where an overlap of excitation does not occur, it is possible to better estimate the value of iPLQY. The method has been evaluated for a range of nonlinear material concentrations and under various irradiances to analyze the necessity and boundary conditions that favor the proposed method. Use of this refined method is important for a reliable measurement of iPLQY under a broad illumination source such as the Sun.

  12. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, K.; O' Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l' Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-07-15

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

  13. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K{sup +}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}(γ) decay with the KLOE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Balwierz-Pytko, I. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Branchini, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Budano, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Caldeira Balkeståhl, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ceradini, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Ciambrone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Curciarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Czerwiński, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Danè, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Santis, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Simone, P., E-mail: patrizia.desimone@lnf.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Di Cicco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-11-10

    The absolute branching ratio of the K{sup +}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}(γ) decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K{sup +} mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is: BR(K{sup +}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}(γ))=0.05565±0.00031{sub stat}±0.00025{sub syst} a factor ≃ 5 more precise with respect to the previous result. This work completes the program of precision measurements of the dominant kaon branching ratios at KLOE.

  14. Utility of relative and absolute measures of mammographic density vs clinical risk factors in evaluating breast cancer risk at time of screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolell, Mohamed; Tsuruda, Kaitlyn M; Lightfoot, Christopher B; Payne, Jennifer I; Caines, Judy S; Iles, Sian E

    2016-01-01

    Various clinical risk factors, including high breast density, have been shown to be associated with breast cancer. The utility of using relative and absolute area-based breast density-related measures was evaluated as an alternative to clinical risk factors in cancer risk assessment at the time of screening mammography. Contralateral mediolateral oblique digital mammography images from 392 females with unilateral breast cancer and 817 age-matched controls were analysed. Information on clinical risk factors was obtained from the provincial breast-imaging information system. Breast density-related measures were assessed using a fully automated breast density measurement software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to evaluate the performance of three cancer risk models: the first using only clinical risk factors, the second using only density-related measures and the third using both clinical risk factors and density-related measures. The risk factor-based model generated an AUROC of 0.535, while the model including only breast density-related measures generated a significantly higher AUROC of 0.622 (p risk factor model (p cancer compared with clinical risk factors. Breast cancer risk models based on density-related measures alone can outperform risk models based on clinical factors. Such models may support the development of personalized breast-screening protocols.

  15. Absolute dose measurement Gafchromic R EBT2 movies. Case Study of Kaposis sarcoma; Medida de dosis absoluta con peliculas Gafchromic EBT2. Caso practico de un sarcoma de Kaposi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Meilan, E.; Azevedo Gomes, J. C. de; Tejeiro Garcia, A. G.; Andrade Alvarez, B.; Vazquez, J.; Nieto, I.; Medal, D.; Lopez Medina, A.; Francisco, S.; Salgado, M.; Munoz, V.

    2011-07-01

    Because of its high spatial resolution, low energy dependence and good response over a wide energy range, EBT2 Gafchromic films are widely used in many applications in radiotherapy for measuring relative dose. Despite being the most common use can be used to measure absolute dose. This text is an example of using films as EBT2 for in vivo absolute dose in a Kaposis sarcoma.

  16. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C

    2014-11-01

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  17. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    away from this central location. An oval shaped zero uplift isoline tracks the general western and northern coastline of Norway and the Kola peninsula. It returns southwest through Russian Karelia and touches the southern tip of Sweden and northern Denmark. The uplift area (as measured by present day...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... acquired by IfE (FG5-220), FGI (FG5-221), and UMB (FG5-226). New absolute gravity stations were established by the national mapping agencies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The total number of prepared sites in Fennoscandia is now about 30. Most of them are co-located with permanent GPS, for many of which...

  18. Determination of absolute Ba densities during dimming operation of fluorescent lamps by laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrath, S.; Beck, M.; Garner, R. C.; Lieder, G.; Ehlbeck, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of fluorescent lamps (FL) are often focused on the electrodes, since the lifetime of the lamps is typically limited by the electrode lifetime and durability. During steady state operation, the work function lowering emitter material, in particular, barium, is lost. Greater barium losses occur under dimming conditions, in which reduced discharge currents lead to increased cathode falls, the result of the otherwise diminished heating of the electrode by the bombarding plasma ions. In this work the barium density near the electrodes of (FL), operating in high frequency dimming mode is investigated using the high-sensitivity method of laser-induced fluorescence. From these measurements we infer barium loss for a range of discharge currents and auxiliary coil heating currents. We show that the Ba loss can very easily be reduced by moderate auxiliary coil heating.

  19. Determination of absolute Ba densities during dimming operation of fluorescent lamps by laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S [Institute of Low-Temperature Plasma Physics, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Beck, M [FL/CFL D-A, Osram GmbH, Berliner Allee 65, D-86136 Augsburg (Germany); Garner, R C [Central Research and Services Laboratory, OSRAM Sylvania, 71 Cherry Hill Dr, Beverly, MA, 01915 (United States); Lieder, G [Research Light Sources, Osram GmbH, Hellabrunner Str. 1, D-81536 Munich (Germany); Ehlbeck, J [Institute of Low-Temperature Plasma Physics, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-01-07

    Investigations of fluorescent lamps (FL) are often focused on the electrodes, since the lifetime of the lamps is typically limited by the electrode lifetime and durability. During steady state operation, the work function lowering emitter material, in particular, barium, is lost. Greater barium losses occur under dimming conditions, in which reduced discharge currents lead to increased cathode falls, the result of the otherwise diminished heating of the electrode by the bombarding plasma ions. In this work the barium density near the electrodes of (FL), operating in high frequency dimming mode is investigated using the high-sensitivity method of laser-induced fluorescence. From these measurements we infer barium loss for a range of discharge currents and auxiliary coil heating currents. We show that the Ba loss can very easily be reduced by moderate auxiliary coil heating.

  20. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions B to Dpi, D*pi, D**pi with a Missing Mass Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del, P; Amo Sanchez; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We present branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to Dpi-, D*pi- and D**pi- with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231 million Y(4S)-->BBar pairs collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider. One of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the other one decays to a reconstructed charged pion and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. Here D** refers to the sum of all the non-strange charm meson states with masses in the range 2.2-2.8 Gev/c2.

  1. Ion recombination correction factor in scanned light-ion beams for absolute dose measurement using plane-parallel ionisation chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomme, S; Horn, J; Brons, S; Jäkel, O; Mairani, A; Ciocca, M; Floquet, V; Romano, F; Rodriguez Garcia, D; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2017-07-07

    Based on international reference dosimetry protocols for light-ion beams, a correction factor (k s) has to be applied to the response of a plane-parallel ionisation chamber, to account for recombination of negative and positive charges in its air cavity before these charges can be collected on the electrodes. In this work, k s for IBA PPC40 Roos-type chambers is investigated in four scanned light-ion beams (proton, helium, carbon and oxygen). To take into account the high dose-rates used with scanned beams and LET-values, experimental results are compared to a model combining two theories. One theory, developed by Jaffé, describes the variation of k s with the ionization density within the ion track (initial recombination) and the other theory, developed by Boag, describes the variation of k s with the dose rate (volume recombination). Excellent agreement is found between experimental and theoretical k s-values. All results confirm that k s cannot be neglected. The solution to minimise k s is to use the ionisation chamber at high voltage. However, one must be aware that charge multiplication may complicate the interpretation of the measurement. For the chamber tested, it was found that a voltage of 300 V can be used without further complication. As the initial recombination has a logarithmic variation as a function of 1/V, the two-voltage method is not applicable to these scanned beams.

  2. Comparative and Absolute Measurements of 11 Inorganic Constituents of 38 Human Tooth Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K. [AB Atomenergi, Stockholm (Sweden); Soeremark, R. [The Clinical Laboratory and the Dept. of Prosthetics of the Royal School of Dentistry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1961-12-15

    The mean concentrations of the following elements have been simultaneously determined in normal human dentine, enamel and dental calculus with gamma-ray spectrometry; Na, P, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, W and Au. In a typical run one sample each of dentine, enamel and dental calculus were irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10{sup 12} n/cm/sec for 20 hours. The chemical elements were separated into nine groups with ion exchange technique before the subsequent gamma spectrometric measurements. One man can manage the chemical separations and take the necessary gamma spectra from a run in one day. In a few samples of dentine, enamel and dental calculus which had been irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 7 x 10{sup 13} n/cm/sec for one week the additional long lived trace elements were qualitatively determined Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs and Ba.

  3. Measurements of the absolute photoionization cross section of Fe{sup +} ions from 15.8 to 180 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, H. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Germany)]. E-mail: kjeldsen@ifa.au.dk; Kristensen, B.; Folkmann, F.; Andersen, T. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Germany)

    2002-09-14

    The absolute single-and double-photoionization cross sections of singly charged Fe ions have been measured from 15.8 to 180 eV using the merged-beam technique. The data yield information about the photoionization continua and the resonance structures resulting from excitation of the outer 3d and 4s electrons as well as the inner 3p and 3s electrons. The vast majority of the Fe{sup +} target ions were present in the ground-state configuration, 3d{sup 6}4s, and term,{sup 6}D. The experimental data have been compared with several calculations, for example R-matrix calculations from the Opacity Project and data obtained using the central-field approximations. The experimental data are available at http://www.iop.orgww.ifa.au.dk/amo/atomphys/atomphys.htm. (author)

  4. Absolute technique for measuring internal electric fields in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by electroreflectance applicable to all crystal orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Shojiki, Kanako; Katayama, Ryuji; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Matsuoka, Takashi; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    The internal electric fields in III-polar (0001), N-polar (000\\bar{1}), and semipolar (10\\bar{1}1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes were investigated by electroreflectance (ER) spectroscopy. The ER spectra reflected the difference in the direction and strength of internal electric fields. Phase analyses of the ER signal revealed that only III-polar InGaN wells have the opposite direction of the internal electric field at zero bias voltage; this finding is in good agreement with the results of numerical analyses. Quantitative analyses of internal electric fields were conducted by the linewidth analyses of ER spectra. Our experimental results indicate that the absolute value of internal electric fields can be measured from ER spectra.

  5. Absolute-magnetic-field measurement using nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor with second-harmonic and liquid-nitrogen-temperature operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Keiji; Yasugi, Takuya; Majima, Yatsuse; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-05-01

    To detect the absolute magnetic field, such as the earth's magnetic field, a linear magnetic response, a zero point, and thermal stability are required. We thus propose an operating method and sensor probe consisting of a nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor (GIGS), an operational amplifier integrated circuit, and a modulation coil. The sensor probe was operated in second-harmonic mode at a liquid-nitrogen (Liq. N2) temperature. When an AC magnetic field was applied to GIGS, the second-harmonic signal was generated and modulated by the outer magnetic field to be measured. After lock-in detection, the modulated output signal showed good linearity and a zero point. Moreover, higher sensitivity and low noise with low thermal fluctuation was obtained by the cooling at Liq. N2 temperature.

  6. Absolute-magnetic-field measurement using nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor with second-harmonic and liquid-nitrogen-temperature operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Tsukada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To detect the absolute magnetic field, such as the earth’s magnetic field, a linear magnetic response, a zero point, and thermal stability are required. We thus propose an operating method and sensor probe consisting of a nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor (GIGS, an operational amplifier integrated circuit, and a modulation coil. The sensor probe was operated in second-harmonic mode at a liquid-nitrogen (Liq. N2 temperature. When an AC magnetic field was applied to GIGS, the second-harmonic signal was generated and modulated by the outer magnetic field to be measured. After lock-in detection, the modulated output signal showed good linearity and a zero point. Moreover, higher sensitivity and low noise with low thermal fluctuation was obtained by the cooling at Liq. N2 temperature.

  7. Absolutely calibrated mass spectrometry measurement of reactive and stable plasma chemistry products in the effluent of a He/H2O atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Gert; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry has been used to analyse the effluent of a micro-scaled atmospheric plasma jet operated in helium with a controlled concentration of water vapour. Absolute densities of H2O2 and OH have been measured as function of water vapour concentration and distance from the jet nozzle. The trend for both species densities are correlated and after an initial increase, the densities of H2O2 and OH saturate around 5000 ppm to 6000 ppm of water admixture. The largest densities for H2O2 (2.37× 1014 cm-3 ) and OH (1.96× 1014 cm-3 ) were measured at 7980 ppm water admixture and 2 mm distance from the jet. Densities of HO2 (1× 1014 cm-3 ) and O2 (4× 1014 cm-3 ) have been measured as well, although no trend could be observed. The direct electron impact ionisation cross-section of H2O2 at 70 eV electron energy was experimentally determined to be 1.02 × 10-16 cm2 . The measured densities and profiles have been compared to a 2D axially symmetric fluid model of species transport and recombination reactions. The effluent reaction chemistry is dominated by the hydroxyl radical, where the hydrogen atoms seem to play an important role as well. The analysis of neutral plasma chemistry products have been complemented by measurements of qualitative ion signals.

  8. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  9. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux Inorganiques, Université Badji-Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G., E-mail: jean-georges.gasser@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique - Approche Multi-échelle des Milieux Complexes (LCP-A2MC) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago - 57078 Metz cedex 3 (France)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  10. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadlia, L.; Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Mayoufi, M.; Gasser, J. G.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  11. Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffey, A.H.; Gray, J.; Bentley, W.C.; Lerner, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has <100% counting efficiency owing to two factors: (1) ''end effect,'' due to decreased and distorted fields at the ends where wire-insulator joints are placed, and (2) ''wall effect,'' due to non-ionization by beta particles emitted near to and heading into the wall. The end effect was evaluated by making one end of the counter movable and measuring counting rates at a number of endplate positions. Much of the wall effect was calculated theoretically, based on known data for primary ionization of electrons as a function of energy and gas composition. Corrections were then made for the ''shakeoff'' effect in beta decay and for backscattering of electrons from the counter wall. Measurements and calculations were made for a sample of /sup 85/Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies.

  12. Changes in mortality inequalities across occupations in Japan: a national register based study of absolute and relative measures, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tamiya, Nanako; Takahashi, Hideto; Noguchi, Haruko; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2017-09-05

    Changes in mortality inequalities across socioeconomic groups have been a substantial public health concern worldwide. We investigated changes in absolute/relative mortality inequalities across occupations, and the contribution of different diseases to inequalities in tandem with the restructuring of the Japanese economy. Using complete Japanese national death registries from 5 year intervals (1980-2010), all cause and cause specific age standardised mortality rates (ASMR per 100 000 people standardised using the Japanese standard population in 1985, aged 30-59 years) across 12 occupations were computed. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured in ASMR differences (RDs) and ASMR ratios (RRs) among occupations in comparison with manufacturing workers (reference). We also estimated the changing contribution of different diseases by calculating the differences in ASMR change between 1995 and 2010 for occupations and reference. All cause ASMRs tended to decrease in both sexes over the three decades except for male managers (increased by 71% points, 1995-2010). RDs across occupations were reduced for both sexes (civil servants 233.5 to -1.9 for men; sales workers 63.3 to 4.5 for women) but RRs increased for some occupations (professional workers 1.38 to 1.70; service workers 2.35 to 3.73) for men and decreased for women from 1980 to 2010. Male relative inequalities widened among farmer, fishery and service workers, because the percentage declines were smaller in these occupations. Cerebrovascular disease and cancer were the main causes of the decrease in mortality inequalities among sexes but the incidence of suicide increased among men, thereby increasing sex related inequalities. Absolute inequality trends in mortality across occupations decreased in both sexes, while relative inequality trends were heterogeneous in Japan. The main drivers of narrowing and widening mortality inequalities were cerebrovascular disease and suicide, respectively. Future

  13. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  14. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  15. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors...... sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained...

  16. Mode-locked semiconductor laser for long and absolute distance measurement based on laser pulse repetition frequency sweeping: a comparative study between three types of lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordão, J. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work we present a study on three types of semiconductor mode-locked lasers as possible sources for a high precision absolute distance metrology measurement concept based on pulse repetition frequency (PRF) sweep. In this work, we evaluated one vertical emission laser and two transversal emission sources. The topology of the gain element is quantum-well, quantum-dot and quantum-dash, respectively. Only the vertical emission laser has optical pump, whilst the others operate with electric pumping. The quantum-dash laser does not have a saturable absorber in its configuration but relies on a dispersion compensating fiber for generating pulses. The bottleneck of vertical emission laser is his high power density pump (4.5W/165μm), increasing the vulnerability of damaging the gain element. The other lasers, i.e., the single (quantum-dash) and double section (quantum-dot) lasers present good results either in terms of applicability to the metrology system or in terms of robustness. Using RF injection on the gain element, both lasers show good PRF stabilization results (better than σy(10ms) = 10-9 ) which is a requirement for the mentioned metrology technique.

  17. Measurement of the absolute values of cross-sections in neutron photoproduction (1962); Mesure de sections efficaces de photoproduction de neutrons en valeur absolue (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhl, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The absolute values of photoneutrons production cross-sections for the case of intermediate and heavy nuclei (lanthanium, cerium, tantalum, gold, lead and bismuth) are determined with an error of 15 per cent. The results obtained agree with theories in which the giant resonance is explained by the collective motion of the protons against the neutrons. The effect of the nuclear deformation on the shape of the giant resonance is seen in the case of Ta{sup 181}, it will be possible to determine the quadrupole momenta of deformed nuclei with a good accuracy when we shall increase the statistics of measurements. (author) [French] Les sections efficaces de production de photoneutrons par divers noyaux moyens et lourds (lanthane, cerium, tantale, or, plomb et bismuth) sont determinees en valeur absolue avec une erreur relative de 15 pour cent. Les resultats obtenus s'accordent avec les theories qui interpretent la resonance geante par un mouvement collectif des protons par rapport aux neutrons. L'influence de la deformation du noyau sur la forme de la resonance geante est soulignee dans le cas de {sup 181}Ta pour lequel elle se decompose en deux pics. Une amelioration de la statistique des mesures permettra de determiner les moments quadrupolaires des noyaux deformes avec une meilleure precision. (auteur)

  18. Measurement of absolute density of N atom in sputtering plasma for epitaxial growth ZnO films via nitrogen mediated crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Tomoaki; Matsushima, Koichi; Takasaki, Toshiyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyuwoong; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Itagaki, Naho

    2015-09-01

    ZnO has attracted attention as a potential alternative to GaN in light emitting diodes because of the wide band gap and large exciton binding energy. Recently, we have developed a fabrication method of ZnO by sputtering, nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC), enabling us to make epitaxial films with low defect density. By utilizing the buffer layers fabricated by NMC method, we have succeeded in fabrication of single crystalline ZnO films even on 18% lattice mismatched substrates. Here, aiming to clarify effects of nitrogen during NMC process, we measured absolute density of N atom in sputtering plasma by means of vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy. First, NMC-ZnO buffer layers were deposited in Ar/N2 atmosphere. Then, ZnO films were deposited in Ar/O2 atmosphere. With increasing N2 flow rate ratio from 4 to 12%, the N density increases from 3.2 × 1010 to 1.4 × 1011 cm-3. By utilizing the NMC-ZnO buffer layer fabricated at under these conditions, single crystalline ZnO films are grown. However, large number of pits are observed on the surface of ZnO films under N-rich conditions, indicating that N density is of importance in controlling the morphology of ZnO films. This work was supported in part by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant Number 15H05431.

  19. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  20. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  1. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+ → K̅0 e+νe via K̅0 → π 0 π 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lü, H. J.; Lü, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lü, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb-1 data collected at the center-of-mass energy with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ → K̅0 e+νe to be ℬ(D + → K̅0 e+νe) = (8.59 ± 0.14 ± 0.21)% using , where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties.. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2009CB825204, 2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (10935007, 11125525, 11235011, 11305180, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, 11475123), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201, U1532101), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) (530-4CDP03), Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11405046, U1332103), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Resarch Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-SC0012069, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

  2. Novel concept for the mass spectrometric determination of absolute isotopic abundances with improved measurement uncertainty: Part 1 - theoretical derivation and feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienitz, Olaf; Pramann, Axel; Schiel, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new method for the experimental determination of absolute isotopic abundances using a modified isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) technique is described. The intention and thus main application will be the quantification of molar masses M of highly enriched materials with improved measurement uncertainty (Urel(M) [approximate] 10-8 with k = 2). In part 1 of the current work, the theoretical foundation of the new method and its mathematical derivation is shown in detail, while part 2 will cover the experiments based on the new method described. Its core idea is the introduction of a virtual element (VE) consisting of all isotopes but the one having the largest or smallest abundance. IDMS is used to determine the mass fraction of this VE in its matrix, namely the element itself. A new set of equations serve to calculate all isotopic abundances (even the large one omitted with the introduction of the VE) merely from the mass fraction of the VE. A comprehensive uncertainty budget according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) was set up in order to discuss and validate the novel concept. The hypothetical input data of the uncertainty budget were estimated to resemble a silicon material highly enriched with respect to 28Si used in the context of the international Avogadro Project. Considering the calculated results, the experimental determination of the molar mass of the above mentioned silicon seems very promising. As far as the authors know, this will be the first time IDMS was applied to determine a molar mass.

  3. Comparison between measurements with the superconducting gravimeter T020 and the absolute gravimeter FG5-221 at Metsähovi, Finland in 2003-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, H.; Makinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Ndrdnen, J.; Ruotsalainen, H.

    2012-12-01

    The superconducting gravimeter (SG) is a relative instrument, which should regularly be compared with an absolute gravimeter (AG) for determination of drift, to connect SG data after longer gaps, and to remove big offsets. Additionally, the scale factor of the SG needs to be determined using simultaneous observations with an AG. Conversely, comparison of SG and AG time series can support AG observations by detecting possible instrument problems in the AG. The SG T020 is recording at Metsähovi gravity laboratory since 1994. Regular AG measurements have taken place between 1988 and 2002 with the JILAg-5 gravimeter and from 2003 onwards with the FG5-221. We have compared results of the SG and the AG between 2003 and 2012. For calibration we have used the time series of both instruments without any corrections. For drift comparison we have corrected the time series of both instruments in a similar way for three effects: tides, polar motion and influence of the atmosphere. When a discrepancy appears between the SG and the AG time series, it may indicate a problem with one of the instruments. For determining which instrument is producing the more plausible result we can compare their data with models of environmental effects in gravity, not included in the above-mentioned three standard corrections. In Metsähovi, the hydrological variation (local-regional-global) is the largest effect. Seasonal variation can be up to 8 μgal peak-to-peak. In addition, loading by the Baltic Sea causes the effects up to 3 μgal. The hydrological signal is seen in both the SG and AG data. More generally, most of the variation in the AG time series is also seen in the SG data and can therefore be attributed to the same environmental effects. Correcting the AG record on the basis of models confirmed by the SG improves considerably the precision of determination of the gravity trend due to postglacial rebound.

  4. Ultraviolet photochemistry of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-dienes: laser spectroscopic absolute hydrogen atom quantum yield and translational energy distribution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, A; Volpp, H-R; Sharma, P; Mittal, J P; Vatsa, R K

    2010-07-14

    Using pulsed H-atom Lyman-alpha laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with a photolytic calibration approach, absolute H-atom product quantum yields of phi(H-b13d) = (0.32+/-0.04) and phi(H-b12d) = (0.36+/-0.04) were measured under collision-free conditions for the 193 nm gas-phase laser flash photolysis of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene at room temperature, which demonstrate that nascent H-atom formation is of comparable importance for both parent molecules. Comparison of the available energy fraction, f(T-b13d) = (0.22+/-0.03) and f(T-b12d) = (0.13+/-0.01), released as H+C(4)H(5) product translational energy with results of impulsive and statistical energy partitioning modeling calculations indicates that for both, buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene, H-atom formation is preceded by internal conversion to the respective electronic ground state (S(0)) potential energy surfaces. In addition, values of sigma(b-1,3-d-L alpha) = (3.5+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) and sigma(b-1,2-d-L alpha) = (4.4+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) for the previously unknown Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm) radiation photoabsorption cross sections of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene in the gas-phase were determined.

  5. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  6. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  7. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions for the semileptonic decays D0 -> K-mu+nu_mu and D0 -> pi-mu+nu_mu

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Cai, X; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Jin Chen; Chen, Y B; Chu, Y P; Dai, Y S; Diao, L Y; Deng, Z Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gu, S D; Gu, Y T; Guo, Y N; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hou, J; Hu, H M; Hu, J H; Hu, T; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Lai, Y F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Fang, Liu; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Jian, Liu; Liu, Q; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Lou, Y C; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Ping, R G; Qi, N D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, C P; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tong, G L; Wang, D Y; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Zheng,Wang; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Weng, Y; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Yan, M L; Yang, H X; Yang, Y X; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yi, Z Y; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Yiyun,Zhang; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Z P; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data sample of 33 pb$^{-1}$ collected at and around 3.773 GeV with the BESII detector at the BEPC collider, the absolute branching fractions for the semileptonic decays $D^0\\to K^-\\mu^+\

  8. Absolute Poverty Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Mahrt, Kristi; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    ’ approach, employing multiple methods, is the best available mode for addressing these limitations. A first fundamental choice is whether to estimate an absolute poverty line at all. Consumption-based poverty metrics provide only a partial view into the welfare of individuals or households, which may or may...

  9. Approach to Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Approach to Absolute Zero Below 10 milli-Kelvin. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0008-0016 ...

  10. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Approach to Absolute Zero Liquefaction of Gases. R Srinivasan. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 6-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/12/0006-0016 ...

  11. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI. This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample. This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  12. Absolute-Gravity Workshop planned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Roger; Sasagawa, Glenn

    The new FG5 absolute gravimeter has a design goal accuracy of 1 μGal and represents the most recent of a series of gravimeters inspired by advances in gravimeter design by J. Faller at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colo. A 2-day workshop will be held in Boulder from March 22 to 23 to discuss current and future applications of absolute gravity (g). Details of the workshop appear at the end of this article. The instrument is based on the principle of interferometrically measuring the time and position of a weight falling in a vacuum, using a stabilized laser and an atomic clock [cf. Cook, 1967; Faller, 1963; Hammond, 1970; Zumberge, 1981; Niebauer, 1986].

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Absolute Configuration and Antitumor Activity of the Enantiomers of 5-Bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethylpyridine-3-sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixu Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyridinesulfonamide is an important fragment which has a wide range of applications in novel drugs. R- and S-isomers of 5-bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethylpyridine-3-sulfonamide have been synthesized, and the stereostructures have been researched. Single crystals of both compounds were obtained for X-ray analysis, and the absolute configurations (ACs have been further confirmed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD, optical rotation (OR and quantum chemical calculations. The crystal structures and calculated geometries were extremely similar, which permitted a comparison of the relative reliabilities of ACs obtained by ECD analyses and theoretical simulation. In addition, the effect of stereochemistry on the PI3Kα kinase and anticancer activity were investigated. Compounds 10a and 10b inhibit the activity of PI3Kα kinase with IC50 values of 1.08 and 2.69 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding modes of R- and S-isomers.

  14. Integrated Clinical Decision Support Systems Promote Absolute Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: An Important Primary Prevention Measure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Matthews

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions. We also examine the proportion with elevated risk and follow-up actions recorded.MethodsWe undertook cross-sectional analysis of 2,052 client records from 97 PHC centers to assess CVRA in Indigenous adults aged ≥20 years with no recorded chronic disease diagnosis (2012–2014. Multilevel regression was used to quantify the variation in CVRA attributable to health center and client level factors. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adults who had CVRA recorded. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of clients with elevated risk that had follow-up actions recorded.ResultsApproximately 23% (n = 478 of eligible clients had documented CVRA. Almost all assessments (99% were conducted in the Northern Territory. Within this jurisdiction, there was wide variation between centers in the proportion of clients with documented CVRA (median 38%; range 0–86%. Regression analysis showed health center factors accounted for 48% of the variation. Centers with integrated clinical decision support systems were more likely to document CVRA (OR 21.1; 95% CI 5.4–82.4; p < 0.001. Eleven percent (n = 53 of clients were found with moderate/high CVD risk, of whom almost one-third were under 35 years (n = 16. Documentation of follow-up varied with respect to the targeted risk factor

  15. Comparative Validity of Physical Activity Measures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLBERT, LISA H.; MATTHEWS, CHARLES E.; HAVIGHURST, THOMAS C.; KIM, KYUNGMANN; SCHOELLER, DALE A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the validity of various physical activity measures with doubly labeled water (DLW)–measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in free-living older adults. Methods Fifty-six adults aged ≥65 yr wore three activity monitors (New Lifestyles pedometer, ActiGraph accelerometer, and a SenseWear (SW) armband) during a 10-d free-living period and completed three different surveys (Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), and a modified Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (modPASE)). Total energy expenditure was measured using DLW, resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry, the thermic effect of food was estimated, and from these, estimates of PAEE were calculated. The degree of linear association between the various measures and PAEE was assessed, as were differences in group PAEE, when estimable by a given measure. Results All three monitors were significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.48–0.60, P < 0.001). Of the questionnaires, only CHAMPS was significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). Statistical comparison of the correlations suggested that the monitors were superior to YPAS and modPASE. Mean squared errors for all correlations were high, and the median PAEE from the different tools was significantly different from DLW for all but the YPAS and regression-estimated PAEE from the ActiGraph. Conclusions Objective devices more appropriately rank PAEE than self-reported instruments in older adults, but absolute estimates of PAEE are not accurate. Given the cost differential and ease of use, pedometers seem most useful in this population when ranking by physical activity level is adequate. PMID:20881882

  16. Danish Towns during Absolutism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    crisis for the Danish urban community, mainly caused by the devastating effects of the seventeenth century warfare. Some few towns, however, stood out with positive development, first and foremost Copenhagen which flourished in its function as the centre of the Absolutist regime. The book traces both...... the roots of the urban crisis as well as the regional and temporal variations. Many articles provide an overview of urbanisation in both the Kingdom of Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig, while other articles focus on the economic, social, and cultural urban functions. The Danish Urban Studies Series......This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

  17. Prototype foamy virus protease activity is essential for intraparticle reverse transcription initiation but not absolutely required for uncoating upon host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Sylvia; Müllers, Erik; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are unique among retroviruses in performing genome reverse transcription (RTr) late in replication, resulting in an infectious DNA genome, and also in their unusual Pol biosynthesis and encapsidation strategy. In addition, FVs display only very limited Gag and Pol processing by the viral protease (PR) during particle morphogenesis and disassembly, both thought to be crucial for viral infectivity. Here, we report the generation of functional prototype FV (PFV) particles from mature or partially processed viral capsid and enzymatic proteins with infectivity levels of up to 20% of the wild type. Analysis of protein and nucleic acid composition, as well as infectivity, of virions generated from different Gag and Pol combinations (including both expression-optimized and authentic PFV open reading frames [ORFs]) revealed that precursor processing of Gag, but not Pol, during particle assembly is essential for production of infectious virions. Surprisingly, when processed Gag (instead of Gag precursor) was provided together with PR-deficient Pol precursor during virus production, infectious, viral DNA-containing particles were obtained, even when different vector or proviral expression systems were used. Although virion infectivity was reduced to 0.5 to 2% relative to that of the respective parental constructs, this finding overturns the current dogma in the FV literature that viral PR activity is absolutely essential at some point during target cell entry. Furthermore, it demonstrates that viral PR-mediated Gag precursor processing during particle assembly initiates intraparticle RTr. Finally, it shows that reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase are enzymatically active in the Pol precursor within the viral capsid, thus enabling productive host cell infection.

  18. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K)

  19. Measurement of absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz radiation in real time using a free-running, dual-wavelength mode-locked, erbium-doped fibre laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Mizuguchi, Tatsuya; Zhao, Xin; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizuno, Takahiko; Yang, Yuli; Li, Cui; Bai, Ming; Zheng, Zheng; Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-02-10

    A single, free-running, dual-wavelength mode-locked, erbium-doped fibre laser was exploited to measure the absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation in real time using dual THz combs of photo-carriers (dual PC-THz combs). Two independent mode-locked laser beams with different wavelengths and different repetition frequencies were generated from this laser and were used to generate dual PC-THz combs having different frequency spacings in photoconductive antennae. Based on the dual PC-THz combs, the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation was determined with a relative precision of 1.2 × 10-9 and a relative accuracy of 1.4 × 10-9 at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Real-time determination of the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation varying over a few tens of GHz was also demonstrated. Use of a single dual-wavelength mode-locked fibre laser, in place of dual mode-locked lasers, greatly reduced the size, complexity, and cost of the measurement system while maintaining the real-time capability and high measurement precision.

  20. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  1. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  2. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  3. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  4. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    sustainability for the standard house were proposed focusing on three measures: minimizing environmental impacts from building construction, minimizing impacts from energy consumption during use phase, and reducing the living area per person. In an intermediate path, absolute sustainability can be obtained......Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors....... A building is considered absolute sustainable if its annual environmental burden is less than its share of the earth environmental carrying capacity. Two case buildings – a standard house and an upcycled single-family house located in Denmark – were assessed according to this approach and both were found...

  5. Measuring physical activity environments: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F

    2009-04-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people's ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people's use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments.

  6. Estimating Measurement Error of the Patient Activation Measure for Respondents with Partially Missing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Linden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient activation measure (PAM is an increasingly popular instrument used as the basis for interventions to improve patient engagement and as an outcome measure to assess intervention effect. However, a PAM score may be calculated when there are missing responses, which could lead to substantial measurement error. In this paper, measurement error is systematically estimated across the full possible range of missing items (one to twelve, using simulation in which populated items were randomly replaced with missing data for each of 1,138 complete surveys obtained in a randomized controlled trial. The PAM score was then calculated, followed by comparisons of overall simulated average mean, minimum, and maximum PAM scores to the true PAM score in order to assess the absolute percentage error (APE for each comparison. With only one missing item, the average APE was 2.5% comparing the true PAM score to the simulated minimum score and 4.3% compared to the simulated maximum score. APEs increased with additional missing items, such that surveys with 12 missing items had average APEs of 29.7% (minimum and 44.4% (maximum. Several suggestions and alternative approaches are offered that could be pursued to improve measurement accuracy when responses are missing.

  7. High-precision Mg isotope measurements of terrestrial and extraterrestrial material by HR-MC-ICPMS—implications for the relative and absolute Mg isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Paton, Chad; Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn

    2011-01-01

    We report novel methods for the chemical purification of Mg from silicate rocks by ion-exchange chromatography, and high-precision analysis of Mg-isotopes by high-resolution multiple collector inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (HR-MC-ICPMS). Using these methods, we have measured...... the data obtained by the relative and absolute methods, we propose that these new values represent the absolute Mg-isotope composition of the bulk inner solar system. Using the absolute Mg-isotope composition of the J12 olivine, we calculate the isotopic abundances of Mg as 24Mg 1/4 0.789548 ¿ 0.000026, 25......Mg 1/4 0.100190 ¿ 0.000018, and 26Mg 1/4 0.110261 ¿ 0.000023. Based on this result, we have calculated an atomic weight for Mg of 24.305565 ¿ 0.000045, which is marginally heavier than previous estimates but a factor of 10 more precise....

  8. How should we measure online learning activity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Riordan, Tim; Millard, David E; Schulz, John

    2016-01-01

    .... Because engagement with online learning is different from other Web activity, it is important to establish pedagogically relevant measures that can aid the development of distinct, automated analysis systems...

  9. Validity of 24-h physical activity recall: physical activity measurement survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J; Kim, Youngwon; Stanfill, Bryan; Osthus, David A; Calabro, Miguel A; Nusser, Sarah M; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of an interviewer-administered, 24-h physical activity recall (PAR) compared with that of the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for estimation of energy expenditure (EE) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of adults. A secondary goal was to compare measurement errors for various demographic subgroups (gender, age, and weight status). A sample of 1347 adults (20-71 yr, 786 females) wore an SWA for a single day and then completed a PAR, recalling the previous day's physical activity. The participants each performed two trials on two randomly selected days across a 2-yr time span. The EE and MVPA values for each participant were averaged across the 2 d. Group-level and individual-level agreement were evaluated using 95% equivalence testing and mean absolute percent error, respectively. Results were further examined for subgroups by gender, age, and body mass index. The PAR yielded equivalent estimates of EE (compared with those in the SWA) for almost all demographic subgroups, but none of the comparisons for MVPA were equivalent. Smaller mean absolute percent error values were observed for EE (ranges from 10.3% to 15.0%) than those for MVPA (ranges from 68.6% to 269.5%) across all comparisons. The PAR yielded underestimates of MVPA for younger, less obese people but overestimates for older, more obese people. For EE measurement, the PAR demonstrated good agreement relative to the SWA. However, the use of PAR may result in biased estimates of MVPA both at the group and individual level in adults.

  10. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  11. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kampanje mjerenja apsolutnog i relativnog ubrzanja sile teže u „Osnovnoj gravimetrijskoj mreži Bosne i Hercegovine“ : Measurement campaign of absolute and relative gravity in "Basic gravimetric network of Bosnia and Herzegovina"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumana Abaza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mjerenje apsolutnog ubrzanja sile Zemljine teže u Bosni i Hercegovini izvršeno je na četiri stanice, a u okviru projekta “Izgradnja kapaciteta za unapređenje zemljišne administracije i procedura u Bosni i Hercegovini“. Mjerenje relativnog ubrzanja sile Zemljine teže također je završeno u Osnovnoj gravimetrijskoj mreži BiH na 60 tačaka, te je izvršeno povezivanje sa stanicama na kojim je mjereno apsolutno ubrzanje sile teže. Do sada urađen posao je odlična osnova za nastavak radova na regionalnom gravimetrijskom premjeru na putu ka konačnom cilju određivanja geoida za teritoriju BiH. : Absolute gravity measurements in Bosnia and Herzegovina were carried out at four stations within the project "Capacity building for improving land administration and procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina“ - CILAP. Relative gravity measurements were also completed in the primary gravimetric network of Bosnia and Herzegovina at 60 points, followed by connecting points with absolute gravity data. So far, completed work is an excellent basis for continuing on regional gravity measurements and determining the geoid for the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  14. Absolute determination of neutron detection efficiencies of NE213 detectors using a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source in time-of-flight measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, D

    2001-01-01

    Neutron detection efficiencies of NE213 scintillation detectors were determined by comparison of the measured neutron time-of-flight spectrum of a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source deposited in a parallel-plate, low-mass ionization chamber with its reference neutron energy distribution. Measurement conditions and parameters were systematically varied to study their influence on the efficiencies obtained. The efficiencies derived from the measurement were compared with well-established efficiencies of the detectors used. These efficiencies were calculated with a Monte Carlo code and corrected after comparison with a proton recoil telescope in neutron fluence measurements. Details of the measurement and the data analysis including the corrections needed are discussed.

  15. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  16. Self consistently calibrated photopyroelectric calorimeter for the high resolution simultaneous absolute measurement of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zammit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature resolution study of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity over the smecticA-nematic and nematic-isotropic phase transitions in octylcynobephenyl liquid crystal using a new photopyroelectric calorimetry configuration are reported, where, unlike previously adopted ones, no calibration is required other than the procedure used during the actual measurement. This makes photopyroelectric calorimetry suitable for “absolute” measurements of the thermal parameters like most other existing conventional calorimetric techniques where, however, the thermal conductivity cannot be measured.

  17. Absolute poverty lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Mahrt, Kristi; Tarp, Finn

    Private consumption capabilities form only one facet of comprehensive living standards assessments, but they are an important facet whose measurement should be done well. Measurement is complex due to a multitude of methodological choices, which often interact with imperfect data and a desire for...

  18. Dial A440 for absolute pitch: absolute pitch memory by non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas A; Schmuckler, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Listeners without absolute (or "perfect") pitch have difficulty identifying or producing isolated musical pitches from memory. Instead, they process the relative pattern of pitches, which remains invariant across pitch transposition. Musically untrained non-absolute pitch possessors demonstrated absolute pitch memory for the telephone dial tone, a stimulus that is always heard at the same absolute frequency. Listeners accurately classified pitch-shifted versions of the dial tone as "normal," "higher than normal" or "lower than normal." However, the role of relative pitch processing was also evident, in that listeners' pitch judgments were also sensitive to the frequency range of stimuli.

  19. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-12-01

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measurement of absolute concentrations of individual compounds in metabolite mixtures by gradient-selective time-zero 1H-13C HSQC with two concentration references and fast maximum likelihood reconstruction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L

    2011-12-15

    Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture.

  1. Measurement of Absolute Concentrations of Individual Compounds in Metabolite Mixtures by Gradient-Selective Time-Zero 1H-13C HSQC (gsHSQC0) with Two Concentration References and Fast Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J.; Chylla, Roger A.; Markley, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-zero 2D 13C HSQC (HSQC0) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC0 spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero 1H-13C HSQC0 in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant time mode. Semi-automatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semi-automated gsHSQC0 with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC0 approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture. PMID:22029275

  2. High Precision, Absolute Total Column Ozone Measurements from the Pandora Spectrometer System: Comparisons with Data from a Brewer Double Monochromator and Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria A.; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  3. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Waugh, C J; Séguin, F H; Sio, H; Sinenian, N; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Hohenberger, M; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Yeamans, C B; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Bionta, R M; Talison, B; Casey, D T; Landen, O L; Moran, M J; Zacharias, R A; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ∼1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  4. Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD(asterisk)P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Robert C.; Byer, Robert L.; Masuda, Hisashi; Fan, Yuan Xuan

    1990-01-01

    Both absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of six nonlinear materials measured by second-harmonic generation are discussed. A single-mode, injection-seeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spatially filtered output was used to generate the 1.064-micron fundamental radiation. The following results were obtained: d36(KDP) = 0.38 pm/V, d36(KD/asterisk/P) = 0.37 pm/V, (parallel)d22(BaB2O4)(parallel) = 2.2 pm/V, d31(LiIO3) = -4.1 pm/V, d31(5 percentMgO:MgO LiNbO3) = -4.7 pm/V, and d(eff)(KTP) = 3.2 pm/V. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be better than 10 percent.

  5. Measurement of Absolute Single and Double Charge Exchange Cross Sections for Si(7–10)+ at 0.88–2.50 KeV/u Impacting He and H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradmand, A.; El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Mahaptra, D. P.; Chutjian, A.

    2018-01-01

    First measurements are reported for total, absolute, single, and double charge-exchange (CE) cross sections for Si(7–10)+ ions in the solar wind (SW), colliding with the prevalent astrophysical species H2 and He found in comets, the interplanetary medium, and planetary atmospheres. Measurements are in the energy range 0.88–2.50 keV/u, corresponding to the energies of the “fast” and “slow” ion components of the SW. Limited agreement is found with single-exchange results calculated in the classical over-the-barrier model. These CE data are useful for understanding, in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, photon emissions in the X-ray to visible energy range arising from resulting ion-stabilization steps.

  6. The equilibrium constant for N2O5 = NO2 + NO3 - Absolute determination by direct measurement from 243 to 397 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, C. A.; Davidson, J. A.; Mcdaniel, A. H.; Shetter, R. E.; Calvert, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Direct determinations of the equilibrium constant for the reaction N2O5 = NO2 + NO3 were carried out by measuring NO2, NO3, and N2O5 using long-path visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy as a function of temperature from 243 to 397 K. The first-order decay rate constant of N2O5 was experimentally measured as a function of temperature. These results are in turn used to derive a value for the rate coefficient for the NO-forming channel in the reaction of NO3 with NO2. The implications of the results for atmospheric chemistry, the thermodynamics of NO3, and for laboratory kinetics studies are discussed.

  7. Approach To Absolute Zero

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    standard baths, say a bath of melting ice and a bath of water boiling at one atmosphere pressure. The thermometer is brought into good thermal contact with each bath and the value of the property measured. Arbitrary values are given to the temperatures of the two baths to define a scale of temperature. In the centigrade.

  8. Measuring thrombin activity in frozen brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Gilad; Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Chapman, Joab; Harnof, Sagi

    2017-12-06

    Thrombin is a coagulation factor implicated in various pathological and physiological processes in the brain, exerting beneficial and deleterious effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Measurement of thrombin activity levels in pathological animal models is needed and in some cases, because of technical considerations, only frozen samples are available. In the current study, we used a quantitative method to evaluate thrombin activity in fresh and frozen brain sections of 43 male and female adult healthy mice. We stratified data per brain section, brain hemisphere, and mouse sex. We found lower thrombin activity in frozen sections compared with fresh sections, falling within levels considered central nervous system protective in previous studies. The results suggest that fresh section thrombin activity levels in healthy mice can be extrapolated from frozen brain sections. In addition, we found varying thrombin activity across the brain sections, with maximal activity in the olfactory system and hippocampus-containing sections. Thrombin activity did not vary between males and females, or between the right and the left hemispheres, in a statistically significantly manner.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  11. Use of H2(18)O2 to measure absolute rates of dark H2O2 production in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermilyea, Andrew W; Dixon, Taylor C; Voelker, Bettina M

    2010-04-15

    Photochemical production is usually considered to be the main source of H2O2 in freshwater systems; here we show that significant dark production also occurs. We used isotope-labeled H2O2 as a tracer to simultaneously determine H2O2 production and decay rates in incubations of unfiltered water samples. Our new technique for H2(18)O2 analysis, requiring only small sample volumes and simple field equipment, allows for preservation of samples in remote locations, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis up to six days later. Dark H2O2 production rates of 29-122 nM/h were observed in several lakewater samples. Measured production and decay rates were consistent with pseudo steady-state, early morning [H2O2] measurements made in each water body. Dark H2O2 production is likely to be more important than photochemical production for the total H2O2 budget over 24 h in the freshwater systems we examined. Our results imply that processes usually assumed to be photochemically induced in freshwaters, such as metal redox cycling mediated by H2O2 and O2(-), and production of strong oxidants from the reaction of H2O2 with Fe(II) (Fenton's reaction) could also be occurring at significant rates in the absence of light.

  12. Vectorised Spreading Activation algorithm for centrality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Troussov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreading Activation is a family of graph-based algorithms widely used in areas such as information retrieval, epidemic models, and recommender systems. In this paper we introduce a novel Spreading Activation (SA method that we call Vectorised Spreading Activation (VSA. VSA algorithms, like “traditional” SA algorithms, iteratively propagate the activation from the initially activated set of nodes to the other nodes in a network through outward links. The level of the node’s activation could be used as a centrality measurement in accordance with dynamic model-based view of centrality that focuses on the outcomes for nodes in a network where something is flowing from node to node across the edges. Representing the activation by vectors allows the use of the information about various dimensionalities of the flow and the dynamic of the flow. In this capacity, VSA algorithms can model multitude of complex multidimensional network flows. We present the results of numerical simulations on small synthetic social networks and multi­dimensional network models of folksonomies which show that the results of VSA propagation are more sensitive to the positions of the initial seed and to the community structure of the network than the results produced by traditional SA algorithms. We tentatively conclude that the VSA methods could be instrumental to develop scalable and computationally efficient algorithms which could achieve synergy between computation of centrality indexes with detection of community structures in networks. Based on our preliminary results and on improvements made over previous studies, we foresee advances and applications in the current state of the art of this family of algorithms and their applications to centrality measurement.

  13. Mapping the pharmacological modulation of brain oxygen metabolism: The effects of caffeine on absolute CMRO2 measured using dual calibrated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Alberto; Germuska, Michael A; Warnert, Esther Ah; Richmond, Lewys; Helme, Daniel; Khot, Sharmila; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2017-07-15

    This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age=24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation. Estimates were based on a forward model that describes analytically the contributions of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and of the measured end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 and O2 to the acquired dual-echo GRE signal. The method allows the estimation of grey matter maps of: oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), CBF, CBF-related cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Other estimates from a multi inversion time ASL acquisition (mTI-ASL), salivary samples of the caffeine concentration and behavioural measurements are also reported. We observed significant differences between caffeine and placebo on average across grey matter, with OEF showing an increase of 15.6% (SEM±4.9%, ppower with EEG. Moreover the maps of the physiological parameters estimated illustrate the spatial distribution of changes across grey matter enabling us to localise the effects of caffeine with voxel-wise resolution. CBF changes were widespread as reported by previous findings, while changes in OEF were found to be more restricted, leading to unprecedented mapping of significant CMRO2 reductions mainly in frontal gyrus, parietal and occipital lobes. In conclusion, we propose the estimation framework based on our novel forward model with a dual calibrated fMRI experiment as a viable MRI method to map the effects of drugs on brain oxygen metabolism and

  14. Side-to-side asymmetry in absolute and relative muscle thickness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare side-to-side differences in absolute muscle thickness and activity of the abdominal musculature and to compare these measurements at the start, with those at the end of a cricket season among a group of amateur pace bowlers. Methods. This was a controlled longitudinal prospective study. Rehabilitative ...

  15. Multimode Surface Functional Group Determination: Combining Steady-State and Time-Resolved Fluorescence with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Absorption Measurements for Absolute Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tobias; Dietrich, Paul M; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Rurack, Knut

    2016-01-19

    The quantitative determination of surface functional groups is approached in a straightforward laboratory-based method with high reliability. The application of a multimode BODIPY-type fluorescence, photometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) label allows estimation of the labeling ratio, i.e., the ratio of functional groups carrying a label after reaction, from the elemental ratios of nitrogen and fluorine. The amount of label on the surface is quantified with UV/vis spectrophotometry based on the molar absorption coefficient as molecular property. The investigated surfaces with varying density are prepared by codeposition of 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and cyanoethyltriethoxysilane (CETES) from vapor. These surfaces show high functional group densities that result in significant fluorescence quenching of surface-bound labels. Since alternative quantification of the label on the surface is available through XPS and photometry, a novel method to quantitatively account for fluorescence quenching based on fluorescence lifetime (τ) measurements is shown. Due to the complex distribution of τ on high-density surfaces, the stretched exponential (or Kohlrausch) function is required to determine representative mean lifetimes. The approach is extended to a commercial Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) label, clearly revealing the problems that arise from such charged labels used in conjunction with silane surfaces.

  16. Chemoenzymatic approach to optically active 4-hydroxy-5-alkylcyclopent-2-en-1-one derivatives: an application of a combined circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations to assignment of absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelek, Jadwiga; Karchier, Michał; Madej, Daria; Michalak, Karol; Różański, Paweł; Wicha, Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    A series of representative optically active derivatives of 4-hydroxy-5-alkylcyclopent-2-en-1-one were prepared from the respective 2-furyl methyl carbinols via the Piancatelli rearrangement followed by the enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemates. Applicability of chiroptical methods (experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism [ECD] and vibrational circular dichroism [VCD] spectra) to determine the absolute configuration of both stereogenic centers in 4-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one was demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that the concurrent application of ECD and VCD spectroscopy can be used for the determination of the configuration of two stereogenic centers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How should we measure online learning activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Riordan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Web-based learning objects makes finding and evaluating resources a considerable hurdle for learners to overcome. While established learning analytics methods provide feedback that can aid learner evaluation of learning resources, the adequacy and reliability of these methods is questioned. Because engagement with online learning is different from other Web activity, it is important to establish pedagogically relevant measures that can aid the development of distinct, automated analysis systems. Content analysis is often used to examine online discussion in educational settings, but these instruments are rarely compared with each other which leads to uncertainty regarding their validity and reliability. In this study, participation in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC comment forums was evaluated using four different analytical approaches: the Digital Artefacts for Learning Engagement (DiAL-e framework, Bloom's Taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO and Community of Inquiry (CoI. Results from this study indicate that different approaches to measuring cognitive activity are closely correlated and are distinct from typical interaction measures. This suggests that computational approaches to pedagogical analysis may provide useful insights into learning processes.

  19. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  20. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  1. Absoluteness or relativity of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the case study of absoluteness or relativity of morals. The questions are in a new way comprehended: Can exist absolute morals? Is how its content? Is necessary it for humanity? Is moral personality absolute value? Does justify the purpose of means? It is substantiated, that reflecting about the problem of absoluteness or relativity of morals, one ought not to be abstracted from the religion ­ billions of people find in it the basis of their morals. Accumulated ethical experience is infinitely rich and diverse in humanity: it includes and the proclaimed prophets godly revelations, and the brilliant enlightenment of secular philosophers. Are analyzed such concepts, as morals, absolute morals, relativity, moral rigorizm, moral personality, formal ethics. The specific character of the moral relativity, which proclaims historicity and changeability of standards and standards of human behavior, is established. Moral rigorizm is understood as the principle, according to which the man must act only from the considerations of moral debt, whereas all other external motivations (interest, happiness, friendship, etc have no moral value. Is shown the priority significance of the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, in which strong idealizations and abstractions of the ethics of moral rigorizma are substituted by the weaker ­ more realistic and more humane. In the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, as in the life, moral estimations completely can be and in the overwhelming majority of the cases are relative.

  2. Radon activity measurements around Bakreswar thermal springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Das, Nisith K., E-mail: nkdas@veccal.ernet.i [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Bhandari, Rakesh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sen, Prasanta [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sinha, Bikash [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured in the bubble gases, spring waters, soil gases and in ambient air around the thermal springs at Bakreswar in West Bengal, India. This group of springs lies within a geothermal zone having exceptionally high heat flow about 230 mW/m{sup 2}, resembling young oceanic ridges. The spring gas has a high radon activity (approx885 kBq/m{sup 3}) and is rich in helium (approx1.4 vol. %) with appreciably large flow rate. The measured radon exhalation rates in the soils of the spring area show extensive variations from 831 to 4550/mBqm{sup 2} h while {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the different spring waters vary from 3.18 to 46.9 kBq/m{sup 3}. Surface air at a radius of 40 m around the springs, within which is situated the Bakreswar temple complex and a group of dwellings, has radon concentration between 450 and 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. In the present paper we assess the radon activity background in and around the spring area due to the different contributing sources and its possible effect on visiting pilgrims and the people who reside close to the springs.

  3. Updated Measurements of Absolute $D^+$ and $D^0$ Hadronic Branching Fractions and $\\sigma(e^+e^-\\to D\\overline{D})$ at $E_\\mathrm{cm} = 3774$ MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, G; Zhou, P; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Das, S; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Powell, A; Thomas, C; Wilkinson, G; Asner, D M; Tatishvili, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Onyisi, P U E

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing the full CLEO-c data sample of 818 pb$^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ data taken at the $\\psi(3770)$ resonance, we update our measurements of absolute hadronic branching fractions of charged and neutral $D$ mesons. We previously reportedresults from subsets of these data. Using a double tag technique we obtain branching fractions for three $D^0$ and six $D^+$ modes, including the reference branching fractions $\\mathcal{B} (D^0\\to K^-\\pi^+)=(3.934 \\pm 0.021 \\pm 0.061)\\%$ and $\\mathcal{B} (D^+ \\to K^- \\pi^+\\pi^+)=(9.224 \\pm 0.059 \\pm 0.157)\\%$. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. In these measurements we include the effects of final-state radiation by allowing for additional unobserved photons in the final state, and the systematic errors include our estimates of the uncertainties of these effects. Furthermore, using an independent measurement of the luminosity, we obtain the cross sections $\\sigma(e^+e^-\\to D^0\\overline{D}{}^0)=(3.607\\pm 0.017 \\pm 0.056) \\ \\mathrm{nb}$ and $\\sigma(e^+e...

  4. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  5. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  6. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  7. Absolute noninvasive measurement of CO2 mole fraction emitted by E. coli and S. aureus using calibration-free 2f WMS applied to a 2004  nm VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, A S; Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2017-06-01

    We report the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of accurate real-time noninvasive measurement of the absolute cumulative mole fraction of metabolic carbon dioxide emitted by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over a period of several hours of their life cycles using a recently developed calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy technique. A 1 mW vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is used to interrogate a single rotational vibrational absorption line of carbon dioxide at 2003.5 nm. The measurements are immune to laser intensity fluctuations and variable optical coupling that is inevitable in such free-space coupled experiments that run over 10-18 h. The cumulative carbon dioxide mole fraction follows the characteristic modified Gompertz model that is typical of bacterial growth in batch cultures. The characteristic growth parameters are extracted from this curve. The technique can be readily extended to study multiple volatile organic compounds that bacteria are known to emit.

  8. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  9. Absolute MR thermometry using nanocarriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, Roel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Crielaard, Bart J; Ippel, Johannes H; Boelens, Rolf; Bakker, Chris J G; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-01-01

    Accurate time-resolved temperature mapping is crucial for the safe use of hyperthermia-mediated drug delivery. We here propose a magnetic resonance imaging temperature mapping method in which drug delivery systems serve not only to improve tumor targeting, but also as an accurate and absolute

  10. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  11. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  12. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-04

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  13. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  14. Bias Errors in Measurement of Vibratory Power and Implication for Active Control of Structural Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Henriksen, Eigil; Laugesen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    errors can be largely compensated for by an absolute calibration of the transducers and inverse filtering that results in very small residual errors. Experimental results of this study indicate that these uncertainties will be in the order of one percent with respect to amplitude and two tenth......Uncertainties in power measurements performed with piezoelectric accelerometers and force transducers are investigated. It is shown that the inherent structural damping of the transducers is responsible for a bias phase error, which typically is in the order of one degree. Fortunately, such bias...... of a degree for the phase. This implies that input power at a single point can be measured to within one dB in practical structures which possesses some damping. The uncertainty is increased, however, when sums of measured power contributions from more sources are to be minimised, as is the case in active...

  15. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C. J.; Aur, K. A.; Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; O'rourke, W. T.

    2016-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development is mapping fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring has been successful in constraining fracture system geometry and dynamics, accurate interpretation of microseismic data can be confounded by factors such as complex or poorly-understood velocity distributions, reactivation of previously unknown faults and fractures, and the problem of relating flow patterns to the cloud of hypocenter locations. For the particular problem of hydrocarbon production, the question of which fractures remain sufficiently "open" to allow economical fluid extraction is critical. As a supplement to microseismic analysis, we are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoir by introducing an electrically conductive contrast agent into the fracturing fluid. In the field experiment presented here, a proppant-filled fracture zone is illuminated by a large engineered antenna consisting of an insulated current-carrying cable, grounded to `Earth' near the wellhead, and grounded at the other end to the steel-cased borehole near the target. Time-lapse measurements of horizontal electric field are subsequently made on Earth's surface to map the change in subsurface conductivity due to proppant emplacement. As predicted by 3D numerical modelling, observed differences in electric field values are very small. While these numbers are above the noise floor of electric field sensors, pervasive anthropogenic EM noise and regional-scale magnetotelluric signals make extraction of the differences from the observed time series especially difficult. We present field-acquired data on ambient EM noise in an active oilfield environment and demonstrate techniques for extracting the difference signal due to proppant emplacement. These techniques include classical spectral methods along with estimation of

  16. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  17. Un nouveau moyen de mesure absolue du taux gazeux des mélanges gaz-liquides : le SMAC A New Absolute Measurement of the Volumetric Gas Ratio of Gas-Liquid Mixture: the Smac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Du graphe (P, V de la compression d'un mélange gaz-liquide, on peut tirer la valeur du taux volumique de gaz dans le mélange. La vérification théorique et expérimentale de ce principe ainsi que ses limites d'application comme moyen de mesure sont présentées. Ce résultat a été utilisé pour développer un système de mesure de l'aération de l'huile moteur, le SMAC (Système de Mesure d'Aération par Compressibilité. Des exemples d'application, tels que l'étude de la sensibilité de certaines huiles à l'aération, sont exposés. Oil aeration can be a real problem in engine oil circuit. The involved lubrication power decrease and thermic properties changes can damage the engine. Furthermore, the increased compressibility is very dangerous for hydraulic systems like valve lash adjusters. A first step to control this aeration is to be able to measure it. Gammametry is often used but this measurement needs a very precise calibration and is quite complicated and dangerous. A new absolute measurement has been discovered, based on the difference of compressibility between air and oil. It is absolute because the measurement principle is independant of the conditions, The system does not need a new calibration at each new environment. It is valid for any gas-liquid mixture. From the (P, V graph of a gas-liquid mixture compression, one can derive the gas-liquid volumetric ratio. The log-log graph (P/PO, 1-V/VO of a mixture sample pressurization always shows an inflexion point. The y value of this inflexion point (1-V/VO is equal to the volumetric gas ratio of the sample (before compression. This phenomenon is obvious on hydraulic curves (see Annexe 1. To check it, we have proceeded to a theoretical demonstration and an experimental verification. The theoretical demonstration of this principle concludes that the principle is verified as long as the ration P index 0 / alpha B is small. B is the oil bulk modulus, alpha is the volumetric gas ratio

  18. Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint count (DAS-28) with the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) in measuring disease activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: ...

  19. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  20. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  1. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  2. Active transportation measurement : Minneapolis case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This research examines longitudinal bicycle count data to better understand the impact of new bicycle facilities on use. The study site is Minneapolis which has invested close to $25 million over 8 years to improve active transportation facilities as...

  3. Absolute Quantification of Amyloid Propagons by Digital Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Manuela; Andreasen, Maria; Meisl, Georg; Taylor, Christopher G; Adamcik, Jozef; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Aguzzi, Adriano; Hornemann, Simone

    2017-11-21

    The self-replicating properties of proteins into amyloid fibrils is a common phenomenon and underlies a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Because propagation-active fibrils are chemically indistinguishable from innocuous aggregates and monomeric precursors, their detection requires measurements of their replicative capacity. Here we present a digital amyloid quantitative assay (d-AQuA) with insulin as model protein for the absolute quantification of single replicative units, propagons. D-AQuA is a microfluidics-based technology that performs miniaturized simultaneous propagon-induced amplification chain reactions within hundreds to thousands of picoliter-sized droplets. At limiting dilutions, the d-AQuA reactions follow a stochastic regime indicative of the detection of single propagons. D-AQuA thus enables absolute quantification of single propagons present in a given sample at very low concentrations. The number of propagons quantified by d-AQuA was similar to that of fibrillar insulin aggregates detected by atomic-force microscopy and to an equivalent microplate-based assay, providing independent evidence for the identity of insulin propagons with a subset of morphologically defined protein aggregates. The sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of d-AQuA enable it to be suitable for multiple biotechnological and medical applications.

  4. Absolutely \\gamma-Summing Multilinear Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Rodríguez, Diana Marcela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an abstract approach to the notion of absolutely summing multilinear operators. We show that several previous results on different contexts (absolutely summing, almost summing, Cohen summing) are particular cases of our general results.

  5. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  6. ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE RENAL LENGTH IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Čukuranović Kokoris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the significance of absolute and relative renal length in the diagnoses of several chronic kidney diseases (CKDs in which kidney size changes in different manners during the disease course. The study included 181 patients: 35 with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN, 31 with diabetic nephropathy (DN, 30 with primary glomerular diseases (GN, 30 with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, and 58 healthy controls (C. Absolute renal length was the distance between two most distant points on their poles and it was measured ultrasonographically, and relative length was obtained as the ratio of renal length and body height (kidney/body ratio, KBR. In the statistical analysis, One Way ANOVA test was used to establish the differences in absolute lengths and KBR between the studied groups; 2 test was used to establish the differences in the number of examinees of male and female gender; correlation and linear regression analysis were used to assess the association between age of the examinees and absolute and relative parameters of kidney size. The obtained results demonstrated that the average lengths of the right and left kidney were highest in ADPKD and lowest in BEN group. The average values of KBR of the right and left kidney showed a trend similar to that of average absolute lengths in all groups, except in GN and DN groups, in which absolute parameters of kidney size differed significantly from relative parameters. The correlation analysis showed that a significant negative correlation between age and absolute i.e. relative parameters of kidney size existed only in BEN group, but even in this case the differences between correlation coefficients of absolute and relative length of both kidneys were not statistically significant. Based on the obtained results, we could not establish the advantage of absolute over relative kidney length and vice versa in the studied CKDs. Further studies of larger

  7. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jason R; Rubin, Adam J; Davis, Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Cumbers, John; Czar, Michael J; de Mora, Kim; Glieberman, Aaron L; Monie, Dileep D; Endy, Drew

    2009-03-20

    The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101) to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by approximately 50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU) in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement conditions and instruments. These improvements are

  8. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  9. Active Power Measurement Based on Multiwavelet Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a new method for calculating active power in the multiwavelet domain. When the voltage and current waveforms are analyzed using multiwavelet, the active power can be calculated by simply adding the products of the multiwavelet coefficients without having to reconstruct the signals back to the time domain first and then using the traditional integration. From the simulation result, we can see that the results using multiwavelet are better than the ones using wavelet and Fourier Transforms no matter which prefilter is used.

  10. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER FEBRUARY 2007 Background Expected relationship between oxygen activity and iron content of matte The ideas tested in this work are that the activity of oxygen, as established.... © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2007. SA ISSN 0038–223X/3.00 + 0.00. This paper was first published at the SAIMM Conference, Platinum Surges Ahead, 8–12 October 2006. T r a n s a c t i o n P a p e r L123 Oxygen...

  11. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical activity and sedentary behaviour in older adults? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:62. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-62]. 17. World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for. Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010. 18. Tudor-Locke C, Sisson SB, Collova T, Lee SM, ...

  12. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  14. Measuring Cognitive Activities in Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Robillard, Pierre; D'Astous, Patrick; Détienne, Françoise; Visser, Willemien

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the study of cognitive activities in collaborative software development. This approach has been developed by a multidisciplinary team made up of software engineers and cognitive psychologists. The basis of this approach is to improve our understanding of software development by observing professionals at work. The goal is to derive lines of conduct or good practices based on observations and analyses of the processes that are naturally used by software engin...

  15. Gold nanoparticles as absolute nano-thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattino, Aquiles; Caldarola, Martín; Orrit, Michel

    2017-12-22

    Nano-thermometry is a challenging field that can open the door to intriguing questions ranging from biology and medicine to material sciences. Gold nanorods are excellent candidates to act as nanoprobes because they are reasonably bright emitters upon excitation with a monochromatic source. Gold nanoparticles are commonly used in photothermal therapy as efficient transducers of electromagnetic radiation into heat. In this work we use the spectrum of the anti-Stokes emission from gold nanorods irradiated in resonance to measure the absolute temperature of the nanoparticles and their surrounding medium without the need for a previous calibration. We show a 4 K accuracy in the determination of the temperature of the medium with spectral measurements of 180 s integration time. This procedure can be easily implemented in any microscope capable of acquiring emission spectra and it is not limited to any specific shape of nanoparticles.

  16. High speed image acquisition system of absolute encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianxiang; Chen, Xin; Chen, Xindu; Zhang, Fangjian; Wang, Han

    2017-01-01

    Absolute optical encoder as a product of optical, mechanical and electronic integration has been widely used in displacement measuring fields. However, how to improve the measurement velocity and reduce the manufacturing cost of absolute optical encoder is the key problem to be solved. To improve the measurement speed, a novel absolute optical encoder image acquisition system is proposed. The proposed acquisition system includes a linear CCD sensor is applied for capturing coding pattern images, an optical magnifying system is used for enlarging the grating stripes, an analog-digital conversion(ADC) module is used for processing the CCD analogy signal, a field programmable gate array(FPGA) device and other peripherals perform driving task. An absolute position measurement experiment was set up to verify and evaluate the proposed image acquisition system. The experimental result indicates that the proposed absolute optical encoder image acquisition system has the image acquisition speed of more than 9500fp/s with well reliability and lower manufacture cost.

  17. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jatin G; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  18. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin G Vaidya

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards. This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude. While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing, adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  19. Chaos and Brain Wave Activity: Measures of Irregular Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Physiological measurements of the electrical activity of the brain may provide the predictive information necessary for a sensitive measure of the attention state of an airplane pilot or air traffic controller...

  20. Measuring dissimilarity in online health search activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung

    2006-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the use of the Internet to obtain critical health information as well as increased diversity of user groups. While users of web-based information often report their reliance on healthcare providers for validation of information, it has yet to be determined if this is universally true across all types of information or user groups. In some cases consumers may aggregate in places where they trust web information (relative to provider-based information), such as areas of unsettled diagnostic methods or ambiguous treatment protocols. To date little research has been done to identify and differentiate clusters of health consumers and their similarities related to type of information sought. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether clusters of "digitally underserved groups" persist in the US, following national efforts to eliminate barriers to health information access. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific information behaviors, across targeted healthcare subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decisionmaking, consumer-centric health information model, critical to the proposed US national health information infrastructure.

  1. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Absolutely separating quantum maps and channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, S. N.; Magadov, K. Yu; Jivulescu, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Absolutely separable states ϱ remain separable under arbitrary unitary transformations U\\varrho {U}\\dagger . By example of a three qubit system we show that in a multipartite scenario neither full separability implies bipartite absolute separability nor the reverse statement holds. The main goal of the paper is to analyze quantum maps resulting in absolutely separable output states. Such absolutely separating maps affect the states in a way, when no Hamiltonian dynamics can make them entangled afterwards. We study the general properties of absolutely separating maps and channels with respect to bipartitions and multipartitions and show that absolutely separating maps are not necessarily entanglement breaking. We examine the stability of absolutely separating maps under a tensor product and show that {{{Φ }}}\\otimes N is absolutely separating for any N if and only if Φ is the tracing map. Particular results are obtained for families of local unital multiqubit channels, global generalized Pauli channels, and combination of identity, transposition, and tracing maps acting on states of arbitrary dimension. We also study the interplay between local and global noise components in absolutely separating bipartite depolarizing maps and discuss the input states with high resistance to absolute separability.

  3. Recovering Graph-Structured Activations using Adaptive Compressive Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Akshay; Sharpnack, James; Singh, Aarti

    2013-01-01

    We study the localization of a cluster of activated vertices in a graph, from adaptively designed compressive measurements. We propose a hierarchical partitioning of the graph that groups the activated vertices into few partitions, so that a top-down sensing procedure can identify these partitions, and hence the activations, using few measurements. By exploiting the cluster structure, we are able to provide localization guarantees at weaker signal to noise ratios than in the unstructured sett...

  4. Steps that count: Pedometer-measured physical activity, self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the association between self-perceived and actual physical activity in relation to physical activity guidelines, with reference to volume, intensity and duration of steps/day, and to establish the level of agreement between pedometer-measured and selfreported ambulatory physical activity, in relation to current ...

  5. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  6. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  7. Determination of the absolute photon emission intensities of some gamma rays of 166mHo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyres, Virginia; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2017-06-24

    This paper presents the results of the absolute measurement of some photon emission intensities in the decay of 166mHo. Point sources from a reference solution standardized in the frame of the EURAMET.RI (II)-K2. Ho-166m activity comparison were measured by gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency was obtained by Monte Carlo calculations including the complete decay scheme. Results obtained for 27 gamma and X-ray emissions are compared to reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Absolute luminosity determination for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2076571; Pauly, Thilo

    ATLAS is one of the four big experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In order to accurately measure cross sections, the precise knowledge of the integrated luminosity is a prerequisite. The relative luminosity is measured with various detectors and algorithms. The purpose of the algorithms is to convert raw rates measured by a detector into a quantity which is proportional to the luminosity. In this work, three algorithms linked to the two main ATLAS luminosity detectors are absolutely calibrated: BCMH_EventOR, BCMV_EventOR, and LUCID_EventOR. The determination of the calibration constants is based on Van der Meer (VdM) scans, which were carried out in July and November 2012. The statistical errors of this method are negligible and the precision is limited by systematic uncertainties. The different uncertainty sources are quantitatively estimated. The overall uncertainty on the calibration constants is estimated to be 5.40% for the July VdM scans and 2.50% for the November VdM scans. The November cali...

  9. Absolutely summing multilinear operators: a Panorama | Pellegrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has a twofold purpose: to present an overview of the theory of absolutely summing operators and its different generalizations for the multilinear setting, and to sketch the beginning of a research project related to an objective search of “perfect” multilinear extensions of the ideal of absolutely summing operators.

  10. Absolute $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$ spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kovařík, Vojtěch; Kalenda, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    We prove that hereditarily Lindel\\"of space which is $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$ in some compactification is absolutely $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$. In particular, this implies that any separable Banach space is absolutely $F_{\\sigma\\delta}$ when equipped with the weak topology.

  11. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...... was added as an impulse to activated sludge. The continuous measurement of settling velocity revealed a highly dynamic response after the sucrose was added. The result were verified with simultaneous measurement of the initial settling rate. A 200 hour experiment showed variations in settling velocity......, which was not apparent in the DSVI (Diluted Sludge Volume Index)....

  12. Improved cavity-type absolute total-radiation radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Conical cavity-type absolute radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.

  13. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ABSOLUTE GRAVITY METER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An absolute gravimeter which has been designed and constructed consists of a timing circuit which measures the time a body takes to fall between two points separated by a known distance. The time of fall and the known distance are used to calculate the acceleration of gravity at the point of experimentation.

  14. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  15. Effect of agronomic and nutritional measures on soil biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    KINCL, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is a literature review, examinig the effect of agricultural and nutritional measures on soil biological activity. Bachelor thesis is systematically divided into several parts. At the beginning of the thesis are included important dates regarding soil organic matter and edaphon. Another part of the work has been to study effects of fertilization and liming on soil biological activity. Furthermore, there are studies on the impact of agro-technical measures and the impact of...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity in Youth Settings: Considerations for Instrument Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Hickerson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing physical activity participation has become one of the primary strategies for prevention of early-onset health conditions including obesity and Type II diabetes. Youth programs including summer camps and after-school programs are premium providers of physical activity opportunities, but researchers and administrators of these programs must be able to effectively collect and interpret physical activity data to make program adjustments and communicate results. This article reviews existing methods for physical activity measurement including self-reports and objective instruments and makes suggestions for their applicability. Pedometers are covered in-depth as they may be the method of choice in many youth settings. These devices are unobtrusive, have a relatively low cost, and provide excellent data quality. Proper physical activity measurement in youth settings can provide information about effective intervention strategies and may also encourage on-site participants to increase their physical activity frequency.

  17. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  18. Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

  19. Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, G J; Corbin, C B; Dale, D

    2000-06-01

    This paper reviewed the nature of children's physical activity patterns and how the unique nature of children can impact the assessment of physical activity. To accurately assess children's activity patterns, an instrument must be sensitive enough to detect, code, or record sporadic and intermittent activity. Care also must be used to select criterion measures that reflect appropriate physical activity guidelines for children. A number of different measurement approaches have been described for assessing children's activity, but no specific method can be identified as the best option for all studies. Selection of an appropriate instrument depends on the specific research question being addressed as well as the relative importance of accuracy and practicality (Baranowski & Simons-Morton, 1991). For example, accurate measures of energy expenditure using doubly-labeled water, indirect calorimetry, or heart rate calibration equations may be needed for certain clinical studies, but the cost and inconvenience would make them impractical for field-based assessments on larger samples. The "accuracy-practicality" trade-off presents a more challenging predicament with children than for adults. In adults, a number of self-report instruments have been found useful for large epidemiological studies or interventions where less precision is needed. Because of developmental differences, especially in ability to think abstractly and perform detailed recall (Going et al., 1999; Sallis, 1991), children are less likely to make accurate self-report assessment than adults. Though self-report methods are still likely to be a principal source of information for many studies, other approaches (or the use of combined measures) may be needed to better characterize children's activity levels. While objective instruments (e.g., direct observation or activity monitoring) require more time and resources than self-report, there are options available to simplify data collection. One approach may

  20. Measuring the Pro-Activity of Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Amo, Fernando; Fuertes Castro, José Luis; Martínez Normand, Loïc

    2010-01-01

    Despite having well-defined characteristics, software agents do not have a developed set of measures defining their quality. Attempts at evaluating software agent quality have focused on some agent aspects, like the development process, whereas others focusing on the agent as a software product have basically adopted measures associated with other software paradigms, like procedural and object-oriented concepts. Here we propose a set of measures for evaluating software agent pro-activity, the...

  1. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  2. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  3. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  4. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Richard P; Berrigan, David; Dodd, Kevin W; Mâsse, Louise C; Tilert, Timothy; McDowell, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    To describe physical activity levels of children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-19 yr), and adults (20+ yr), using objective data obtained with accelerometers from a representative sample of the U.S. population. These results were obtained from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population in the United States. Data are described from 6329 participants who provided at least 1 d of accelerometer data and from 4867 participants who provided four or more days of accelerometer data. Males are more physically active than females. Physical activity declines dramatically across age groups between childhood and adolescence and continues to decline with age. For example, 42% of children ages 6-11 yr obtain the recommended 60 min x d(-1) of physical activity, whereas only 8% of adolescents achieve this goal. Among adults, adherence to the recommendation to obtain 30 min x d(-1) of physical activity is less than 5%. Objective and subjective measures of physical activity give qualitatively similar results regarding gender and age patterns of activity. However, adherence to physical activity recommendations according to accelerometer-measured activity is substantially lower than according to self-report. Great care must be taken when interpreting self-reported physical activity in clinical practice, public health program design and evaluation, and epidemiological research.

  5. Measuring activity patterns using actigraphy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Daphne; Nagels, Guy; D'Hooghe, Marie B; Duquet, William; Ilsbroukx, Stephan; Delbeke, Stijn; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease resulting in impairments in motor and mental performance and restrictions in activities. Self-report instruments are commonly used to measure activity patterns; alternatively, actigraphs can be placed on several parts of the body. The aims of this study were to evaluate the superiority and specificity of actigraph placement (wrist vs. ankle) in subjects with MS and healthy controls and explore the relationship between self-report and objective activity patterns. A total of 19 subjects with definite MS and 10 healthy volunteers wore actigraphs on the non-dominant wrist and ankle for three days while they kept a log to register performed activities every .5 h. Wrist and ankle actigraphs produced similar activity patterns during the most active hours (09:00-20:30 h) (ANOVA, timexlocation interaction: F=.901, df=23, p=.597) in individuals with MS and healthy controls (between subjects factor F=3.275, p=.083). Wrist placement of the actigraphs was better tolerated than ankle placement. Wrist actigraph data corresponded to a higher degree with self-reported activities of the upper limbs in the early afternoon, whereas ankle data seem to reflect better whole body movements in the later afternoon/early evening. Overall, actigraph data correlated moderately with self-reported activity (r=.57 for ankle and r=.59 for wrist). The regression model revealed that self-reported activities explained 44% of the variance in ankle and 50% of wrist data. Wrist and ankle actigraphs produce similar activity patterns in subjects with MS and in healthy controls; however, the placement of actigraphs on the wrist is better tolerated. Ankle actigraphs reflect general movement but underestimate upper body activity. Subjective registration of activity level partly matches with objective actigraph measurement. A combination of both objective and subjective activity registration is recommended to evaluate the physical activity pattern of subjects

  6. Foot-mounted inertial measurement unit for activity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Mostafa; Esfahani, Ehsan T

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification technique for daily base activity recognition for human monitoring during physical therapy in home. The proposed method estimates the foot motion using single inertial measurement unit, then segments the motion into steps classify them by template-matching as walking, stairs up or stairs down steps. The results show a high accuracy of activity recognition. Unlike previous works which are limited to activity recognition, the proposed approach is more qualitative by providing similarity index of any activity to its desired template which can be used to assess subjects improvement.

  7. Absolute Pitch Twin Study and Segregation Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theusch, Elizabeth; Gitschier, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Absolute pitch is a rare pitch-naming ability with unknown etiology. Some scientists maintain that its manifestation depends solely on environmental factors, while others suggest that genetic factors contribute...

  8. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  9. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  10. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals' trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time.

  11. Measurement of absolute concentrations of minor reactive species in flames by cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy (CRDS) method; Mesure de concentrations absolues d'especes reactives minoritaires dans les flammes par la technique d'absorption cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, X.

    2000-11-15

    Combustion processes, which represent our main source of energy today, arouse still numerous questioning. It likes essentially the complexity of the involved chemical mechanisms as well as in the inherent difficulty to the study of an environment which is the field of several thousand simultaneous reactions. Now, even if powerful models exist, allowing the simulation of complex chemical systems, they can not predict any process of combustion and the experimental approach of these ones is still essential for the improvement of the existing models. In particular, the quantitative measure of minor species in flames constitutes a fundamental stage in the validation of the chemical mechanisms with high temperature. It is in this optics that we developed a new technique for flames study, the Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). This technique (appeared to the end of the 80's (O' Keefe and Deacon [1988]) within the framework of a spectroscopic study) is similar to a very high sensibility absorption method. The principle of the CRDS technique is based on the measure of the lifetime of an laser pulse injected in an optical cavity within which is an absorbing sample. in this report, we show the interest and the potentialities of the CRDS for the study of homogeneous flames. To do it, we clarify in detail the principle of the CRDS and the care to be taken for the measure of absolute concentrations. Besides, a comparison of the absolute concentrations profiles obtained by CRDS (of CN and CH notably) in a CH{sub 4} /O{sub 2} flame seeded with NO, with those stemming from the modelling by means of the software PREMIX is also presented. The very good agreement which reveals this comparison tends to show that the CRDS, because of its high sensibility and its direct quantitative character, is one of the most efficient methods for the measure of minor species absolute concentrations in homogeneous flames. (author)

  12. A tool for measuring active learning in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Amburgh, Jenny A; Devlin, John W; Kirwin, Jennifer L; Qualters, Donna M

    2007-10-15

    To develop a valid and reliable active-learning inventory tool for use in large classrooms and compare faculty perceptions of active-learning using the Active-Learning Inventory Tool. The Active-Learning Inventory Tool was developed using published literature and validated by national experts in educational research. Reliability was established by trained faculty members who used the Active-Learning Inventory Tool to observe 9 pharmacy lectures. Instructors were then interviewed to elicit perceptions regarding active learning and asked to share their perceptions. Per lecture, 13 (range: 4-34) episodes of active learning encompassing 3 (range: 2-5) different types of active learning occurred over 2.2 minutes (0.6-16) per episode. Both interobserver (> or = 87%) and observer-instructor agreement (> or = 68%) were high for these outcomes. The Active-Learning Inventory Tool is a valid and reliable tool to measure active learning in the classroom. Future studies are needed to determine the impact of the Active-Learning Inventory Tool on teaching and its usefulness in other disciplines.

  13. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  14. Comparison of methods of measuring active cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcroft, Katherine L; Massouh, Laura; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Bannister, Gordon

    2010-09-01

    Experimental study. Cervical range of motion (CROM) was measured using different clinical methods. To compare the reliability and accuracy of visual estimation, tape measurement, and the universal goniometer (UG) with that of the CROM goniometer in measuring active CROM in healthy volunteers. The secondary objective was to identify the single neck movement that best represents overall range of motion. Neck movement is affected by pathology in the spine and shoulder. A reliable and accurate measurement of neck movement is required to quantify injury, recovery, and disability. Various methods of measuring neck movement have been described of which radiography remains the accepted reference standard. However, radiography is impractical for routine clinical assessment. Visual estimation, tape measurement, and the UG are convenient alternatives. To date, the accuracy and reliability of these methods have not been compared in healthy subjects, and the single neck movement that best reflects overall range has not yet been identified. Active cervical flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion and rotation were measured in 100 healthy volunteers. Visual estimation, tape measurement between fixed landmarks, and the UG aligned on fixed and anatomic landmarks were compared with the CROM goniometer, which was used as the reference standard. Compared with the CROM goniometer, the UG aligned on fixed landmarks was the most accurate method, followed by the UG on anatomic landmarks. The reliability of the UG was between substantial and perfect. Visual estimation was reproducible but measured range of movement inaccurately. Tape measurement was inaccurate. Extension best reflected overall range. The UG aligned on a fixed landmark is most reliable method of measuring neck movement clinically. Where range must be quickly assessed, extension should be measured.

  15. Sleep Duration, Activity Levels, and Measures of Obesity in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Betty L; Ammar, Erica M; Pile, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep and activity as they relate to obesity measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Findings from recent studies have linked physical inactivity and short sleep with obesity. A total of 337 subjects were collected from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample was evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between sleep duration, activity levels, and measures of obesity. Pearson r correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between WC and sedentary activity, r(318) = .168, p = .003. Analysis also showed a significant inverse association between sleep duration and WC, r(319) = -.113, p = .043. No statistical significance was found using BMI as the measure of obesity in relation to duration of sleep or activity level. In support of recent literature, this study found duration of sleep and sedentary activity in adults may relate to the development of obesity as measured by WC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived...... outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Residents' perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention at the within- and between-site levels. Associations were similar across study sites...

  17. Measurement of GPCR-G protein activity in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Kasun; Kankanamge, Dinesh; Senarath, Kanishka; Siripurapu, Praneeth; Weis, Nicole; Tennakoon, Mithila; Payton, John L; Karunarathne, Ajith

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell surface receptors in eukaryotic genomes. They control a variety of cellular and physiological processes such as hormone secretion and heart rate, and therefore are associated with a majority of pathological conditions including cancer and heart diseases. Currently established assays to measure ligand-induced activation of GPCRs and G proteins possess limitations such as being time consuming, indirect, and expensive. Thus, an efficient method to measure GPCR-G protein activation is required to identify novel pharmacological modulators to control them and gain insights about molecular underpinnings of the associated pathways. Activation of GPCRs induces dissociation of G protein heterotrimers to form GαGTP and free Gβγ. Free Gβγ subunits have been shown to translocate reversibly from the plasma membrane to internal membranes. Gβγ translocation therefore represents the GPCR-G protein activation, and thus, imaging of this process can be used to quantify the kinetics and magnitude of the pathway activation-deactivation in real time in living cells. The objective of this chapter is to elaborate the protocols of (i) generation and optimization of the required sensor constructs; (ii) development of cell culture, transient transfection, imaging, and optogenetic procedures; (iii) imaging and data analysis methods; and (iv) stable cell line generation, pertaining to this assay to measure GPCR-G protein activation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  19. Accurate determination of absolute carrier-envelope phase dependence using photo-ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, A M; Arbeiter, M; Fasold, S; Adolph, D; Möller, M; Hoff, D; Rathje, T; Fetić, B; Milošević, D B; Fennel, T; Paulus, G G

    2015-07-01

    The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) dependence of few-cycle above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe is calibrated for use as a reference measurement for determining and controlling the absolute CEP in other interactions. This is achieved by referencing the CEP-dependent ATI measurements of Xe to measurements of atomic H, which are in turn referenced to ab initio calculations for atomic H. This allows for the accurate determination of the absolute CEP dependence of Xe ATI, which enables relatively easy determination of the offset between the relative CEP measured and/or controlled by typical devices and the absolute CEP in the interaction.

  20. Phantom Validation of Tc-99m Absolute Quantification in a SPECT/CT Commercial Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Gnesin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Similar to PET, absolute quantitative imaging is becoming available in commercial SPECT/CT devices. This study’s goal was to assess quantitative accuracy of activity recovery as a function of image reconstruction parameters and count statistics in a variety of phantoms. Materials and Methods. We performed quantitative Tc99m-SPECT/CT acquisitions (Siemens Symbia Intevo, Erlangen, Germany of a uniform cylindrical, NEMA/IEC, and an anthropomorphic abdominal phantom. Background activity concentrations tested ranged: 2–80 kBq/mL. SPECT acquisitions used 120 projections (20 s/projection. Reconstructions were performed with the proprietary iterative conjugate gradient algorithm. NEMA phantom reconstructions were obtained as a function of the iteration number (range: 4–48. Recovery coefficients, hot contrast, relative lung error (NEMA phantom, and image noise were assessed. Results. In all cases, absolute activity and activity concentration were measured within 10% of the expected value. Recovery coefficients and hot contrast in hot inserts did not vary appreciably with count statistics. RC converged at 16 iterations for insert size > 22 mm. Relative lung errors were comparable to PET levels indicating the efficient integration of attenuation and scatter corrections with adequate detector modeling. Conclusions. The tested device provided accurate activity recovery within 10% of correct values; these performances are comparable to current generation PET/CT systems.

  1. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2014-04-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level.

  2. Accelerometry-measured physical activity and inflammation after gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Véronique; Vigneault, Jessica; Weisnagel, S John; Tchernof, André; Robitaille, Julie

    2013-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse metabolic outcomes after delivery. Physical activity practice improves the inflammatory profile; however, whether this association exists in women with prior GDM remains unknown. Our objective was to examine the cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with accelerometer-based measures of physical activity in women with prior GDM. Ninety-six women who had GDM between 2003 and 2010 were tested 2.9 ± 2.2 yr after delivery. The physical activity practice was measured with ActiGraph GT3X (ActiGraph™, Pensacola, FL) accelerometers worn ≥ 5 d, and the time spent weekly in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was derived. The waist circumference was measured and the inflammatory marker or cytokine concentrations were measured in fasting plasma by the xMAP technology using the Bio-Plex 200 system. The lipid profile was also measured from fasting blood samples. Only 31% of women accumulated at least 150 min of MVPA per week. No association was observed between the MVPA practice and any of the metabolic measurements in the whole group of women. The MVPA did not differ in groups stratified by waist circumference activator inhibitor-1 (r = -0.32, P = 0.04), and triglycerides (r = -0.44, P = 0.003). No association was seen with plasma interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α; and total, LDL, or HDL cholesterol concentrations. These analyses suggest that in the years after delivery, longer time spent in MVPA practice is associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk only in women with prior GDM who do not have abdominal obesity.

  3. Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle with twitch interpolation. Subjects (n=8) lifted the right shoulder or both shoulders against fixed force transducers. Stimulation of the accessory nerve in the neck was used to evoke maximal twitches...

  4. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  5. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under... SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

  6. Measuring short and rare activities - Time diaries in criminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, Sjoerd; Hoeben, Evelien M.; Bernasco, Wim; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent time use studies in criminology, this study examined whether time diaries are suitable for measuring short and rare activities such as offending. The study compared time diary data collected among 843 adolescents from the conurbation of The Hague (the Netherlands) with stylized

  7. Simple and efficient methods for isolation and activity measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple purification approach of the recombinant hirudin variant 3 from the Bacillus subtilis was established, by which the hirudin could be purified to the purity of 95% through one-step chromatography with the total recovery rate of 83.9%. A modified Markwardt thrombin titration method for measuring hirudin activity was ...

  8. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P

    2010-01-01

    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  9. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  10. Absolute Humidity and Pandemic Versus Epidemic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Goldstein, Edward; Lipsitch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic evidence indicates that variations of absolute humidity account for the onset and seasonal cycle of epidemic influenza in temperate regions. A role for absolute humidity in the transmission of pandemic influenza, such as 2009 A/H1N1, has yet to be demonstrated and, indeed, outbreaks of pandemic influenza during more humid spring, summer, and autumn months might appear to constitute evidence against an effect of humidity. However, here the authors show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions, as well as wintertime transmission of epidemic influenza. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility, and changes in population-mixing and contact rates. PMID:21081646

  11. International exercise on {sup 124}Sb activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvenet, B., E-mail: bruno.chauvenet@cea.f [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Be, M.-M.; Amiot, M.-N.; Bobin, C.; Lepy, M.-C.; Branger, T.; Laniece, I. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Luca, A.; Sahagia, M.; Waetjen, A.C. [Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Kossert, K.; Ott, O.; Naehle, O. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D 38 116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dryak, P.; Sochorova, J.; Kovar, P.; Auerbach, P. [Czech Metrological Institute (CMI), Radiova 1, CZ 10200 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Altzitzoglou, T.; Pomme, S.; Sibbens, G. [Institute for Reference Material and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2010-07-15

    An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of {sup 124}Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories. In order to identify possible biases, the participants were asked to use all possible activity measurement methods available in their laboratory and then to determine their reference value for comparison. Thus, measurement results from 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence/anti-coincidence counting, CIEMAT/NIST liquid-scintillation counting, 4{pi}{gamma} counting with well-type ionization chambers and well-type crystal detectors were given. The results are compared and show a maximum discrepancy of about 1.6%: possible explanations are proposed.

  12. Towards a measurement of active muscle control for lumbar stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, G; Richardson, C; Toppenberg, R; Comerford, M; Bui, B

    1993-01-01

    No measure described to date reflects the ability of muscles to stabilise the lumbar spine. A static model was developed in supine crook lying, to measure active rotatory control with trunk loading in the sagittal plane via low, unilateral leg load. The hypothesis was that excessive lumbar movement indicates an inability of the stabilising muscles to automatically co-ordinate appropriate muscle force to support the spine. A computerised sensor was developed to monitor lumbar positional change. A rotatory stability index was calculated from pressure variations on taking leg load. Preliminary trials showed that this static model identified individuals with poor active rotatory control. Further development of the measurement model is warranted. Copyright © 1993 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  13. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  14. Phase Method of Invariant Measurement of Active-Inductive Measuring Two-Pole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris MAMIKONYAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been given the solution of the technical problem of separate measurement of parameters of inductance coils and inductive primary converters on alternating current without application of potential-current signals. As a measuring circuit the scheme of voltage divider with active-inductive two-pole is used, and as an output signal there has been used the angle of phase shift between two output voltages of the measuring circuit. For forming the output signal temporal separation of measurement channel is used. The advantages of phase method are mostly due to capacity of using microcontrollers. In the technical solutions under consideration the microcontroller regulates the measuring process and develops the measurement results.

  15. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2.......8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age...

  16. A Simple Assay for Measuring Catalase Activity: A Visual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Sugimoto, Shinya; Okuda, Ken-ichi; Hironaka, Ippei; Kamata, Yuko; Takada, Koji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an assay that combines the ease and simplicity of the qualitative approach for measuring catalase activity was developed. The assay reagents comprised only hydrogen peroxide and Triton X-100. The enzyme-generated oxygen bubbles trapped by Triton X-100 were visualized as foam, whose height was estimated. A calibration plot using the defined unit of catalase activity yielded the best linear fit over a range of 20–300 units (U) (y = 0.3794x − 2.0909, r2 = 0.993). The assay precision and reproducibility at 100 U were 4.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The applicability of the assay for measuring the catalase activity of various samples was assessed using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, catalase-deficient isogenic mutants, clinically isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and human cells. The assay generated reproducible results. In conclusion, this new assay can be used to measure the catalase activity of bacterial isolates and human cells. PMID:24170119

  17. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... for frequent measurements, and thereby the possibility for detailed determination of the denitrification biokinetics. An internal nitrate electrode calibration is implemented in the experiments to avoid the often-encountered electrode drift problem. It was observed that the best experimental design...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...

  18. Measuring economic activity in China with mobile big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emerging trends in the use of smartphones, online mapping applications, and social media, in addition to the geo-located data they generate, provide opportunities to trace users’ socio-economic activities in an unprecedentedly granular and direct fashion and have triggered a revolution in empirical research. These vast mobile data offer new perspectives and approaches to measure economic dynamics, and they are broadening the social science and economics fields. In this paper, we explore the potential for using mobile data to measure economic activity in China from a bottom-up view. First, we build indices for gauging employment and consumer trends based on billions of geo-positioning data. Second, we advance the estimation of offline store foot traffic via location search data derived from Baidu Maps, which is then applied to predict Apple’s revenues in China and to accurately detect box-office fraud. Third, we construct consumption indicators to track trends in various service sector industries and verify them with several existing indicators. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to measure the world’s second-largest economy by mining such unprecedentedly large-scale and fine-granular spatial-temporal data. In this way, our research provides new approaches and insights into measuring economic activity.

  19. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  20. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  1. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  2. Quantitatively accurate activity measurements with a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera: Physical phantom experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmoghaddas, Amir, E-mail: apour@ottawaheart.ca; Wells, R. Glenn [Physics Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Cardiology, The University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Healthcare), followed by a CT scan for attenuation correction (AC). For each experiment, separate images were created including reconstruction with no corrections (NC), with AC, with attenuation and dual-energy window (DEW) scatter correction (ACSC), with attenuation and partial volume correction (PVC) applied (ACPVC), and with attenuation, scatter, and PVC applied (ACSCPVC). The DEW SC method used was modified to account for the presence of the low-energy tail. Results: T-tests showed that the mean error in absolute activity measurement was reduced significantly for AC and ACSC compared to NC for both (hot and cold) datasets (p < 0.001) and that ACSC, ACPVC, and ACSCPVC show significant reductions in mean differences compared to AC (p ≤ 0.001) without increasing the uncertainty (p > 0.4). The effect of SC and PVC was significant in reducing errors over AC in both datasets (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively), resulting in a mean error of 5% ± 4%. Conclusions: Quantitative measurements of cardiac {sup 99m}Tc activity are achievable using attenuation and scatter corrections, with the authors’ dedicated cardiac SPECT camera. Partial volume corrections offer improvements in measurement accuracy in AC images and ACSC images with elevated background activity; however, these improvements are not significant in ACSC images with low background activity.

  3. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  4. Measuring Physical Activity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis : Activity Diary Versus Accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armbrust, Wineke; Bos, G J F Joyce; Geertzen, Jan H B; Sauer, Pieter J J; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Lelieveld, Otto T H M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine convergent validity of an activity diary (AD) and accelerometer (Actical brand/Phillips-Respironics) in measuring physical activity (PA) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). (2) To determine how many days give reliable results. (3) To analyze effects of

  5. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  6. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  7. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  8. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Grozema, F.C.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Lewis, F.D.; Berlin, Y.A.; Ratner, M.A.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a

  9. A note on absolute summability factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this paper, by using an almost increasing and δ-quasi-monotone sequence, a general theorem on ϕ −|C, α|k summability factors, which generalizes a result of Bor. [3] on ϕ− |C, 1|k summability factors, has been proved under weaker and more general conditions. Keywords. Absolute summability; almost ...

  10. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 7. The Theory of Absolute Reaction Rates. Henry Eyring. Classics Volume 17 Issue 7 July 2012 pp 704-711. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/07/0704-0711. Author Affiliations.

  11. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the information on the

  12. systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    due to the unique property of absolute alcohol to cause complete ablation and prevention of revascularisation. However, this technique is associated with multiple complications which may lead to .... of alcohol on the sodium channels of cardiac cells is one of the proposed mechanisms of arrhythmia.16. A study in healthy ...

  13. A vibration correction method for free-fall absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; Wang, G.; Wu, K.; Wang, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    An accurate determination of gravitational acceleration, usually approximated as 9.8 m s‑2, has been playing an important role in the areas of metrology, geophysics, and geodetics. Absolute gravimetry has been experiencing rapid developments in recent years. Most absolute gravimeters today employ a free-fall method to measure gravitational acceleration. Noise from ground vibration has become one of the most serious factors limiting measurement precision. Compared to vibration isolators, the vibration correction method is a simple and feasible way to reduce the influence of ground vibrations. A modified vibration correction method is proposed and demonstrated. A two-dimensional golden section search algorithm is used to search for the best parameters of the hypothetical transfer function. Experiments using a T-1 absolute gravimeter are performed. It is verified that for an identical group of drop data, the modified method proposed in this paper can achieve better correction effects with much less computation than previous methods. Compared to vibration isolators, the correction method applies to more hostile environments and even dynamic platforms, and is expected to be used in a wider range of applications.

  14. Tracking of Accelerometer-measured Physical Activity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas M.; Khoury, Philip R.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Claytor, Randal P.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining healthy physical activity (PA) levels is important throughout life. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of PA tracking between ages 3 and 7 y. Objective measures of PA (RT3, triaxial accelerometer) were collected every 4 mo from ages 3 to 7; data from 234 children with PA measures available during each year of age were analyzed. Mean PA (total, moderate/vigorous(MV), and inactivity(IA)) was calculated for each year of age and adjusted for wear time. Correlations with age 3 PA were moderate at age 4 (r=0.42–0.45) but declined by age 7 (r=0.19–0.25). After classification into sex-specific tertiles of PA at age 3, boys in the High age 3 MVPA tertile maintained significantly higher PA at all subsequent ages, while girls in the High age 3 MVPA tertile were not significantly higher at age 6 and 7. Boys and girls in the High age 3 IA tertile had significantly higher IA at multiple subsequent years of age (P<0.05 at ages 5 and 6). In conclusion, boys who were relatively more active at age 3 remained more active for several subsequent years. These findings highlight early childhood differences in physical activity patterns between boys and girls. PMID:23877325

  15. Real-time color measurement using active illuminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for real-time color measurement using active illuminant. A synchronous measurement system is constructed by combining a high-speed active spectral light source and a high-speed monochrome camera. The light source is a programmable spectral source which is capable of emitting arbitrary spectrum in high speed. This system is the essential advantage of capturing spectral images without using filters in high frame rates. The new method of real-time colorimetry is different from the traditional method based on the colorimeter or the spectrometers. We project the color-matching functions onto an object surface as spectral illuminants. Then we can obtain the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values directly from the camera outputs at every point on the surface. We describe the principle of our colorimetric technique based on projection of the color-matching functions and the procedure for realizing a real-time measurement system of a moving object. In an experiment, we examine the performance of real-time color measurement for a static object and a moving object.

  16. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of nitrogen in air. Consequences on the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Mesure precise du rendement absolu de la fluorescence de l'azote dans l'air. Consequences sur la detection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, G

    2006-07-15

    The study of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 20} eV) requires to determine the energy with much more precision than what is currently achieved. The shower of particles created in the atmosphere can be detected either by sampling particle on the ground, or by detecting the fluorescence induced by the excitation of nitrogen by shower electrons. At present, the measurement of the fluorescence is the simplest and the most reliable method, since it does not call upon hadronic physics laws at extreme energies, a field still inaccessible to accelerators. The precise knowledge of the conversion factor between deposited energy and the number of fluorescence photons produced (the yield) is thus essential. Up to now, it has been determined with an accuracy of 15 % only. This main goal of this work is to measure this yield to better than 5 per cent. To do this, 1 MeV electrons from a radioactive source excite nitrogen of the air. The accuracy has been reached thanks to the implementation of a new method for the absolute calibration of the photomultipliers detecting the photons, to better than 2 per cent. The fluorescence yield, measured and normalized to 0.85 MeV, 760 mmHg and 15 Celsius degrees, is (4.23 {+-} 0.20) photons per meter, or (20.46 {+-} 0.98) photons per deposited MeV. In addition, and for the first time, the absolute fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen excited by a source has been measured with an optical grating spectrometer. (author)

  17. Absolute and relative-rate measurement of the rate coefficient for reaction of perfluoro ethyl vinyl ether (C2F5OCF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF2) with OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu, G; Bunkan, A J C; Amedro, D; Crowley, J N

    2018-01-31

    The rate coefficient (k 1 ) for the reaction of OH radicals with perfluoro ethyl vinyl ether (PEVE, C 2 F 5 OCF[double bond, length as m-dash]CF 2 ) has been measured as a function of temperature (T = 207-300 K) using the technique of pulsed laser photolysis with detection of OH by laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) at pressures of 50 or 100 Torr N 2 bath gas. In addition, the rate coefficient was measured at 298 K and in one atmosphere of air by the relative-rate technique with loss of PEVE and reference reactant monitored in situ by IR absorption spectroscopy. The rate coefficient has a negative temperature dependence which can be parameterized as: k 1 (T) = 6.0 × 10 -13  exp[(480 ± 38/T)] cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and a room temperature value of k 1 (298 K) = (3.0 ± 0.3) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . Highly accurate rate coefficients from the PLP-LIF experiments were achieved by optical on-line measurements of PEVE and by performing the measurements at two different apparatuses. The large rate coefficient and the temperature dependence indicate that the reaction proceeds via OH addition to the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond, the high pressure limit already being reached at 50 Torr N 2 . Based on the rate coefficient and average OH levels, the atmospheric lifetime of PEVE was estimated to be a few days.

  18. Different perspectives on measuring lifestyle engagement: a comparison of activity measures and their relation with cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A M

    2017-07-01

    Given the limitations associated with assessing activity engagement via the frequency of specific activities, it may be valuable to consider the characteristics of an activity. The method of asking individuals to report the amount of time spent engaging in activities that have certain characteristics was compared to a specific activity questionnaire, and a daily diary regarding their relation to cognitive functioning. Participants 60-90 years old (n = 187) completed the activity measurement methods and a series of cognitive tasks. Structural equation models showed that all three activity methods were predictive of adults' cognitive performance, but no measure predicted all outcomes. Each activity measure provided unique information. Notably, the combination of the measurement types predicted more variance than any of the measures alone. There is additional power to predict cognition when multiple activity measurement methods are used, and daily assessment can be a valuable tool to augment traditional specific activity questionnaires.

  19. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  20. BOUNDS FOR THE ABSOLUTE REGULARITY COEFFICIENT OF A STATIONARY RENEWAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    We give an upper bound for the absolute regularity coefficient of a stationary renewal process in terms of the total variation of the difference between the corresponding Palm and the usual renewal measure.

  1. AGN Activity in Nucleated Galaxies as Measured by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Adi; Gallo, Elena; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Miller, Brendan P.; Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by theoretical expectations that nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in galactic centers may provide a favorable environment for supermassive black holes to form and/or efficiently grow, we set out to measure the fraction of nearby nucleated galaxies that also host an active galactic nucleus. We targeted a distance-limited sample of 98 objects with the Chandra X-ray Telescope, down to a uniform X-ray luminosity threshold of ˜1038 erg s-1. The sample is composed of 47 late-types and 51 early-types, enabling us to further investigate the active fraction as a function of galactic morphology. After correcting for contamination to the nuclear X-ray signal from bright X-ray binaries, we measure an active fraction f=11.2{ % }-4.9+7.4 (1σ C.L.) across the whole sample, in agreement with previous estimates based on a heterogeneous combination of optical, X-ray, and radio diagnostics, by Seth et al. After accounting for the different stellar mass distributions in our samples, we find no statistically significant difference in the active fraction of early- versus late-type nucleated galaxies, with f=10.6{ % }-4.9+11.9 and 10.8{ % }-6.3+11.3, respectively. For the early-type nucleated galaxies, we are able to carry out a controlled comparison with a parent sample of non-nucleated galaxies covering the same stellar mass range, again finding no statistically significant difference in the active fraction. Taken at face value, our findings suggest that the presence of an NSC does not facilitate or enhance accretion-powered emission from a nuclear supermassive black hole. This is true even for late-type nucleated galaxies, home to bluer NSCs and arguably larger gas reservoirs.

  2. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses; Echtzeitbestimmung longitudinaler Elektronenstrahlparameter mittels absoluter Intensitaets- und Spektralmessung einzelner kohaerenter THz Strahlungspulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 {mu}m (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 {mu}m within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 {mu}m and 45 to 440 {mu}m can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 {mu}m (fhwm) could be detected.

  3. A method to measure hydrolytic activity of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bartolommei

    Full Text Available The detection of small amounts (nanomoles of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases, that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening.

  4. Comparison of accelerometry and oxymetry for measuring daily physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Noda, Akiko; Hirai, Makoto; Saito, Hidehiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki

    2002-08-01

    To assess the validity of accelerometry in measuring daily physical activity, the energy consumption calculated by accelerometry, with respiratory gas analysis as a reference, was evaluated in 45 non-athletes during various exercise tests. Subjects were required to (1) walk on a treadmill ergometer at various speeds, (2) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed and with a stride of 20% more or 20% less than that when walking freely, (3) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed wearing either sneakers or leather-soled shoes, and (4) cycle on a bicycle ergometer. There were strong linear relationships between the measurements during the progressively graded treadmill test, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean estimated difference ranged from -0.77 to 0.27 kcal/min and the coefficients of variation from 13.2% to 22.2%. However, the difference between the methods was not negligible for individual subjects. Accelerometry overestimated energy expenditure during short-step walking, and underestimated it during long-step walking. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found according to the type of shoes worn. Cycling activity was not recorded by accelerometry. Accelerometry is a reasonably accurate and feasible method for evaluating the physical activities of non-athletes, and could be a common tool for epidemiological research and health promotion despite its limitations.

  5. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  6. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  7. Relative risk versus absolute risk: one cannot be interpreted without the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Marlies; van Diepen, Merel; Caskey, Fergus C; Jager, Kitty J

    2017-04-01

    For the presentation of risk, both relative and absolute measures can be used. The relative risk is most often used, especially in studies showing the effects of a treatment. Relative risks have the appealing feature of summarizing two numbers (the risk in one group and the risk in the other) into one. However, this feature also represents their major weakness, that the underlying absolute risks are concealed and readers tend to overestimate the effect when it is presented in relative terms. In many situations, the absolute risk gives a better representation of the actual situation and also from the patient's point of view absolute risks often give more relevant information. In this article, we explain the concepts of both relative and absolute risk measures. Using examples from nephrology literature we illustrate that unless ratio measures are reported with the underlying absolute risks, readers cannot judge the clinical relevance of the effect. We therefore recommend to report both the relative risk and the absolute risk with their 95% confidence intervals, as together they provide a complete picture of the effect and its implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  9. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured by sonochemiluminescence dosimetry inside 4 root canal models of human dimensions and varying complexity. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the sonochemiluminescence in the root canal was visualized with long-exposure photography. Instrument oscillation frequency, ultrasonic power, and file taper influenced the occurrence and amount of cavitation. In UAI, cavitation was distributed between the file and the wall extending beyond the file and inside lateral canals/isthmuses. In sonic activated irrigation, no cavitation was detected. Cavitation was shown to occur in UAI at clinically relevant ultrasonic power settings in both straight and curved canals but not around sonically oscillating instruments, driven at their highest frequency. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a body-worn sensor system to measure physical activity in older people with impaired function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraldsen, Kristin; Askim, Torunn; Sletvold, Olav; Einarsen, Elin Kristin; Bjåstad, Karianne Grüner; Indredavik, Bent; Helbostad, Jorunn Laegdheim

    2011-02-01

    There is limited information on reliable and valid measures of physical activity in older people with impaired function. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of single-axis accelerometers in recognizing postures and transitions and step counting with the accuracy of video recordings in people with stroke (n=14), older inpatients (n=14), people with hip fracture (n=8), and a reference group of 10 adults who were healthy. This was a cross-sectional study, evaluating the concurrent validity of small body-worn accelerometers against video observations as the criterion measure. Activity data were collected from 3 sensors (activPAL) attached to the thighs and the sternum and from registration of the same activities from video recordings. Participants performed a test protocol of in-bed, transfer, and walking activities. The sensor system was highly accurate in classifying lying, sitting, and standing positions (100%) and in recognizing transitions from lying to sitting positions and from sitting to standing positions (100%). Placement of a sensor on the nonaffected leg resulted in less underestimation of step counts than placement on the affected leg. Still, the sensor system underestimated step counts during walking, especially at slow walking speeds (≤0.47 m/s) (limits of agreement=-2.01 to 16.54, absolute percent error=40.31). The study was performed in a controlled setting and not during the natural performance of activities. The activPAL sensor system provides valid measures of postures and transitions in older people with impaired walking ability. Step counting needs to be improved for the sensor system to be acceptable for this population, especially at slow walking speeds.

  11. Absolute cross sections of the 86Sr(α,n)89Zr reaction at energies of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Andreea; Glodariu, Tudor; Filipescu, Dan; Gheorghe, Ioana; Mitu, Andreea; Boromiza, Marian; Bucurescu, Dorel; Costache, Cristian; Cata-Danil, Irina; Florea, Nicoleta; Ghita, Dan Gabriel; Ionescu, Alina; Marginean, Nicolae; Marginean, Raluca; Mihai, Constantin; Mihai, Radu; Negret, Alexandru; Nita, Cristina; Olacel, Adina; Pascu, Sorin; Sotty, Cristophe; Suvaila, Rares; Stan, Lucian; Stroe, Lucian; Serban, Andreea; Stiru, Irina; Toma, Sebastian; Turturica, Andrei; Ujeniuc, Sorin

    2017-09-01

    Absolute cross sections for the 86Sr(α,n)89Zr reaction at energies close to the Gamow window are reported. Three thin SrF2 targets were irradiated using the 9 MV Tandem facility in IFIN-HH Bucharest that delivered α beams for the activation process. Two high-purity Germanium detectors were used to measure the induced activity of 89Zr in a low background environment. The experimental results are in very good agreement with Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations performed with the TALYS code.

  12. Absolute cross sections of the 86Sr(α,n89Zr reaction at energies of astrophysical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Andreea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cross sections for the 86Sr(α,n89Zr reaction at energies close to the Gamow window are reported. Three thin SrF2 targets were irradiated using the 9 MV Tandem facility in IFIN-HH Bucharest that delivered α beams for the activation process. Two high-purity Germanium detectors were used to measure the induced activity of 89Zr in a low background environment. The experimental results are in very good agreement with Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations performed with the TALYS code.

  13. Active learning in camera calibration through vision measurement application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Jierong; Wang, Xianchun; Liu, Changqing; Cao, Binfang

    2017-08-01

    Since cameras are increasingly more used in scientific application as well as in the applications requiring precise visual information, effective calibration of such cameras is getting more important. There are many reasons why the measurements of objects are not accurate. The largest reason is that the lens has a distortion. Another detrimental influence on the evaluation accuracy is caused by the perspective distortions in the image. They happen whenever we cannot mount the camera perpendicularly to the objects we want to measure. In overall, it is very important for students to understand how to correct lens distortions, that is camera calibration. If the camera is calibrated, the images are rectificated, and then it is possible to obtain undistorted measurements in world coordinates. This paper presents how the students should develop a sense of active learning for mathematical camera model besides the theoretical scientific basics. The authors will present the theoretical and practical lectures which have the goal of deepening the students understanding of the mathematical models of area scan cameras and building some practical vision measurement process by themselves.

  14. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  15. Absolute zero and the conquest of cold

    CERN Document Server

    Shachtman, Tom

    2000-01-01

    In a sweeping yet marvelously concise history, Tom Shachtman ushers us into a world in which scientists tease apart the all-important secrets of cold. Readers take an extraordinary trip, starting in the 1600s with an alchemist's air conditioning of Westminster Abbey and scientists' creation of thermometers. Later, while entrepreneurs sold Walden Pond ice to tropical countries -- packed in "high-tech" sawdust -- researchers pursued absolute zero and interpreted their work as romantically as did adventurers to remote regions. Today, playing with ultracold temperatures is one of the hottest frontiers in physics, with scientists creating useful particles Einstein only dreamed of. Tom Shachtman shares a great scientific adventure story and its characters' rich lives in a book that has won a grant from the prestigious Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Absolute Zero is for everyone who loves history and science history stories, who's eager to explore Nobel Prize-winning physics today, or who has ever sighed with pleasure ...

  16. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  17. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    meaningful and representative of two separate and defined phases of occupation at this locale. This early period would correspond with the phase that the excavator of Lepenski Vir defined as Proto-Lepenski Vir although his ideas about the spatial distribution of this phase, its interpretation, duration and relation to the later phase of trapezoidal buildings must be revised in the light of new AMS dates and other available data. The phase with trapezoidal buildings most likely starts only around 6200 cal BC and most of the trapezoidal buildings might have been abandoned by around 5900 cal BC. The absolute span of only two or three hundred years and likely even less, for the flourishing of building activity related to trapezoidal structures at Lepenski Vir significantly compresses Srejović's phase I. Thus, it is difficult to maintain the excavator's five subphases which, similarly to Ivana Radovanović's more recent re-phasing of Lepenski Vir into I-1-3, remain largely guess works before more extensive and systematic dating of each building is accomplished along with statistical modeling in order to narrow the magnitude of error. On the whole, new dates from these contexts better correspond with Srejović's stratigraphic logic of sequencing buildings to particular phases on the basis of their superimposing and cutting than with Radovanović's stylistic logic, i.e. her typology of hearth forms, ash-places, entrance platforms, and presence/absence of -supports around rectangular hearths used as reliable chronological indicators. The short chronological span for phase I also suggests that phase Lepenski Vir II is not realistic. This has already been shown by overlapping plans of the phase I buildings and stone outlines that the excavator of the site attributed to Lepenski Vir II phase. According to Srejović, Lepenski Vir phase II was characterized by buildings with stone walls made in the shape of trapezes, repeating the outline of supposedly earlier limestone floors of his

  18. Measurements of 55Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, A.; Dinar, N.; La Torre, F. P.; Leidner, J.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the 55Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the 55Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  19. Measurements of {sup 55}Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curioni, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dinar, N. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Université de Paris VII, 5 rue Thomas-Mann, 75013 Paris (France); La Torre, F.P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Leidner, J., E-mail: johannes.leidner@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Murtas, F. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S.; Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-03-21

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the {sup 55}Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the {sup 55}Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  20. Least Squares Problems with Absolute Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schöne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes linear least squares problems with absolute quadratic constraints. We develop a generalized theory following Bookstein's conic-fitting and Fitzgibbon's direct ellipse-specific fitting. Under simple preconditions, it can be shown that a minimum always exists and can be determined by a generalized eigenvalue problem. This problem is numerically reduced to an eigenvalue problem by multiplications of Givens' rotations. Finally, four applications of this approach are presented.