Sample records for absent calcemic activity

  1. The Response of Creatine Kinase Specific Activity in Rat Pituitary to Estrogenic Compounds and Vitamin D Less-Calcemic Analogs

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    D. Somjen


    Full Text Available We examined the response of rat female pituitary at different metabolic stages to treatments with estrogenic compounds and vitamin D analogs. Immature or ovariectomized (Ovx female rats responded by increased creatine kinase specific activity (CK to estradiol-17β (E2, genistein (G, daidzein (D, biochainin A (BA, quecertin (Qu, carboxy- G (cG, carboxy- BA (cBA, and raloxifene (Ral. The response was inhibited when Ral was injected together with the estrogens. CK was increased when hormones were injected daily into Ovx rats for 4 different time periods. Pretreatment with the less-calcemic vitamin D analogs JK 1624 F2-2 (JKF or QW 1624 F2-2 (QW followed by estrogenic injection resulted in increased response and sensitivity to E2 and loss of inhibition of E2 by Ral. CK was also increased by feeding with E2 or licorice or its components dose- and time- dependent in immature or Ovxrats. Diabetic female rats did not respond to increased doses of E2. In conclusion, rat female pituitary is estrogens-responsive organ, suggesting to consider its response for HRT in postmenopausal women for both beneficial and hazardous aspects.

  2. Cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity are absent in familial dysautonomia. (United States)

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio


    Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome) is an hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN type III), expressed at birth, that is associated with reduced pain and temperature sensibilities and absent baroreflexes, causing orthostatic hypotension as well as labile blood pressure that increases markedly during emotional excitement. Given the apparent absence of functional baroreceptor afferents, we tested the hypothesis that the normal cardiac-locked bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are absent in patients with familial dysautonomia. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted percutaneously into muscle or cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in 12 patients with familial dysautonomia. Spontaneous bursts of MSNA were absent in all patients, but in five patients we found evidence of tonically firing sympathetic neurones, with no cardiac rhythmicity, that increased their spontaneous discharge during emotional arousal but not during a manoeuvre that unloads the baroreceptors. Conversely, skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), recorded in four patients, appeared normal. We conclude that the loss of phasic bursts of MSNA and the loss of baroreflex modulation of muscle vasoconstrictor drive contributes to the poor control of blood pressure in familial dysautonomia, and that the increase in tonic firing of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones contributes to the increase in blood pressure during emotional excitement.

  3. Eyes absent tyrosine phosphatase activity is not required for Drosophila development or survival.

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    Meng Jin

    Full Text Available Eyes absent (Eya is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that regulates multiple developmental processes throughout the metazoans. Drosophila eya is necessary for survival as well as for the formation of the adult eye. Eya contains a tyrosine phosphatase domain, and mutations altering presumptive active-site residues lead to strongly reduced activities in ectopic eye induction, in vivo genetic rescue using the Gal4-UAS system, and in vitro phosphatase assays. However, these mutations have not been analyzed during normal development with the correct levels, timing, and patterns of endogenous eya expression. To investigate whether the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya plays a role in Drosophila survival or normal eye formation, we generated three eya genomic rescue (eyaGR constructs that alter key active-site residues and tested them in vivo. In striking contrast to previous studies, all eyaGR constructs fully restore eye formation as well as viability in an eya null mutant background. We conclude that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is not required for normal eye development or survival in Drosophila. Our study suggests the need for a re-evaluation of the mechanism of Eya action and underscores the importance of studying genes in their native context.

  4. Head Direction Cell Activity Is Absent in Mice without the Horizontal Semicircular Canals (United States)

    Valerio, Stephane


    Head direction (HD) cells fire when an animal faces a particular direction in its environment, and they are thought to represent the neural correlate of the animal's perceived spatial orientation. Previous studies have shown that vestibular information is critical for generating the HD signal but have not delineated whether information from all three semicircular canals or just the horizontal canals, which are primarily sensitive to angular head rotation in the horizontal (yaw) plane, are critical for the signal. Here, we monitored cell activity in the anterodorsal thalamus (ADN), an area known to contain HD cells, in epstatic circler (Ecl) mice, which have a bilateral malformation of the horizontal (lateral) semicircular canals. Ecl mice and their littermates that did not express the mutation (controls) were implanted with recording electrodes in the ADN. Results confirm the important role the horizontal canals play in forming the HD signal. Although normal HD cell activity (Raleigh's r > 0.4) was recorded in control mice, no such activity was found in Ecl mice, although some cells had activity that was mildly modulated by HD (0.4 > r > 0.2). Importantly, we also observed activity in Ecl mice that was best characterized as bursty—a pattern of activity similar to an HD signal but without any preferred firing direction. These results suggest that the neural structure for the HD network remains intact in Ecl mice, but the absence of normal horizontal canals results in an inability to control the network properly and brings about an unstable HD signal. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cells in the anterior dorsal thalamic nucleus normally fire in relation to the animal's directional heading with respect to the environment—so-called head direction cells. To understand how these head direction cells generate their activity, we recorded single-unit activity from the anterior dorsal thalamus in transgenic mice that lack functional horizontal semicircular canals. We show that

  5. The calcium current activated by T cell receptor and store depletion in human lymphocytes is absent in a primary immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Partiseti, M; Le Deist, F; Hivroz, C; Fischer, A; Korn, H; Choquet, D


    Stimulation of antigen receptors of lymphocytes triggers a transitory release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the opening of a transmembrane Ca2+ conductive pathway. The latter underlies the sustained increase of intracellular free calcium concentration, and it seems to be a key event in the Ca(2+)-dependent biochemical cascade leading to T cell proliferation. Alternatively, pharmacological depletion of internal stores by itself activates Ca2+ influx. This has led to the hypothesis that antigen-triggered Ca2+ influx is secondary to Ca2+ release from internal stores. However, the precise relationship between antigen and Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ currents remains unclear, particularly since neither of them has been electrophysiologically recorded in normal lymphocytes. Using the whole-cell and the perforated configurations of the patch clamp technique on peripheral blood lymphocytes, we found that a low amplitude Ca(2+)-selective current was triggered when intracellular stores were depleted by stimuli such as the intracellular perfusion of inositol triphosphate or thapsigargin and the extracellular perfusion of ionomycin. A similar current was elicited by the cross-linking of the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This current displayed an inward rectification below 0 mV and was completely blocked by the divalent cation Cd2+. It was very selective for Ca2+ over Na+ and insensitive to changes in chloride concentration. The physiological relevance of this conductance was investigated with the analysis of abnormal Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes from a patient suffering from a primary immunodeficiency associated with a defective T cell proliferation. Using fura-2 video imaging, an absence of Ca2+ influx was established in the patient's lymphocytes, whereas the Ca2+ release from internal stores was normal. This was the case whether cells were stimulated physiologically through their antigen receptors or with store depleting pharmacological agents. Most importantly, no Ca(2


    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Janjetovic, Zorica; Kim, Tae-Kang; Wasilewski, Piotr; Rosas, Sofia; Hanna, Sherie; Sayre, Robert M.; Dowdy, John C.; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.


    CYP11A1 hydroxylates the side chain of vitamin D3 (D3) in a sequential fashion [D3→20S(OH)D3→20,23(OH)2D3→ 17,20,23(OH)3D3], in an alternative to the classical pathway of activation [D3→25(OH)D3→1,25(OH)2D3]. The products/intermediates of the pathway can be further modified by the action of CYP27B1. The CYP11A1-derived products are biologically active with functions determined by the lineage of the target cells. This pathway can operate in epidermal keratinocytes. To further define the role of these novel secosteroids we tested them for protective effects against UVB-induced damage in human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes, cultured in vitro. The secosteroids attenuated ROS, H2O2 and NO production by UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and melanocytes, with an efficacy similar to 1,25(OH)2D3, while 25(OH)D3 had lower efficacy. These attenuations were also seen to some extent for the 20(OH)D3 precursor, 20S-hydroxy-7-dehydrocholesterol. These effects were accompanied by upregulation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for defence against oxidative stress. Using immunofluorescent staining we observed that the secosteroids reduced the generation cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in response to UVB and enhanced expression of p53 phosphorylated at Ser-15, but not at Ser-46. Additional evidence for protection against DNA damage in cells exposed to UVB and treated with secosteroids was provided by the Comet assay where DNA fragmentation was markedly reduced by 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3. In conclusion, novel secosteroids that can be produced by the action of CYP11A1 in epidermal keratinocytes have protective effects against UVB radiation. PMID:25617667

  7. Poland syndrome with absent ribs


    Rupam Kumar Ta; Kaushik Saha; Arnab Saha; Santanu Ghosh; Mrinmoy Mitra


    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness...

  8. Poland syndrome with absent ribs

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    Rupam Kumar Ta


    Full Text Available Poland syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by ipsilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle. This syndrome is associated with various anomalies such as ipsilateral syndactyly, brachidactyly, dextrocardia, herniation of lung, underdevelopment of upper ribs, aplasia or hypoplasia of breast, etc. Only few cases had been reported with absent ribs in Poland syndrome. We report a rare case of Poland syndrome presented to us with mal-development of his right hemithorax and weakness of right hand.

  9. Absent activation in medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction but not superior temporal sulcus during the perception of biological motion in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

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    Hashimoto N


    Full Text Available Naoki Hashimoto,1,2 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Masahiro Hirai,3 Tamaki Miyamoto,1 Hisashi Narita,1 Ryo Okubo,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Background: Patients with schizophrenia show disturbances in both visual perception and social cognition. Perception of biological motion (BM is a higher-level visual process, and is known to be associated with social cognition. BM induces activation in the “social brain network”, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS. Although deficits in the detection of BM and atypical activation in the STS have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether other nodes of the “social brain network” are also atypical in patients with schizophrenia.Purpose: We aimed to explore whether brain regions other than STS were involved during BM perception in patients with schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods and patients: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and 17 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, underwent fMRI scanning during a one-back visual task, containing three experimental conditions: (1 BM, (2 scrambled motion (SM, and (3 static condition. We used one-sample t-tests to examine neural responses selective to BM versus SM within each group, and two-sample t-tests to directly compare neural patterns to BM versus SM in schizophrenics versus controls.Results: We found significant activation in the STS region when BM was contrasted with SM in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. On the contrary, significant activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ was found only in the

  10. BCL10 aberations and NF-kappa B activation involving p65 are absent or rare in primary gastric MALT lymphoma

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    Hajder Jelena


    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma accounts for 5-17% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL. The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas is not well-established. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically determined nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB (NF-κB in tumor cells of gastric MALT lymphoma and its impact on the patogenesis and outcome of the disease. Methods. Medical records of 35 patients with newly diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma were analyzed and biopsy specimens were immunostained for BCL10 and NF-kB expression (p65 subunit. Results. The median age of 35 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma was 63.5 years (male/female = 21/14. Symptoms were present in 23/35 (65.7% patients with the weight loss as the most common symptom. Gastric MALT lymphomas were usually localized in the stomach corpus and corpus and antrum (45.7% and 31.2%, respectively. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66.7% patients. Treatment options were as follows: immunochemotherapy in 10 (28.5% patients, surgery in 9 (25.8% patients, combined surgery and chemotherapy in 14 (40% patients and supportive measures in 2 (5.7% patients. Complete remission was achieved in 13 (37.1% patients and partial remission in two (5.7% patients. Sixteen (45.7% patients had disease progression (p < 0.001. Cytoplasmatic expression of BCL10 in tumor cells was detected in 19 (54.3% specimens. Nuclear expression was detected in no specimen. Cytoplasmic expression of NF-κB was present in 22 (65.7% specimens, but nuclear expression was not detected in any specimens. Conclusion. Nuclear expressions (activation of NF-κB p65 subunit and BCL10 were not detected in specimens of gastric MALT lymphoma. The correlation of nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-κB in gastric MALT lymphoma was not established. These results indicate that other mechanisms and signal pathways are active in lymphogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma, as that

  11. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy) (United States)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten


    interpret the concentration of OH- to be influenced by water activity within the rocks, and temperature. Our results confirm that oxy-biotite is a non-negligible component, but in the case of prograde metamorphism we do not interpret this as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange only, but also as the consequence of a decrease in water activity due to partial melting. Bauer, K. K., & Vennemann, T. W. (2014). Analytical methods for the measurement of hydrogen isotope composition and water content in clay minerals by TC/EA. Chemical Geology, 363(C), 229-240. Cesare, B., Satish-Kumar, M., Cruciani, G., Pocker, S., & Nodari, L. (2008). Mineral chemistry of Ti-rich biotite from pegmatite and metapelitic granulites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt (southeast India): Petrology and further insight into titanium substitutions. American Mineralogist, 93(2-3), 327-338. Floess, D., & Baumgartner, L. (2013). Formation of garnet clusters during polyphase metamorphism. Terra Nova, 25(2), 144-150. Munoz, J. L. (1984). F-OH and Cl-OH Exchange in Micas with Applications to Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 13, 469-493.


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    Vaibhav Shahi


    Full Text Available Absence or hypoplasia of the epiglottis is a rare anomaly. Most patients, with absent or hypoplastic epiglottis, have presented, life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress and severe aspiration in infancy or early childhood. We report a case of completely asymptomatic 30 year old female with absent epiglottis posted for modified radical mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM.




    Absence or hypoplasia of the epiglottis is a rare anomaly. Most patients, with absent or hypoplastic epiglottis, have presented, life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress and severe aspiration in infancy or early childhood. We report a case of completely asymptomatic 30 year old female with absent epiglottis posted for modified radical mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).

  14. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children. (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.


    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  15. Genetic influences are virtually absent for trust.

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    Paul A M Van Lange

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns, and beliefs regarding other people's trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns, is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits.

  16. Communication about absent entities in great apes and human infants. (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael


    There is currently debate about the extent to which non-linguistic beings such as human infants and great apes are capable of absent reference. In a series of experiments we investigated the flexibility and specificity of great apes' (N=36) and 12 month-old infants' (N=40) requests for absent entities. Subjects had the choice between requesting visible objects directly and using the former location of a depleted option to request more of these now-absent entities. Importantly, we systematically varied the quality of the present and absent options. We found that great apes as well as human infants flexibly adjusted their requests for absent entities to these contextual variations and only requested absent entities when the visible option was of lower quality than the absent option. These results suggest that the most basic cognitive capacities for absent reference do not depend on language and are shared by humans and their closest living relatives.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions TAR syndrome thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by the absence of ...

  18. Regional Guidelines for management of patients absent Without Leave (AWOL)


    Public Health Agency


    The overarching purpose of these guidelines is to promote the safety and protection of service users and others in the event of a service user going missing or Absent Without Leave (AWOL). The guidelines provide a framework for all staff when it is determined that a service user is absent without leave.

  19. Minimal absent words in four human genome assemblies.

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    Sara P Garcia

    Full Text Available Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. Here, we aim to contribute to the catalogue of human genomic variation by investigating the variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species, using four human genome assemblies. We compare the reference human genome GRCh37 assembly, the HuRef assembly of the genome of Craig Venter, the NA12878 assembly from cell line GM12878, and the YH assembly of the genome of a Han Chinese individual. We find the variation in number and content of minimal absent words between assemblies more significant for large and very large minimal absent words, where the biases of sequencing and assembly methodologies become more pronounced. Moreover, we find generally greater similarity between the human genome assemblies sequenced with capillary-based technologies (GRCh37 and HuRef than between the human genome assemblies sequenced with massively parallel technologies (NA12878 and YH. Finally, as expected, we find the overall variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species to be generally smaller than the variation between species.

  20. Minimal absent words in four human genome assemblies. (United States)

    Garcia, Sara P; Pinho, Armando J


    Minimal absent words have been computed in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. Here, we aim to contribute to the catalogue of human genomic variation by investigating the variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species, using four human genome assemblies. We compare the reference human genome GRCh37 assembly, the HuRef assembly of the genome of Craig Venter, the NA12878 assembly from cell line GM12878, and the YH assembly of the genome of a Han Chinese individual. We find the variation in number and content of minimal absent words between assemblies more significant for large and very large minimal absent words, where the biases of sequencing and assembly methodologies become more pronounced. Moreover, we find generally greater similarity between the human genome assemblies sequenced with capillary-based technologies (GRCh37 and HuRef) than between the human genome assemblies sequenced with massively parallel technologies (NA12878 and YH). Finally, as expected, we find the overall variation in number and content of minimal absent words within a species to be generally smaller than the variation between species.

  1. Quantum entanglement, indistinguishability, and the absent-minded driver's problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A; Cabello, Adan; Calsamiglia, John


    The absent-minded driver's problem illustrates that probabilistic strategies can give higher pay-offs than deterministic ones. We show that there are strategies using quantum entangled states that give even higher pay-offs, both for the original problem and for the generalized version with an arbitrary number of intersections and any possible set of pay-offs.

  2. Vampire Selfie: A Curious Case of an Absent Reflection (United States)

    Grossman, Joshua M.


    This article presents a puzzle for the optics section of an introductory course on reflections. A teacher could ask students to explain the phenomenon of the "vampire selfie" or the absent reflection. How could that be? What physics caused this curious phenomenon? The article explains light refraction and its effect on what we see and…

  3. Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome in a child with small and absent terminal phalanges and absent nails. (United States)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Ajeawung, Norbert Fonya; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Molidperee, Sirinart; Najafi, Kimia; Gibbs, Richard A; Lee, Brendan H; Hennekam, Raoul C; Campeau, Philippe M


    Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome (KOS) is caused by recessive UBE3B mutations and presents with microcephaly, ocular abnormalities, distinctive facial morphology, low cholesterol levels and intellectual disability. We describe a child with microcephaly, brachycephaly, hearing loss, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, cleft palate, multiple renal cysts, absent nails, small or absent terminal phalanges, absent speech and intellectual disability. Syndromes that were initially considered include DOORS syndrome, Coffin-Siris syndrome and Dubowitz syndrome. Clinical investigations coupled with karyotype analysis, array-comparative genomic hybridization, exome and Sanger sequencing were performed to characterize the condition in this child. Sanger sequencing was negative for the DOORS syndrome gene TBC1D24 but exome sequencing identified a homozygous deletion in UBE3B (NM_183415:c.3139_3141del, p.1047_1047del) located within the terminal portion of the HECT domain. This finding coupled with the presence of characteristic features such as brachycephaly, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, short palpebral fissures, cleft palate and developmental delay allowed us to make a diagnosis of KOS. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of considering KOS as a differential diagnosis for patients under evaluation for DOORS syndrome and expand the phenotype of KOS to include small or absent terminal phalanges, nails, and the presence of hallux varus and multicystic dysplastic kidneys.

  4. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development. (United States)

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J


    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  5. Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders BERGLUND


    In sex role reversed species,predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits,such as ornaments and/or weapons.Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species,whether sex role reversed or not.However,sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species,present in both males and females.This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles:males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments.At the same time,females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons,used in competition over resources or in predator defence.Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare,almost absent,in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons,conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation,and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments.Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males,at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits,as trait costs reduce a female's fecundity.I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons.The same may apply to paternally investing males.Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated.

  6. Heteroglossia and Fragmentariness in the Absent Therapist by Will Eaves

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    Drąg Wojciech


    Full Text Available In “Discourse in the Novel” Mikhail Bakhtin argues that heteroglossia - a diversity of voices or languages - is one of the essential properties of the novel. The distinct languages spoken by individual characters (referred to as “character speech”, he maintains, inevitably affect “authorial speech”. In experimental fiction, where “authorial speech” is often eliminated altogether, one can speak of the most radical instance of novelistic polyphony. Whereas in The Sound and the Fury, The Waves and B.S. Johnson’s House Mother Normal in place of the narrator the reader is presented with several parallel voices which offer an alternative version of some of the same incidents, Will Eaves’s The Absent Therapist (2014 comprises 150 one- or two-page monologues, each of which is delivered by a different nameless speaker. The book, described by reviewers as an “experimental novella”, a “miniature novel”, and an “anti-novel”, is devoid of any frame that would account for the coexistence of so many stories. The only interpretive clues are provided in the paratext: the title and the dedication from 1 Corinthians (“There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification”. They appear to invite the reading of the entire text as an amalgam of disparate (but also, in large part, desperate voices united by their addressee - the figure of the therapist who is not there. The aim of the article is to examine Eaves’s assemblage of voices and outline the tenuous relationship between the sections. The analysis of common themes and motifs that provide a degree of qualified unity to the book’s multiple monologues is situated in the context of fragmentary writing (as practised, among others, by Burroughs and Barthes and its postmodernist aesthetics of the collage.

  7. Study:Absent Dads May Lead to Teenage Pregnancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    选注者言:本文系行为科学研究的一个成果。新西兰坎特伯雷大学的研究人员 专门调查single-parent families without fathers的女孩的行为特征。调查结果颇 让人吃惊:sexually active earlier and are more likely to get pregnant!

  8. Turner Syndrome and apparent absent uterus: a case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Akierman, Sarah V; Skappak, Christopher D; Girgis, Rose; Ho, Josephine


    We report on a patient who initially presented with delayed puberty and an absent uterus on imaging with ultrasound and MRI. She was subsequently diagnosed with Turner Syndrome. Turner Syndrome typically presents with early loss of ovarian function and should be considered when primary ovarian insufficiency is present with apparent absent uterus on imaging. Follow-up imaging of the apparent absent uterus post-estrogen replacement therapy is important to confirm a normal uterus. A diagnosis of an absent uterus can be psychologically traumatic for patients and families, and can have significant implications for future fertility options.

  9. Human beta defensin is absent in burn blister fluid. (United States)

    Ortega, M R; Ganz, T; Milner, S M


    Defensins are a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that participate in innate host defence. Human beta defensin-2 (HBD-2) is produced by human keratinocytes, and has a potent bactericidal activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. We have recently shown that expression of HBD-2 is present in normal skin and lost in the full-thickness burn wound. Defensins have been found in the blister fluid of chronic wounds. Our study was designed to examine blister fluid from partial-thickness burns for defensin content. Fluid from five patients was collected from partial-thickness burn blisters, and then analysed by sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody to HBD-2. The assay was validated against a Western blot assay for HBD-2 in samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with inflammatory lung disease. No HBD-2 was detectable in any of the burn blister fluids analysed. HBD-2 is lost in the full-thickness burn wound, and we have now demonstrated its absence in burn blister fluid. This finding represents evidence of a host defence defect within the burn wound and suggests a possible therapeutic role for antimicrobial peptides in the management of burn wounds.

  10. Successful Black Men from Absent-Father Homes and Their Resilient Single Mothers: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Wilson, Angie D.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Bustamante, Rebecca; Irby, Beverly


    The phenomenon of absent fathers is a common occurrence in today's homes that appears to be escalating, especially in Black households across the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of successful Black men who were raised in absent-father homes as well as the lived experiences of their resilient single…

  11. 42 CFR 410.175 - Alien absent from the United States. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alien absent from the United States. 410.175... Alien absent from the United States. (a) Medicare does not pay Part B benefits for services furnished to... during the first full calendar month the alien is back in the United States....

  12. Absent words and the (dis)similarity analysis of DNA sequences:An experimental study


    Rahman, Mohammad Saifur; Alatabbi, Ali; Athar, Tanver; Crochemore, Maxime; Rahman, M. Sohel


    Background: An absent word with respect to a sequence is a word that does not occur in the sequence as a factor; an absent word is minimal if all its factors on the other hand occur in that sequence. In this paper we explore the idea of using minimal absent words (MAW) to compute the distance between two biological sequences. The motivation and rationale of our work comes from the potential advantage of being able to extract as little information as possible from large genomic sequences to re...

  13. Absent words and the (dis)similarity analysis of DNA sequences: an experimental study


    Rahman, Mohammad Saifur; Alatabbi, Ali; Athar, Tanver; Crochemore, Maxime; Rahman, M. Sohel


    Background An absent word with respect to a sequence is a word that does not occur in the sequence as a factor; an absent word is minimal if all its factors on the other hand occur in that sequence. In this paper we explore the idea of using minimal absent words (MAW) to compute the distance between two biological sequences. The motivation and rationale of our work comes from the potential advantage of being able to extract as little information as possible from large genomic sequences to rea...

  14. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for the Madison Limestone, Black Hills area, South Dakota. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Madison Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Madison Limestone is absent...

  15. Absent sella turcica: a case report and a review of the literature. (United States)

    Paroder, Viktoriya; Miller, Todd; Cohen, M Michael; Shanske, Alan Lawrence


    Absent sella turcica is an extremely rare and dramatic radiographic finding. It may be isolated or occur in the presence of other anomalies, often involving the adenohypophysis. Our evaluation of a female infant with multiple anomalies including absence of the sella turcica, a normal pituitary in the craniopharyngeal canal, normal pituitary function, choanal atresia and anomalies of the appendiceal skeleton prompted a review of the occurrence and biology of an absent sella turcica.

  16. 1H-NMR metabolomic biomarkers of poor outcome after hemorrhagic shock are absent in hibernators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Bogren

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock (HS following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R, was used as a negative control.Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals' temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H-NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H-NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R.An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS

  17. Mismatch negativity of sad syllables is absent in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs. METHOD: This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. RESULTS: The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.

  18. Two Adult Patients with Ectopic Neurohypophysis and Panhypopituitarism Due to Absent Pituitary Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fettah Acıbucu


    Full Text Available We report two cases of 27-year-old and 19-year-old female patients with ectopic neurohypophysis and panhypopituitarism due to absent pituitary stalk. They were admitted to the endocrinology clinic with short stature, growth retardation and primary amenorrhea. Basal hormones revealed secondary hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism and growth hormone insufficiency. Peak cortisol response to the short synacthen test (SST was normal but was inadequate to insulin tolerance test. The other dynamic pituitary function tests showed panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed an ectopic posterior pituitary tissue and absent pituitary stalk. We administered hormone replacement therapy. As this disorder is usually encountered in the pediatric age group, we report here two adult patients with ectopic posterior pituitary tissue, absent pituitary stalk and panhypopituitarism.

  19. SLURP1 is a late marker of epidermal differentiation and is absent in Mal de Meleda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre, Bertrand; Plantard, Laure; Aeschbach, Lorène


    sections from MDM patients, as well as in their sweat, mutant SLURP1, including the new variant R71H-SLURP1, was either absent or barely detectable. Transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells expressed the MDM mutant SLURP1 containing the single amino-acid substitution G86R but did not tolerate the MDM...

  20. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects (United States)

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.


    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  1. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Mohan Harjai


    Full Text Available A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Schizencephaly (spilt brain is an uncommon disorder of cerebral cortical development, characterized by congenital clefts spanning the cerebral hemispheres from the pial surface to the lateral ventricles and lined by dysplastic cortical gray matter, the condition is present at birth and present early in life. Here we present an adult patient of open lip schizencephaly associated with absent septum pellucidum and arachnoid cyst presenting with seizure on and off for past four years.

  3. Thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot: a rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar C


    Full Text Available Chetan Kumar,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Aakash Pandita,2 Sanjay Bhalerao1 1Department of Pediatrics, Madras Institute of Orthopedic and Trauma, Manapakkam, Chennai, India; 2Department of Neonatology, Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR syndrome is a very rare and infrequently seen congenital disorder with an approximate frequency of 0.42/100,000 live births. It is associated with bilateral absence of radii, hypo-megakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, and presence of both thumbs. The other systems which are affected by TAR syndrome include skeletal, hematologic, and cardiac systems. Intracranial hemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and cardiac disorders are a common association usually seen with this syndrome and are usual cause of death. We describe a 3-month-old infant who was diagnosed with TAR syndrome on the basis of clinical features (thrombocytopenia and bilateral absent radius bone and confirmed by genetic analysis. The patient was diagnosed to have Tetralogy of Fallot, for which the infant was managed with definitive repair and thrombocytopenia was managed with platelet transfusion. Infants with TAR syndrome should be assessed for other associated malformations of various systems and followed up regularly and parents should be counseled for associated expected complications in these patients. We report an infant with TAR syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot, which has not been reported in medical literature until now and this is the first case of its type. Keywords: thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome, Tetralogy of Fallot, microdeletion 1q21.1, RBM8A

  4. The bulk and the tail of minimal absent words in genome sequences (United States)

    Aurell, Erik; Innocenti, Nicolas; Zhou, Hai-Jun


    Minimal absent words (MAW) of a genomic sequence are subsequences that are absent themselves but the subwords of which are all present in the sequence. The characteristic distribution of genomic MAWs as a function of their length has been observed to be qualitatively similar for all living organisms, the bulk being rather short, and only relatively few being long. It has been an open issue whether the reason behind this phenomenon is statistical or reflects a biological mechanism, and what biological information is contained in absent words. In this work we demonstrate that the bulk can be described by a probabilistic model of sampling words from random sequences, while the tail of long MAWs is of biological origin. We introduce the concept of a core of a MAW, which are sequences present in the genome and closest to a given MAW. We show that in E. faecalis, E. coli and yeast the cores of the longest MAWs, which exist in two or more copies, are located in highly conserved regions the most prominent example being ribosomal RNAs. We also show that while the distribution of the cores of long MAWs is roughly uniform over these genomes on a coarse-grained level, on a more detailed level it is strongly enhanced in 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) and, to a lesser extent, also in 5’ UTRs. This indicates that MAWs and associated MAW cores correspond to fine-tuned evolutionary relationships, and suggest that they can be more widely used as markers for genomic complexity.

  5. Multi-slice computed tomography assessment of bronchial compression with absent pulmonary valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min; Sun, Ai-Min; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ming; Qiu, Hai-Sheng [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Liu, Jin-Fen [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai (China); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai (China); Berdon, Walter E. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)


    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare cardiovascular anomaly that can result in profound tracheobronchial compression. To demonstrate the advantage of multi-slice CT in diagnosing tracheobronchial compression, its severity as related to the adjacent dilated pulmonary arteries, and associated lung and cardiac lesions. We included children with absent pulmonary valve who were reviewed by multi-slice CT during a 17-year period. The number and locations of stenoses and lung lesions were noted and the severity of stenosis was categorized. The diameter of the pulmonary artery was measured and associated cardiac defects were demonstrated. Thirty-one children (14 girls and 17 boys) were included. Of these, 29 had ventricular septal defect and 2 had an intact ventricular septum. Twenty-nine children (94%) had tracheobronchial compression, judged to be mild in nine children (31%), moderate in 10 (34%) and severe in 10 (34%). The different locations of the stenosis (carina, main bronchi, lobar and segmental bronchi) were observed. And the number and location of lung lesions demonstrated that the right middle and left upper and lower lobes were often affected. The diameter of the pulmonary artery in these children was well above normal published values, and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a correlation between the size of the pulmonary artery and the severity of the tracheobronchial stenosis. Nineteen children (61%) underwent surgery and 4 of these children had a multi-slice CT post-operative follow-up study. Absent pulmonary valve can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Multi-slice CT can accurately depict areas of tracheobronchial compression, associated lung lesions and cardiac defects, helping to direct the surgeon. (orig.)

  6. Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness. (United States)

    Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B


    Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.

  7. MRI assessment of bronchial compression in absent pulmonary valve syndrome and review of the syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taragin, Benjamin H.; Berdon, Walter E. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Prinz, B. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Cardiology, New York, NY (United States)


    Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare cardiac malformation with massive pulmonary insufficiency that presents with short-term and long-term respiratory problems secondary to severe bronchial compression from enlarged central and hilar pulmonary arteries. Association with chromosome 22.Q11 deletions and DiGeorge syndrome is common. This historical review illustrates the airway disease with emphasis on assessment of the bronchial compression in patients with persistent respiratory difficulties post-valvular repair. Cases that had MRI for cardiac assessment are used to illustrate the pattern of airway disease. (orig.)

  8. Profuse congenital familial milia with absent dermatoglyphics (Basan's Syndrome): description of a new family. (United States)

    Luna, Paula Carolina; Larralde, Margarita


    Milia are common, small, keratin-containing cysts frequently seen in all age groups. They may arise spontaneously or develop after a variety of stimuli. They can be found alone or as part of syndromes. We present a female neonate born not only with profuse facial milia, but also with acral bullae and absent dermatoglyphics. Similar features were seen in several members of her family. These findings correspond to the syndrome known as Basan's syndrome, a rare autosomal-dominant inherited dermatosis characterized by profuse congenital milia, transient neonatal acral bullae, and absence of dermatoglyphics.

  9. Perinatal outcome of growth restricted fetus with absent end diastolic umbilical blood flow: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija


    Full Text Available Introduction. Absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery is usually associated with poor perinatal outcome and high perinatal mortality rate. Case report. We present the case of a pregnant woman with absent end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery in the 27th week of pregnancy with initial restriction of fetal growth. All though it was more and more obvious that the fetal growth was hindered, the Doppler, cardiotocographic and biophysical parameters did not get any worse as the pregnancy developed. The full fetal maturation was reached after the intense monitoring of the fetal condition and the pregnancy was terminated in the 37lh week by elective Cesarean section. Conclusion. The basic purpose of prenatal fetal monitoring in the situation of hindered fetal growth with chronic hypoxia is to predict the phase of decompensation and to terminate pregnancy before it is developed. The major problem is in great individual variations at the moment of development of decompensation phase, so the major obstetric aim in the monitoring of the fetus hindered in growth is to determine the optimal time and way of delivery.

  10. Absent middle hepatic vein in a right liver graf t donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan; Yik Wong


    BACKGROUND:The middle hepatic vein (MHV) is normally in form of a large trunk lying within the midplane of the liver. An anomaly in form of two separate trunks, each draining segment Ⅴ/Ⅷ and segment Ⅳ, has been described by Couinaud but not been well documented in the literature. METHOD:We report a right liver donor in whom the MHV was absent and not encountered during liver transection along the midplane of the liver. RESULTS:On computed tomography (CT) scan and intraoperative ultrasonography, there was a large segmentⅧ hepatic vein mistaken as the MHV on preoperative assessment and a large segment Ⅳ hepatic vein close to the ligamentum venosum. CT volumetry based on either segment Ⅷ or Ⅳ hepatic vein led to major error in liver volume calculation. Transection of the liver guided by segmentⅧorⅣhepatic vein would lead to sacriifce of liver parenchyma unnecessarily or presence of necrotic liver in the graft. CONCLUSION:Absent MHV is a rare anomaly. It is revealed by careful study of the CT scan.

  11. Vitamin D Receptor Activators and Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Luciana Gravellone


    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency appears to be an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Evidence from both basic science and clinical studies supports the possible protective role of vitamin D beyond its effect on mineral metabolism. Toxicity of pharmacologic doses of active vitamin D metabolites, in particular calcitriol, is mainly due to the possibility of positive calcium and phosphorus balance. Therefore, vitamin D analogs have been developed, which suppress PTH secretion and synthesis with reduced calcemic and phosphatemic effects. Observational studies suggest that in hemodialysis patients the use of a vitamin D receptor (VDR activator, such as calcitriol, doxercalciferol, paricalcitol, or alfacalcidol, is associated with a reduced mortality when compared with nonusers of any VDR activator. In this article the existing literature on the topic is reviewed, although a more robust answer to the question of whether or not VDR activators have beneficial effects in hemodialysis patients will hopefully come from a randomized controlled trial.

  12. Absent MicroRNAs in Different Tissues of Patients with Acquired Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine S Siegismund; Maria Rohde; Uwe Kuhl; Felicitas Escher; Heinz Peter Schultheiss; Dirk Lassner


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be found in a wide range of tissues and body fluids, and their specific signatures can be used to determine diseases or predict clinical courses. The miRNA profiles in biological samples (tissue, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or other body fluids) differ significantly even in the same patient and therefore have their own specificity for the presented con-dition. Complex profiles of deregulated miRNAs are of high interest, whereas the importance of non-expressed miRNAs was ignored. Since miRNAs regulate gene expression rather negatively, absent miRNAs could indicate genes with unaltered expression that therefore are normally expressed in specific compartments or under specific disease situations. For the first time, non-detectable miRNAs in different tissues and body fluids from patients with different diseases (cardiomyopathies, Alzheimer’s disease, bladder cancer, and ocular cancer) were analyzed and com-pared in this study. miRNA expression data were generated by microarray or TaqMan PCR-based platforms. Lists of absent miRNAs of primarily cardiac patients (myocardium, blood cells, and serum) were clustered and analyzed for potentially involved pathways using two prediction platforms, i.e., miRNA enrichment analysis and annotation tool (miEAA) and DIANA miRPath. Extensive search in biomedical publication databases for the relevance of non-expressed miRNAs in predicted pathways revealed no evidence for their involvement in heart-related pathways as indicated by software tools, confirming proposed approach.

  13. Absent MicroRNAs in Different Tissues of Patients with Acquired Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Siegismund


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can be found in a wide range of tissues and body fluids, and their specific signatures can be used to determine diseases or predict clinical courses. The miRNA profiles in biological samples (tissue, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or other body fluids differ significantly even in the same patient and therefore have their own specificity for the presented condition. Complex profiles of deregulated miRNAs are of high interest, whereas the importance of non-expressed miRNAs was ignored. Since miRNAs regulate gene expression rather negatively, absent miRNAs could indicate genes with unaltered expression that therefore are normally expressed in specific compartments or under specific disease situations. For the first time, non-detectable miRNAs in different tissues and body fluids from patients with different diseases (cardiomyopathies, Alzheimer’s disease, bladder cancer, and ocular cancer were analyzed and compared in this study. miRNA expression data were generated by microarray or TaqMan PCR-based platforms. Lists of absent miRNAs of primarily cardiac patients (myocardium, blood cells, and serum were clustered and analyzed for potentially involved pathways using two prediction platforms, i.e., miRNA enrichment analysis and annotation tool (miEAA and DIANA miRPath. Extensive search in biomedical publication databases for the relevance of non-expressed miRNAs in predicted pathways revealed no evidence for their involvement in heart-related pathways as indicated by software tools, confirming proposed approach.

  14. Eukaryotic checkpoints are absent in the cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulagna Banerjee; Suchismita Das; Anuradha Lohia


    Fidelity in transmission of genetic characters is ensured by the faithful duplication of the genome, followed by equal segregation of the genetic material in the progeny. Thus, alternation of DNA duplication (S-phase) and chromosome segregation during the M-phase are hallmarks of most well studied eukaryotes. Several rounds of genome reduplication before chromosome segregation upsets this cycle and leads to polyploidy. Polyploidy is often witnessed in cells prior to differentiation, in embryonic cells or in diseases such as cancer. Studies on the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica suggest that in its proliferative phase, this organism may accumulate polyploid cells. It has also been shown that although this organism contains sequence homologs of genes which are known to control the cell cycle of most eukaryotes, these genes may be structurally altered and their equivalent function yet to be demonstrated in amoeba. The available information suggests that surveillance mechanisms or ‘checkpoints’ which are known to regulate the eukaryotic cell cycle may be absent or altered in E. histolytica.

  15. Taxa de absenteísmo da equipe de enfermagem como indicador de gestão de pessoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Sancinetti


    Full Text Available O absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem é um problema complexo para as organizações de saúde, constituindo-se um indicador que necessita ser monitorado. Este estudo objetivou analisar a taxa de absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem em um hospital público de ensino. As ausências por absenteísmo foram coletadas a partir das escalas mensais, no período de janeiro a julho de 2008, e calculadas por meio de planilha eletrônica. Constatou-se um índice médio de absenteísmo de 5,6% para os enfermeiros e de 9,7% para técnicos/auxiliares de enfermagem. As ausências que mais contribuíram para esses índices referiram-se aos afastamentos por doença. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram o principal motivo de absenteísmo e sinalizam a necessidade de mudanças nas políticas de contratação dos profissionais de enfermagem, além da revisão dos processos de trabalho, visando favorecer melhores condições de saúde a esses profissionais.

  16. Ervaringen van werkgevers over het eigen initiatief van langdurig zieke werknemers bij hun reïntegratie [Return to work of long-term absent employees: The view of Dutch employers on the amount own initiative of these employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, T. van; Ybema, J.F.


    Employees who are absent for a prolonged period of time are expected to actively contribute to their own return to work. The present study examines how employers rate the employees' own initiative for return to work following longterm sickness absence and how this initiative affects successful retur

  17. Proliferation of transformed somatotroph cells related to low or absent expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1A protein. (United States)

    Lania, Andrea G; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano; Pellegrini, Caterina; Bondioni, Sara; Peverelli, Erika; Braidotti, Paola; Locatelli, Marco; Zavanone, Mario L; Ferrante, Emanuela; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna


    The two regulatory subunits (R1 and R2) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in cancer cell lines and exert diverse roles in growth control. Recently, mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit 1A gene (PRKAR1A) have been identified in patients with Carney complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the PKA regulatory subunits R1A, R2A, and R2B in a series of 30 pituitary adenomas and the effects of subunit activation on cell proliferation. In these tumors, neither mutation of PRKAR1A nor loss of heterozygosity was identified. By real-time PCR, mRNA of the three subunits was detected in all of the tumors, R1A being the most represented in the majority of samples. By contrast, immunohistochemistry documented low or absent R1A levels in all tumors, whereas R2A and R2B were highly expressed, thus resulting in an unbalanced R1/R2 ratio. The low levels of R1A were, at least in part, due to proteasome-mediated degradation. The effect of the R1/R2 ratio on proliferation was assessed in GH3 cells, which showed a similar unbalanced pattern of R subunits expression, and in growth hormone-secreting adenomas. The R2-selective cAMP analog 8-Cl cAMP and R1A RNA silencing, stimulated cell proliferation and increased Cyclin D1 expression, respectively, in human and rat adenomatous somatotrophs. These data show that a low R1/R2 ratio promoted proliferation of transformed somatotrophs and are consistent with the Carney complex model in which R1A inactivating mutations further unbalance this ratio in favor of R2 subunits. These results suggest that low expression of R1A protein may favor cAMP-dependent proliferation of transformed somatotrophs.

  18. The Concept of the Absent Curriculum: The Case of the Muslim Contribution and the English National Curriculum for History (United States)

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.


    This paper introduces the concept of the "absent curriculum" on the premise that the study of curriculum has been prone to privileging curricular presence to the exclusion of curricular absence. In order to address this imbalance and to articulate a theory of absence in the curriculum, the paper applies ideas derived from the philosophy…

  19. Complement, Kinins, and Hereditary Angioedema: Mechanisms of Plasma Instability when C1 Inhibitor is Absent. (United States)

    Kaplan, Allen P; Joseph, Kusumam


    Plasma of patients with types I and II hereditary angioedema is unstable if incubated in a plastic (i.e., inert) vessel at 37 °C manifested by progressively increasing formation of bradykinin. There is also a persistent low level of C4 in 95 % of patients even when they are symptomatic. These phenomena are due to the properties of the C1r subcomponent of C1, factor XII, and the bimolecular complex of prekallikrein with high molecular weight kininogen (HK). Purified C1r auto-activates in physiologic buffers, activates C1s, which in turn depletes C4. This occurs when C1 inhibitor is deficient. The complex of prekallikrein-HK acquires an inducible active site not present in prekallikrein which in Tris-type buffers cleaves HK stoichiometrically to release bradykinin, or in phosphate buffer auto-activates to generate kallikrein and bradykinin. Thus immunologic depletion of C1 inhibitor from factor XII-deficient plasma (phosphate is the natural buffer) auto-activates on incubation to release bradykinin. Normal C1 inhibitor prevents this from occurring. During attacks of angioedema, if factor XII auto-activates on surfaces, the initial factor XIIa formed converts prekallikrein to kallikrein, and kallikrein cleaves HK to release bradykinin. Kallikrein also rapidly activates most remaining factor XII to factor XIIa. Additional cleavages convert factor XIIa to factor XIIf and factor XIIf activates C1r enzymatically so that C4 levels approach zero, and C2 is depleted. There is also a possibility that kallikrein is generated first as a result of activation of the prekallikrein-HK complex by heat shock protein 90 released from endothelial cells, followed by kallikrein activation of factor XII.

  20. Molecular mechanism of male differentiation is conserved in the SRY-absent mammal, Tokudaia osimensis



    The sex-determining gene SRY induces SOX9 expression in the testes of eutherian mammals via two pathways. SRY binds to testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TESCO) with SF1 to activate SOX9 transcription. SRY also up-regulates ER71 expression, and ER71 activates Sox9 transcription. After the initiation of testis differentiation, SOX9 enhances Amh expression by binding to its promoter with SF1. SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10, members of the SOXE gene family, also enhance the activities of the Amh promoter a...

  1. The plight of absent fathers caused by migrant work: Its traumatic impact on adolescent male children in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias K. Nyanjaya


    Full Text Available This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.

  2. Why were cool SST anomalies absent in the Bay of Bengal during the 1997 Indian Ocean Dipole event?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.A.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Shetye, S.R.; Yamagata, T.

    Why were cool SST anomalies absent in the Bay of Bengal during the 1997 Indian Ocean Dipole Event? Suryachandra A. Rao Institute for Global Change Research, FRSGC, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan Vissa V. Gopalakrishna and Satish R. Shetye National... sections during the IOD. Hence, unlike the absence of cool SST anomalies in the bay, subsurface cool temperature anomalies were present in the bay. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 29, NO. 11, 1555, 10.1029/2001GL014645, 2002 1 Also at Institute...

  3. Late-onset primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in a Chinese individual with absent alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黃炳南; 唐美華; 麥肇嘉; 盧建宜; 黃煜; 黃矩民


    @@ Nephrolithiasis is a common clinical problem, and its cause is often classified as idiopathic. Primary hyperoxaluria, mostly type 1, constitutes one of the rare causes of recurrent nephrolithiasis, but its diagnosis is often missed or delayed. The exact prevalence of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), therefore, has been unclear. The reported prevalence varies in different countries. No Chinese PH1 has ever been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of late-onset primary hyperoxaluria, which was diagnosed only after the development of end-stage renal failure. To our knowledge, this case is the first confirmed Chinese PH1.

  4. Quantifying kinematics of purposeful movements to real, imagined, or absent functional objects: Implications for modelling trajectories for robot-assisted ADL tasks**

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    Wisneski Kimberly J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic therapy is at the forefront of stroke rehabilitation. The Activities of Daily Living Exercise Robot (ADLER was developed to improve carryover of gains after training by combining the benefits of Activities of Daily Living (ADL training (motivation and functional task practice with real objects, with the benefits of robot mediated therapy (repeatability and reliability. In combining these two therapy techniques, we seek to develop a new model for trajectory generation that will support functional movements to real objects during robot training. We studied natural movements to real objects and report on how initial reaching movements are affected by real objects and how these movements deviate from the straight line paths predicted by the minimum jerk model, typically used to generate trajectories in robot training environments. We highlight key issues that to be considered in modelling natural trajectories. Methods Movement data was collected as eight normal subjects completed ADLs such as drinking and eating. Three conditions were considered: object absent, imagined, and present. This data was compared to predicted trajectories generated from implementing the minimum jerk model. The deviations in both the plane of the table (XY and the saggital plane of torso (XZ were examined for both reaches to a cup and to a spoon. Velocity profiles and curvature were also quantified for all trajectories. Results We hypothesized that movements performed with functional task constraints and objects would deviate from the minimum jerk trajectory model more than those performed under imaginary or object absent conditions. Trajectory deviations from the predicted minimum jerk model for these reaches were shown to depend on three variables: object presence, object orientation, and plane of movement. When subjects completed the cup reach their movements were more curved than for the spoon reach. The object present condition for the cup

  5. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

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    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat

  6. The lysyl oxidase LOX is absent in basal and squamous cell carcinomas and its knockdown induces an invading phenotype in a skin equivalent model. (United States)

    Bouez, Charbel; Reynaud, Caroline; Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Thépot, Amélie; Gleyzal, Claudine; Kanitakis, Jean; Perrier, Eric; Damour, Odile; Sommer, Pascal


    Lysyl oxidase initiates the enzymatic stage of collagen and elastin cross-linking. Among five isoforms comprising the lysyl oxidase family, LOX is the better studied. LOX is associated to an antitumor activity in ras-transformed fibroblasts, and its expression is down-regulated in many carcinomas. The aim of this work was to shed light on LOX functions within the epidermis by studying its expression in human basal and squamous cell carcinomas and analyzing the effect of its enzymatic activity inhibition and protein absence on human keratinocytes behavior in a skin equivalent. In both carcinomas, LOX expression by epidermal tumor cells was lacking, while it was up-regulated around invading tumor cells in association with the stromal reaction. Lysyl oxidase activity inhibition using beta-aminoproprionitrile in a skin equivalent model prepared with both primary human keratinocytes and HaCaT cell line affected keratin 10 and filaggrin expression and disorganized the collagen network and the basement membrane. In spite of all these changes, no invasion phenotype was observed. Modelization of the invasive phenotype was only noticed in the skin equivalent developed with LOX antisense HaCaT cell line, where the protein LOX is specifically absent. Our results clearly indicate that lysyl oxidase enzymatic activity is essential not only for the integrity maintenance of the dermis but also for the homeostasis of the epidermis. Moreover, LOX protein plays a role in the skin carcinomas and invasion but not through its enzymatic activity.

  7. Absenteísmo do pessoal de enfermagem: decisões e ações de enfermeiros gerentes

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    Paulina Kurcgant


    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Mensurar o absenteísmo dos enfermeiros técnicos/auxiliares de enfermagem em três instituições hospitalares e conhecer possíveis decisões gerenciais de enfermeiros gerentes frente a este evento. Método Quantiqualitativo, sendo que, na etapa quantitativa mediu as taxas mensais, média anual e taxa geral de absenteísmo dos enfermeiros e técnicos/auxiliares de enfermagem de 12 unidades de serviço dos hospitais, durante 12 meses, segundo a equação proposta pelo NAGEH. Na etapa qualitativa foram realizadas entrevistas com as 12 enfermeiras gerentes das 12 unidades. Resultados A etapa quantitativa mostra diferenças importantes em cada instituição e entre instituições com diversas taxas mensais acima da taxa mensal máxima preconizada pelo COFEN de 6,7%. Na etapa qualitativa foram resgatadas as decisões de impacto positivo, por elas tomadas, considerando o relacionamento com chefia, o diálogo, e o atendimento das demandas de ordem física e emocional dos profissionais como fatores importantes. Conclusão O absenteísmo mostrou-se como um evento presente no cotidiano do gerenciamento do pessoal de enfermagem, pois apresentou variações nos diferentes meses do ano e nas diferentes unidades de serviço sendo possível classificá-las frente à maior ou menor problemática, além disso, mostrou o adoecimento do trabalhador, insatisfação com as condições institucionais e o relacionamento interpessoal inadequado, o que orienta para decisões gerenciais próprias a realidade.

  8. Absenteísmo-doença segundo autorrelato de servidores públicos municipais em Belo Horizonte

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    Celeste de Souza Rodrigues


    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar o perfil de um conjunto de servidores públicos municipais que relataram, por ocasião de um inquérito, absenteísmo-doença nos últimos 12 meses. Em 2009 obteve-se uma amostra de 5.646 (14% do universo de 38.304 servidores municipais de Belo Horizonte. Um questionário foi disponibilizado em sítio da Internet, cuja entrada dependia do consentimento do respondente. Regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para determinar os fatores associados. A prevalência do absenteísmo-doença foi maior entre os servidores do sexo feminino (RP 1,12 e diminuiu com o aumento das faixas etárias: 30-39 anos (RP 0,79; 40-49 anos (RP 0,72; e 50 anos ou mais (RP 0,68. Absenteísmo-doença mostrou-se associado às atividades ligadas aos grupos de fiscalização e vigilância (RP 1,46, serviços gerais (RP 1,22, informação, educação e cultura (RP 1,50 e saúde (RP 1,50. As comorbidades mais presentes foram LER/Dort (RP 1,19, lombalgia (RP 1,16, depressão/ ansiedade (RP 1,20 e percepção de cansaço mental (RP 1,12. O relato de uso de medicação para depressão/ansiedade se mostrou fator protetor (RP 0,82. Maior probabilidade de transtorno mental (RP 1,23 segundo o SRQ20, insatisfação com a capacidade de trabalho (RP 1,08, condições razoáveis (RP 1,21 e condições precárias de trabalho (RP 1,19 foram associadas ao desfecho. Programas de promoção da saúde no trabalho visando a prevenção de comorbidades musculoesqueléticas e queixas psicossociais atenuariam as situações que provavelmente estão na origem do absenteísmo-doença.

  9. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick


    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  10. Absenteísmo por transtornos mentais em trabalhadores de saúde em um hospital no sul do Brasil

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    Leni de Lima Santana

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o perfil de adoecimento por transtornos mentais e comportamentais em trabalhadores de saúde de um hospital de ensino no sul do Brasil. Métodos pesquisa quantitativa, epidemiológica transversal retrospectiva cuja coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de documentos institucionais utilizados para alimentar o Sistema de Monitoramento da Saúde do Trabalhador de Enfermagem e envolveu todos os afastamentos ocorridos em 2011. Resultados Foram contabilizados 55 registros de afastamentos por Transtornos Mentais e Comportamentais que totalizaram 317 dias de absenteísmo. Os Técnicos de Enfermagem foram os profissionais mais afastados com o equivalente a 29,09% dos registros. As Unidades de Terapia Intensiva representaram os setores com o maior número de dias de absenteísmo, totalizando 81% e os Episódios depressivos obtiveram a frequência mais significativa, 52,72% dos transtornos mentais. Conclusão Os resultados evidenciaram que os transtornos mentais em trabalhadores de saúde constituem uma realidade preocupante que necessitam urgentemente de intervenções.

  11. Absent or compressed basal cisterns on first CT scan: ominous predictors of outcome in severe head injury. (United States)

    Toutant, S M; Klauber, M R; Marshall, L F; Toole, B M; Bowers, S A; Seelig, J M; Varnell, J B


    The relationship of outcome to the appearance of the basal cisterns as seen on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning was assessed in 218 consecutive severely head-injured patients entered into the second phase of the National Pilot Traumatic Coma Data Bank. Outcome could be directly related to the status of the basal cisterns on the initial CT scan. The mortality rates were 77%, 39%, and 22% among those with absent, compressed, and normal basal cisterns, respectively. This association between cisterns and outcome was shown to be strong after adjusting for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p less than 0.001). The state of the cisterns was more important for those with higher GCS scores (scores 6 to 8) than for those with lower scores (scores 3 to 5). Patients with GCS scores of 6 to 8, with cisterns absent or not visualized, suffered nearly a fourfold additional risk of poor outcome, compared to those with normal cisterns. This indicates that the status of the cisterns can be used as an early noninvasive method of identifying patients at high risk of death or severe disability, in whom the initial neurological examination would potentially suggest otherwise.

  12. Identification and Analysis of Genes Present in Leptospira interrogens serovar lai but Absent in L.biflexa serovar monvalerio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping HE; Xiang-Yan ZHANG; Xiao-Kui GUO; Bao-Yu HU; Xiao-Tian HUANG; Yang YANG; Guo-Ping ZHAO


    Genes present in virulent bacterial strains but absent in avirulent close relatives can be of great biologic and clinical interest. This project aimed to identify strain specific DNA sequences of Leptospira interrogens serovar lai, which is absent in the saprophytic L. biflexa serovar monvalerio, via suppression subtractive hybridization with the former as the tester while the latter as the driver. The mixture of PCR amplified DNA fragments from two subtractive hybridization experiments were cloned into pMD 18-T vector and the positive clones were identified by dot blotting against the chromosome DNA of the two strains individually. After DNA sequencing and analysis, the distribution of these genomic fragment sequences in a panel of pathogenic and nonpathogenic leptospires was investigated employing dot blot analysis. Among the 188 positive clones randomly chosen, 24 contained the tester strain specific genomic regions, of which, 5were non-coding fragments while the others contained 23 distinct protein coding sequences. Besides 9 genes encoding functional proteins, 12 genes encode unknown proteins and the rest two genes encode proteins with recognizable domain structures, one for a putative leucine-rich repeats (LRR) family protein while the other as an outer-membrane protein. Our experiment results indicated that suppression subtractive hybridization is effective for screening specific DNA sequences between two leptospiral strains, and some of these sequences might be responsible for virulence determination. Further analysis of these DNA sequences will provide important information on the pathogenesis of Leptospira.

  13. Social Aspects of “Absent Presence” in the Use of Mobile Phones in Public Urban Spaces

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    Krešimir Katić


    Full Text Available This paper explores how, in the context of the increasing mediated permeability of the boundaries between the realms of home, privacy, in public, work and leisure, people use mobile phones to communicate with absent others whilst in public urban spaces, near others who are physically present, that is, how people negotiate place and presence when “on the phone”. Our ethnographic research of quotidian practices employed by mobile phone users in public spaces in Zagreb, Croatia, confirms that the critique put forward by some media scholars that media technologies create a homogenous, placeless world, is rather exaggerated. Place is reconstituted through a variety of ethnomethodological, and culturally specific practices which we refer to as manoeuvres of spatial juggling, practices which allow people to integrate their presence in the physical and in the virtual worlds. We identify a number of such practices, and also highlight which moral, cognitive and ritual components of micro interactions in public are challenged during mobile phone use. We conclude that, though significantly contingent and fluid, mobile phone interactions do not annihilate place but transform it into an “absent presence”.

  14. Absent menstrual periods - secondary (United States)

    ... weight suddenly (for example, from strict or extreme diets or after gastric bypass surgery ) Other causes include: Brain (pituitary) tumors Drugs for cancer treatment Drugs to treat schizophrenia or psychosis Overactive ...

  15. Absent menstrual periods - primary (United States)

    ... reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. ... of puberty. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. ...

  16. Dimensão do absenteísmo entre trabalhadores de enfermagem do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre


    Caren de Oliveira Riboldi


    Estudo transversal, documental contemporâneo, com abordagem quantitativa. O objetivo consistiu em caracterizar o absenteísmo dos trabalhadores de enfermagem do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, apresentando características profissionais, motivos de ausências, taxas de absenteísmo e associações entre os Serviços de Enfermagem. A amostra abrangeu 1535 cartões-ponto, referentes aos trabalhadores vinculados ao Grupo de Enfermagem e que apresentaram taxa de absenteísmo maior que zero, no perío...

  17. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondheimer, H.M. (Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY); Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.


    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  18. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-evoked bradycardia, hypotension, and diuresis are absent in N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor knockout mice. (United States)

    Burmeister, Melissa A; Ansonoff, Michael A; Pintar, John E; Kapusta, Daniel R


    Intracerebroventricular administration of the opioid-like peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) produces bradycardia, hypotension, and diuresis in mice. We hypothesized that these responses are solely caused by selective activation of central N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptors. To test this premise, we first examined whether i.c.v. N/OFQ produced dose-dependent diuretic and cardiovascular depressor responses in commercially available C57BL/6 mice. Next, using doses established in these studies, we examined the renal excretory and cardiovascular responses to i.c.v. N/OFQ in conscious transgenic NOP receptor knockout mice (NOP(-/-)). In metabolic studies, i.c.v. N/OFQ, but not saline vehicle, dose-dependently increased urine output (V) in NOP(+/+); this response was significant at 3 nmol (N/OFQ, V = 0.39 +/- 0.10 ml/2 h; saline, 0.08 +/- 0.05 ml/2 h). The N/OFQ-evoked diuresis was absent in littermate NOP(-/-) (N/OFQ, V = 0.06 +/- 0.06 ml/2 h; saline, 0.03 +/- 0.03 ml/2 h). There were no significant changes in urinary sodium or potassium excretion or free water clearance in either group. In telemetry studies, i.c.v. N/OFQ dose dependently lowered heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). At 3 nmol N/OFQ, both HR and MAP were reduced in NOP(+/+) (peak DeltaHR = -217 +/- 31 bpm; peak DeltaMAP =-47 +/- 7 mm Hg) compared with saline (peak DeltaHR =-14 +/- 5 bpm; peak DeltaMAP = 2 +/- 3 mm Hg). These N/OFQ-evoked bradycardic and hypotensive responses were absent in NOP(-/-) (peak DeltaHR =-13 +/- 17 bpm; peak DeltaMAP =-2 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively). Basal 24-h cardiovascular and renal excretory function were not different between NOP(-/-) and NOP(+/+) mice. These results establish that the bradycardia, hypotension and diuresis produced by centrally administered N/OFQ are mediated by selective activation of NOP receptors.

  19. The Histone Methyltransferase Gene Absent, Small, or Homeotic Discs-1 Like Is Required for Normal Hox Gene Expression and Fertility in Mice1 (United States)

    Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Geister, Krista A.; Jones, Morgan; Waqas, Meriam; Maillard, Ivan; Camper, Sally A.


    Chromatin remodeling influences gene expression in developing and adult organisms. Active and repressive marks of histone methylation dictate the embryonic expression boundaries of developmentally regulated genes, including the Hox gene cluster. Drosophila ash1 (absent, small or homeotic discs 1) gene encodes a histone methyltransferase essential for regulation of Hox gene expression that interacts genetically with other members of the trithorax group (TrxG). While mammalian members of the mixed lineage leukemia (Mll) family of TrxG genes have roles in regulation of Hox gene expression, little is known about the expression and function of the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila ash1 gene, Ash1-like (Ash1l). Here we report the expression of mouse Ash1l gene in specific structures within various organs and provide evidence that reduced Ash1l expression has tissue-specific effects on mammalian development and adult homeostasis. Mutants exhibit partially penetrant postnatal lethality and failure to thrive. Surviving mutants have growth insufficiency, skeletal transformations, and infertility associated with developmental defects in both male and female reproductive organs. Specifically, expression of Hoxa11 and Hoxd10 are altered in the epididymis of Ash1l mutant males and Hoxa10 is reduced in the uterus of Ash1l mutant females. In summary, we show that the histone methyltransferase Ash1l is important for the development and function of several tissues and for proper expression of homeotic genes in mammals. PMID:26333994

  20. Comparative genomic profiling of Dutch clinical Bordetella pertussis isolates using DNA microarrays: Identification of genes absent from epidemic strains

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    van Gent Marjolein


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in humans, is re-emerging in many countries despite vaccination. Several studies have shown that significant shifts have occurred in the B. pertussis population resulting in antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and suggesting pathogen adaptation. In the Netherlands, the resurgence of pertussis is associated with the rise of B. pertussis strains with an altered promoter region for pertussis toxin (ptxP3. Results We used Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, Multiple-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to characterize the ptxP3 strains associated with the Dutch epidemic. For CGH analysis, we developed an oligonucleotide (70-mers microarray consisting of 3,581 oligonucleotides representing 94% of the gene repertoire of the B. pertussis strain Tohama I. Nine different MLST profiles and 38 different MLVA types were found in the period 1993 to 2004. Forty-three Dutch clinical isolates were analyzed with CGH, 98 genes were found to be absent in at least one of the B. pertussis strains tested, these genes were clustered in 8 distinct regions of difference. Conclusion The presented MLST, MLVA and CGH-analysis identified distinctive characteristics of ptxP3 B. pertussis strains -the most prominent of which was a genomic deletion removing about 23,000 bp. We propose a model for the emergence of ptxP3 strains.

  1. The Accordion Maneuver: A Noninvasive Strategy for Absent or Delayed Callus Formation in Cases of Limb Lengthening

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    Asim M. Makhdom


    Full Text Available The distraction osteogenesis (DO technique has been used worldwide to treat many orthopaedic conditions. Although successful, absent or delayed callus formation in the distraction gap can lead to significant morbidities. An alternate cycle of distraction-compression (accordion maneuver is one approach to accelerate bone regeneration. The primary aim of our study is to report our experience with the accordion maneuver during DO and to provide a detailed description of this technique, as performed in our center. The secondary aim is to present a review of the literature regarding the use of accordion maneuver. We reviewed the database of all patients undergoing limb lengthening from the year of 1997 to 2012. Four patients (6.15% out of 65 showed poor bone regenerate in their tibiae and therefore accordion maneuver was applied for a mean of 6.75 weeks. Of these, three patients have had successful outcome with this technique. The literature showed that this technique is successful approach to trigger bone healing. However, details of how and when to apply this combination of distraction-compression forces were lacking. In conclusion, the accordion technique is safe noninvasive approach to promote bone formation, thus avoiding more invasive surgical procedures in cases of poor callus formation in limb lengthening.

  2. Mandibuloacral dysplasia and LMNA A529V mutation in Turkish patients with severe skeletal changes and absent breast development. (United States)

    Ozer, Leyla; Unsal, Evrim; Aktuna, Suleyman; Baltaci, Volkan; Celikkol, Pelin; Akyigit, Fatma; Sen, Askin; Ayvaz, Ozge; Balci, Sevim


    Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by acroosteolysis (resorption of terminal phalanges), skin changes (hyperpigmentation), clavicular hypoplasia, craniofascial anomalies, a hook nose and prominent eyes, delayed closures of the cranial sutures, lipodystrophy, alopecia, and skeletal anomalies. MAD patients are classified according to lipodystrophy patterns: type A and type B. The vast majority of MAD cases are caused by LMNA gene mutations. MAD patients with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) have been reported to have LMNA R527H, A529V, or A529T mutations. In this report, we describe two MADA patients with progressive skeletal changes, absent breast development, and cataract in addition to the classical MAD phenotype. Both patients were found to be homozygous for the Ala529Val mutation of the LMNA gene. Our female patient is the oldest MADA patient (59 years old) who has ever been reported with the LMNA mutation and also the LMNA Ala529Val mutation. This study is the second report on MADA patients with a homozygous Ala529Val mutation.

  3. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. (United States)

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo


    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  4. Intralimb Coordination Patterns in Absent, Mild, and Severe Stages of Diabetic Neuropathy: Looking Beyond Kinematic Analysis of Gait Cycle.

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    Liu Chiao Yi

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus progressively leads to impairments in stability and joint motion and might affect coordination patterns, mainly due to neuropathy. This study aims to describe changes in intralimb joint coordination in healthy individuals and patients with absent, mild and, severe stages of neuropathy.Forty-seven diabetic patients were classified into three groups of neuropathic severity by a fuzzy model: 18 without neuropathy (DIAB, 7 with mild neuropathy (MILD, and 22 with moderate to severe neuropathy (SVRE. Thirteen healthy subjects were included as controls (CTRL. Continuous relative phase (CRP was calculated at each instant of the gait cycle for each pair of lower limb joints. Analysis of Variance compared each frame of the CRP time series and its standard deviation among groups (α = 5%.For the ankle-hip CRP, the SVRE group presented increased variability at the propulsion phase and a distinct pattern at the propulsion and initial swing phases compared to the DIAB and CTRL groups. For the ankle-knee CRP, the 3 diabetic groups presented more anti-phase ratios than the CTRL group at the midstance, propulsion, and terminal swing phases, with decreased variability at the early stance phase. For the knee-hip CRP, the MILD group showed more in-phase ratio at the early stance and terminal swing phases and lower variability compared to all other groups. All diabetic groups were more in-phase at early the midstance phase (with lower variability than the control group.The low variability and coordination differences of the MILD group showed that gait coordination might be altered not only when frank evidence of neuropathy is present, but also when neuropathy is still incipient. The ankle-knee CRP at the initial swing phase showed distinct patterns for groups from all degrees of neuropathic severity and CTRLs. The ankle-hip CRP pattern distinguished the SVRE patients from other diabetic groups, particularly in the transitional phase from stance to

  5. The "eyes absent" (eya) gene in the eye-bearing hydrozoan jellyfish Cladonema radiatum: conservation of the retinal determination network. (United States)

    Graziussi, Daria Federica; Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter Jakob


    Eyes absent (Eya) is a member of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), a set of genes responsible for eye specification in Drosophila. Eya is a dual function protein, working as a transcription factor in the nucleus and as a tyrosine phosphatase in the cytoplasm. It had been shown that Pax and Six family genes, main components of the RDGN, are present in the hydrozoan Cladonema radiatum and that they are expressed in the eye. However, nothing had been known about the Eya family in hydrozoan jellyfish. Here we report the presence of an Eya homologue (CrEya) in Cladonema. Real-time PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that CrEya is expressed in the eye. Furthermore, the comprehensive survey of eukaryote genomes revealed that the acquisition of the N-terminal transactivation domain, including the EYA Domain 2 and its adjacent sequence shared by all eumetazoans, happened early in evolution, before the separation of Cnidaria and Bilateria. Our results uncover the evolution of the two domains and show a conservation of the expression pattern of the Eya gene between Cnidaria and Bilateria, which, together with previous data, supports the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of metazoans eyes. We additionally show that CrEya is also expressed in the oocytes, where two other members of the RDGN, CrPaxB, and Six4/5-Cr, are known to be expressed. These data suggest that several members of the RDGN have begun to be localized also into the different context of egg development early in the course of metazoan evolution.

  6. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye. (United States)

    de Hoz, Rosa; Gallego, Beatriz I; Ramírez, Ana I; Rojas, Blanca; Salazar, Juan J; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Perez, Maria P; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M


    In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  7. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

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    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  8. Fatores de risco para absenteísmo com licença médica em trabalhadores da indústria de petróleo


    Nágila Soares Xavier Oenning; Fernando Martins Carvalho; Veronica Maria Cadena Lima


    OBJETIVO : Identificar fatores de risco para o absenteísmo com licença médica em trabalhadores de empresa de petróleo. MÉTODOS : Estudo caso-controle (120 casos e 656 controles) aninhado a um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com todos os trabalhadores de uma empresa de petróleo na Região Norte-Nordeste do Brasil entre 2007 e 2009. A variável resposta utilizada para representar o absenteísmo com licença médica foi a incidência mé...

  9. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with absent inferior caval vein connection: a novel technique using a steerable guide catheter. (United States)

    Takaya, Yoichi; Akagi, Teiji; Ito, Hiroshi


    An alternative approach for transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect is necessary in patients with absent inferior caval vein connection. In this report, we describe the successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure via the transjugular approach using a steerable guide catheter.

  10. Migrant Labor in South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Father-Present and Father-Absent Adolescents. (United States)

    Mboya, Mzobanzi M.; Nesengani, Ralintho I.


    Study seeks to determine whether there are significant differences in academic achievement between father-present and father-absent (due to migrant labor) adolescents. Academic achievement of 276 high school students in South Africa was measured covering biology, English (second language), and mathematics.. Father-present students were found to…

  11. The α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis protein disulfide machinery has a regulatory mechanism absent in γ-proteobacteria.

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    Patricia M Walden

    Full Text Available The α-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects more than 65% of insect species worldwide and manipulates the host reproductive machinery to enable its own survival. It can live in mutualistic relationships with hosts that cause human disease, including mosquitoes that carry the Dengue virus. Like many other bacteria, Wolbachia contains disulfide bond forming (Dsb proteins that introduce disulfide bonds into secreted effector proteins. The genome of the Wolbachia strain wMel encodes two DsbA-like proteins sharing just 21% sequence identity to each other, α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2, and an integral membrane protein, α-DsbB. α-DsbA1 and α-DsbA2 both have a Cys-X-X-Cys active site that, by analogy with Escherichia coli DsbA, would need to be oxidized to the disulfide form to serve as a disulfide bond donor toward substrate proteins. Here we show that the integral membrane protein α-DsbB oxidizes α-DsbA1, but not α-DsbA2. The interaction between α-DsbA1 and α-DsbB is very specific, involving four essential cysteines located in the two periplasmic loops of α-DsbB. In the electron flow cascade, oxidation of α-DsbA1 by α-DsbB is initiated by an oxidizing quinone cofactor that interacts with the cysteine pair in the first periplasmic loop. Oxidizing power is transferred to the second cysteine pair, which directly interacts with α-DsbA1. This reaction is inhibited by a non-catalytic disulfide present in α-DsbA1, conserved in other α-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in γ-proteobacterial DsbAs. This is the first characterization of the integral membrane protein α-DsbB from Wolbachia and reveals that the non-catalytic cysteines of α-DsbA1 regulate the redox relay system in cooperation with α-DsbB.

  12. An Amplitude-normalized Pseudo Well-log Construction Method and its Application on AVO Inversion in a Well-absent Marine Area

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    Fan Chunyan


    Full Text Available AVO inversion is hard to be efficiently applied in unexploited fields due to the insufficiency of well information. For the sake of AVO inversion in a well-absent area, the most conventional method is to construct pseudo well-logs by defining seismic processing velocity as the P-velocity and computing S-velocity and density using empirical formulas, yet the resolution of the corresponding earth models and final inverted results could be extremely low, and a rough formula could destroy the inversion thoroughly. To overcome this problem, an amplitudenormalized pseudo well-log construction method that reconstructs pseudo well-logs in accordance with computed P-wave reflection amplitudes and nearby drilling data is proposed in this paper. It enhances the inversion resolution efficiently with respect to the real elastic parameter relationships, so that the corresponding AVO inversion results are reasonably improved. In summary, the proposed method is successfully applied in the AVO inversion of a well-absent marine area, and could be valuable in the early phase, particularly of the offshore hydrocarbon exploration.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)


    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  14. Tooth formation - delayed or absent (United States)

    ... 2016 Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  15. The CT appearances of delayed amniotic fluid clearance from the lungs in an infant with absent pulmonary valve and congenital lobar emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, A. Michelle [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Edis, Brian [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Massie, John [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)


    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a cause of severe neonatal respiratory distress. Overexpansion of the affected pulmonary lobe in the fetus is due to narrowing of the airway, with a resultant 'ball-valve' effect. At birth, there may be delayed clearance of fetal lung fluid. Early chest radiographs show opacification of the hyperexpanded lobe. The CT findings in the immediate neonatal period have not been previously reported. We describe the imaging in a neonate with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve with secondary CLE. CT demonstrates the hyperexpanded lobe with initial thickening of the interlobular septa and alveolar ground glass attenuation, with subsequent clearing. This resorption of fetal lung fluid via the pulmonary interstitium should not be confused with interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  16. Double-outlet right ventricle with absent left ventricle and mitral atresia in a fetus with a deletion 22q12. (United States)

    L'herminé-Coulomb, Aurore; Houyel, Lucille; Aboura, Azzedine; Audibert, François; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Tachdjian, Gérard


    Interstitial deletions of chromosomal region 22q12 are rare. We report the prenatal diagnosis of a de novo interstitial deletion 22q12. The fetus was karyotyped because of a complex cardiac anomaly. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics showed a female karyotype with a de novo pericentric inversion of one chromosome 22 associated with a deletion of the chromosomal region 22q12 leading to a partial monosomy 22q12. At autopsy, the fetus showed double-outlet right ventricle (DORV) with absent left ventricle and mitral atresia. This observation suggests that one or several genes for the early looping step of heart development may reside in chromosomal region 22q12. Further studies are needed to identify these genes, and to search microdeletions of 22q12 region in patients with DORV.

  17. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) (United States)

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H


    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  18. Fill absent values in massive domain data stream%一种大域数据流中缺失值的填充方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵飞; 刘奇志; 张剡; 柏文阳


    To fill the absent values in massive-domain data stream, an algorithm based on Count-Min Sketch as well as Frequency-Min Sketch is proposed. In some data stream applications, such as network traffic monitoring, the domains of IP addresses and some other attributes are always massive. Data Stream Management System usually prefers to storage a sketch rather than storage the whole datasets. So it is not suitable to use traditional imputation methods to fill the absent values of the massive-domain data stream, which are generated during data collection and transmission process, or ignore them. Count-Min Sketch is a famous lightweight data stream sketch. This paper proposes a Frequency-Min Sketch based on it. With Count-Min Sketch and Frequency-Min Sketch, a method filling the absent values in the massive-domain data stream is designed. A hashing approach is utilized in order to keep track of the attribute-value statistics. We use pairwise independent hash functions H= {h (x)= ((ax+b) mod p) mod w, x ∈U, a, b∈ Zp}, each of which maps onto uniformly random integers in the range h=[O, e/el. The data structure itself consists of a 2-dimensional array with a length of d and width of w. Each hash function corresponds to one of w 1-dimensional arrays with d cells each. In network traffic monitoring applications, the hash functions are used in order to update the traffic sums in the different cells of the 2-dimensional data structure. At the same time,the numbers of data packets are updated in the corresponding cells. Then the quotient of the min traffic sum (i. e.Count-Min Sketch) and the min number of the data packets (we call it Frequency-Min Sketch, which is not sure in the same cell with the Count-Min Sketch) is used to fill the absent traffic of a data packet. Theoretical analysis and experiment results show that the error of filling the absent values based on Count-Min Sketch and Frequency-Min Sketch is less than that based on Histogram Sketch. The error does not

  19. Fatores de risco para absenteísmo com licença médica em trabalhadores da indústria de petróleo

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    Nágila Soares Xavier Oenning


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Identificar fatores de risco para o absenteísmo com licença médica em trabalhadores de empresa de petróleo. MÉTODOS : Estudo caso-controle (120 casos e 656 controles aninhado a um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com todos os trabalhadores de uma empresa de petróleo na Região Norte-Nordeste do Brasil entre 2007 e 2009. A variável resposta utilizada para representar o absenteísmo com licença médica foi a incidência média de faltas com licenças médicas no período, definida pela razão entre o total de dias de licenças médicas e os dias potencialmente trabalháveis no período. Análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para investigar a associação entre incidência média de faltas > 5,0% no período e as variáveis sexo, cargo, idade, tempo de atuação, regime de trabalho, tabagismo, hipertensão arterial, índice de massa corporal, atividade física, risco coronariano, sono, glicemia, diabetes não controlado, doença do aparelho cardiovascular, digestivo, aparelho locomotor, neurológica, neoplasia, posturas forçadas no trabalho, satisfação com o trabalho, relacionamento com a chefia e atenção concentrada no trabalho. RESULTADOS : A incidência média de faltas com licenças médicas > 5,0% no período da coorte foi 15,5%. O modelo logístico revelou que trabalhadores com incidência média de faltas > 5,0% tiveram 2,6 vezes mais chance de ser do sexo feminino; 2,0 vezes mais chance de ser fumante; 1,8 vez mais chance de ser ex-fumante, 2,2 vezes mais chance de relatar sono anormal e 10,5 vezes mais chance de estarem insatisfeitos com o trabalho do que trabalhadores com incidência média de faltas ≤ 5,0% no período. CONCLUSÕES : Sexo feminino, ser fumante ou ex-fumante, estar insatisfeito com o trabalho e relatar sono anormal são bons preditores de absenteísmo ao trabalho por doença.

  20. Familia y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas: una búsqueda de lo ausente Family and psychoactive substance use: A search of the absent

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    María Nelcy Muñoz Astudillo


    Full Text Available Objetivo principal. Describir la relación que establecen jóvenes universitarios entre familia y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas. Metodología: Estudio de teoría fundamentada, realizado en el 2009 en Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. 70 estudiantes universitarios participaron voluntariamente, conformaron nueve grupos focales. La información fue grabada y transcrita. Muestreo teórico. Codificación y categorización con Atlas.ti. Resultados principales: La teoría sustantiva "Familia y consumo de sustancias psicoactivas: Una búsqueda de lo ausente" se construyó con la integración de seis conceptos que permitieron develar lo ausente en las relaciones directas e indirectas. Directas: entorno familiar protector, ejercicio de autoridad, cumplimiento de tareas pedagógicas. Indirectas: conocimiento del joven y su contexto psicosocial, conocimiento de las sustancias, formación en derechos humanos. Conclusiones: Se plantean retos para el cuidado de las dinámicas familiares, en términos de seguimiento de tensiones y cadencias, buscando posibilidades de intervención desde sus propios escenarios cotidianos.Objective: describe the established relationship between university students and their families with consumption of psychoactive substance consumption (PSC. Methods: A grounded theory approach (GP model, made in 2009 in Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. 70 university student volunteers subdivided in nine focus groups. The information was recorded and transcribed. Theoretical sampling with Atlas.ti coding and categorization. Results: The substantive theory "Family and psychoactive substance use: A search of the absent" was built on the integration of six concepts that allowed to reveal what is absent in the direct and indirect. Direct: protective family environment, exercise of authority and compliance with educational tasks. Hints: knowledge of the girl and her psychosocial context, knowledge of chemicals and human rights training. Conclusions: new

  1. «In the Shadow» of Absent Men: Unhappily Married Women in the Hispanic World of the Seventeenth Century

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    Full Text Available The households with feminine heads have been revealed in recent research as an important social reality in Early Modern Europe. These households, often under direction of a widow, and to a lesser extent, of a spinster or an unhappily married woman, are providing historians with the possibility to observe women’s lives from the margins of structures of patriarchal power. The economic, social and affective reality of unhappily married women needs a profound analysis, that goes beyond a quantitative magnitude, facing the challenge of imagining these women in conditions that, at first glance, didn’t go beyond exceptional and accidental, but in reality they could have formed an environment of autonomy and power for themselves. In this study, judicial records and testaments which come from Cadiz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries are utilised to show the different paths of the lifes of women with absent husbands. These testimonials confirm that the experiences of women and their own perception of themselves differ not only as a function of their own circumstances but also according to the sources that we could choose. If from the allegations of abandonment from the «Warrants to Indies» it can be deduced that for this collective, overall they experienced poverty and difficult conditions, their wills offer a visión of full lives where work and affection are basic structures.

  2. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome: a clinical genetic series of 14 further cases. impact of the associated 1q21.1 deletion on the genetic counselling. (United States)

    Houeijeh, Ali; Andrieux, Joris; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bonneau, Dominique; Fouassier, Marc; Journel, Hubert; Martinovic, Jelana; Escande, Fabienne; Devisme, Louise; Bisiaux, Sophie; Chaffiotte, Caroline; Baux, Mathilde; Kerckaert, Jean-Pierre; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie


    Thrombocytopenia-absent radius Syndrome (TAR) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of complicated transmission. 1q21.1 deletion is necessary but not sufficient for its expression. We report the result of a French multicentric clinical study, and we emphasized on the role of the associated 1q21.1 deletion in the diagnosis and the genetic counselling of our patients. We gathered information on 14 patients presenting with TAR syndrome and referred for genetic counselling in six different university hospitals (8 foetuses, 1 child and 5 adults). Clinical or pathology details, as well as skeletal X-rays were analyzed. Genetic studies were performed by Array-CGH, and Quantitative Multiplex PCR. We demonstrated the very variable phenotypes of TAR syndrome. Female:male ratio was ∼2:1. All patients presented with bilateral radial aplasia/hypoplasia with preserved thumbs. Phocomelia and lower limb anomalies were present in 28% of the cases. We reported the first case of cystic hygroma on affected foetus. 1q21.1 deletions ranging from 330 to 1100 kb were identified in all affected patients. Most of them were inherited from one healthy parent (80%). The identification of a 1q21.1 deletion allowed confirmation of TAR syndrome diagnosis, particularly in foetuses and in atypical phenotypes. Additionally, it allowed accurate genetic counselling, especially when it occurred de novo. These findings allowed discussing the diagnostic criteria and management towards TAR syndrome.

  3. O absenteísmo da equipe de enfermagem em unidade de pronto socorro de um hospital universitário

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    Elisângela Cristina de Campos


    Full Text Available O absenteísmo ou ausentismo é o termo utilizado para caracterizar as ausências dos funcionários ao trabalho.Essas ausências são definidas em previstas e não previstas. Para este estudo especificamos as ausênciasprevistas como folgas, feriados e férias e para as não previstas ficam as faltas, licenças medicas, nojo e outraslicenças. O objetivo foi investigar o real numero de ausências dos técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem de umPronto Socorro de um Hospital Universitário do interior do estado de São Paulo para definir o Índice deSegurança Técnica-IST. Foi utilizada metodologia quantitativa descritiva, e a coleta de dados feita de janeiro de2006 a junho de 2007, a partir de arquivos administrativos após autorização do serviço. Entre os principaisachados encontramos um IST cuja média gira em torno de 51%. Concluímos que, embora próximo, estáligeiramente superior ao encontrado em outra realidade de Hospital Universitário. Entre as ausências nãoprevistas, destacam-se as licenças médicas, que podem estar relacionadas à sobrecarga da equipe.

  4. 耳蜗神经管扩大合并蜗轴阙如的CT表现%CT appearances of enlarged cochlear nerve canal with absent modiolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松; 杨勇; 魏梦绮; 彭勇; 徐俊卿; 宦怡


    Objective To describe the CT features of the enlarged bony canal of the cochlear nerve ( ECNC) and absent modiolu sin patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss ( SNHL). Methods The width of cochlear nerve canal (CNC) was measured in 6 cases of ECNC on CT images and the results were compared with that in three other control groups (each group composed 30 patients) including children with SNHL group, children with otitis or mastoiditis group and adults with sudden deafness or tinnitus group with SPSS 10. 0 . Results The width of CNC rangcd from 2. 5 mm to 3. 3 mm , mean diamcter was ( 2. 944±0. 268 ) mm in ECNC , and accompanied with the absence of modiolus . The width of CNC in other control groups showed was about ( 2. 044±0. 207) mm . The width of the bony canal was of significant difference between ECNC group and control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion ECNC with absent modiolus in the paticnts with SNHL may be indicative of a previously unrccognized embryologic malformation of modilus,CT can help in diagnosis of it.%目的 研究耳蜗神经管(CNC)扩大合并蜗轴阙如的CT表现及相关临床意义.方法 回顾性分析6例聋哑儿童伴耳蜗神经管扩大和蜗轴阙如的高分辨CT表现并测量相应耳蜗神经管宽度,同时与颞骨CT表现"正常"的聋哑儿童组、儿童中耳炎组及成人正常内耳对照组(每组分别为30例)的耳蜗神经管宽度进行比较,并通过SPSS10.0统计软件进行分析.结果 6例耳蜗神经管扩大组CNC宽度在2.5~3.3 mm之间,平均(2.944±0.268) mm,同时伴有明显耳蜗蜗轴的发育缺失;而其他对照组颞骨CT测量CNC宽度无明显统计学差异,对照组合计CNC宽度平均值为(2.044±0.207) mm.前者与对照组测量值间有明显统计学差异.结论 CNC扩大合并蜗轴阙如是先天性耳蜗发育畸形的一种表现,会引起感音性神经性耳聋,CT可以帮助明确诊断.

  5. Mapping of the associated phenotype of an absent granular layer in ichthyosis vulgaris to the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1. (United States)

    Compton, John G; DiGiovanna, John J; Johnston, Kay A; Fleckman, Philip; Bale, Sherri J


    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is a mild to severe scaling disorder of uncertain etiology estimated to affect as many as 1 : 250 in the population. Family studies have shown that in many cases IV follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, but gene mapping studies have not been reported. To investigate the genetic basis for inherited IV, we have performed gene linkage studies in two multigenerational families where affected individuals have clinical features of IV but distinct histological features. The epidermis in this disorder characteristically displays non-specific orthohyperkeratosis. Notably, a subset of IV patients with a reduced or absent granular epidermal layer (AGL) have been reported, and decreased filaggrin levels have been described in others. The prominent role of profilaggrin in human keratohyalin suggests that defects in the gene for profilaggrin (FLG), its processing of profillagrin to filaggrin, or a gene involved in profilaggrin regulation may underlie or modify the pathology in IV. Family 1 had seven individuals with IV, severe heat intolerance and epidermis with 1-3 granular layers (consistent with normal epidermal histology). Ichthyosis vulgaris in this family did not segregate with FLG or other genes in the epidermal differentiation complex. In contrast, five of the six IV patients in Family 2, all siblings, had epidermis with no granular layer. Significant evidence was obtained for linkage of IV with the associated AGL phenotype to the epidermal differentiation complex (which includes FLG) assuming either a recessive (max Lod 3.4) or dominant (max Lod 3.6) inheritance model. Sequence analysis of FLG did not reveal a mutation in the amino or carboxyl terminal portions of the coding sequence adjacent to filaggrin repeats. The AGL may represent an endophenotype for IV, and the presence of a modifier of IV pathology at this locus is discussed.

  6. Studies of cholecystokinin-stimulated biliary secretions reveal a high molecular weight copper-binding substance in normal subjects that is absent in patients with Wilson's disease. (United States)

    Iyengar, V; Brewer, G J; Dick, R D; Chung, O Y


    Copper is unique among cations in that its balance is regulated by the liver. The liver regulates copper balance by excretion of copper (we call it regulatory copper) in the bile destined for loss in the stool. However, most copper secreted into the gastrointestinal tract, for example, that in saliva and gastric juice, is reabsorbed. The biochemical mechanism by which the normal liver "packages" regulatory copper to prevent its reabsorption is not understood. Whatever the mechanism, it appears to have failed in Wilson's disease, because patients with Wilson's disease do not excrete adequate amounts of regulatory copper in their bile to prevent copper accumulation. In the present work, we have studied cholecystokinin-stimulated biliary secretions obtained by intestinal intubation of five normal subjects and five patients with Wilson's disease. Studies of these secretions reveal: (1) that normal but not Wilson's disease biliary samples had a copper-containing peak in the void volume from Sephadex G-75 columns; (2) that the amount of copper in this peak extrapolated to 24 hours of secretion was appropriate to maintain normal copper balance; (3) that the amount of copper in this peak increased with dietary copper supplementation of normal subjects; (4) that normal but not Wilson's disease biliary samples cross-reacted with each of two ceruloplasmin antibodies; and (5) that the high molecular weight Sephadex G-75 fraction from normal but not from Wilson's disease biliary samples cross-reacted with ceruloplasmin antibody. We postulate that the high molecular weight copper-containing substance observed with Sephadex chromatography in normal biliary samples but absent in Wilson's disease samples is the copper-packaging mechanism for copper balance regulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai Huang; Meng-Meng Jiang; Guo-Feng Chen; Kun Qian; Hong-Hao Gao; Wei Guan; Jin-Long Shi


    Background:The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML 1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML.By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells,we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML.Methods:Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR),quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR),and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines.Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4.Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region.The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation,apoptosis,and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8,flow cytometry,and clonogenic assay.Results:EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells,compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells,respectively.We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases.Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines.We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis ofKasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control,respectively.Conclusions:Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene.In addition,we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target and a potential candidate

  8. Fibril specific, conformation dependent antibodies recognize a generic epitope common to amyloid fibrils and fibrillar oligomers that is absent in prefibrillar oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Suhail


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-related degenerative diseases are associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins as amyloid fibrils in tissue. In Alzheimer disease (AD, amyloid accumulates in several distinct types of insoluble plaque deposits, intracellular Aβ and as soluble oligomers and the relationships between these deposits and their pathological significance remains unclear. Conformation dependent antibodies have been reported that specifically recognize distinct assembly states of amyloids, including prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils. Results We immunized rabbits with a morphologically homogeneous population of Aβ42 fibrils. The resulting immune serum (OC specifically recognizes fibrils, but not random coil monomer or prefibrillar oligomers, indicating fibrils display a distinct conformation dependent epitope that is absent in prefibrillar oligomers. The fibril epitope is also displayed by fibrils of other types of amyloids, indicating that the epitope is a generic feature of the polypeptide backbone. The fibril specific antibody also recognizes 100,000 × G soluble fibrillar oligomers ranging in size from dimer to greater than 250 kDa on western blots. The fibrillar oligomers recognized by OC are immunologically distinct from prefibrillar oligomers recognized by A11, even though their sizes overlap broadly, indicating that size is not a reliable indicator of oligomer conformation. The immune response to prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils is not sequence specific and antisera of the same specificity are produced in response to immunization with islet amyloid polypeptide prefibrillar oligomer mimics and fibrils. The fibril specific antibodies stain all types of amyloid deposits in human AD brain. Diffuse amyloid deposits stain intensely with anti-fibril antibody although they are thioflavin S negative, suggesting that they are indeed fibrillar in conformation. OC also stains islet amyloid deposits in transgenic mouse models of type

  9. Uso da Classificação Internacional de Doenças na análise do absenteísmo odontológico

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    Gisele dos Reis Della Togna


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso das codificações da classificação de doenças e agravos em solicitações de afastamento do trabalho por motivo odontológico. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 240 solicitações emitidas em um serviço público federal entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2009. O uso da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde - Décima Revisão (CID-10 foi comparado ao sistema de Classificação Internacional de Doenças em Odontologia e Estomatologia (CID-OE. Foi determinada a especificidade da codificação nas solicitações de afastamento, bem como da codificação atribuída por peritos oficiais em inspeções indiretas, perícias e juntas odontológicas. RESULTADOS: Do total de atestados, 22,9% não apresentaram a CID, 7,1% apresentaram a CID-9, 3,3% a CID-OE e 66,7% a CID-10. A maioria das codificações foi concordante (55,1%, com maior especificidade nas codificações atribuídas após avaliação dos cirurgiões-dentistas peritos oficiais. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário aperfeiçoar a utilização da CID-10 entre os profissionais de Odontologia e perícia odontológica no trabalho. Sugere-se a incorporação do uso da CID-OE e da Classificação Internacional de Funcionamento, Incapacidade e Saúde para a análise dos afastamentos do trabalho, fornecendo dados relevantes para o monitoramento do absenteísmo por motivo odontológico.

  10. Epigenetic Silencing of Eyes Absent 4 Gene by Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1-Eight-twenty-one Oncoprotein Contributes to Leukemogenesis in t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (United States)

    Huang, Sai; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Chen, Guo-Feng; Qian, Kun; Gao, Hong-Hao; Guan, Wei; Shi, Jin-Long; Liu, An-Qi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bian-Hong; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li


    Background: The acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)-eight-twenty-one (ETO) fusion protein generated by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is considered to display a crucial role in leukemogenesis in AML. By focusing on the anti-leukemia effects of eyes absent 4 (EYA4) gene on AML cells, we investigated the biologic and molecular mechanism associated with AML1-ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML. Methods: Qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and Western blotting analysis were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression levels of EYA4 in cell lines. Different plasmids (including mutant plasmids) of dual luciferase reporter vector were built to study the binding status of AML1-ETO to the promoter region of EYA4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study the epigenetic silencing mechanism of EYA4. Bisulfite sequencing was applied to detect the methylation status in EYA4 promoter region. The influence of EYA4 gene in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell clone-forming ability was detected by the technique of Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, and clonogenic assay. Results: EYA4 gene was hypermethylated in AML1-ETO+ patients and its expression was down-regulated by 6-fold in Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells, compared to HL-60 and SKNO-1-siA/E cells, respectively. We demonstrated that AML1-ETO triggered the epigenetic silencing of EYA4 gene by binding at AML1-binding sites and recruiting histone deacetylase 1 and DNA methyltransferases. Enhanced EYA4 expression levels inhibited cellular proliferation and suppressed cell colony formation in AML1-ETO+ cell lines. We also found EYA4 transfection increased apoptosis of Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1 cells by 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold compared to negative control, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified EYA4 gene as targets for AML1-ETO and indicated it as a novel tumor suppressor gene. In addition, we provided evidence that EYA4 gene might be a novel therapeutic target

  11. Vector-averaged gravity-induced changes in cell signaling and vitamin D receptor activity in MG-63 cells are reversed by a 1,25-(OH)2D3 analog, EB1089 (United States)

    Narayanan, R.; Smith, C. L.; Weigel, N. L.


    Skeletal unloading in an animal hindlimb suspension model and microgravity experienced by astronauts or as a result of prolonged bed rest causes site-specific losses in bone mineral density of 1%-2% per month. This is accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), is important for calcium absorption and plays a role in differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To examine the responses of cells to activators of the VDR in a simulated microgravity environment, we used slow-turning lateral vessels (STLVs) in a rotating cell culture system. We found that, similar to cells grown in microgravity, MG-63 cells grown in the STLVs produce less osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen Ialpha1 mRNA and are less responsive to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In addition, expression of VDR was reduced. Moreover, growth in the STLV caused activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK), a kinase that inhibits VDR activity. In contrast, the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) analog, EB1089, was able to compensate for some of the STLV-associated responses by reducing SAPK activity, elevating VDR levels, and increasing expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. These studies suggest that, not only does simulated microgravity reduce differentiation of MG-63 cells, but the activity of the VDR, an important regulator of bone metabolism, is reduced. Use of potent, less calcemic analogs of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may aid in overcoming this defect. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Pronociception from the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is mediated by the rostral ventromedial medulla in healthy controls but is absent in arthritic animals. (United States)

    Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa; Amorim, Diana; David-Pereira, Ana; Monteiro, Ana Maria; Costa, Patricio; Pertovaara, Antti; Almeida, Armando


    The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) has been proposed to participate in stress-induced hyperalgesia through facilitation of pronociceptive cells in the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM). We hypothesized that the DMH participates in hyperalgesia induced by arthritis. The DMH was pharmacologically manipulated while assessing heat-evoked nociceptive behavior or the discharge rates of pronociceptive RVM ON- and antinociceptive RVM OFF-like cells in NAIVE, SHAM and monoarthritic (ARTH) animals. In NAIVE and SHAM animals, the changes in nociceptive behavior induced by activation of the DMH by glutamate and inhibition by lidocaine were in line with earlier evidence indicating that the DMH has a nociceptive facilitating role. However, in ARTH animals, neither activation nor inhibition of the DMH influenced pain-like behavior evoked by stimulation of an uninflamed skin region (paw and tail). In accordance with these behavioral results, activation or inhibition of the DMH induced pronociceptive changes in the discharge rates of RVM cells in NAIVE and SHAM animals, which suggests that the DMH has a pronociceptive role mediated by the RVM in normal animals. However, in ARTH animals, both glutamate and lidocaine in the DMH failed to influence either pain-like behavior or noxious stimulation-evoked responses of RVM cells, while blocking the DMH increased spontaneous activity in the pronociceptive RVM ON cells. Our data indicate that the DMH participates in descending facilitation of cutaneous nociception in healthy controls, but it is not engaged in the regulation of cutaneous nociception in monoarthritic animals, while a minor role in tonic suppression of nociception in arthritis cannot be discarded.

  13. Absenteísmo na enfermagem: uma revisão integrativa Absentismo en enfermería: una revisión integrativa Absenteeism in nursing: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cristiene Nachtigall Barboza Martinato


    Full Text Available O absenteísmo na enfermagem é um problema de extrema preocupação, o qual interfere no cuidado ao cliente, sobrecarrega os demais integrantes da equipe e pode levar ao adoecimento. Objetiva-se neste estudo conhecer as produções científicas nacionais, resumos de artigos, publicados no período de 2003 a 2008, abrangendo o tema absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem. Realizou-se uma busca on-line, nas bases de dados: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e Portal CAPES. Da análise emergiram dois temas: Doenças que geram o absenteísmo nos profissionais de enfermagem; e Estratégias criadas para minimizar o absenteísmo. Concluiu-se que os profissionais de enfermagem são acometidos por inúmeros problemas de saúde, sendo uma das causas do absenteísmo. Destacaram-se as estratégias do dimensionamento de pessoal e as ações preventivas como modos de estabelecerem melhores condições de trabalho, minimizando o absenteísmo.El absentismo en la enfermería es un asunto de extrema preocupación, interferir con el cuidado del cliente, abruma a los otros miembros del equipo y puede conducir a la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la producción científica nacional, los resúmenes de artículos publicados desde 2003 hasta 2008, que abarca el tema de ausentismo de los profesionales de enfermería. Llevó a cabo una búsqueda en línea, en bases de datos: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF y el Portal de la CAPES. El análisis surgieron dos temas: Las enfermedades que generan en el ausentismo de los profesionales de enfermería, y las estrategias destinadas a reducir el absentismo. Llegó a la conclusión de que las enfermeras se ven afectados por numerosos problemas de salud, una de las causas de ausentismo. Destacó las estrategias para el diseño de las acciones personales y de prevención como la manera de establecer mejores condiciones de trabajo, reduciendo al mínimo el absentismo.Absenteeism in nursing staff is a matter of great concern. It

  14. Situation-Analysis of Elementary Students Absent From Class Because of Illness in Taizhou Hailing%泰州市海陵区小学生因病缺课情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳; 王茹


    Objective To explore the situation of elementary students absent from class because of ilness in Taizhou hailing. MethodsThe monitoring dates of each school in Taizhou hailing from 2012 to 2013 were statisticaly analyzed.Results He rates of elementary students absent from class were 2.6%,junior high school 0.4%,senior high school 5.1%.The differences of elementary students absent rates from class,compared to junior high school or senior high school,were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion The cold,gastrointestinal disease, respiratory infections,and accidental injury were the main causes of absence in primary school;corresponding measures should be taken to strengthen the prevention and control to decrease the absence.%目的:探讨泰州市海陵区小学生因病缺课情况。方法对2012~2013年泰州市海陵区各学校监测数据进行分析统计。结果泰州市海陵区小学生因病缺课率为2.6%,初中缺课率为0.4%,高中缺课率为5.1%,小学缺课率与高中、初中缺课率比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论感冒、胃肠道疾病、呼吸道感染以及意外伤害是泰州市海陵区小学生因病缺课主要因素,学校应对此采取相应措施加强防控,从而减少学生的缺课率。

  15. Absenteísmo entre trabalhadores de serviços de nutrição e dietética de dois hospitais em São Paulo

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    Mitsue Isosaki

    Full Text Available Estudo retrospectivo, com participação de 285 servidores de Serviços de Nutrição e Dietética de uma instituição de excelência pública e uma privada. Para a quantificação das ausências foram utilizadas informações coletadas nas escalas mensais dos trabalhadores referentes ao período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001, formulações baseadas nas recomendações da Subcomissão de Absenteísmo da Comissão Permanente e Associação Internacional de Medicina do Trabalho e análises fornecidas pelos Serviços de Medicina do Trabalho. Foi aplicado um questionário de auto-avaliação das condições de trabalho e de opinião dos servidores sobre a questão do absenteísmo. O absenteísmo de trabalhadores nos Serviços de Nutrição e Dietética se assemelhou entre os hospitais público e privado tanto quanto às outras organizações não hospitalares, o que direciona em agravante por se tratar de instituições de saúde onde o figurante central é o doente, mas que os próprios trabalhadores requerem uma atenção na melhoria da qualidade de vida no trabalho.

  16. Relações entre satisfação, competência, saúde e absenteísmo no trabalho em uma grande instituição bancária pública


    Bernstorff,Vitor Hugo


    Este estudo teve como objetivo correlacionar satisfação profissional, avaliação de desempenho por competência individual, exame de saúde ocupacional e as estratégias de resistência caracterizadas pelas formas de absenteísmo no trabalho. Foram avaliados os dados de 28230 trabalhadores de um grande banco público brasileiro. Identificaram-se cinco categorias da satisfação profissional com: o conteúdo do trabalho, o salário, o ambiente social, as condições físicas e o aprendizado. A competência i...

  17. Study on the absenteeism of nursing professionals in a psychiatric center in Manaus, Brazil Estudio sobre ausentismo en profesionales de enfermería del centro psiquiátrico de Manaus, Brasil Estudo do absenteísmo dos profissionais de enfermagem de um centro psiquiátrico em Manaus, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Greice Becker


    Full Text Available This quantitative study was performed to research the rate of absenteeism of nursing professionals in a psychiatric center in Manaus, from January/2004 to January/2005, in the Human Resources sector of the institution. In this period, the records of workers who were absent from their professional activities for at least one day were checked. Results showed that there were 415 absence reports in the nursing team during the studied period, by 74.29% of nursing professionals. The average rate of absenteeism is 2.79. The main reason reported for absenteeism was illness. These data suggest further studies are needed in order to improve professionals' health, allowing for better quality of life, and, consequently, for providing better health care to Single Health System users.Con el objetivo de investigar sobre el índice de ausentismo en trabajadores de enfermería del Centro Psiquiátrico de Manaus, se realizó una investigación cuantitativa durante el periodo de enero de 2004 a enero del 2005 en el sector de recursos humanos de la institución en mención. Durante este periodo se buscó a través de consulta documental, registros de los trabajadores que tuvieron faltas de por lo menos 1 día en sus actividades laborales. Los resultados mostraron que durante el periodo de la investigación, hubo 415 registros de faltas por parte del equipo de enfermería, totalizando 74,29%. El índice del ausentismo profesional fue en promedio 2.79. Se observó que el principal motivo del ausentismo fue por enfermedad. Este hecho resalta la necesidad de mejorar la salud del trabajador, favoreciendo a una mejor calidad de vida en el trabajo y en consecuencia una mejor atención a la salud del usuario a través del SUS.Com o objetivo de investigar o índice de absenteísmo dos trabalhadores de enfermagem de um Centro Psiquiátrico em Manaus, realizou-se esta pesquisa quantitativa, no período de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005, no setor de recursos humanos da

  18. Classical conditioned responses to absent tones

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    Häusler Udo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence for a tight coupling of sensorimotor processes in trained musicians led to the question of whether this coupling extends to preattentively mediated reflexes; particularly, whether a classically conditioned response in one of the domains (auditory is generalized to another (tactile/motor on the basis of a prior association in a second-order Pavlovian paradigm. An eyeblink conditioning procedure was performed in 17 pianists, serving as a model for overlearned audiomotor integration, and 14 non-musicians. Results: During the training session, subjects were conditioned to respond to auditory stimuli (piano tones. During a subsequent testing session, when subjects performed keystrokes on a silent piano, pianists showed significantly higher blink rates than non-musicians. Conclusion These findings suggest a tight coupling of the auditory and motor domains in musicians, pointing towards training-dependent mechanisms of strong cross-modal sensorimotor associations even on sub-cognitive processing levels.

  19. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks (United States)

    Valley, J. W.


    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  20. Value of standard prenatal ultrasound diagnosis for absent fetal hand%规范产前超声检查诊断胎儿手缺失的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小平; 宋风菊; 杜宝琴; 孟红哲; 黄瑛; 张彬; 刘会敏; 郑莉华; 庄英军; 宋兰萍


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of standardized prenatal ultrasound screening used in diagnosis of absent fetal hand. Methods A total of 51 720 pregnant women received the standardized ultrasound screening and color dopplor ultrasonography. The continuous sequence approach ( SCSA ) of ultrasound was used to observe the morphology posture, structure and movement of fetal limbs, especially the themorphology posture and the status of hands. The patients were screened in four stages( 11 to 14 weeks, 18 to 24 weeks, 25 to 32 weeks, 33 to 40 weeks ). 18-24 weeks and 25-32 weeks were two important periods. Results Sixty-two cases were detected with fetal limb deformity, and they can be divided into nine kinds : 1 case of absent forearm, 2 cases of different length of bilateral femoral, 2 cases of absent leg, 7 cases of absent hand, 8 cases of pairs of limb posture abnormalities , 9 cases of radial deficiency, 10 cases of varus foot, 11 cases of short limbs deformity, and 12 cases of multiple fingers( toes ). 21 of the 62 cases were complicated with other malformations, which were confirmed by postnatal operation. 51 cases were detected with fetal limb deformity by prenatal ultrasound exzamination( 82.26% ,51/62 ), and 11cases were missed ( 17.74% , 11/62 ). Only 2 of 7 hand-absent cases combined with other malformations( 1 bilateral fetal polycystic kidney disease, 1 ventricle slightly wider 12 mm ). All 7 hand-absent cases were confirmed by postnatal examination( 7/7 ). Conclusion The standard prenatal ultrasound diagnosis for absent fetal hand is an important diagnostic imaging method.%目的 探讨连续顺序追踪超声法在产前胎儿手缺失筛查中的应用价值.方法 采用连续顺序追踪超声法(SCSA) 对51 720例孕妇分4个阶段(孕11~14周、18~24周、25~32周、33~40周)进行规范化产前超声检查,以18~24周、25~32周作为常规检查肢体的两个重要时期.每一孕周超声筛查时均逐一观察胎

  1. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I;


    ) of diseased DA rats. We demonstrate that peripheral lymphoid cells stimulated in vitro with encephalitogenic peptides 69-87 and 87-101 of myelin basic protein responded with high mRNA expression for proinflammatory cytokines; interferon-gamma, interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta, IL......-1 beta and cytolysin. A high expression of mRNA for these proinflammatory cytokines was also observed in the CNS where it was accompanied by classical signs of inflammation such as expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, CD4, CD8 and IL-2 receptor. The expression of m......RNA for proinflammatory cytokines was remarkably long-lasting in DA rats as compared to LEW rats which display a brief and monophasic EAE. Furthermore, mRNAs for putative immunodownmodulatory cytokines, i.e. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and IL-4 were almost absent in DA rats, in both the CNS...

  2. Cytokines in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats: persistent mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and absent expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. (United States)

    Issazadeh, S; Lorentzen, J C; Mustafa, M I; Höjeberg, B; Müssener, A; Olsson, T


    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats is typically a brief and monophasic disease with sparse demyelination. However, inbred DA rats develop a demyelinating, prolonged and relapsing encephalomyelitis after immunization with rat spinal cord in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This model enables studies of mechanisms related to chronicity and demyelination, two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we have investigated, in situ, the dynamics of cytokine mRNA expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral lymphoid organs (lymph node cells and splenocytes) of diseased DA rats. We demonstrate that peripheral lymphoid cells stimulated in vitro with encephalitogenic peptides 69-87 and 87-101 of myelin basic protein responded with high mRNA expression for proinflammatory cytokines; interferon-gamma, interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta, IL-1 beta and cytolysin. A high expression of mRNA for these proinflammatory cytokines was also observed in the CNS where it was accompanied by classical signs of inflammation such as expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, CD4, CD8 and IL-2 receptor. The expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines was remarkably long-lasting in DA rats as compared to LEW rats which display a brief and monophasic EAE. Furthermore, mRNAs for putative immunodownmodulatory cytokines, i.e. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and IL-4 were almost absent in DA rats, in both the CNS and in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphoid cells, while their levels were elevated in the CNS of LEW rats during the recovery phase. We conclude that the MS-like prolonged and relapsing EAE in DA rats is associated with a prolonged production of proinflammatory cytokines and/or low or absent production of immunodownmodulatory cytokines.

  3. Development of Family Adversity Scale for Parent-absent Children in Rural China%留守儿童家庭处境不利问卷的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兴华; 方晓义; 陈锋菊


    目的:编制适用于留守儿童的家庭处境不利问卷.方法:基于文献分析和访谈结果,形成问卷的70个初始项目.以1085名农村儿童为被试,通过因素分析、相关分析和方差分析,形成由51个项目构成的最终问卷.结果:最终问卷由缺少父母关爱、家庭气氛冷清、物质生活差、生活照顾不周、应对能力差、学习管理不善、监管不力、缺少沟通、放任、监护人心情差、命令强迫、严厉惩罚等12个维度构成;模型的拟合指数为:x2/df=2.131,NFI=0.960,RFI=0.956,IFI=0.978,TLI=0.976,CFI=0.978,RMSEA=0.046;各维度与总体幸福感、积极情感呈负相关,与消极情感、抑郁、孤独、问题行为呈正相关;不同监护类型留守儿童在各维度上的得分显著高于父母监护的一般儿童;各维度的Cron-bach α系数在0.504-0.871之间,重测信度在0.614-0.815之间.结论:自编问卷的信效度基本达到测量学要求.%Objective: To develop a Family Adversity Inventory for Parent-absent Children in Chinese rural area. Methods: 72 original items were developed based on literature analysis and interviews. The inventory was then administered to 1085 rural children from Hunan Province. Factor analysis, correlation analysis and variance analysis were conducted. Finally, 51 items were left. Results: EFA result indicated there were disadvantages in parental care, family atmosphere, material life, life care, family ability to cope with events, learning management, supervision, communication, permission, mood of primary guardian, command and coercion, harsh punishment in parent-absent children family. The fit index was as follows: tfdf=2.l31, NFI=0.960, RFI=0.956, IFI=0.978, TLI=0.976, CFI=0.978, RMSEA=0.046. 12 dimensions of family adversity were negatively correlated with total well-being, positive feeling and positively correlated to negative feeling, depression, loneliness and problem behavior. Parent-absent children in different care

  4. Dor orofacial e absenteísmo em trabalhadores da indústria metalúrgica e mecânica Orofacial pain and absenteeism in workers of the metallurgic and mechanics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Telino de Lacerda


    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência de dor orofacial e sua relação com absenteísmo em trabalhadores do setor metalúrgico e mecânico do município de Xanxerê, Santa Catarina. Realizou-se um estudo transversal envolvendo todos os trabalhadores do sexo masculino (n = 480 das 13 indústrias do setor no município. As informações foram coletadas por meio de entrevistas estruturadas. Informações sócio-demográficas, prevalência, severidade e localização de dor orofacial no último semestre, bem como sobre falta ao trabalho devido à dor orofacial, compuseram o questionário. Dados de identificação, setor e turno de trabalho foram coletados nos departamentos de recursos humanos das empresas. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e testes de associação de qui-quadrado de Pearson entre absenteísmo e dor orofacial. A prevalência de dor orofacial foi de 66,1%, sendo dor de dente provocada ou dor de dente espontânea os tipos mais frequentes. O absenteísmo devido a dor orofacial no último semestre foi relatado por 9,3% dos trabalhadores, mostrando-se associado à dor de dente espontânea (p The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of orofacial pain and its association with absenteeism in worke rs of the metallurgic and mechanics industry of the city of Xanxerê, Brazil. A cross sectional study was performed involving all male workers(n=480 of the 13 industries of the sector in the city. The information was collected by means of structured interviews. Socio-demographic information, prevalence, severity and localization of orofacial pain in the last semester as well as on absenteeism due to orofacial pain formed the questionnaire. Identification data, work sector and shift were collected in the departments of human resources of the companies. The data were assessed using descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-squared tests between absenteeism and pain in the orofacial region. The

  5. Vitamin D modulation of the activity of estrogenic compounds in bone cells in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Somjen, Dalia


    binding. hObs express 25 hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha hydroxylase (1-OHase)-mRNA and its biological activity, which are both modulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and estrogenic compounds. Our results demonstrate mutual interaction between vitamin D and estrogenic compounds. We therefore conclude that combined treatment with less-calcemic analogs of vitamin D and estrogenic compounds might be superior for treatment of bone damage caused by ovariectomy in female rats, with possible application for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Veia cava superior esquerda anômala com ausência de veia cava superior direita: achados de imagem Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava: image findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrillo Rodrigues de Araújo Júnior


    Full Text Available A persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior direita é uma anomalia rara, com menos de 150 casos descritos na literatura. A não-obliteração e regressão da veia cardinal anterior esquerda durante o desenvolvimento embriológico promove uma variação sistêmica de retorno venoso ao coração, com persistência da veia cava superior esquerda. Sua incidência varia de 0,3% em pacientes sem alterações cardíacas congênitas concomitantes a 4,3% naqueles com cardiopatias. Na maioria das vezes coexiste a veia cava superior direita, porém se houver regressão e degeneração da veia cardinal anterior direita, implicará a sua ausência e a drenagem venosa para o coração será feita pela veia cava superior esquerda ao átrio direito, através do seio coronariano. Mostramos um caso de um paciente submetido a radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada para avaliação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tendo como achado a persistência da veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da direita, sem qualquer cardiopatia associada e com a drenagem cardíaca sendo feita, através do seio coronariano, para o átrio direito.Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a rare anomaly, with less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Congenitally persistent left superior vena cava is the most common variant of systemic venous return to the heart, resulting embryologically from failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to become obliterated. Its incidence varies from 0.3% in patients with otherwise normal heart to 4.3% in patients with congenital heart disease. In the majority of the patients, a right superior vena cava is present as well, but rarely the right anterior cardinal vein degenerates resulting in the absence of the normal right superior vena cava. The blood from the right side is carried by the persistent left superior vena cava to the right atrium through the

  7. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.


    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  8. 一样的“无我”,不一样的“诗境”--“无我之境”类型探析%Similar "Ego - absence",Different "Realm of Poetry"---Exploration of Styles of "Ego - absent Realm"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    For the origin and connotation of " ego - absent realm" ,there are various comments and analysis in the academic field but no one has studied the types of it. The author thinks that " ego - absent realm" has different types. This paper aims at exploring the types of " ego - absent realm" briefly by analyzing two lines of Tao Yuan-ming's poem " While picking asters 'neath the Eastern fence,my gaze upon the Southern mountain rests" and two lines of Xie Lingyun's poem " Spring grass grows in the pond,and singing birds have also changed in the willows of the yard" .%对于“无我之境”的渊源及内涵,学界已有许多精到的点评和分析,但对于其类型却至今无人涉足。笔者认为,“无我之境”其实有类型的不同,本文拟结合陶(陶渊明)诗的“采菊东篱下,悠然见南山”和谢(谢灵运)诗的“池塘生春草,园柳变鸣禽”两句,对“无我之境”的类型作初步探讨。

  9. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes. (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio


    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  10. Chromatin as active matter (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.


    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  11. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms]. (United States)

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo


    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  12. Problemas de saúde responsáveis pelo absenteísmo de trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2232 Health problems responsible for the nursing staff disease-absenteeism in a university hospital - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Marli Petry Paulo da Silva


    Full Text Available Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença as faltas do trabalhador devidas a problemas de saúde diagnosticados para efeito de licença-saúde. Com o objetivo de identificar os problemas de saúde responsáveis pelo absenteísmo-doença em trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário, foi realizado um levantamento retrospectivo das faltas (494 justificadas por licenças-saúde, equivalentes a 1.491 dias de trabalho perdidos em um ano, calculados os índices de absenteísmo-doença e identificadas suas causas. A Unidade de Pediatria apresentou o maior índice de freqüência (If=0,35; a maior porcentagem de tempo perdido (Tp=4,19% ocorreu no Pronto Atendimento, entre auxiliares de Enfermagem, enquanto os enfermeiros apresentaram maiores índices nas UTIs, If=0,17 e Tp=3,93%. Os problemas de saúde foram relacionados aos sistemas respiratório, geniturinário, digestivo e osteomuscular, aos órgãos dos sentidos e ao aparelho reprodutor feminino. Concluímos que os índices de absenteísmo-doença apresentam-se elevados. As causas do adoecimento dos trabalhadores apresentam interface com inadequadas condições de trabalho e fatores de risco presentes no cotidiano da enfermagem.Disease-absenteeism is the frequent absence from work due to some illness. A retrospective survey of the sick-leave (494 absences during a year was performed. Aiming to identify health problems responsible for the nursing staff disease-absenteeism of a university hospital. Both frequency index and percentage of lost time were calculated, and the health problems were identified. The results showed that the highest frequency index occurred in the Pediatric Unit (Fi=0.35 and the highest percentage of lost time due to absence occurred in the Emergency Unit (Lt=4.19% among the Nursing Auxiliaries; the nurses showed the highest frequency in the Intensive Care Unit, Fi=0.17 and Lt=3.93%. Health problems of nursing staff were related to the respiratory and genito

  13. Bioaerosol exposure to personnel in a clinical environment absent patients. (United States)

    Heimbuch, Brian K; Wallace, William H; Balzli, Charles L; Laning, Michelle L; Harnish, Delbert A; Wander, Joseph D


    Nosocomial infections pose a significant and escalating threat to both patients and healthcare workers (HCWs). By their nature, hospitals induce antibiotic resistance in virulent and commensal strains, leading to increasingly severe hospital-acquired infections. This study measured environmental exposure experienced by domestic staff cleaning vacated patient rooms of a community hospital to bacteria in ambient bioaerosols. While they cleaned the room, participants wore an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR), from which coupons were cut and bacteria were extracted, cultured and enumerated. Extrapolation to the full area of the respirator yielded measured exposures of 0.2-1.4 × 10(4) colony-forming units/hour, of which ∼97% collected on the front layer of the N95, suggesting a possible role for minimal respiratory protection in nonpatient environments. Random resistance testing of 1.6% of the isolates showed that ∼70% of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms exhibited resistance to oxacillin and ∼9% of the Gram-positives displayed resistance to vancomycin. These data provide an estimate for mask bioaerosol loading that can be used in risk modeling and to refine strategies for reuse of FFRs during critical shortages.

  14. 'War amongst the people' and the absent enemy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya; Haugegaard, Rikke; Linnet, Poul

    This article scrutinizes the relationship between 'war amongst the people' and the 'cultural turn' in Western military thinking. It is argued that the cultural turn in military thinking is related to an uncertainty about how to wage war in a context where the enemy defies categorisation, and where...

  15. Absent Audiences: Youth Identity Formation in Preparations for Performance (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.


    This article explores the use of audiences in preparation for public presentation by an urban youth organization in Camden, New Jersey (U.S.). Camden is an impoverished city with few opportunities for youth. The organization, a hybrid of youth development, technology, business, and college preparation, prepared youth for good jobs or college.…

  16. Emphysematous pyelonephritis presenting as a sonologically absent kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Patel


    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an acute necrotizing infection of the kidney caused by gas-producing organisms. It is being increasingly recognized as an underlying cause of sepsis. We present a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis where the affected kidney was filled with extensive gas. This made the detection of the kidney difficult by ultrasound. Also, this case presents the dilemma of managing a septic patient medically and the risks entailed in surgical intervention in such cases. Most often, these patients have underlying diabetes mellitus with underlying co-morbidities, making indicated surgical management difficult as illustrated by our patient.

  17. Technologies of belonging: the absent presence of race in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek; K. Schramm; D. Skinner


    In many European countries, the explicit discussion of race as a biological phenomenon has long been avoided. This has not meant that race has become obsolete or irrelevant all together. Rather, it is a slippery object that keeps shifting and changing. To understand its slippery nature, we suggest t

  18. Absent alternatives and insider interests in postcrisis financial reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.


    The credit crisis that began in the summer of 2007 has fundamentally challenged much financial regulation and the political institutions that produced it. Measured against the criticisms that have been brought forth against previous financial governance, the extent of governments’ overall reform amb

  19. Comparative study on the relationship between loneliness and the quality of life of urban and rural absent parents in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region%内蒙古自治区某地城乡空巢老年人孤独感与生命质量关系的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏红; 王丽娜; 周郁秋; 曹佳颖


    Objective To know the relationship between loneliness and the quality of life of urban and rural absent parents in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,clear the influence factors of loneliness in the absent parents.Methods 441 cases of urban and rural absent parents were selected from the Chifeng district of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were valuated with the general information questionnaire,UCLA Loneliness Scale and MOS 36 item short form health survey (SF-36).Results Rural cases had a higher level of loneliness when compared with the urban cases,t=4.60,P<0.01.There were significant differences in the general score and the scores of each dimension between the two groups,P<0.05.Loneliness score was significantly negative correlation with the quality of life in all dimensions,P<0.01.Regression analysis showed that health,marital status,income and the education level were the main influence factor of loneliness in the urban and rural absent parents.Conclusions Compared with the urban absent parents,rural cases had more obvious loneliness and lower quality of life.Loneliness levels influence the quality of life of absent parents.Loneliness condition of urban and rural absent parents were influenced by various factors,the cases with characteristic of frail,single,low education level and poor economic condition should be the focus group to intervene.%目的 探讨内蒙古自治区某地城乡空巢老年人孤独感与生命质量的关系,以及城乡空巢老年人孤独感的影响因素.方法 采用一般资料调查表、UCLA孤独量表及健康调查简表(SF-36量表)对内蒙古自治区某地441例城乡空巢老年人人口学资料、孤独感及生命质量状况进行调查.结果 与城市空巢老年人相比,农村空巢老年人孤独感水平更高,差异有统计学意义,t=4.607,P< 0.01;生命质量总分及各维度得分更低,差异有统计学意义,P< 0.05.城乡空巢老年人孤独感得分与生命质量各维

  20. Factors associated with absenteeism-illness in rural workers in a timber company Factores asociados al absentismo-enfermedad de los trabajadores rurales de una empresa forestal Fatores associados ao absenteísmo-doença dos trabalhadores rurais de uma empresa florestal

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    Mariana Roberta Lopes Simões


    Full Text Available The monitoring of absenteeism-illness has revealed its high prevalence, and a strong relationship with work. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with absenteeism-illness among the rural workers in a timber company in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is an analytical cross-sectional study, carried out among 883 workers. The medical certificates issued in the company over one year were surveyed. For the analysis, use was made of descriptive statistics and bi- and multivariable analyses. The strength of association was measured by the odds ratio (OR with help from logistic regression (pEl acompañamiento del absentismo-enfermedad ha revelado altas prevalencias y fuerte relación con el trabajo. Se objetivó analizar los factores asociados al absentismo-enfermedad de los trabajadores rurales de una empresa forestal en Minas Gerais- Brasil. Se trata de un estudio transversal, analítico, realizado con 883 trabajadores. Fueron levantados los testificados médicos durante un año. Se utilizó para análisis estadístico descriptivo, análisis bi y multivariadas. La fuerza de asociación fue medida por el odds ratio (OR con auxilio de la regresión logística (pO acompanhamento do absenteísmo-doença tem revelado altas prevalências e forte relação com o trabalho. Objetivou-se analisar os fatores associados ao absenteísmo-doença dos trabalhadores rurais de uma empresa florestal em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo transversal, analítico, realizado com 883 trabalhadores. Foram levantados os atestados médicos desses trabalhadores, durante um ano. Utilizaram-se, para análise estatística descritiva, análises bi e multivariadas. A força de associação foi medida pelo odds ratio (OR com auxílio da regressão logística (p<0,05. Foi encontrada prevalência de 54,0% de atestados na população. A análise bivariada revelou associação entre a função (ajudante florestal (OR=13,1, marceneiro (OR=15 e operador de motosserra (OR=39

  1. Integrating Statistics with a Microbiology Laboratory Activity

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    William Lorowitz


    Full Text Available Statistics is an important tool for microbiologists but is virtually absent from undergraduate laboratory activities. The variables in a stringent protocol, the antibiotic disk diffusion assay described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, were examined by the authors as a means for introducing hypothesis testing and the application of elementary statistical tools. After several experiments, a lab activity was developed where students examine the effect of cell concentration on antibiotic activity and analyze data with the t test. They also collect data independently from the same samples and compare their measurements using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The outcome of the activity, including an assessment tool, indicated that students learned the appropriate use of the t test and ANOVA, gained an appreciation for standardized protocols, and enjoyed the experience.

  2. Absenteísmo-doença entre profissionais de enfermagem da rede básica do SUS Campinas Sick leaves among nursing professionals in basic healthcare centers of the Brazilian National Unified Healthcare System - SUS - in the city of Campinas

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    Gilson Gehring Junior


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar índices de absenteísmo-doença entre profissionais de enfermagem de 16 Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Município de Campinas durante o ano de 2002. Foram obtidos junto à seção de Recursos Humanos Descentralizados dados de assiduidade de 311 trabalhadores de enfermagem de Centros de Saúde dos Distrito Norte e Leste do Município de Campinas, e calculados os índices de freqüência, gravidade e proporção de tempo perdido. As variáveis disponibilizadas foram tempo de trabalho na função, categoria funcional, sexo e carga horária semanal. Dados de pesquisas realizadas sobre absenteísmo com pessoal de hospital e do ramo industrial e empresarial foram utilizados para a análise e comparação com o presente estudo. A função de técnico ou auxiliar de enfermagem representou a maioria da população (82,6%, a jornada de trabalho de 36 horas semanais foi realizada por 90,6% dos pesquisados e 93,5% eram do sexo feminino. O índice de freqüência de absenteísmo foi de 2,88 afastamentos iniciados por empregado/ ano, o de gravidade foi de 12,27 dias perdidos por empregado/ano, e a proporção de tempo perdido foi de 5,56% ao ano. Os enfermeiros tiveram índice de freqüência menor que o de auxiliares e técnicos. Os índices encontrados neste trabalho foram maiores do que a maioria dos estudos realizados com profissionais de hospitais. A fim de minimizar o fenômeno como reflexo do impacto das condições desfavoráveis para a saúde do trabalhador, propõe-se diminuir da exposição às cargas de trabalho e melhorar a política de saúde do trabalhador para os servidores da categoria.This report aims to analyze sick leave rates among healthcare professionals from 16 Basic Healthcare Units of the Brazilian National Unified Healthcare System (SUS in the Municipality of Campinas during 2002. Data on worked days and sick leaves of 311 nurses and nursing aides working at Healthcare Centers of the North and

  3. Absenteísmo-doença da equipe de enfermagem em unidade de terapia intensiva Absentismo-enfermedad del equipo de enfermería en unidad de terapía intensiva The absenteeism-disease of a nursing team in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Inoue


    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou investigar o absenteísmo-doença em uma UTI-Adulto. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritivo-exploratória realizada com 56 trabalhadores de enfermagem que atuaram no setor em 2006. Calculou-se o índice de freqüência (fi e a porcentagem de tempo perdido (Tp do absenteísmo-doença. A maioria dos trabalhadores é do sexo feminino (76,8%, com 30 a 39 anos (42,9%, com vínculo estatutário (66,1%. A média de dias de trabalho perdida foi maior para os trabalhadores de nível médio (2,9, do sexo feminino (3,2, com vínculo temporário (4,4 e do período noturno (6,2. O fi médio da equipe foi de 0,27 e a Tp de 1,76%. O absenteísmo-doença foi considerado elevado, sugerindo necessidade de estudos que investiguem as causas de adoecimento.Este estudio tuvo por objetivo a investigar el absentismo-enfermedad en una UTI-Adulto. Se trata de una pesquisa descriptivo-exploratoria realizada con 56 trabajadores de enfermería que actuaron en el sector en 2006. Se calculó el índice de frecuencia (fi y el porcentaje de tiempo perdido (Tp del absentismo-enfermedad. La mayoría de los trabajadores es del sexo femenino (el 76,8%, con edad de 30 a 39 años (el 42,9%, con vínculo estatutario (el 66,1%. El promedio de días de trabajo perdido fue mayor para los trabajadores de nivel medio (el 2,9, del sexo femenino (el 3,2, con vínculo temporáneo (el 4,4 y del período nocturno (6,2. El fi medio del equipo fue del 0,27 y la Tp del 1,76%. El absentismo-enfermedad fue considerado elevado, sugiriendo necesidad de estudios que investiguen las causas de enfermarse.This study aimed at investigating the absenteeism disease in an Adult-ICU. The descriptive-exploratory study was carried out with 56 nurses who worked in the ICU in 2006. The frequency (firate and the wasted-time percentage for the absenteeism disease were calculated. Most of the nurses are female (76.79%, between 30 and 39 years old (42.86%, and with a statutory bond (66.07%. The

  4. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood]. (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S


    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  5. How do persons with chronic low back pain speed up and slow down? Trunk-pelvis coordination and lumbar erector spinae activity during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Beek, Peter J.


    In healthy walking, the timing between trunk and pelvic rotations, as well as erector spinae (ES) activity varies systematically with walking velocity, whereas a comparable velocity-dependent adaptation of trunk-pelvis coordination is often reduced or absent in persons with low back pain (LBP). Base

  6. Using a non-radioisotopic, quantitative TRAP-based me thod detecting telomerase activities in human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A non-radioisotopic, quantitative TRAP-based telom erase activity assay was established mainly by using SYBR Green-I staining instead of radioisotope. Comparing with conventional radioisotope based method, it was better in reproducibility and accuracy. Using this method, we found telomerase activities were absent in normal human liver cells, while detected in all of four human hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7404, SMMC-7721, QGY-7903 and HCCM) without significant differences.

  7. Progressive Return to Activity Following Acute Concussion/Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Guidance for the Primary Care Manager in Deployed and Non-deployed Settings (United States)


    through the stepwise progression of activity.10 Symptoms such as fatigue or headache are rarely completely absent, especially following exertion even...described as “activities that make your heart race” on the “Return to Activity Educational Brochure.” When headache , sleep difficulties or vestibular or...of ‘Return-to-Learn’ in Pediatric and Adolescent Concussion. Pediatric Annals, 41(9), 1-6. 27. Adams, R., Larson, M., Corrigan, J., Horgan, C

  8. 武汉市某大学医学院空巢老人抑郁症状的发生情况及其影响因素%Current Situation and Impact Factors of Geriatric Depressive Symptoms of Retired People with Family Member Absent in a Famous Medical College of Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 高柏成; 朱小松; 周浩礼; 徐冬英; 梁勋厂


    目的:比较空巢与非空巢的离退休老人抑郁症状发生情况、具体表现及其影响因素,为提高离退休老人生活质量提供参考依据.方法:采用老年抑郁量表简表及自编问卷对武汉市某大学医学院314名离退休老人进行问卷调查.结果:空巢偶居老人、空巢独居老人的抑郁症状发生率分别为16.1%、25.0%.卡方检验显示空巢偶居老人、空巢独居老人、非空巢老人的抑郁症状发生率不同,且差异具有统计学意义.Logistic回归分析显示影响空巢老人抑郁症状的因素是自尊、社会支持、孤独感;而对于非空巢老人,影响因素则是人际关系、婚姻家庭满意情况、孤独感.结论:空巢老人与非空巢老人抑郁症状发生率及影响因素不尽相同,空巢独居老人的抑郁状况严重,应更多地关注独居老人的身心健康.%Objective: To compare the geriatric depressive symptoms and its impact factors between retired people with children absent and those living with children; to provide evidences for the policy for improving elders' quality of life. Methods: Three hundred and fourteen retired old people in a famous medical college of Wuhan were investigated with GDS-15 and the general questionnaire. Results: The rates of geriatric depressive symptoms among spouse-coinhabiting and elderly solitaries were 16.1% and 25.0%,respectively.The result of chi-square analysis showed that the rates of such depressive symptoms were different among solitary elderly, old people living with spouse or children. In addition, we discovered that the influencing factors of depressive symptoms of old people living with children were self-esteem, social support and loneliness; while the factors of those with children absent were interpersonal relationship, marriage and family and loneliness by using logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The rate of geriatric depressive symptom and its impact factors were different between retired

  9. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Preeclampsia Accompanied by Absent or Reversed End-Diastolic Velocity in Umbilical Artery%子痫前期并发胎儿脐动脉舒张末期血流缺失及返流的母婴结局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆英; 程海东


    目的:探讨子痫前期并发胎儿脐动脉舒张末期血流缺失或返流(absent or reversed end‐diastolic velocity ,AEDV )的母婴结局。方法:回顾分析2010年1月—2013年11月复旦大学附属妇产科医院产科收治的13例出现 AEDV 的子痫前期(AEDV组)及50例未发生AEDV的重度子痫前期孕妇(对照组)的临床资料并比较。结果:AEDV组胎儿宫内发育迟缓、早产及死胎、新生儿死亡的发生率均明显高于无AEDV组(P<0.05)。两组孕妇的年龄、产次以及羊水过少、妊娠糖尿病发生率和剖宫产率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组新生儿的性别比例、血红蛋白、血PH值、红细胞压积、血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶和血清天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组孕妇的孕龄以及胎儿的出生体质量和血小板数的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对于孕28周后子痫前期的孕妇,如胎儿出现脐动脉AEDV ,则表明母体‐胎盘、胎儿‐胎盘循环障碍,提示胎儿预后不良,应加强监护,尽早终止妊娠。%Objective:To explore the maternal and neonatal outcomes of preeclampsia accompanied by absent or reversed end‐diastolic velocity(ARDEV) in umbilical artery .Methods:The maternal and neonatal clinical data of 13 cases of preeclampsia accompanied by AREDV(AREDV group) ,which were admitted by department of obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 2010 to November 2013 ,were retrospectively analyzed and compared with the data of 50 cases of severe preeclampsia without AREDV (control group) .Results:The incidence rates of intrauterine fetal growth restriction , premature delivery and fetal death ,and neonatal death in AREDV group were significantly higher than those in control group (P0 .05) .There was no significant difference between the two groups in neonatal gender ,hemoglobin

  10. Fatores Prognósticos para o Óbito Perinatal em Gestações com Diástole Zero ou Reversa na Dopplervelocimetria das Artérias Umbilicais Prognostic Parameters for Perinatal Death in Pregnancies with Absent or Reversed End-Diastolic Flow Velocity in the Umbilical Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os fatores prognósticos para o óbito perinatal em gestações com diagnóstico de diástole zero (DZ ou reversa (DR na dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais. Métodos: foram analisadas retrospectivamente 204 gestantes com DZ ou DR, sendo realizados os exames de cardiotocografia, perfil biofísico fetal, índice do líquido amniótico e dopplervelocimetria do ducto venoso e das artérias umbilicais, uterinas, aorta e cerebral média. Em 170 casos foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para determinar a variável com melhor acurácia na predição do óbito perinatal. Resultados: a mortalidade foi de 28 casos de óbito fetal (13,7% e 45 de óbito pós-natal (22,1%. Houve correlação significativa entre os óbitos e as variáveis analisadas. A proporção de óbitos no grupo com recém-nascidos de peso inferior a 1.000 g foi de 74,7% e no grupo com idade gestacional inferior a 31 semanas, de 66,3%. Na regressão logística, o peso do recém-nascido foi a melhor variável capaz de predizer o óbito perinatal (pPurpose: to study the prognostic parameters for perinatal death in pregnancies with absent or reversed end-diastolic flow velocity on umbilical artery dopplervelocimetry. Methods: two hundred and four pregnancies were retrospectively reviewed. The methods used were cardiotocography, fetal biophysical profile, amniotic fluid index and dopplervelocimetry of ductus venosus, fetal aorta, middle cerebral artery, umbilical arteries and uterine artery. The logistic regression model was applied to one hundred and seventy cases in order to determine the most accurate variable for predicting perinatal death. Results: the mortality rates were: 28 cases of intrauterine fetal death (13.7% and 45 neonatal deaths (22.1%. A statistically significant correlation was found between death and the studied variables. The perinatal death rate in the group with birth weight below 1,000 g was 74.7%, and in the group with

  11. 8~10岁农村留守儿童心理理论能力影响因素研究%The influence actors of the ability of theory of mind on rural parent-absent children aged 8-10 year-old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许慧; 贾黎斋; 郑俊英


    目的 探讨性别、年龄和同伴接纳类型对农村留守儿童心理理论能力的影响.方法 以312名农村留守儿童为被试(其中男生162名,女生150名;8岁组102名,9岁组119名,10岁91名),采用二级错误信念任务和同伴提名法测试被试的心理理论能力及同伴接纳类型.使用多因素方差分析、LSD检验和简单效应分析进行统计分析.结果 农村留守儿童心理理论能力的年龄、同伴接纳类型主效应(F=4.57,P=0.011; F=3.82,P=0.005)和性别与年龄、性别与同伴接纳类型的交互作用有统计学意义(F=3.20,P=0.042;F=2.50,P=0.043);心理理论能力的年龄和同伴接纳类型的LSD检验发现:8岁与9岁组、8岁与10岁组的差异有统计学意义(I-J=-0.51,P=0.016;I-J=-0.90,P=0.000),受欢迎组与被拒绝、被忽视和有争议组(I-J=1.05,P=0.001;I-J =0.84,P=0.003; I-J=1.03,P=0.002),被拒绝与普通组(I-J=-0.66,P=0.02),有争议与普通组(I-J=-0.64,P=0.034)儿童的心理理论能力差异有统计学意义;简单效应表明:9岁组的性别差(F=4.98,P=0.026)、女生的年龄差异(F=7.50,P=0.001),有争议组的性别差异(F=5.76,P=0.017)、男生的同伴接纳类型差异(F=4.97,P=0.001)、女生的同伴接纳类型差异(F=2.54,P=0.04)有统计学意义.结论 农村留守儿童心理理论能力与年龄及同伴接纳类型有密切关系.%Objective To explore the influence of gender,age and types of peer acceptance on the ability of theory of mind among rural parent-absent children.Methods 312 rural parent-absent children participated in the study (including 162 boys,150 girls; 102 members of 8 year-old,119 members of 9 year-old,and 91 members of 10 year-old).Their ability of theory of mind and types of peer acceptance were examined by the 2nd-order False-beliefs Tasks and Peer nomination.The date were analyzed by Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA),LSD checkout and Simple effect analysis.Results There were statistically significant

  12. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini


    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  13. A novel DNA joining activity catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase


    Western, L M; Rose, S..J.


    The use of T4 and E. coli DNA ligases in genetic engineering technology is usually associated with nick-closing activity in double stranded DNA or ligation of 'sticky-ends' to produce recombinant DNA molecules. We describe in this communication the ability of T4 DNA ligase to catalyze intramolecular loop formation between annealed oligodeoxyribonucleotides wherein Watson-Crick base pairing is absent on one side of the ligation site. Enzyme concentration, loop size, substrate specificity, and ...

  14. Study on the Correlation Between Absent End-diastolic Velocity in Fetal Umbilical Artery and Pregnancy Outcome%胎儿脐动脉舒张末期血流缺失与妊娠结局的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙江丽; 于海容


    [目的]探讨胎儿脐动脉舒张末期血流缺失(AEDV)与妊娠结局的关系.[方法]产前常规应用脉冲多普勒技术行胎儿脐动脉血流频谱检测,确诊为AEDV孕妇36例,分析AEDV与妊娠合并症、妊娠结局的关系.[结果]36例AEDV病例中,重度子痫前期69.4%(25/36),胎儿生长受限80.6%(29/36),羊水过少22.2%(8/36),妊娠期肝内胆管淤积症11.1%(4/36),妊娠期糖尿病8.3%(3/36);胎儿先天畸形发生率为16.7%(6 / 36),病死率55.6%(20 /36 ).[结论]脐动脉舒张末期血流缺失是脐动脉血流阻力增高的特有表现,表明胎儿-胎盘循环障碍,妊娠合并症增多,胎儿预后不良,临床应给予高度重视.%[Objective] To explore the relationship between absent end diastolic velocity (AEDV) in theumbilical artery and the pregnancy outcome. [Methods]Pulse Doppler was used to measure fetal umbilical ar tery flow. A total of 36 pregnant women were diagnosed as AEDV. The correlation of AEDV with pregnancy complications and pregnancy outcomes was analyzed. [Results] Among 36 AEDV cases, there were 25 cases of severe preeclampsia(69. 4%) , 29 cases of intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) (80. 6%) , 8 cases of oli gohydramnios(22. 2%) , 4 cases of interahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy(ll. 1%) and 3 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus(8. 3%). The incident rate of fetal malformation was 16. 7% (6/36) and the mortality rate was 55. 6%(20/36). [Conclusion]AEDV in the umbilical artery is the unique performance of abnormally in creased resistance of blood flow in the umbilical artery, which suggests fetal placenta circulation barrier, more pregnancy complications and poor prognosis of fetus. Therefore AEDV should be paid attention.

  15. Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Buus, Lillian


    This paper builds on research directions from ‘activity theory’ and ‘learning design’ to provide ‘facilitation’ for students standing within decision making related to selection of web 2.0 tools and university provided web-based applications for supporting students activities within problem...... and project based learning. In the area of problem and project based learning, facilitation is the core term and the teacher often has the role as facilitator or moderator instead of a teacher teaching. Technology adoption for learning activities needs facilitation, which is mostly absent. Sustainable...

  16. Impaired insulin activation and dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is reversed by pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Nicoline Resen


    . No significant abnormalities in GSK-3alpha or -3beta were found in PCOS subjects. Pioglitazone treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and GS activity in PCOS (all P ... of GS including absent dephosphorylation at sites 2+2a contributes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in PCOS. The ability of pioglitazone to enhance insulin sensitivity, in part, involves improved insulin action on GS activity and dephosphorylation at NH2-terminal sites....

  17. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity. (United States)

    Carson, Lloyd


    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities.

  18. Absenteísmo - doença na equipe de enfermagem: relação com a taxa de ocupação Ausentismo - enfermedad en el equipo de enfermería: relación con la tasa de ocupación Absenteeism - disease in the nursing staff: relationship with the occupation tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Regina Sancinetti


    ón, sugeriendo que los profesionales se ausentaron por enfermedad después de haberen sido sometidos a ritmos mayores de trabajoThis is a qualitative descriptive, transversal study aiming to analyze the amount and causes of sick leave of nursing professionals and its relationship with the occupation tax of the hospitalization units in a teaching hospital. The methodology was divided into two phases: demographic characterization of professionals and identification and analysis of absences regarding the amount and type of sick leaves, medical diagnosis and its relationship with the occupation tax of the Hospital. The nursing professionals presented the greatest amount of sick leaves. Diseases of the osteomuscular system and of the connective tissue represented 4,957 days (41.5% of absences and mental and behavioral disorders 3,393 days (28.4%. The monthly percentage of sick licenses was inversely proportional to the occupation tax, suggesting that professionals were absent due to diseases after being submitted to greater work load.

  19. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik


    The cisgenesis concept implies that plants are transformed only with their own genetic materials or genetic materials from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization. Furthermore, foreign sequences such as selection genes and vector-backbone sequences should be absent. We used a barley...... phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four...

  20. A survey of orphan enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouliot Yannick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using computational database searches, we have demonstrated previously that no gene sequences could be found for at least 36% of enzyme activities that have been assigned an Enzyme Commission number. Here we present a follow-up literature-based survey involving a statistically significant sample of such "orphan" activities. The survey was intended to determine whether sequences for these enzyme activities are truly unknown, or whether these sequences are absent from the public sequence databases but can be found in the literature. Results We demonstrate that for ~80% of sampled orphans, the absence of sequence data is bona fide. Our analyses further substantiate the notion that many of these enzyme activities play biologically important roles. Conclusion This survey points toward significant scientific cost of having such a large fraction of characterized enzyme activities disconnected from sequence data. It also suggests that a larger effort, beginning with a comprehensive survey of all putative orphan activities, would resolve nearly 300 artifactual orphans and reconnect a wealth of enzyme research with modern genomics. For these reasons, we propose that a systematic effort to identify the cognate genes of orphan enzymes be undertaken.

  1. Analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor specific transcriptome: effect of receptor expression level and an activating mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W; Pedersen, Nina; Damstrup, Lars;


    moderately expressed or overexpressed at an in-itself transforming level. These changes were compared to those induced by the naturally occurring constitutively active variant EGFRvIII. This study provides novel insight on the activities and mechanisms of EGFRvIII and EGFR mediated transformation, as genes...... by interferons. Expression of this module was absent in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line and the parental cell line. Treatment with the specific EGFR inhibitor AG1478 indicated that the regulations were primary, receptor-mediated events. Furthermore, activation of this module correlated with activation of STAT1...

  2. Presença ausente e ausência presente do Estado na produção do espaço para o turismo no Vale do Ribeira paulista Présence absente et absence présente de l’État dans la production de l’espace touristique dans la vallée du Ribeira, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Todesco


    desenvolvimento do ecoturismo na região, em certa medida, dependa do nível de organização social de cada município ou comunidade e de suas capacidades em formular projetos para a captação de recursos públicos, ou do interesse de organizações exógenas em implantar projetos na região. Período, portanto, em que temos no Vale do Ribeira uma “ausência presente do Estado”.La région de la vallée du Ribeira, situé dans le sud de l’État de São Paulo, possède 20% des vestiges de la Forêt Atlantique du Brésil et a le plus bas indices de développement humain de l’État de plus grande densité technico-scientifique-informationnel et de capital du pays. L’actuelle configuration socio-spatiale de cette région est le produit d’un processus historique marqué par l’action et l’inaction de l’État, qui joue son rôle dans la production de l’espace de différentes manières, en fonction du mouvement de l’histoire. Lors de l’examen des politiques publiques pour le développement régional concernant la vallée, des années 60 aux début des années 80, on observe une action de l’Etat centralisée et inefficace, sans participation de la société civile dans le processus de production de ses politiques, une période que nous qualifions de «présence absente de l’État dans la vallée du Ribeira“. Depuis les années 80, un certain nombre de facteurs ont conduit la région à des problèmes et des défis nouveaux. La politique de démocratisation, l’avancée du néolibéralisme, la préoccupation croissante au sujet des questions d’environnement, le nombre croissant d’ONGs et de la décentralisation des politiques publiques amènent l’État à une nouvelle façon de jouer son rôle dans la production de l’espace. Dans ce contexte, il y a un net changement d’orientation des actions ciblées de l’État à la vallée du Ribeira, principalement influencé par les ONG environnementales, qui fonctionnent maintenant activement dans l

  3. Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakkal Jovvian George

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.

  4. Inflammasome activation in decompensated liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Inflammation participates in the pathogenesis of many liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. Certaininflammatory citokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β andIL-18, are produced after the activation of a multiproteincomplex known as the inflammasome. Activation of theinflammasome has been documented in several liverdiseases, but its role in the development and progressionof liver cirrhosis or the complications associated withthis disease is still largely unknown. We have recentlystudied the impact of the inflammasome in the sterileinflammatory response that takes place in the asciticfluid of patients with decompensated cirrhosis, providingevidence that activation of the absent in melanoma2 (AIM2) inflammasome is an important response inthese patients. Ascitic fluid-derived macrophages wereable to mount a very robust AIM2-mediated responseeven in the absence of a priming signal, which is usuallyrequired for the full activation of all the inflammasomes.In addition, high level of inflammasome activation inthese patients was associated with a higher degree ofliver disease and an increased incidence of spontaneousbacterial peritonitis. These results may help explain theexacerbated inflammatory response that usually occursin patients with decompensated cirrhosis in the absenceof detectable infections. Thus, inflammasomes shouldbe considered as possible therapeutic targets in sterileinflammatory complications in patients with cirrhosis.

  5. Coronal activity from the ASAS eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, D M; Paczynski, B; Pojmanski, G; Pilecki, B


    We combine the catalogue of eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) with the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). The combination results in 836 eclipsing binaries that display coronal activity and is the largest sample of active binary stars assembled to date. By using the (V-I) colors of the ASAS eclipsing binary catalogue, we are able to determine the distances and thus bolometric luminosities for the majority of eclipsing binaries that display significant stellar activity. A typical value for the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric luminosity is L_X/L_bol ~ a few x 10^-4, similar to the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric flux F_X/F_bol in the most active regions of the Sun. Unlike rapidly rotating isolated late-type dwarfs -- stars with significant outer convection zones -- a tight correlation between Rossby number and activity of eclipsing binaries is absent. We find evidence for the saturation effect and marginal evidence for the so-called "super-saturation" phenomena. Our work shows that wide-...


    Yilmaz, Ugur; Vicars, Brenda; Yang, Claire C.


    We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited 7 males with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction and 6 males who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS subjects, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. In the SCI group, all but one subject had reproducible hand SSRs. None of these subjects had ECA or foot SSRs. All the PS subjects had reproducible ECA and SSRs, both preoperatively and postoperatively. There was no difference in the latency and amplitude measurements of ECA and SSRs in the postoperative compared to the preoperative period (p>0.05). In conclusion, ECA is absent in men with SCI above the sympathetic outflow to the genitalia. In men following radical pelvic surgery, ECA is preserved, indicating the preservation of sympathetic fibers. PMID:19609298

  7. Structural dynamics of troponin during activation of skeletal muscle (United States)

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Sevrieva, Ivanka R.; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm


    Time-resolved changes in the conformation of troponin in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle were followed during activation in situ by photolysis of caged calcium using bifunctional fluorescent probes in the regulatory and the coiled-coil (IT arm) domains of troponin. Three sequential steps in the activation mechanism were identified. The fastest step (1,100 s−1) matches the rate of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory domain but also dominates the motion of the IT arm. The second step (120 s−1) coincides with the azimuthal motion of tropomyosin around the thin filament. The third step (15 s−1) was shown by three independent approaches to track myosin head binding to the thin filament, but is absent in the regulatory head. The results lead to a four-state structural kinetic model that describes the molecular mechanism of muscle activation in the thin filament–myosin head complex under physiological conditions. PMID:24616505

  8. Fatores preditores para o óbito neonatal em gestações com diástole zero ou reversa na doplervelocimetria da artéria umbilical Predictor parameters of neonatal death in gestations with absent or reverse end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Martins Neto


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores de risco antenatais e pós-natais para o óbito neonatal em gestações com diástole zero (DZ ou reversa (DR na doplervelocimetria da artéria umbilical. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, retrospectivo, inferencial, a partir de 48 prontuários de gestações únicas com DZ ou DR, idade gestacional entre 24 e 34 semanas, em uma maternidade no Nordeste do Brasil. A média de idade foi de 27,3 anos (DP: 7,9. Vinte (41,7% eram primigestas. Síndromes hipertensivas foram observadas em 44 (91,7% casos. Trinta e cinco (72,9% apresentavam DZ e 13 (27,1% DR. Procedeu-se inicialmente à análise univariada (teste t de Student e teste Exato de Fisher, relacionando os parâmetros com o desfecho avaliado (óbito neonatal. As variáveis que apresentaram associação significativa foram incluídas no modelo de regressão logística (Estatística de Wald. O nível de significância utilizado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: a mortalidade perinatal foi de 64,6% (31/48. Ocorreram cinco óbitos fetais e 26 neonatais. A média de idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico foi de 27,9 (DP: 2,8 semanas. A resolução da gestação antes de 24 horas após o diagnóstico ocorreu em 52,1% dos casos. Parto abdominal foi realizado em 85,4% dos casos. Os recém-nascidos pesaram em média 975,9 g (DP: 457,5. Vinte e quatro (57,1% apresentaram Apgar menor que 7 no primeiro minuto e 21,4%, no quinto. A idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico, o peso ao nascer e o Apgar de primeiro minuto revelaram-se variáveis significativamente relacionadas com o óbito neonatal (valores de p foram, respectivamente, 0,008; 0,004 e 0,020. As razões de chance foi de 6,6; 25,3 e 13,8 para o óbito neonatal, quando o diagnóstico foi estabelecido até a 28ª semana, peso PURPOSE: to evaluate the antenatal and postnatal risk factors of neonatal death in pregnancies with absent (DZ or reverse (DR end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery. METHODS: a cross

  9. A presença ausente do racial: discursos políticos e pedagógicos sobre História, "Portugal" e (pós-colonialismo The absent presence of racial: political and pedagogical discourses on History, 'Portugal' and (postcolonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Araújo


    in/visibility. The racial, being considered as a result from the presence of the "other" from the colony, is therefore naturally irrelevant to the formation of the national-metropolitan space and, more generally, to the notion of "Europeanness". From this analysis, we illustrate the depoliticization of racism through the naturalization of colonialism and the reification of the 'immigrant imaginary'; accordingly, racism is understood as something that happens to "others" - ethno-racially marked - but that does not relate to what "we" are, a "we" that, actually, is never questioned. This paper is divided in three sections: (i we examine the consolidation of the absent presence of the 'racial' considering how a cycle of silence and consensus has been consolidated by the very initiatives to combat racism - marked by anti-racialism - by global organizations such as UNESCO. We further examine how the dissolution of the 'racial' is being produced by the association between racism and immigration in the contemporary European context, both in politics and in faculty; (ii we present our empirical work and analysis of contemporary history textbooks in Portugal. We show that debates about history and, more specifically, about the teaching of colonialism and slavery have emptied its political relevance and evaded the 'racial' in the understanding of so-called Atlantic slavery, since the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, (iii finally, we conclude with an analysis of the contours of what we call the "(post colonial consensus" in Portugal, within a broader context of the emptying of the plausibility of a vocabulary that takes into account 'racial'/racism in contemporary societies.

  10. A Clinical Drug Library Screen Identifies Tosufloxacin as Being Highly Active against Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Niu


    Full Text Available To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Evseeva


    Full Text Available Plague has been the cause of three pandemics and has led to the death of millions of people. Plague is a typical zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis that circulates in populations of wild rodents inhabiting natural plague foci on all continents except for Australia. Transmission of plague is provided by flea bites. Circulation of Y. pestis in natural plague foci is supported by a numerous of pathogenicity factors. This review explores one of them, plasminogen activator Pla. This protein is one of representatives of omptins, a family of enterobacterial outer membrane proteases that are responsible for colonization of specific organs or even infection generalization as a result of successful overcoming of the host innate immunity. The review reflects the history of its discovery and studying of its genetic control, biosynthesis, isolation and purification, physicochemical properties. Highly purified preparations of plasminogen activator are deficient in enzymatic activities but renaturation in the presence of Y. pestis lipooligosaccharide restores enzymatic properties of Pla. This pathogenicity factor is absent in representatives of the most ancient phylogenetic group of the plague pathogen, bv. caucasica, while the ancestor of other groups of Y. pestis subsp. microtus obtained in result of horizontal transfer Pla isoform with characteristics similar to properties of omptins from the less virulent enterobacteria. After that in the course of microevolution the “classic” isoform of Pla with increased protease activity was selected that is typical of all highly virulent for humans strains of Y. pestis subsp. pestis. The “classic” isoform of Pla Y. pestis is functionally similar to mammalian plasminogen activators transforming plasminogen into plasmin with the help of limited proteolysis. Pla protease activating plasminogen and also degrading the main plasmin inhibitor — α2-antiplasmin and, respectively, determining Y. pestis ability to lyse

  12. Physical activity (United States)

    ... this page: // Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  13. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg


    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  14. Silicon active photonic devices (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  15. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J


    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  16. Activated Charcoal (United States)

    Activated Carbon, Animal Charcoal, Carbo Vegetabilis, Carbon, Carbón Activado, Charbon Actif, Charbon Activé, Charbon Animal, Charbon Médicinal, Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, ...

  17. Molecular kinetics. Ras activation by SOS: allosteric regulation by altered fluctuation dynamics. (United States)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen; Christensen, Sune M; Abel, Steven M; Iwig, Jeff; Wu, Hung-Jen; Gureasko, Jodi; Rhodes, Christopher; Petit, Rebecca S; Hansen, Scott D; Thill, Peter; Yu, Cheng-Han; Stamou, Dimitrios; Chakraborty, Arup K; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T


    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS by Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather than the ensemble average.

  18. Activation of multiple phoneme associates of graphemes in visual word recognition. (United States)

    Lange, Marielle


    One general issue in the domain of visual word recognition is to delineate the nature of readers' knowledge of the print-sound mapping. A more specific question is to determine whether multiple grapheme-phoneme associations are available and activated during the phonological transcoding of a letter string. Evidence for the activation of irregular associations during print-to-sound transcoding, independently from lexical influences, was assessed in a letter detection task by examining performance on target-absent pseudowords. We contrasted two types of pseudowords that could be considered homophone with a real word by application of either grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules or of multiple phonemic activation. Performance on both types of homophones was compared to nonhomophone control pseudowords, strictly equivalent in terms of orthographic similarity to the base words. The finding of a homophony disadvantage for the homophones by multiple activation was interpreted as evidence for multiple phonemic activation in the print-to-sound conversion system.

  19. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F


    The mechanisms responsible for contention of activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, as in diseases such as epilepsy that affects the neuronal networks, and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided in modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory through which activity contention is reached by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, viz. random, Barabasi-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this ...

  20. Adrenal hormones and increase of liver tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan pyrrolase activity after immobilization in rats. (United States)

    Németh, S; Vigas, M


    In adrenomedullectomized rats the postimmobilization increase of liver tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan pyrrolase activity was similar as in intact animals, wherease in adrenalectomized rats this response was completely absent. In intact animals a positive correlation between the magnitude of the response of both enzymes and the duration of immobilization and/or the extent of plasma corticosterone increase was observedmit is concluded that the postimmobilization hyperactivity of both enzymes arises exclusively as a consequence of hypercorticosteronaemia, catecholamines and other hormones being without any influence on this response.

  1. Two major medicinal honeys have different mechanisms of bactericidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus H S Kwakman

    Full Text Available Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis. After 24 hours of incubation, both honeys killed all tested bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but manuka honey retained activity up to higher dilutions than RS honey. Bee defensin-1 and H₂O₂ were the major factors involved in rapid bactericidal activity of RS honey. These factors were absent in manuka honey, but this honey contained 44-fold higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than RS honey. Methylglyoxal was a major bactericidal factor in manuka honey, but after neutralization of this compound manuka honey retained bactericidal activity due to several unknown factors. RS and manuka honey have highly distinct compositions of bactericidal factors, resulting in large differences in bactericidal activity.

  2. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik


    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities. (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter


    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman


    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  5. [Actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China]. (United States)

    Wei, Shi-hui; Zhao, Jia-liang


    Neuro-ophthalmology is a medical subspecialty concerned on the nervous system diseases with ocular manifestations, this could be both sensory and motor, including ocular movements, papillary responses, and the structure changes of the brain and nervous system with ocular manifestations. Although neuro-ophthalmology in China has achieved some progress, certain problems still exist, such as the professional neuro-ophthalmology team and related academic organization are still absent in China; neuro-ophthalmology knowledge has not been popularized; the new technologies for diagnosis and treatment in neuro-ophthalmology have not been absorbed and applied; the coordination and cooperation with other related disciplines are not enough. We should actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China, including organization of a professional team of neuro-ophthalmology, popularization of neuro-ophthalmology knowledge to the ophthalmologists, development of research work in neuro-ophthalmology and the collaboration with international neuro-ophthalmologists.

  6. Infrared Spectra and Hydrogen Bonds of Biologically Active Benzaldehydes (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shimko, A. N.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.


    IR-Fourier spectra of solutions and crystals of biologically active benzaldehyde derivatives were studied. Specific features of the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds were analyzed. Spectral signatures that characterized participation of the hydroxyl OH group and also the OCH3 and C=O groups in the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the three different types O-H···O-H, O-H···O-CH3, and O-H···O=C were revealed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the types O-H···O-H and O-H···O-CH3 were absent for benzaldehyde derivatives in the crystal phase. Only hydroxyl and carbonyl groups participated in intermolecular interactions. This resulted in the formation of linear intermolecular dimers. Seven various configurations of the linear dimers were identified in solutions and crystals.

  7. Activity Theory. (United States)

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.


    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  8. Instilling activism in trustees. (United States)

    Stern, A R


    One of the great challenges in America today is the stewardship of its not-for-profit institutions. While the profit motive may be absent in the running of such organizations, the demand for thoughtful budgeting, cost accounting, and financial skills still exists. Voluntary community hospitals in particular--given the economic realities of the day--need leadership, reciprocal education, and future planning. Speaking from his own experience, the author presents an activist's perspective on hospital boards; but service to other types of not-for-profit institutions involves similar demands for change.

  9. Separate evaluation of target facilitation and distractor suppression in the activity of macaque lateral intraparietal neurons during visual search. (United States)

    Nishida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Tadashi


    During visual search, neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) discriminate the target from distractors by exhibiting stronger activation when the target appears within the receptive field than when it appears outside the receptive field. It is generally thought that such target-discriminative activity is produced by the combination of target-related facilitation and distractor-related suppression. However, little is known about how the target-discriminative activity is constituted by these two types of neural modulation. To address this issue, we recorded activity from LIP of monkeys performing a visual search task that consisted of target-present and target-absent trials. Monkeys had to make a saccade to a target in the target-present trials, whereas they had to maintain fixation in the target-absent trials, in which only distractors were presented. By introducing the activity from the latter trials as neutral activity, we were able to separate the target-discriminative activity into target-related elevation and distractor-related reduction components. We found that the target-discriminative activity of most LIP neurons consisted of the combination of target-related elevation and distractor-related reduction or only target-related elevation. In contrast, target-discriminative activity composed of only distractor-related reduction was observed for very few neurons. We also found that, on average, target-related elevation was stronger and occurred earlier compared with distractor-related reduction. Finally, we consider possible underlying mechanisms, including lateral inhibitory interactions, responsible for target-discriminative activity in visual search. The present findings provide insight into how neuronal modulations shape target-discriminative activity during visual search.

  10. Spt5 accumulation at variable genes distinguishes somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells from ex vivo-activated cells. (United States)

    Maul, Robert W; Cao, Zheng; Venkataraman, Lakshmi; Giorgetti, Carol A; Press, Joan L; Denizot, Yves; Du, Hansen; Sen, Ranjan; Gearhart, Patricia J


    Variable (V) genes of immunoglobulins undergo somatic hypermutation by activation-induced deaminase (AID) to generate amino acid substitutions that encode antibodies with increased affinity for antigen. Hypermutation is restricted to germinal center B cells and cannot be recapitulated in ex vivo-activated splenic cells, even though the latter express high levels of AID. This suggests that there is a specific feature of antigen activation in germinal centers that recruits AID to V genes which is absent in mitogen-activated cultured cells. Using two Igh knock-in mouse models, we found that RNA polymerase II accumulates in V regions in B cells after both types of stimulation for an extended distance of 1.2 kb from the TATA box. The paused polymerases generate abundant single-strand DNA targets for AID. However, there is a distinct accumulation of the initiating form of polymerase, along with the transcription cofactor Spt5 and AID, in the V region from germinal center cells, which is totally absent in cultured cells. These data support a model where mutations are prevalent in germinal center cells, but not in ex vivo cells, because the initiating form of polymerase is retained, which affects Spt5 and AID recruitment.

  11. Identifying Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Adrian S


    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  12. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;


    BACKGROUND: The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational...... to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements...... as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation...

  13. Translating DPYD genotype into DPD phenotype: using the DPYD gene activity score. (United States)

    Henricks, Linda M; Lunenburg, Carin A T C; Meulendijks, Didier; Gelderblom, Hans; Cats, Annemieke; Swen, Jesse J; Schellens, Jan H M; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan


    The dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme (DPD, encoded by the gene DPYD) plays a key role in the metabolism of fluoropyrimidines. DPD deficiency occurs in 4-5% of the population and is associated with severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. Several SNPs in DPYD have been described that lead to absent or reduced enzyme activity, including DPYD*2A, DPYD*13, c.2846A>T and c.1236G>A/haplotype B3. Since these SNPs differ in their effect on DPD enzyme activity, a differentiated dose adaption is recommended. We propose the gene activity score for translating DPYD genotype into phenotype, accounting for differences in functionality of SNPs. This method can be used to standardize individualized fluoropyrimidine dose adjustments, resulting in optimal safety and effectiveness.

  14. Testicular activity during different phases of reproductive cycle in the adrenalectomized lizard, Mabuya carinata (SCHN.). (United States)

    Yajurvedi, H N; Chandramohan, K


    The effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on the spermatogenetic and steroidogenic activity of the testis in different phases of the reproductive cycle of Mabuya carinata have been investigated. Adrenalectomy results in a significant decrease in the mean number of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes, the diameters of the testis and tubule, and the activity levels of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in recrudescent, breeding, regressing, and quiescent phases of the reproductive cycle when compared with those of controls. Further, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were absent in the adrenalectomized lizards in all the phases of the cycle. The results indicate the involvement of the adrenals in the recrudescence and maintenance of testicular activity in M. carinata.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of a case with anencephaly-omphalocele-unilateral absent radial ray. (United States)

    Ceylaner, S; Ceylaner, G; Altun, M; Coşkun, A; Danisman, N


    We report here a female fetus with anencephaly, omphalocele and unilateral radial aplasia. The combination of two of these three malformations were reported in a number of patients diagnosed as Gershoni-Barush syndrome, ORR phenotype, VATER association, Schisis association, OEIS complex, Schinzel phocomelia syndrome and Acalvaria but they have not been reported all together in the same patient up to date. We hypothesize that, some or all these syndromes given above may be related etiologically.

  16. Pendrin and NIS antibodies are absent in healthy individuals and are rare in autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas H; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Weetman, Anthony P;


    prevalence than the controls: NISAb: 17% vs 0% (P Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) had NISAb, (P ...OBJECTIVE: Antibodies against thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase and the TSH receptor are accepted as pathophysiological and diagnostic biomarkers in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). In contrast, the prevalence, aetiology and clinical relevance of autoantibodies against the human sodium...

  17. Angiographic evidence of absent ductus arteriosus in severe right ventricular outflow obstruction. (United States)

    Lacina, S J; Hamilton, W T; Thilenius, O G; Bharati, S; Lev, M; Arcilla, R A


    The angiocardiograms of 5 newborn infants with autopsy and/or surgically-proven congenital absence of the ductus arteriosus (ADA) and right ventricular outflow obstruction (Group A), and of 14 neonates with pulmonary atresia complex and patent ductus arteriosus (Group B) were reviewed. Aortic size was similar in both groups; however, the diameters of the right and left pulmonary arteries were much smaller in Group A than in Group B (right pulmonary artery: 2.6 vs 4.5 mm, P less than 0.005; left pulmonary artery: 2.5 vs 4.3 mm, P less than 0.005). Extensive bronchial collaterals were observed in Group A but not in Group B. Tricuspid aortic valve stenosis was present in 2 patients in Group A but in none in Group B. The diagnosis of ADA may be made in newborn infants with severe right ventricular outflow obstruction if the angiocardiograms reveal hypoplasia of the pulmonary arteries, extensive bronchial collaterals, and nonvisualization of the ductus arteriosus. Other suggestive features include aortic valve stenosis and/or right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.

  18. Evidence that urocortin is absent from neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavani J.A.


    Full Text Available The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of UCN in avian brain and to investigate by immunohistochemical analysis the possible use of this substance as an EWN marker in a non-mammalian class of vertebrates. Brain tissue of pigeons was incubated with a specific antibody against UCN and the results showed labeling of many small neurons, forming a double wing in the dorsal mesodiencephalic transition area. Their size and shape, however, differed from those of EWN neurons, and they were preferentially located rostral to the EWN. Double-label experiments employing an antibody against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT showed that UCN is not localized to the cholinergic cells of the EWN and confirmed the rostral distributionof UCN never overlapping the ChAT+ EWN cells. Taken together, these results suggest that, at least in pigeons, the UCN+ population does not belong to the traditionally defined EWN.

  19. Absent Presences: The Recognition of Social Class and Gender Dimensions within Peer Assessment Interactions (United States)

    Crossouard, Barbara


    This article focuses on the discursive characteristics of peer assessment interactions, drawing upon recent research into formative assessment within a task design involving extended project-based work tackled in groups by pupils. Case studies were conducted within two schools in socially deprived areas of Scotland. They included classroom…

  20. Why has a large Legionnaires’ disease outbreak been absent from public debate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisbela Lopes

    Full Text Available The Legionnaires’ disease outbreak that hit Portugal in November 2014 was the third largest worldwide and was declared a “great public health emergency”. Nonetheless, the Portuguese outbreak, despite killing 12 people and infecting 375 others did not promote extensive media coverage, nor did it make it into the political debate. We conducted a quantitative analysis of 83 news pieces on Legionella published in four national newspapers, and interviewed the journalists who covered this outbreak. The communication process was controlled by a small group of official sources and the outbreak was pushed away from news lineups due to two political scandals. The production of another news wave made the outbreak’s news wave to break prematurely.

  1. Adaptive associations between social cognition and emotion regulation are absent in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesseca Elise Rowland


    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM. These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophising and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophising and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with previous studies.

  2. Kidney transplantation in a patient with absent right common iliac artery and congenital renal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Ming Tay


    Conclusion: Kidney transplantation in such cases is safe and we recommend routine pre-operative imaging of patients known to have congenital genitourniary abnormalities. The kidney should be implanted heterotopically to the contralateral side of the vascular anomaly and care must be taken to preserve vascular supply to the lower limbs.

  3. PACSIN 1 interacts with huntingtin and is absent from synaptic varicosities in presymptomatic Huntington's disease brains. (United States)

    Modregger, Jan; DiProspero, Nicholas A; Charles, Vinod; Tagle, Danilo A; Plomann, Markus


    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a pathological expansion of a CAG repeat in the first exon of the gene coding for huntingtin, resulting in an abnormally long polyglutamine stretch. Despite its widespread expression, mutant huntingtin leads to selective neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Here we report that the neurospecific phosphoprotein PACSIN 1, which has been implicated as playing a central role in synaptic vesicle recycling, interacts with huntingtin via its C-terminal SH3 domain. Moreover, two other isoforms, PACSIN 2 and 3, which show a wider tissue distribution including the brain, do not interact with huntingtin despite a highly conserved SH3 domain. Furthermore, this interaction is repeat-length-dependent and is enhanced with mutant huntingtin, possibly causing the sequestration of PACSIN 1. Normally, PACSIN 1 is located along neurites and within synaptic boutons, but in HD patient neurons, there is a progressive loss of PACSIN 1 immunostaining in synaptic varicosities, beginning in presymptomatic and early-stage HD. Further, PACSIN 1 immunostaining of HD patient tissue reveals a more cytoplasmic distribution of the protein, with particular concentration in the perinuclear region coincident with mutant huntingtin. Thus, the specific interaction of huntingtin with the neuronal PACSIN isoform, PACSIN 1, and its altered intracellular distribution in pathological tissue, together with the observed differences in the binding behavior, suggest a role for PACSIN 1 during early stages of the selective neuropathology of HD.

  4. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch


    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.



    Ashok S; Ankit; Aundhakar; Lekha; Umardand


    It is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the absence of the radius bone in the forearm and a dramatically reduced platelet count. This syndrome may occur as a part of the 1q21.1 deletion syndrome. Symptoms of thrombocytopenia or a lowered platelet count leads to bruising and potentially life-threatening haemorrhage. Affected children who survive this period and do not have damaging haemorrhages in the brain usually have a normal life expectancy and normal intellectual develo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S


    Full Text Available It is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the absence of the radius bone in the forearm and a dramatically reduced platelet count. This syndrome may occur as a part of the 1q21.1 deletion syndrome. Symptoms of thrombocytopenia or a lowered platelet count leads to bruising and potentially life-threatening haemorrhage. Affected children who survive this period and do not have damaging haemorrhages in the brain usually have a normal life expectancy and normal intellectual development. Other common links between with TAR seem to include heart problems, kidney problems, knee joint problems, frequently lactose intolerance and often thumb hypoplasia. The incidence is 0.5-1 per 100,000 live births. Mutations in the RBM8A gene cause TAR syndrome. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This disorder is to be differentiated from Holt-Oram syndrome, which has similar presentation. Prevention of bleeding with physiotherapy and occupational therapy are mainstay of management. With this case report we try to discuss the complexity of the condition and its management in the neonatal period.

  7. Educated Girls, Absent Grooms, and Runaway Brides: Narrating Social Change in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Fraser Schoen


    Full Text Available This article explores the folk legend as one articulation of the social control of women in rural Bangladesh. Stories and legends emerged when women were interviewed about the effects of men leaving the village for wage-based jobs in cities and abroad. Interviews were analyzed via immersion, theme generation, and open coding (MARSHALL & ROSSMAN, 2006 with a focus on women's own narratives and meaning-making, which allowed for these stories to be understood as significant components of people's everyday realities (GUBRIUM & HOLSTEIN, 2009. These stories are consistent with GOLDSTEIN's (2004 definition of a legend: they are not personal stories yet they are not completely impersonal (friend-of-a-friend subject, they take on a believe-it-or-not tone, and telling them presents minimal risk to the narrator. Like other folk legends, these stories act as a means to reinforce the social order during a time of social change. As other research has shown (COONTZ, 1999; COOPER, LINSTROTH & CHAITLIN, 2009; GREENE, 1991; MADRIZ, 1997, stories as social control mechanisms focus specifically and uniquely on women during times of social change. Respondents discuss "accidents" and "scandals" that occur when women do not adhere to marriage customs or the traditional dichotomy of public and domestic spheres. URN:

  8. Postprandial prolactin suppression appears absent in antipsychotic-treated male patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Klara; Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Bak, Nikolaj;


    INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotics and hyperprolactinemia are both considered risk factors of metabolic disturbances and diabetes. Investigations on prolactin response to meal ingestion in antipsychotic-treated patients are missing...

  9. Broadly altered gene expression in blood leukocytes in essential hypertension is absent during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, H; Gaillard, CAJM; van der Meijden, BB; Dijstelbloem, HM; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; van Leenen, D; Holstege, FCP; Joles, JA; Bluyssen, HAR; Koomans, HA; Braam, B


    We assessed whether large-scale expression profiling of leukocytes of patients with essential hypertension reflects characteristics of systemic disease and whether such changes are responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Total RNA from leukocytes were obtained from untreated (n=6) and treated (n=6)

  10. The Feature Positive Effect in Legal Decision Making: processing and evaluating present absent forensic evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eerland (Anita)


    textabstractOn the 29th of May 2001 Kees B. was found guilty for the rape and murder of Nienke Kleiss, a ten year old Dutch girl. There was virtually no forensic evidence that he had committed this crime, but he had confessed, and so the police was convinced of his guilt. The fact that he retracted

  11. Marguerite Yourcenar’s Le Labyrinthe du Monde: autobiography of an absent self?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Snyman


    Full Text Available Marguerite Yourcenar’s autobiography Le Labyrinthe du monde surprised readers by its lack of self-representation and by being mainly a lengthy exploration of the genealogy of her ancestors. This article pursues the hypothesis that although Yourcenar is considered an autonomous creator, uninfluenced by the Parisian avant-garde of the sixties and seventies, certain aspects of her practice of self-representation draw on a new approach to historiography of which Michel Foucault, for example, was one of the earliest practitioners.

  12. A Morgagni hernia with an absent ductus venosus: An unusual case causing unusual consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Phillis


    Full Text Available A Morgagni hernia is a rare form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH, comprising only 3–5% of all CDH cases. Agenesis of the ductus venosus with direct umbilical vein blood flow to the heart is a relatively uncommon finding that is often fatal in utero. We present a case of a 2-month-old infant with Morgagni hernia and absence of the ductus venosus. These combined defects led to neovascularization of the liver, severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. In this report, we describe a Morgagni hernia that's presentation resembled that of a Bochdalek hernia likely because of concomitant absence of the ductus venosus causing severe pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Combinations of Genetic Data Present in Bipolar Patients, but Absent in Control Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole A; Bennike, Bente;


    The main objective of the study was to find combinations of genetic variants significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In a previous study of bipolar disorder, combinations of three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes taken from 803 SNPs were analyzed, and four clusters of combin...... and from the four previous clusters were identified in the genomes of 209 of the 607 patients in the study whereas none of the 1355 control participants had any of these combinations in their genome....

  14. LAD-1 is absent in a subset of junctional epidermolysis bullosa patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovich, MP; Giudice, GJ; Balding, S; Jonkman, MF; Pas, HH; McGuire, JS; Herron, GS; BrucknerTuderman, L


    The anchoring filament protein LAD-1 has been recently identified as the target of autoantibodies in the acquired blistering disorder linear IgA bullous dermatosis. Because this protein appears to be involved in the process of dermal-epidermal cohesion, this study sought to determine the involvement

  15. Motor hysteresis in a sequential grasping and pointing task is absent in task-critical joints. (United States)

    Schütz, Christoph; Weigelt, Matthias; Schack, Thomas


    In a prior study (Schütz et al. in Exp Brain Res 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4608-6 ), we demonstrated that the cognitive cost of motor planning did not differ in a vertical pointing and grasping task. It was unclear whether the similar cost implied that both tasks required the same number of independent degrees of freedom (IDOFs) or that the number of IDOFs did not affect motor planning. To differentiate between both cases, a reanalysis of the prior data was conducted. The number of IDOFs in the pointing and grasping tasks was computed by factor analysis. In both tasks, two IDOFs were used, which was the minimum number required for position control. This indicates that hand alignment in the grasping task did not require an additional IDOF. No conclusions regarding the link between the cognitive cost of motor planning and the number of IDOFs could be drawn. A subset of task-critical joint angles was not affected by motor hysteresis. This indicates that a joint's susceptibility to motor hysteresis depends on its relevance to the task goal. In task-critical joints, planning cost minimization by motor plan reuse is suppressed in favor of the task goal.

  16. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)


    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Can widespread hypersensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome be substantiated if neck and arm pain are absent? (United States)

    Schmid, A B; Soon, B T C; Wasner, G; Coppieters, M W


    Recent studies demonstrated that patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) have signs of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in extra-median territories suggesting an involvement of central pain mechanisms. As previous studies included patients with shoulder/arm symptoms or neck pain, a potential influence of these coexisting disorders cannot be excluded. This study therefore evaluated whether widespread sensory changes (hypoesthesia or hyperalgesia) are present in patients with unilateral CTS in the absence of coexisting disorders. Twenty-six patients with unilateral CTS with symptoms localised to their hand and 26 healthy controls participated in the study. A comprehensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds was performed over the hands (median, ulnar and radial innervation area), lateral elbows, neck and tibialis anterior muscle. Patients with CTS demonstrated thermal and mechanical hypoesthesia in the hand but not at distant sites. Thermal or mechanical hyperalgesia was not identified at any location with traditional QST threshold testing. However, patients with CTS rated the pain during thermal pain testing significantly higher than healthy participants. This was especially apparent for heat pain ratings which were elevated not only in the affected hand but also in the neck and tibialis anterior muscle. In conclusion, CTS alone in the absence of coexisting neck and arm pain does not account for sensory changes outside the affected hand as determined by traditional QST threshold testing. Elevated pain ratings may however be an early indication of central pain mechanisms.

  18. Pathological personality traits among patients with absent, current, and remitted substance use disorders. (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Grilo, Carlos M; Ansell, Emily B; McGlashan, Thomas H; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; Stout, Robert L


    Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18-45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as assessed by DSM-IV semi-structured interview. Results corroborated previous research in showing associations of negative temperament and disinhibition to SUD, highlighting the importance of these traits for indicating substance use proclivity or the chronic effects of substance use. Certain traits (manipulativeness, self-harm, disinhibition, and impulsivity for AUD, and disinhibition and exhibitionism for NASUD) were higher among individuals with current relative to past diagnoses, perhaps indicating concurrent effects of substance abuse on personality. The positive temperament characteristics detachment and entitlement distinguished AUDs and NASUDs, respectively, perhaps clarifying why this higher order trait tends to show limited relations to SUD generally. These findings suggest the importance of systematically integrating pathological and normative traits in reference to substance-related diagnosis.

  19. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica. (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans


    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  20. Absent cavum septum pellucidum: a review with emphasis on associated commissural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarakumar, Dinesh K.; Farley, Sarah A.; Nixon, Jason N. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Smith, Crysela M. [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States); Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Dighe, Manjiri K. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is an important fetal midline forebrain landmark, and its absence often signifies additional underlying malformations. Frequently detected by prenatal sonography, absence of the CSP requires further imaging with pre- or postnatal MRI to characterize the accompanying abnormalities. This article reviews the developmental anatomy of the CSP and the pivotal role of commissurization in normal development. An understanding of the patterns of commissural abnormalities associated with absence of the CSP can lead to improved characterization of the underlying spectrum of pathology. (orig.)

  1. The Earth Is Flat when Personally Significant Experiences with the Sphericity of the Earth Are Absent (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian


    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A…

  2. Moralizing, normalizing or absent teachers – how children’s fiction represents differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Roberto Kirchof


    Full Text Available Due to a increase of children’s fiction addressing the subject of ‘differences’ in the last few years in the Brazilian context, this study proposes a reflection on the way these books represent differences related to minority groups and gender. The analyses are focused on the character roles that are played by the teacher as she/he is faced with differences. Ten books published in Brazil by different authors and publishing houses between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. The main argument of the analyses is based on the assumption that the increase of the issue of ‘difference’ in recent Brazilian children’s books is in accordance with various state policies relating to minorities rights, on the one hand, and to a broad development of criticism of children’s fiction from the 1970s until the present day as to stereotypical representation of gender and minority groups in the British and North-American context, on the other hand.

  3. Adaptive Associations between Social Cognition and Emotion Regulation are Absent in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder. (United States)

    Rowland, Jesseca E; Hamilton, Meelah K; Vella, Nicholas; Lino, Bianca J; Mitchell, Philip B; Green, Melissa J


    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM). These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one's own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie) compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophizing and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with previous studies. SZ also showed basic emotion recognition deficits relative to BD and HC. That there were no associations between social cognition and the capacity to self-regulate negative emotion in SZ and BD (in the context of poor social cognition and maladaptive regulatory strategies) suggests that dysfunction in fronto-limbic brain networks may underpin both social cognitive deficits and the use of maladaptive cognitive strategies in these disorders, albeit by potentially different routes.

  4. Extant or Absent: Formation Water in New York State Drinking Water Wells (United States)

    Christian, K.; Lautz, L. K.


    The current moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in New York State (NYS) provides an opportunity to collect baseline shallow groundwater quality data pre-hydraulic fracturing, which is essential for determining the natural variability of groundwater chemistry and to evaluate future claims of impaired groundwater quality if hydraulic fracturing occurs in the State. Concerns regarding the future environmental impact of shale gas extraction in NYS include potential shallow groundwater contamination due to migration of methane or formation water from shale gas extraction sites. Treatment, storage and disposal of saline flowback fluids after gas extraction could also be a source of water contamination. In this study, we combine southern NYS shallow groundwater chemistry data from Project Shale-Water Interaction Forensic Tools (SWIFT, n=60), the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE, n=684), and the USGS 305(b) Ambient Groundwater Quality Monitoring program (USGS, n=89) to examine evidence of formation water mixing with groundwater using the methodology of Warner et al. (2012). Groundwater characterized as low salinity (20 mg/L Cl-). A plot of bromide versus chloride shows high salinity groundwater samples with Br/Cl ratios >0.0001 fall on the mixing line between low salinity groundwater and Appalachian Basin formation water. Based on the observed linear relationship between bromide and chloride, it appears there is up to 1% formation water mixing with shallow groundwater in the region. The presence of formation water in shallow groundwater would indicate the existence of natural migratory pathways between deep formation wells and shallow groundwater aquifers. A plot of sodium versus chloride also illustrates a linear trend for Type D waters (R^2= 0.776), but the relationship is weaker than that for bromide versus chloride (R^2= 0.924). Similar linear relationships are not observed between other ions and chloride, including Mg, Ca, and Sr. If high salinity groundwater samples from NYS contain small percentages of formation water, we expect linear relationships between chloride and these other, generally conservative ions. The absence of these linear relationships suggests high salinity could be associated with contamination by landfill leachate, septic effluent, road salt, or other potential sources of elevated salt. Future work needs to determine if mixing of shallow groundwater with other potential sources of salinity, such as road deicers, can explain the observed linear relationships. Strontium isotopes from shallow groundwater samples will also be compared to those for NY formation water.

  5. Teaching Experimental Method Using the Feature-Present/Feature-Absent Effect (United States)

    Balch, William R.


    To determine whether a classroom experiment improved the learning of experimental method, at the start of the semester 2 introductory psychology classes took a 10-question multiple-choice pretest on experimental method. Two days later, before the instructor covered the relevant material in the course, 1 class took part in a classroom experiment on…

  6. Misdiagnosing absent pedicle of cervical spine in the acute trauma setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad H. Abduljabbar


    Full Text Available Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms.

  7. Absent but Not Gone: Interdependence in Couples' Quality of Life Persists After a Partner's Death. (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Knowles, Lindsey M; Sbarra, David A; O'Connor, Mary-Frances


    Spouses influence each other's psychological functioning and quality of life. To explore whether this interdependence continues after a person becomes widowed, we tested whether deceased spouses' characteristics were associated with their widowed partners' later quality of life using couples drawn from a multinational sample of aging adults. Independent subsamples (ns = 221 and 325) were assessed before and after a spouse's death. Regressions revealed that deceased partners' quality of life prior to their death positively predicted their spouses' quality of life after the partners' death, even when we controlled for spouses' prior quality of life to account for environmental factors shared within couples. Further, widowed participants' quality of life was lower than nonwidowed couples' 2 years before and after their partners' death, but was equivalent 4 years prior. Finally, the strength of the association between partners' earlier quality of life and participants' later quality of life did not differ between widowed and nonwidowed participants. These findings suggest that interdependence in quality of life continues after one's partner has passed away.

  8. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Minnekahta Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Minnekahta Limestone is...

  9. LH receptor gene expression is essentially absent in breast tumor tissue: Implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Kuijper (Martijn); K. Ruigrok-Ritstier (Kirsten); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); D. Piersma (Djura); M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)


    textabstractWorldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women. Early age at full term pregnancy has a protective effect against breast cancer. Evidence coming from a rat breast cancer model suggests a possible role for the pregnancy hormone hCG, a ligand of the LH recepto

  10. Bad bones, absent smell, selfish testes: the pleiotropic consequences of human FGF receptor mutations. (United States)

    Wilkie, Andrew O M


    The discovery in 1994 that highly specific mutations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 3 caused the most common form of human short-limbed dwarfism, achondroplasia, heralded a new era in FGF receptor (FGFR) biology. A decade later, the purpose of this review is to survey how the study of humans with FGFR mutations continues to provide insights into FGFR function in health and disease, and the clinical applications of these findings. Amongst the most interesting recent discoveries have been the description of novel phenotypes associated with FGFR1 and FGFR3 mutations; identification of fundamental differences in the cellular mechanisms of mutant FGFR2 and FGFR3 action; and the direct identification of FGFR2 and FGFR3 mutations in sperm. These clinical observations illustrate the pleiotropism of FGFR action and fuel ongoing efforts to understand the rich biology and pathophysiology of the FGF signalling system.

  11. Epithelial Label-Retaining Cells Are Absent during Tooth Cycling in Salmo salar and Polypterus senegalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Vandenplas

    Full Text Available The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and African bichir (Polypterus senegalus are both actinopterygian fish species that continuously replace their teeth without the involvement of a successional dental lamina. Instead, they share the presence of a middle dental epithelium: an epithelial tier enclosed by inner and outer dental epithelium. It has been hypothesized that this tier could functionally substitute for a successional dental lamina and might be a potential niche to house epithelial stem cells involved in tooth cycling. Therefore, in this study we performed a BrdU pulse chase experiment on both species to (1 determine the localization and extent of proliferating cells in the dental epithelial layers, (2 describe cell dynamics and (3 investigate if label-retaining cells are present, suggestive for the putative presence of stem cells. Cells proliferate in the middle dental epithelium, outer dental epithelium and cervical loop at the lingual side of the dental organ to form a new tooth germ. Using long chase times, both in S. salar (eight weeks and P. senegalus (eight weeks and twelve weeks, we could not reveal the presence of label-retaining cells in the dental organ. Immunostaining of P. senegalus dental organs for the transcription factor Sox2, often used as a stem cell marker, labelled cells in the zone of outer dental epithelium which grades into the oral epithelium (ODE transition zone and the inner dental epithelium of a successor only. The location of Sox2 distribution does not provide evidence for epithelial stem cells in the dental organ and, more specifically, in the middle dental epithelium. Comparison of S. salar and P. senegalus reveals shared traits in tooth cycling and thus advances our understanding of the developmental mechanism that ensures lifelong replacement.

  12. Experiences of young adult women with emotionally absent fathers / Emené Peyper



    For many years the focus of research on child well-being and development has been primarily on the dynamics of the mother-child relationship. The mother was seen as the more influential parent as she spends more time with the children. The father’s role in the development process was thus undermined. Fortunately research on the father’s involvement in a child’s life has improved over the past thirty years. Where previously fathers were mostly perceived as the breadwinners and p...

  13. Meagre escapees: consequences of a local-absent farmed species in the W-Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez


    Full Text Available Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1810 is a large sciaenid considered an emerging species in the European aquaculture, especially for W-Mediterranean countries. Meagre production has grown rapidly in recent years, being Spain, Turkey, Italy and France are the main meagre producer countries in the world, but it is also cultivated on small scale in other Mediterranean countries, such as Malta, Croatia or Morocco. However, farmed meagre might escape from net-pens of coastal floating facilities leading to economic losses for farmers, but also causing environmental problems on coastal ecosystems. The geographic distribution and genetic fragmentation of meagre native populations suggest that farmed meagre should be considered nowadays as “local-absent” fish in most of the Mediterranean regions where it is being farmed. Therefore, the potential risks of escaped meagre might be higher than those reported for native species, although often unpredictable. Meagre escapees might spread diseases and pathogens to nearby farms or local fish populations, competing for natural resources (food and habitat and predating on other species. Consequently, the interactions of escaped fish with wild populations might have also indirect socio-economic effects on local fisheries and consumers. Nevertheless, escape events from meagre aquaculture and they derived environmental and socio-economic interactions have been scarcely reported up today, and therefore, further studies are highly needed to understand and evaluate the potential consequences of what is being farmed in the Mediterranean.

  14. Topical and systemic anticoagulation in the treatment of absent or compromised venous outflow in replanted fingertips. (United States)

    Han, S K; Lee, B I; Kim, W K


    Adequate venous repair is not always possible in fingertip replantation. We have used topical and systemic anticoagulation for fingertip replantation to overcome venous congestion in cases without venous repair or in cases in which there is obstruction of a repaired vein. Our technique consists of continuous external bleeding via a stab incision on the paraungal area and dripping heparinized saline solution at the incision site to maintain external bleeding. From July 1985 to December 1993, 157 fingers in 140 patients with complete amputation of the fingertip were replanted at Korea University Guro Hospital. Of these, 74 fingers in 68 patients were managed by topical and systemic anticoagulation due to the impossibility of repair or obstruction of a repaired vein. The overall survival rate of the fingertip replantations was 76%; that of the topical and systemic anticoagulation group was 64%.

  15. The denial of death: A three-decade long case of absent grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Solomon


    Full Text Available Bereavement reactions are associated with numerous physical and mental complications. Atypical bereavement reactions have been described but their place in the classificatory system has not been established. We present the case of an eighty-year-old woman who came with the belief that her deceased son was alive. We discuss the diagnostic dilemma she posed and conclude that it may be difficult to differentiate atypical bereavement from other psychiatric illnesses.

  16. Platelet Inhibition by Insulin Is Absent in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeften, T.W. van; Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Heemskerk, J.W.; Gorter, G.; Feijge, M.A.; Mocking, A.I.M.; Ferreira, I.A.


    Objective—ADP-induced P2y12 signaling is crucial for formation and stabilization of an arterial thrombus. We demonstrated recently in platelets from healthy subjects that insulin interferes with Ca2+ increases induced by ADP-P2y1 contact through blockade of the G-protein Gi, and thereby with P2y12-m

  17. The forensic and investigative significance of reverse paternity testing with absent maternal sample. (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; Hildebrand, Dean P


    The authors are involved in the extraction of DNA material from calcified tissues, oftentimes teeth, and analysis of such material to assist the investigative process, frequently by confirming the identity of the victim. Biologic or molecular techniques for the purposes of human identification have evolved to allow increasingly discriminating tests for use in criminal and noncriminal death investigations, as well as paternity disputes. The goal of such tests is to either include 2 samples (ie, they are from the same person, or in the case of paternity, they are from related individuals) or exclude 2 samples (ie, they are from different people or from unrelated individuals). Regardless of the system used and when data error has been eliminated, an exclusionary conclusion is irrefutable. The probability of excluding the falsely accused has steadily increased over the years as new methods are developed. Conventional ABO blood typing, for example, has a probability of exclusion (PE) of only 17%. This value increases to 53% with the inclusion of the Rh and MN systems. Additional serological markers can provide a probability of exclusion of greater than 99%. Today, the current method of choice for human identification is the polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) multiplexes. This paper discusses the implications of nonpaternity in reverse paternity testing when only paternal DNA is available.

  18. Intrafibrillar Mineral May be Absent in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II (DI-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pople, John A.


    High-resolution synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were performed on normal and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DI-II) teeth. Three normal and three DI-II human third molars were used in this study. The normal molars were unerupted and had intact enamel; donors were female and ranged in age from 18-21y. The DI-II specimens, which were also unerupted with intact enamel, came from a single female donor age 20y. SRCT showed that the mineral concentration was 33% lower on average in the DI-II dentin with respect to normal dentin. The SAXS spectra from normal dentin exhibited low-angle diffraction peaks at harmonics of 67.6 nm, consistent with nucleation and growth of the apatite phase within gaps in the collagen fibrils (intrafibrillar mineralization). In contrast, the low-angle peaks were almost nonexistent in the DI-II dentin. Crystallite thickness was independent of location in both DI-II and normal dentin, although the crystallites were significantly thicker in DI-II dentin (6.8 nm (s.d. = 0.5) vs 5.1 nm (s.d. = 0.6)). The shape factor of the crystallites, as determined by SAXS, showed a continuous progression in normal dentin from roughly one-dimensional (needle-like) near the pulp to two-dimensional (plate-like) near the dentin-enamel junction. The crystallites in DI-II dentin, on the other hand, remained needle-like throughout. The above observations are consistent with an absence of intrafibrillar mineral in DI-II dentin.

  19. Good, Bad or Absent: Discourses of Parents with Disabilities in Australian News Media (United States)

    Fraser, Vikki; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth


    Background: News media frames public perceptions. As such, news media becomes a useful source of analysis to understand the presence (or otherwise) of people with disabilities, particularly intellectual disabilities, within parenting discourses in Australia. Method: Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this article examines major Australian…

  20. Depressed and absent from work: Predicting prolonged depressive symptomatology among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, V.; Houtman, I.; Blonk, R.


    Background: The World Health Organization considers depression a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. Aim To identify factors which may help to reduce depressive symptoms in a sample of employees sick listed due to mental health problems. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study of empl

  1. Absent Authority: Failure to Plan Funding and Command Authorities in USAF Security Assistance Units (United States)


    the USAF took partners who were 58 Ken Arteaga , “Air Advisor Education & Training Information...2 Feb 2012. Arteaga , Ken. “Air Advisor Education & Training Information Brief.” San Antonio TX: Headquarters Air Education and Training Command

  2. Two Reflexivities in Current Social Science: Remarks on an Absent Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langenohl


    Full Text Available This paper traces and compares two different uses of the category of reflexivity in contemporary methodological debates in the social sciences. While a first use is strongly influenced by the textual turn in cultural anthropology, a second use is aligned with Pierre BOURDIEU's notion of "scientific reflexivity." Whereas the first use postulates an epistemological break with scientific modernity and argues for a perpetual contextualization and interrelation of research results and methods, BOURDIEU defends sociology’s claim of objectivity, which, according to him, can be redeemed through a reflexive objectification of sociological practice. Up to the present these two uses have existed in almost complete isolation from each other. They represent alternating reactions to, and reconstructions and translations of, poststructuralism and postmodernism in the social sciences. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090297

  3. What Is Present and Absent in Critical Analyses of Neoliberalism in Education (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.


    In "Can Education Change Society?" (Apple, 2013), Apple described a number of tasks in which the critical scholar/activist needs to engage. Among them are telling the truth about what is happening in the creation of inequalities, illuminating spaces of possibility, and acting as the critical secretary of the movements and people who…

  4. Challenging Some Contemporary Views of Coronal Mass Ejections. II. The Case for Absent Filaments (United States)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Schneck, U. G.; Alden, C. R.


    When a coronal mass ejection (CME) appears in a coronagraph it often exhibits three parts. This “classic” three-part configuration consists of a bright leading edge, a dark circular- or teardrop-shaped cavity, and a bright core within the cavity. It is generally accepted that these are manifestations of coronal plasma pileup, the driving magnetic flux rope, and the associated eruptive filament, respectively. The latter has become accepted by the community since coronagraph CMEs have been commonly associated with eruptive filaments for over 40 years. In this second part of our series challenging views on CMEs, we present the case that the inner core of the three-part coronagraph CME may not be, and in the most common cases is not, a filament. We present our case in the form of four exhibits showing that most of the CMEs in a broad survey are not associated with an eruptive filament at the Sun, and that the cores of those CMEs that are filament-associated do not geometrically resemble or consist of material from the associated filament. We conclude with a discussion on the possible causes of the bright CME core and what happens to the filament material postlaunch. We discuss how the CME core could arise spontaneously from the eruption of a flux rope from the Sun, or could be the result of a mathematical caustic produced by the geometric projection of a twisted flux rope.

  5. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface. (United States)

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M


    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  6. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj


    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  7. Get Active (United States)

    ... Have fun with your family. If you have children, you can be a role model for making healthy choices. Encourage your whole family to get active outside . Go for a hike or organize a family soccer game. If someone you know has trouble making ...

  8. Mechanistic studies of anticancer aptamer AS1411 reveal a novel role for nucleolin in regulating Rac1 activation


    Reyes-Reyes, E. Merit; Šalipur, Francesca R.; Shams, Mitra; Forsthoefel, Matthew K.; Bates, Paula J.


    AS1411 is a G-rich quadruplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotide that binds specifically to nucleolin, a protein found on the surface and in the cytoplasm of most malignant cells but absent from the surface/cytoplasm of most normal cells. AS1411 has shown promising clinical activity and is being widely used as a tumor-targeting agent, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that AS1411 is taken up in cancer cells by macropinocytosis (fluid phase endocytosis) and s...

  9. Epigenetic histone modifications and master regulators as determinants of context dependent nuclear receptor activity in bone cells. (United States)

    Pike, J Wesley; Meyer, Mark B; St John, Hillary C; Benkusky, Nancy A


    Genomic annotation of unique and combinatorial epigenetic modifications along with transcription factor occupancy is having a profound impact on our understanding of the genome. These studies have led to a better appreciation of the dynamic nature of the epigenetic and transcription factor binding components that reveal overarching principles of the genome as well as tissue specificity. In this minireview, we discuss the presence and potential functions of several of these features across the genome in osteoblast lineage cells. We examine how these features are modulated during cellular maturation, affect transcriptional output and phenotype, and how they alter the ability of cells to respond to systemic signals directed by calcemic hormones such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and PTH. In particular, we describe recent experiments which indicate that progressive stages of bone cell differentiation affect RUNX2 binding to the genome, modify and restrict patterns of gene expression, and dramatically alter cellular response to the vitamin D hormone. These studies expand our understanding of mechanisms that govern steroid hormone regulation of gene expression, while highlighting the increasing complexity that is evident relative to these basic cellular processes. The results also have profound implications with respect to the impact of skeletal diseases on transcriptional outcomes as well. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Epigenetics and Bone.

  10. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan


    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  11. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey


    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  12. Antimicrobial Activity. (United States)


    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  13. Antineoplastic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Leyssens, Carlien; Verlinden, Lieve; Verstuyf, Annemieke


    The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is mostly known for its importance in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, next to its classical effects on bone, kidney and intestine, 1,25(OH)2D3 also exerts antineoplastic effects on various types of cancer. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 itself as treatment against neoplasia is hampered by its calcemic side effects. Therefore, 1,25(OH)2D3-derived analogs were developed that are characterized by lower calcemic side effects and stronger antineoplastic effects. This review mainly focuses on the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying signaling pathways. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs inhibit proliferation, angiogenesis, migration/invasion and induce differentiation and apoptosis in malignant cell lines. Moreover, prostaglandin synthesis and Wnt/b-catenin signaling are also influenced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs. Human studies indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D3 values and the incidence of certain cancer types. Given the literature, it appears that the epidemiological link between vitamin D3 and cancer is the strongest for CRC, however more intervention studies and randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to unravel the beneficial dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs to induce antineoplastic effects.

  14. Fumarase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Mose; Eldirdiri, Abubakr; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde


    ]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly...... that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model. Fumarase activity screening on bio-fluids can detect injury severity, in bilateral as well as unilateral AKI models, differentiating moderate and severe AKI as well...... as short- and long-term AKI. Furthermore after verification of renal injury by bio-fluid analysis the precise injury location can be monitored by in vivo measurements of the fumarase activity non-invasively by hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C]fumarate MR imaging. The combined in vitro and in vivo biomarker of AKI...

  15. Glucokinase activators. (United States)

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D


    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  16. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia


    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  17. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams


    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2......) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  18. Active packaging with antifungal activities. (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe


    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  19. BAM! Physical Activity (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Xpert Opinion Activity Calendar Activity Cards Ballet Baseball ... Disaster - Are You at Risk? Disaster - Helping Hands Physical Activity - Questions Physical Activity - Active or Not, Here it ...

  20. Resveratrol inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi arginine kinase and exerts a trypanocidal activity. (United States)

    Valera Vera, Edward A; Sayé, Melisa; Reigada, Chantal; Damasceno, Flávia S; Silber, Ariel M; Miranda, Mariana R; Pereira, Claudio A


    Arginine kinase catalyzes the reversible transphosphorylation between ADP and phosphoarginine which plays a critical role in the maintenance of cellular energy homeostasis. Arginine kinase from the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, meets the requirements to be considered as a potential therapeutic target for rational drug design including being absent in its mammalian hosts. In this study a group of polyphenolic compounds was evaluated as potential inhibitors of arginine kinase using molecular docking techniques. Among the analyzed compounds with the lowest free binding energy to the arginine kinase active site (cruzi trypomastigotes bursting from infected CHO K1 cells, with IC50=77μM. Additionally epimastigotes overexpressing arginine kinase were 5 times more resistant to resveratrol compared to controls. Taking into account that: (1) resveratrol is considered as completely nontoxic; (2) is easily accessible due to its low market price; and (3) has as a well-defined target enzyme which is absent in the mammalian host, it is a promising compound as a trypanocidal drug for Chagas disease.

  1. Small-World Connections to Induce Firing Activity and Phase Synchronization in Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ying-Hua; LUO Xiao-Shu


    We investigate how the firing activity and the subsequent phase synchronization of neural networks with small-world topological connections depend on the probability p of adding-links. Network elements are described by two-dimensional map neurons (2DMNs) in a quiescent original state. Neurons burst for a given coupling strength when the topological randomness p increases, which is absent in a regular-lattice neural network. The bursting activity becomes frequent and synchronization of neurons emerges as topological randomness further increases.The maximal firing frequency and phase synchronization appear at a particular value of p. However, if the randomness p further increases, the firing frequency decreases and synchronization is apparently destroyed.

  2. Treatment of actinic cheilitis by photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and blue light activation. (United States)

    Zaiac, Martin; Clement, Annabelle


    Actinic cheilitis (AC), a common disorder of the lower lip, should be treated early to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) activated by blue light for the treatment of AC. Fifteen patients with clinically evident or biopsy-proven AC received two treatments with ALA PDT with blue light activation. Treatments were spaced three to five weeks apart. Most patients achieved 65% to 75% clearance three to five weeks after the first treatment and all achieved more than 75% clearance one month after the second treatment. Three patients achieved complete clearance. Pain and burning during irradiation were absent or mild. All patients said they would repeat the procedure. ALA PDT with 417 nm blue light is a promising option for the treatment of AC of the lower lip.

  3. Intangible activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan


    ‘Informal helping’ is often associated with other types of prosocial behaviour such as formal voluntary work. Therefore, one could jump to the conclusion that it would be the same factors driving both types of activities. This article demonstrates that this is not the case. The study relies...... on a population survey on informal helping and volunteering in Denmark. The two contributions of this article are as follows: (1) it demonstrates that the sociodemographic indicators that are closely linked to formal volunteering are not related to informal helping in the same manner and (2) it demonstrates...... that it is necessary to separate the decision to help and the amount of hours that people help, a distinction that previous empirical studies on this topic fail to include. The results show that informal helping may not simply be compared to other instances of prosocial behaviour. In particular, the socio...

  4. Disrupted NF-κB activation after partial hepatectomy does not impair hepatocyte proliferation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stéphanie Laurent; Yves Horsmans; Peter St(a)rkel; Isabelle Leclercq; Christine Sempoux; Luc Lambotte


    AIM: To analyze the effects of NF-κB inhibition by antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or TNF inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH).METHODS: Saline, PDTC or PTX were injected 1 h before PH and rats were killed at 0.5 and 24 h after PH. Several control groups were used for comparison (injection control groups).RESULTS: Compared to saline injected controls, NF-κB activation was absent 0.5 h after PH in rats treated with PDTC or PTX. At 24 h after PH, DNA synthesis and PCNA expression were identical in treated and control rats and thus occurred irrespectively of the status of NF-κB activation at 0.5 h. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation was observed already 0.5 h after PH in saline, PDTC or PTX group and was similar to Stat3 activation in response to injection without PH.CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that (1)NF-κB p65/p50 DNA binding produced in response to PH is not a signal necessary to initiate the liver regeneration,(2) Stat3 activation is a stress response unrelated to the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, NF-κB activation is not critically required for the process of liver regeneration after PH.

  5. TRPV3 Channels Mediate Strontium-Induced Mouse-Egg Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carvacho


    Full Text Available In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation. The molecular identities of the calcium-permeant channels that underlie the initiation of embryonic development are not established. Here, we describe a transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel current activated by TRP agonists that is absent in TrpV3−/− eggs. TRPV3 current is differentially expressed during oocyte maturation, reaching a peak of maximum density and activity at metaphase of meiosis II (MII, the stage of fertilization. Selective activation of TRPV3 channels provokes egg activation by mediating massive calcium entry. Widely used to activate eggs, strontium application is known to yield normal offspring in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer. We show that TRPV3 is required for strontium influx, because TrpV3−/− eggs failed to conduct Sr2+ or undergo strontium-induced activation. We propose that TRPV3 is a major mediator of calcium influx in mouse eggs and is a putative target for artificial egg activation.

  6. Arm movements can increase leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping in neurologically intact individuals. (United States)

    de Kam, Digna; Rijken, Hennie; Manintveld, Toos; Nienhuis, Bart; Dietz, Volker; Duysens, Jacques


    Facilitation of leg muscle activity by active arm movements during locomotor tasks could be beneficial during gait rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. The present study explored the effects of arm movements on leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping. Healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepping machine both with and without arm movements. Activity of five leg muscles was recorded and compared for stepping with and without arm movements. To determine which arm movements are optimal for leg muscle facilitation, subjects were instructed to step with 1) mechanically coupled vs. decoupled arm and leg movements, 2) synchronous vs. asynchronous arm movements, and 3) at 50 vs. 70 RPM. Leg muscle activity was increased by active arm movements in all muscles, except the vastus lateralis muscle. Activity of other extensors (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and biceps femoris) was primarily increased during the extension phase, whereas activity of flexors (tibialis anterior) was also increased during the flexion phase. Facilitation was more or less consistent for both frequencies and for synchronous and asynchronous movements. For coupled arm movements, facilitation tended to be diminished or absent. The observed facilitation in the present study is probably of neuromuscular rather than biomechanical origin, since the arms are probably hardly involved in postural control or weight-bearing during recumbent stepping. Further studies in patients should explore the possibility to integrate neuromuscular facilitation in rehabilitation programs.

  7. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia


    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  8. DAVIC activities (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi


    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  9. Role of activated carbon on micropollutans degradation by different radiation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Velo Gala


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the presence of activated carbon on radiation processes. The triiodinated contrast medium diatrizoate was chosen as the contaminant model. We selected four commercial activated carbons and sixteen gamma radiation-modified carbons derived from these. The different advanced oxidation/reduction processes that have been studied were improved through the addition of activated carbon in the UV light and gamma radiating processes. In the UV/activated carbon process, the synergic activity of the activated carbon is enhanced in the samples with higher percentages of surface oxygen, ester/anhydride groups and carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization. Band gap determination of activated carbons revealed that they behave as semiconductor materials and, therefore, as photoactive materials in the presence of UV radiation, given that all band gap values are <4 eV. We also observed that the gamma radiation treatment reduces the band gap values of the activated carbons and that, in a single series of commercial carbons, lower band gap values correspond to higher contaminant removal rate values. We observed that the activity of the reutilized activated carbons is similar to that of the original carbons. Based on these results, we proposed that the activated carbon acts as a photocatalyst, promoting electrons of the valence band to the conduction band and increasing the generation of HO• radicals in the medium. Similarly, there was a synergic effect made by the presence of activated carbon in gamma radiation system, which favours pollutant removal. This synergic effect is independent of the textural but not the chemical characteristics of the activated carbon, observing a higher synergic activity for carbons with a higher surface content of oxygen, specifically quinone groups. We highlight that the synergic effect of the activated carbon requires adsorbent–adsorbate electrostatic interaction and is absent

  10. Periosteal BMP2 activity drives bone graft healing. (United States)

    Chappuis, Vivianne; Gamer, Laura; Cox, Karen; Lowery, Jonathan W; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Rosen, Vicki


    Bone graft incorporation depends on the orchestrated activation of numerous growth factors and cytokines in both the host and the graft. Prominent in this signaling cascade is BMP2. Although BMP2 is dispensable for bone formation, it is required for the initiation of bone repair; thus understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying bone regeneration driven by BMP2 is essential for improving bone graft therapies. In the present study, we assessed the role of Bmp2 in bone graft incorporation using mice in which Bmp2 has been removed from the limb prior to skeletal formation (Bmp2(cKO)). When autograft transplantations were performed in Bmp2cKO mice, callus formation and bone healing were absent. Transplantation of either a vital wild type (WT) bone graft into a Bmp2(cKO) host or a vital Bmp2(cKO) graft into a WT host also resulted in the inhibition of bone graft incorporation. Histological analyses of these transplants show that in the absence of BMP2, periosteal progenitors remain quiescent and healing is not initiated. When we analyzed the expression of Sox9, a marker of chondrogenesis, on the graft surface, we found it significantly reduced when BMP2 was absent in either the graft itself or the host, suggesting that local BMP2 levels drive periosteal cell condensation and subsequent callus cell differentiation. The lack of integrated healing in the absence of BMP2 was not due to the inability of periosteal cells to respond to BMP2. Healing was achieved when grafts were pre-soaked in rhBMP2 protein, indicating that periosteal progenitors remain responsive in the absence of BMP2. In contrast to the requirement for BMP2 in periosteal progenitor activation in vital bone grafts, we found that bone matrix-derived BMP2 does not significantly enhance bone graft incorporation. Taken together, our data show that BMP2 signaling is not essential for the maintenance of periosteal progenitors, but is required for the activation of these progenitors and their subsequent

  11. Spontaneous activity in electromyography may differentiate certain benign lower motor neuron disease forms from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Jokela, Manu E; Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Sandell, Satu; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Saukkonen, Annamaija; Soikkeli, Raija; Udd, Bjarne


    There is limited data on electromyography (EMG) findings in other motor neuron disorders than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed whether the distribution of active denervation detected by EMG, i.e. fibrillations and fasciculations, differs between ALS and slowly progressive motor neuron disorders. We compared the initial EMG findings of 43 clinically confirmed, consecutive ALS patients with those of 41 genetically confirmed Late-onset Spinal Motor Neuronopathy and 14 Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy patients. Spontaneous activity was more frequently detected in the first dorsal interosseus and deltoid muscles of ALS patients than in patients with the slowly progressive motor neuron diseases. The most important observation was that absent fibrillations in the first dorsal interosseus muscle identified the benign forms with sensitivities of 66%-77% and a specificity of 93%. The distribution of active denervation may help to separate ALS from mimicking disorders at an early stage.

  12. Hippocampal mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase activity and gene expression in a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Zhao; Yingli Zhang; Mingming Zhao; Yu Wang; Ming Ma; Xinquan Gu; Xia Cao


    The present study established a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia using bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation to analyze cytochrome C oxidase activity and mRNA expression in hippocampal mitochondria.Results showed significantly decreased cytochrome C oxidase activity and cytochrome C oxidase II mRNA expression with prolonged ischemia time.Further analysis revealed five mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase II gene mutations, two newly generated mutations, and four absent mutational sites at 1 month after cerebral ischemia, as well as three mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase III gene mutations, including two newly generating mutations, and one disappeared mutational site at 1 month after cerebral ischemia.Results demonstrated that decreased cytochrome C oxidase gene expression and mutations, as well as decreased cytochrome C oxidase activity, resulting in energy dysmetabolism, which has been shown to be involved in the pathological process of ischemic brain injury.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummay Honi


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 was identified from traditional yogurts of Khulna region, Bangladesh and its enzyme and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. A commercially available API Zym kit was employed to determine the activities of 19 different enzymes. We found that L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 showed strong activities for several enzymes, viz. leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, α –Glucosidase, N-Acetyl- β- glucosaminidase while activities for other enzymes were absent. Antibiotic resistance profile was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test for 61 major antibiotics and 4 antifungal agents obtained from commercial sources in MRS Agar media. The strain generally showed resistance to gram negative spectrum antibiotic while it showed susceptibility towards β-lactam antibiotic to gram positive spectrum antibiotic. The findings provide the therapeutic basis of using L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 in finished food products.

  14. IASS Activity (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.


    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  15. A hyper-ferritinemia syndrome evolving in recurrent macrophage activation syndrome, as an onset of amyopathic juvenile dermatomyositis: a challenging clinical case in light of the current diagnostic criteria. (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Brazzelli, Valeria; Bruni, Paola; Marseglia, Gian Luigi


    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an immune-mediated inflammatory multi-system disease involving mainly striated muscles and skin. Typical dermatological features are fundamental to establish the diagnosis, especially whenever the myopathy is very mild or absent, as it occurs in the form called as amyopathic juvenile dermatomyositis. Sometimes, systemic rheumatic diseases can develop a hyperferritinemia syndrome characterized by hemophagocytosis, namely macrophage activation syndrome, which represents a severe and life-threatening complication. Here, we describe a complex clinical history characterized by a hyper-ferritinemia syndrome after infectious mononucleosis, leading to recurrent episodes of macrophage activation syndrome. Finally, the late onset of several skin changes brought to a diagnosis of amyopathic juvenile dermatomyositis.

  16. Enzymatic activities and protein profile of latex from Calotropis procera. (United States)

    Freitas, Cleverson Diniz T; Oliveira, Jefferson Soares; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Macedo, Nívea Maria R; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Villas-Boas, Laurival A; Ramos, Márcio Viana


    The laticifer fluid of Calotropis procera is rich in proteins and there is evidence that they are involved in the pharmacological properties of the latex. However, not much is known about how the latex-containing proteins are produced or their functions. In this study, laticifer proteins of C. procera were pooled and examined by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, masses spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and characterized in respect of proteolytic activity and oxidative enzymes. Soluble laticifer proteins were predominantly composed of basic proteins (PI>6.0) with molecular masses varying between 5 and 95 kDa. Proteins with a molecular mass of approximately 26,000 Da were more evident. Strong anti-oxidative activity of superoxide dismutase (EC (1007.74+/-91.89 Ug(-1)DM) and, to a lesser extent ascorbate peroxidase (EC (0.117(d)+/-0.013 microMol H(2)O(2)g(-1)min(-1)), were detected. However, catalase (EC was absent. The strong proteolytic activities of laticifer proteins from C. procera were shown to be shared by at least four distinct cysteine proteinases (EC that were isolated by gel filtration chromatography. Serine and metaloproteinases were not detected and aspartic proteinase activities were barely visible. Chitinases (EC were also isolated in a chitin column and their activities quantified. The presence of these enzymatic activities in latex from C. procera may confirm their involvement in resistance to phytopathogens and insects, mainly in its leaves where the latex circulates abundantly.

  17. Compound heterozygosity with a novel S222N GALT mutation leads to atypical galactosemia with loss of GALT activity in erythrocytes but little evidence of clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher


    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism caused by mutations in the GALT gene. Though early detection and galactose restriction prevent severe liver disease, affected individuals have persistently elevated biomarkers and often neuro-developmental symptoms. We present a teenage compound heterozygote for a known pathogenic mutation (H132Q and a novel variant of unknown significance (S222N, with nearly absent erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity but normal biomarkers and only mild anxiety despite diet non-adherence. This case is similar to a previously reported S135L mutation. In this report we investigate the novel S222N variant and critically evaluate a clinically puzzling case.

  18. Activation Energy (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen


    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  19. Memory-induced mechanism for self-sustaining activity in networks (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Steeg, G. Ver; Galstyan, A.


    We study a mechanism of activity sustaining on networks inspired by a well-known model of neuronal dynamics. Our primary focus is the emergence of self-sustaining collective activity patterns, where no single node can stay active by itself, but the activity provided initially is sustained within the collective of interacting agents. In contrast to existing models of self-sustaining activity that are caused by (long) loops present in the network, here we focus on treelike structures and examine activation mechanisms that are due to temporal memory of the nodes. This approach is motivated by applications in social media, where long network loops are rare or absent. Our results suggest that under a weak behavioral noise, the nodes robustly split into several clusters, with partial synchronization of nodes within each cluster. We also study the randomly weighted version of the models where the nodes are allowed to change their connection strength (this can model attention redistribution) and show that it does facilitate the self-sustained activity.

  20. Checkpoint for DNA integrity at the first mitosis after oocyte activation. (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Trimarchi, James R; Smith, Peter J S; Keefe, David L


    Activation of oocytes, arrested at the meiosis II (MII) in mammals, initiates meiotic release, mitotic divisions, and development. Unlike most somatic cell types, MII arrested female germ cells lack an efficient DNA integrity checkpoint control. Here we present evidence showing a unique checkpoint for DNA integrity at first mitosis after oocyte activation. Mouse oocytes carrying intact DNA cleaved normally after meiotic release, whereas 50% of oocytes harboring damaged DNA manifested cytofragmentation, a morphological hallmark of apoptosis. If not activated, DNA-damaged MII oocytes did not show apoptotic fragmentation. Further, activated, enucleated oocytes or enucleated fertilized oocytes also underwent cytofragmentation, implicating cytoplasmic coordination of the fragmentation process, independent of the nucleus. Depolymerization of either actin filaments or microtubules induced no cytofragmentation, but inhibited fragmentation upon oocyte activation. During the process of fragmentation, microtubule networks formed, then microtubule asters congregated at discrete locations, around which fragmented cellular bodies formed. Mitotic spindles, however, were not formed inactivated oocytes with damaged or absent DNA; in contrast, normal mitotic spindles were formed in activated oocytes with intact DNA. These results demonstrate that damaged DNA or absence of DNA leads to cytofragmentation after oocyte activation. Further, we found a mechanism of cytoskeletal involvement in the process of cytofragmentation. In addition, possible implication of the present findings in somatic cell cloning and human clinical embryology is discussed.

  1. Amylolytic activity and carbohydrate levels in relation to coleoptile anoxic elongation in Oryza sativa genotypes. (United States)

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Fanucchi, Francesca; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo


    Among starchy seeds, rice has the unique capacity to germinate successfully under complete anaerobiosis. In this conditions, starch degradation is supported by a complete set of starch-degrading enzymes that are absent or inactive in cereals except rice. A characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and starch-degrading enzyme activity across twenty-nine genotypes of Oryza sativa L. is presented here. The zymogram of amylolytic activities present in rice embryos and endosperms under anaerobic conditions seven days after sowing (DAS) revealed marked differences among cultivars. Coleoptile elongation was positively correlated with total amylolytic activities and α-amylase activity in embryos, and negatively correlated with α-amylase activity in endosperm. Moreover, carbohydrate content in embryos was found to be positively correlated with total amylolytic activities under anaerobic conditions, while a negative relationship was recorded in the endosperm. Carbohydrate status in rice seedlings has a primary importance in sustaining coleoptile elongation towards the surface. The relationship between carbohydrate level in embryo and anoxic germination, as well as with total amylolytic activities present in rice embryo under anaerobic condition 7 DAS, is consistent with the role of sugar metabolism to support rice germination under oxygen-deprived environment.

  2. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian; Raquel Orejudos Rubio; Demetrio Lim Valle Jr.; Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon


    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L.(M. calabura).Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95% ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively.Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans(C. albicans),with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract,triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract.Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of antibacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal


    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  4. Risk factors for glucose intolerance in active acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreze A.


    Full Text Available In the present retrospective study we determined the frequency of glucose intolerance in active untreated acromegaly, and searched for risk factors possibly supporting the emergence of the diabetic condition. Among 43 patients, 8 (19%; 95% CI: 8-33% had diabetes mellitus and 2 (5%; 1-16% impaired glucose tolerance. No impaired fasting glycemia was demonstrable. The frequency of diabetes was on average 4.5 times higher than in the general Slovak population. Ten factors suspected to support progression to glucose intolerance were studied by comparing the frequency of glucose intolerance between patients with present and absent risk factors. A family history of diabetes and arterial hypertension proved to have a significant promoting effect (P<0.05, chi-square test. A significant association with female gender was demonstrated only after pooling our data with literature data. Concomitant prolactin hypersecretion had a nonsignificant promoting effect. In conclusion, the association of active untreated acromegaly with each of the three categories of glucose intolerance (including impaired fasting glycemia, not yet studied in this connection was defined as a confidence interval, thus permitting a sound comparison with the findings of future studies. Besides a family history of diabetes, female gender and arterial hypertension were defined as additional, not yet described risk factors.

  5. Selective activation of mechanosensitive ion channels using magnetic particles. (United States)

    Hughes, Steven; McBain, Stuart; Dobson, Jon; El Haj, Alicia J


    This study reports the preliminary development of a novel magnetic particle-based technique that permits the application of highly localized mechanical forces directly to specific regions of an ion-channel structure. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to directly and selectively activate a mechanosensitive ion channel of interest, namely TREK-1. It is shown that manipulation of particles targeted against the extended extracellular loop region of TREK-1 leads to changes in whole-cell currents consistent with changes in TREK-1 activity. Responses were absent when particles were coated with RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide or when magnetic fields were applied in the absence of magnetic particles. It is concluded that changes in whole-cell current are the result of direct force application to the extracellular loop region of TREK-1 and thus these results implicate this region of the channel structure in mechano-gating. It is hypothesized that the extended loop region of TREK-1 may act as a tension spring that acts to regulate sensitivity to mechanical forces, in a nature similar to that described for MscL. The development of a technique that permits the direct manipulation of mechanosensitive ion channels in real time without the need for pharmacological drugs has huge potential benefits not only for basic biological research of ion-channel gating mechanisms, but also potentially as a tool for the treatment of human diseases caused by ion-channel dysfunction.

  6. Modulation of zinc toxicity by tissue plasminogen activator. (United States)

    Siddiq, Mustafa M; Tsirka, Stella E


    The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin proteolytic system mediates excitotoxin-induced neurodegeneration in vivo and in cell culture. tPA also confers neuroprotection from zinc toxicity in cell culture through a proteolysis-independent mechanism. This raises two questions: what is this non-enzymatic mechanism, and why tPA does not synergize with zinc to promote neuronal cell death? We show here that zinc binds to tPA and inhibits its activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus terminating its protease-dependent neurotoxic capacity. We extend the previously reported culture findings to demonstrate that elevated zinc is neurotoxic in vivo, and even more so when tPA is absent. Thus, physiological levels of tPA confer protection from elevated free zinc. Mechanistically, tPA promotes movement of zinc into hippocampal neuron cells through voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA/KA channels. Therefore, zinc and tPA each appear to be able to limit the potential of the other to facilitate neurodegeneration, a reciprocal set of actions that may be critical in the hippocampus where tPA is secreted during the nonpathological conditions of learning and memory at sites known to be repositories of free and sequestered zinc.

  7. Science Letters:Effect of nitrogen doping on the reduction of nitric oxide with activated carbon in the presence of oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nitrogen doping of activated carbon (AC) was performed by annealing both in ammonia and nitric oxide, and the activities of the modified carbons for NO reduction were studied in the presence of oxygen. Results show that nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the carbons, mostly in the form of pyridinic nitrogen or pyridonic nitrogen. The effect of nitrogen doping on the activities of the carbons can be ignored when oxygen is absent, but the doped carbons show desirable activities in the low temperature regime (≤500 ℃) when oxygen is present. The role of the surface nitrogen species is suggested to promote the formation of NO2 in the presence of oxygen, and NO2 can facilitate decomposition of the surface oxygen species in the low temperature regime.

  8. Regulation of the histone acetyltransferase activity of hMOF via autoacetylation of Lys274

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingfa Sun; Shunling Guo; Qingyu Tang; Chen Li; Rong Zeng; Zhiqi Xiong; Chen Zhong; Jianping Ding


    Dear Editor, Males-absent-on-the-first (MOF, also called MYST1 or KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) belonging to the MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and Tip60 (MYST) family.MOF has been shown to possess a specific HAT activity towards Lysl6 of histone H4 (H4K16) [1].Homozygous knockout of MOF in mice results in loss of H4K16 acetylation and embryonic lethality, indicating that MOF and H4K16 acetylation are essential for embryogenesis and genome stability in mammals [2].Downregulation of human MOF (hMOF) leads to dramatic nuclear morphological deformation and inhibition of cell cycle progression [3], and has recently been correlated with primary breast carcinoma and medulloblastoma [4].

  9. Social observation enhances cross-environment activation of hippocampal place cell patterns. (United States)

    Mou, Xiang; Ji, Daoyun


    Humans and animals frequently learn through observing or interacting with others. The local enhancement theory proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates other subjects' understanding of the environment. To explore the neural basis of this theory, we examined hippocampal place cells, which represent spatial information, in rats as they stayed in a small box while a demonstrator rat running on a separate, nearby linear track, and as they ran on the same track themselves. We found that place cell firing sequences during self-running on the track also appeared in the box. This cross-environment activation occurred even prior to any self-running experience on the track and was absent without a demonstrator. Our data thus suggest that social observation can facilitate the observer's spatial representation of an environment without actual self-exploration. This finding may contribute to neural mechanisms of local enhancement.

  10. Explanation for Observed Evidence of Geologically Recent Volatile-Related Activity on Mercury's Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin


    High resolution images of Mercury's surface, from the MESSENGER spacecraft, reveal many bright deposits associated with irregular, shallow, rimless depressions whose origins were attributed to volatile-related activity, but absent information on the nature and origin of that volatile matter. Here I describe planetary formation, unlike the cited models, and show that primordial condensation from an atmosphere of solar composition at pressures of one atmosphere or above will lead to iron condensing as a liquid and dissolving copious amounts of hydrogen, which is subsequently released as Mercury's core solidifies and escapes from the surface, yielding the observed pit-like features with associated highly-reflecting matter. The exiting hydrogen chemically reduces some iron compound, probably iron sulfide, to the metal, which accounts for the bright deposits.

  11. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies ERK activity in the brain reward circuit. (United States)

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel


    Food palatability produces behavioral modifications that resemble those induced by drugs of abuse. Palatability-induced behavioral changes require both, the activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system, and changes in structural plasticity in neurons of the brain reward pathway. The ERK intracellular pathway is activated by CB1 receptors (CB1-R) and plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity. We investigated the activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the mesocorticolimbic system induced by operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food and the involvement of the CB1-R in these responses. Using immunofluorescence techniques, we analyzed changes in ERK intracellular pathway activation in the mesocorticolimbic system of wild-type and CB1 knockout mice (CB1-/-) trained on an operant paradigm to obtain standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food. Operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food, but not for standard or highly caloric food, produced a robust activation of the ERK signaling cascade in the same brain areas where this training modified structural plasticity. These changes induced by the operant training were absent in CB1-/-. We can conclude that the activation of the ERK pathway is associated to the neuroplasticity induced by operant training for highly palatable isocaloric food and might be involved in CB1-R mediated alterations in behavior and structural plasticity.

  12. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhidan Luo; Tingbing Cao; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Yu Huang; Zhencheng Yan; Zhiming Zhu; Liqun Ma; Zhigang Zhao; Hongbo He; Dachun Yang; Xiaoli Feng; Shuangtao Ma; Xiaoping Chen; Tianqi Zhu


    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases.Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents,but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown.The capsaicin receptor,the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1)cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle,the role of which remains unclear.Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice.In vitro,capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α(PGC-1α)expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1.In vivo,PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice.TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration,promoted mitochondrial biogenesis,increased oxidative fibers,enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders.Importantly,these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice.We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles.The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.

  13. Recreational physical activity and the risk of preeclampsia: a prospective cohort of Norwegian women. (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Owe, Katrine M; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Nystad, Wenche


    Previous case-control studies suggest that recreational physical activity protects against preeclampsia. Using a prospective design, the authors estimated the risk of preeclampsia for pregnant women according to level of physical activity, taking other variables that influence risk into consideration. The data set comprised 59,573 pregnancies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2006). Information on physical activity and other exposures was extracted from questionnaire responses given in pregnancy weeks 14-22, whereas diagnosis of preeclampsia was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Estimation and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. About 24% of pregnant women reported no physical activity, and 7% reported more than 25 such activities per month. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.96) for preeclampsia when comparing women who exercised 25 times or more per month with inactive women. The association appeared strongest among women whose body mass index was less than 25 kg/m(2) and was absent among women whose body mass index was higher than 30 kg/m(2). These results suggest that the preventive effect of recreational physical activity during pregnancy may be more limited than has been shown in case-control studies and may apply to nonobese women only.

  14. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong


    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  15. Motivators and barriers for physical activity in the oldest old: a systematic review. (United States)

    Baert, Veerle; Gorus, Ellen; Mets, Tony; Geerts, Christel; Bautmans, Ivan


    Worldwide, people engage insufficiently in physical activity, particularly subjects aged 80 years and over. For optimal life-style campaigns, knowledge of motivators and barriers for physical activity is mandatory. Given their specific needs, it is conceivable that these would be different for the oldest old compared to younger subjects. Pubmed, Web of Science and Psychinfo were systematically screened for articles reporting motivators and barriers for physical activity. Papers were excluded if data regarding elderly aged >79 years were absent. Forty-four relevant articles were included, involving a total of 28,583 subjects. Sixty one motivators and 59 barriers for physical activity in the elderly were identified, including those who are relevant for persons aged 80 years and over. Based on the results of our literature review, we recommend that when promoting physical activity in the oldest old, special attention is paid to the health benefits of physical activity, to the subject's fears, individual preferences and social support, and to constraints related to the physical environment. However, no studies were found exclusively describing people aged 80 years and over, and future research is necessary to differentiate the barriers or motivators that are specific for the oldest old from those of younger elderly.

  16. An fMRI study of nicotine-deprived smokers' reactivity to smoking cues during novel/exciting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Xu

    Full Text Available Engaging in novel/exciting ("self-expanding" activities activates the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, a brain reward pathway also associated with the rewarding effects of nicotine. This suggests that self-expanding activities can potentially substitute for the reward from nicotine. We tested this model among nicotine-deprived smokers who, during fMRI scanning, played a series of two-player cooperative games with a relationship partner. Games were randomized in a 2 (self-expanding vs. not x 2 (cigarette cue present vs. absent design. Self-expansion conditions yielded significantly greater activation in a reward region (caudate than did non-self-expansion conditions. Moreover, when exposed to smoking cues during the self-expanding versus the non-self-expanding cooperative games, smokers showed less activation in a cigarette cue-reactivity region, a priori defined [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ] from a recent meta-analysis of cue-reactivity. In smoking cue conditions, increases in excitement associated with the self-expanding condition (versus the non-self-expanding condition were also negatively correlated with TPJ activation. These results support the idea that a self-expanding activity promoting reward activation attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity among nicotine-deprived smokers. Future research could focus on the parameters of self-expanding activities that produce this effect, as well as test the utility of self-expansion in clinical interventions for smoking cessation.

  17. Short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from damage via corticosterone-mediated activation of the AKT pathway. (United States)

    Forkwa, Tembei K; Neumann, Inga D; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas; Reber, Stefan O


    Apoptotic death of photoreceptors in hereditary retinal degenerations can be prevented by neuroprotective molecules. Here, we report that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) released during psychosocial stress protect photoreceptors from apoptosis after light damage. Psychosocial stress is known to be the main type of stressor humans are exposed to and was induced here in mice by 10h of chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC). Photoreceptor damage was generated by subsequent exposure to white light. Short-term psychosocial stress prior to illumination significantly reduced the number of apoptotic photoreceptors, an effect that was absent in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. The neuroprotective effect was completely restored in ADX mice substituted with GC. Moreover, phosphorylation of retinal AKT increased following CSC or exogenous GC treatment, an effect that was again absent in ADX mice exposed to CSC. Finally, inhibition of AKT signaling with triciribine blocked the stress- and GC-mediated neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors. In summary, we provide evidence that 1) short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage and 2) the protective effect is most likely mediated by GC-induced activation of the AKT signaling pathway.

  18. Active causation and the origin of meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J.H.


    Purpose and meaning are necessary concepts for understanding mind and culture, but appear to be absent from the physical world and are not part of the explanatory framework of the natural sciences. Understanding how meaning (in the broad sense of the term) could arise from a physical world has prove

  19. Activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3 improves endothelial function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular-protective effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA may be due, in part, to its ability to stimulate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activation. The role of AMPK in EPA-induced eNOS phosphorylation was investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC, in mice deficient of either AMPKα1 or AMPKα2, in eNOS knockout (KO mice, or in Apo-E/AMPKα1 dual KO mice. EPA-treatment of BAEC increased both AMPK-Thr172 phosphorylation and AMPK activity, which was accompanied by increased eNOS phosphorylation, NO release, and upregulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of AMPK abolished EPA-enhanced NO release and eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC. This effect of EPA was absent in the aortas isolated from either eNOS KO mice or AMPKα1 KO mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC diet. EPA via upregulation of UCP-2 activates AMPKα1 resulting in increased eNOS phosphorylation and consequent improvement of endothelial function in vivo.

  20. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise (United States)

    ... Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include lifting weights, yoga, push-ups, and sit-ups. A “repetition” is one complete movement of an activity. To get health benefits, do muscle-strengthening activities until it is hard ...

  1. No Sun-like dynamo on the active star ζ Andromedae from starspot asymmetry. (United States)

    Roettenbacher, R M; Monnier, J D; Korhonen, H; Aarnio, A N; Baron, F; Che, X; Harmon, R O; Kővári, Zs; Kraus, S; Schaefer, G H; Torres, G; Zhao, M; ten Brummelaar, T A; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L


    Sunspots are cool areas caused by strong surface magnetic fields that inhibit convection. Moreover, strong magnetic fields can alter the average atmospheric structure, degrading our ability to measure stellar masses and ages. Stars that are more active than the Sun have more and stronger dark spots than does the Sun, including on the rotational pole. Doppler imaging, which has so far produced the most detailed images of surface structures on other stars, cannot always distinguish the hemisphere in which the starspots are located, especially in the equatorial region and if the data quality is not optimal. This leads to problems in investigating the north-south distribution of starspot active latitudes (those latitudes with more starspot activity); this distribution is a crucial constraint of dynamo theory. Polar spots, whose existence is inferred from Doppler tomography, could plausibly be observational artefacts. Here we report imaging of the old, magnetically active star ζ Andromedae using long-baseline infrared interferometry. In our data, a dark polar spot is seen in each of two observation epochs, whereas lower-latitude spot structures in both hemispheres do not persist between observations, revealing global starspot asymmetries. The north-south symmetry of active latitudes observed on the Sun is absent on ζ And, which hosts global spot patterns that cannot be produced by solar-type dynamos.

  2. Differential activation of nitric oxide synthase through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat salivary glands. (United States)

    Leirós, C P; Rosignoli, F; Genaro, A M; Sales, M E; Sterin-Borda, L; Santiago BordaE


    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in secretory and vasodilator responses in rat salivary glands. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appears to be one of the multiple effectors coupled to muscarinic receptors in both submandibular and sublingual glands although some differences have been found depending on the gland studied. First, submandibular glands had a lower basal activity of nitric oxide synthase than sublingual glands and the concentration-response curve for carbachol was bell-shaped in the former but not in sublingual glands. Second, cGMP levels displayed a similar profile to that observed for NOS activity in both glands. Third, protein kinase C also coupled to muscarinic receptor activation in the glands might have a regulatory effect on nitric oxide production since its activity was higher in basal conditions in submandibular than sublingual glands and it also increased in the presence of the agonist at a concentration that inhibited NOS activity in submandibular glands. The effects appear to be partly related to the expression of a minor population of M(1) receptors in submandibular glands absent in sublingual as determined in binding and signaling experiments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine.

  3. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) modulates adipocyte differentiation via MOF. (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yuchao; Liu, Yuantao; Chen, Jicui; Zong, Chen; Yu, Cong; Cui, Shang; Gao, Weina; Qin, Dandan; Sun, Wenchuan; Li, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong


    The role and mechanism of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) in adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, our data showed that Males absent on the first (MOF) protein expression was increased during 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation accompanied with STAT5B expression increasing. Over-expression STAT5B enhanced MOF promoter trans-activation in HeLa cells. Mutagenesis assay and ChIP analysis exhibited that STAT5B was able to bind MOF promoter. Knocking-down STAT5B in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes led to decreased expression of MOF, but resulted in increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), which were important factors or enzymes for adipogenesis. We also found that knocking-down MOF in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in increased expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and Fabp4, which was in the same trend as STAT5B knocking-down. Over-expression MOF resulted in reduced promoter trans-activation activity of C/EBPα. These results suggest that STAT5B and MOF work as negative regulators in adipogenesis, and STAT5B modulates preadipocytes differentiation partially by regulating MOF expression.

  4. Microparticle-Induced Activation of the Vascular Endothelium Requires Caveolin-1/Caveolae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Andrews

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are small membrane fragments shed from normal as well as activated, apoptotic or injured cells. Emerging evidence implicates MPs as a causal and/or contributing factor in altering normal vascular cell phenotype through initiation of proinflammatory signal transduction events and paracrine delivery of proteins, mRNA and miRNA. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which MPs influence these events. Caveolae are important membrane microdomains that function as centers of signal transduction and endocytosis. Here, we tested the concept that the MP-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype shift in endothelial cells (ECs depends on caveolae. Consistent with previous reports, MP challenge activated ECs as evidenced by upregulation of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression. ICAM-1 upregulation was mediated by activation of NF-κB, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. This response was absent in ECs lacking caveolin-1/caveolae. To test whether caveolae-mediated endocytosis, a dynamin-2 dependent process, is a feature of the proinflammatory response, EC's were pretreated with the dynamin-2 inhibitor dynasore. Similar to observations in cells lacking caveolin-1, inhibition of endocytosis significantly attenuated MPs effects including, EGFR phosphorylation, activation of NF-κB and upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Thus, our results indicate that caveolae play a role in mediating the pro-inflammatory signaling pathways which lead to EC activation in response to MPs.

  5. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance. (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George


    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  6. Interferon Gamma Release Assays in active Tuberculosis: new medical insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Pierdomenico


    Full Text Available Since first presentation, Interferon γ Release Assays (IGRAs have had basic and wide application to LTBI, in accordance with international consensus and CDC recommendations, leaving their use in active TB to the field of study and research.We reviewed the results of 633 patients investigated from 2004 to 2008 targeting active TB, with the objective to highlight immunological data supporting test performances.We evaluated Quantiferon TB Gold (1st generation IGRA kit in association to Culture (MGIT 960 and Lowenstein Jensen and PCR (Probetec-ET having the positivity of culture plus clinical diagnosis as the standard true value to compare. QTB Gold was studied in 69 TB positive patients (42 pulmonary and 27 extra-pulmonary, with Sensitivity, Specificity, PPV and NPV average to 61.8%, 94.5%, 54.3% and 95.9% respectively, after indeterminate results discharging. Significant statistical differences didn’t emerge between pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections (CI 95%.The overall indeterminate ratio arose up to 20.3% in patients with active TB vs 2.7% of global population (p<0.001. In 22% of patients with active pulmonary disease, IGRA conversed to positivity after 15 days in replicated tests, in spite of current treatment. 4 patients, with pulmonary TB and Quantiferon persistent negativities, underwent 18 months follow-up as not respondent although SIRE phenotypic susceptibilities and enough DOT compliance. Molecular DST documented hetero resistance for rpoB (MUT 1, MUT 3 plus wild lines and katG (MUT 1 plus wild in association to lack of inhA wild lines (Genotype MTBDR plus, Hain Lifescience. These reports suggest a mutational relationship between Rv3874 – 3875 cassette, encoding ESAT-6 / CFP-10, and rpoB, katG, inhA genes plausibly implying weak or absent selective clonal Th 1 activation to IGRA antigens. Our data seem to point out: 1 positive results are able to match true active TB in less than 50% of patients; 2 negative results could leave

  7. Physical Activity Assessment (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  8. Influence of magnetic field on activity of given anaerobic sludge. (United States)

    Xu, Y B; Duan, X J; Yan, J N; Du, Y Y; Sun, S Y


    Two modes of magnetic fields were applied in the Cr(6+) removal sludge reactors containing two predominated strains--Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp., respectively. The magnetic field mode I* of 0-4.5 or 0-14 mT between pieces was obtained by setting the magnetic pieces with the surface magnetic density of 0-6 or 0-20 mT into the reactor, and the magnetic field mode II* of 6, 20, or 40 mT on the return line was obtained by controlling the working distance of the permanent magnet outside the sludge return line. The effects of different magnetic fields on the activity of the given anaerobic sludge were studied by comparing with the control (absent of magnetic field). The results showed that the magnetic field of 0-4 mT improved the activity of given sludge most effectively, U(max) CH(4) (the peak methane-producing rate) and the methane producing volume per gCOD(Cr) reached 64.3 mlCH(4)/gVSS.d and 124 mlCH(4)/gCOD(Cr), which increased by 20.6 and 70.7%, respectively, compared with the control. And the magnetic field of 20 mT took second place. It could be concluded that the input of some magnetic field could improve the activity of anaerobic sludge by increasing the transformation efficiency of COD(Cr) matters to methane, and the total organic wastage did not increase.

  9. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive (United States)

    ... Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can ...

  10. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii (Asteraceae: identification of its main active constituent, structure-activity relationship studies and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Heerden Fanie R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-malarial drug resistance threatens to undermine efforts to eliminate this deadly disease. The resulting omnipresent requirement for drugs with novel modes of action prompted a national consortium initiative to discover new anti-plasmodial agents from South African medicinal plants. One of the plants selected for investigation was Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii, based on its ethnomedicinal profile. Methods Standard phytochemical analysis techniques, including solvent-solvent extraction, thin-layer- and column chromatography, were used to isolate the main active constituent of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii. The crystallized pure compound was identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The compound was tested in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum cultures using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay and was found to have anti-malarial activity. To determine the functional groups responsible for the activity, a small collection of synthetic analogues was generated - the aim being to vary features proposed as likely to be related to the anti-malarial activity and to quantify the effect of the modifications in vitro using the pLDH assay. The effects of the pure compound on the P. falciparum transcriptome were subsequently investigated by treating ring-stage parasites (alongside untreated controls, followed by oligonucleotide microarray- and data analysis. Results The main active constituent was identified as dehydrobrachylaenolide, a eudesmanolide-type sesquiterpene lactone. The compound demonstrated an in vitro IC50 of 1.865 μM against a chloroquine-sensitive strain (D10 of P. falciparum. Synthetic analogues of the compound confirmed an absolute requirement that the α-methylene lactone be present in the eudesmanolide before significant anti-malarial activity was observed. This feature is absent in the artemisinins and suggests a different mode of action

  11. Seasonal and Diel Activity Patterns of Eight Sympatric Mammals in Northern Japan Revealed by an Intensive Camera-Trap Survey (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Uchida, Kenta; Matsuura, Yukiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kaji, Koichi; Koizumi, Itsuro


    The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels), nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons), crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares), and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears). Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring–autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter–summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions. PMID:27732611

  12. Complement activation and expression during chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse. (United States)

    Ramaglia, V; Jackson, S J; Hughes, T R; Neal, J W; Baker, D; Morgan, B P


    Chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (crEAE) in mice recapitulates many of the clinical and histopathological features of human multiple sclerosis (MS), making it a preferred model for the disease. In both, adaptive immunity and anti-myelin T cells responses are thought to be important, while in MS a role for innate immunity and complement has emerged. Here we sought to test whether complement is activated in crEAE and important for disease. Disease was induced in Biozzi ABH mice that were terminated at different stages of the disease to assess complement activation and local complement expression in the central nervous system. Complement activation products were abundant in all spinal cord areas examined in acute disease during relapse and in the progressive phase, but were absent in early disease remission, despite significant residual clinical disease. Local expression of C1q and C3 was increased at all stages of disease, while C9 expression was increased only in acute disease; expression of the complement regulators CD55, complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) and CD59a was reduced at all stages of the disease compared to naive controls. These data show that complement is activated in the central nervous system in the model and suggest that it is a suitable candidate for exploring whether anti-complement agents might be of benefit in MS.

  13. Metabolic syndrome, platelet activation and the development of transient ischemic attack or thromboembolic stroke. (United States)

    van Rooy, Mia-Jeanne; Pretorius, Etheresia


    Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality in the world today, where transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a period of focal ischemia, the symptoms of which resemble a thromboembolic stroke. Contrary to stroke, TIA symptoms typically last less than one hour and necrosis is absent. Stroke is often preceded by TIA, making it an important predictor of future ischemic events. The causal role of atherosclerosis in the development of TIA is well established, however, research indicates that the atherosclerotic process begins years earlier with the development of metabolic syndrome, which affects approximately 45% of the adult population worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is present if three or more of the following is present: increased waist circumference, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL, increased fasting glucose and hypertension. This syndrome causes systemic inflammation that activates the coagulation system and may cause the formation of pathological thrombi. The role of platelets in stroke has been studied and platelet activation pathways identified. ADP and thromboxane A(2) are the most common activators of platelets in normal physiology. Several pharmacological treatments have been employed to prevent the activation of platelets, the most common of which include aspirin and P2Y(12)-inhibitors. Although treatment is administered strokes and subsequent TIAs are very common in individuals that suffered an initial event. This indicates that research needs to be done in order to elucidate new therapeutic targets, but also to better treat ischemic events to not only decrease the amount of recurring events but also decrease stroke mortality worldwide.

  14. Valence-based age differences in medial prefrontal activity during impression formation. (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Leshikar, Eric D; Shih, Joanne Y; Aizenman, Avigael; Gutchess, Angela H


    Reports of age-related changes to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity during socio-cognitive tasks have shown both age-equivalence and under recruitment. Emotion work illustrates selective mPFC response dependent on valence, such that negative emotional images evoke increased ventral mPFC activity for younger adults, while older adults recruit vmPFC more for positive material. By testing whether this differential age-related response toward valenced material is also present for the social task of forming impressions, we may begin to understand inconsistencies regarding when age differences are present vs. absent in the literature. Using fMRI, participants intentionally formed impressions of positive and negative face-behavior pairs in anticipation of a memory task. Extending previous findings to a social task, valence-based reversals were present in dorsal and ventral mPFC, and posterior cingulate cortex. Younger adults elicited increased activity when forming negative impressions, while older adults had more recruitment when forming positive impressions. This suggests an age-related shift toward emphasizing positive social information may be reflected in the recruitment of regions supporting forming impressions. Overall, the results indicate an age-related shift in neural response to socio-cognitive stimuli that is valence dependent rather than a general age-related reduction in activity, in part informing prior inconsistencies within the literature.

  15. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport. (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a


    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  16. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  17. Active commuting to school (United States)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  18. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  19. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athula B. Attygalle


    Full Text Available A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 °C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  20. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI) mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athula B. Attygalle; Freneil B. Jariwala; Julius Pavlov; Zhihua Yang; Jason A. Mahr; Mabel Oviedo


    A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 1C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion) and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion) which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  1. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graça Miguel


    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells.

  2. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol. (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M


    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (pcatfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol.

  3. Neurite outgrowth induced by a synthetic peptide ligand of neural cell adhesion molecule requires fibroblast growth factor receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, L C; Doherty, P; Holm, A;


    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is involved in axonal outgrowth and target recognition in the developing nervous system. In vitro, NCAM-NCAM binding has been shown to induce neurite outgrowth, presumably through an activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). We have recently...... identified a neuritogenic ligand, termed the C3 peptide, of the first immunoglobulin (lg) module of NCAM using a combinatorial library of synthetic peptides. Here we investigate whether stimulation of neurite outgrowth by this synthetic ligand of NCAM involves FGFRs. In primary cultures of cerebellar neurons...... from wild-type mice, the C3 peptide stimulated neurite outgrowth. This response was virtually absent in cultures of cerebellar neurons from transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of the FGFR1. Likewise, in PC12E2 cells transiently expressing a dominant-negative form of the mouse FGFR1...

  4. Identification of Interaction Hot Spots in Structures of Drug Targets on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Activity Cliff Information. (United States)

    Furtmann, Norbert; Hu, Ye; Gütschow, Michael; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Activity cliffs are defined as pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous compounds that share the same specific activity but have large differences in potency. Although activity cliffs are mostly studied in medicinal chemistry at the level of molecular graphs, they can also be assessed by comparing compound binding modes. If such three-dimensional activity cliffs (3D-cliffs) are studied on the basis of X-ray complex structures, experimental ligand-target interaction details can be taken into account. Rapid growth in the number of 3D-cliffs that can be derived from X-ray complex structures has made it possible to identify targets for which a substantial body of 3D-cliff information is available. Activity cliffs are typically studied to identify structure-activity relationship determinants and aid in compound optimization. However, 3D-cliff information can also be used to search for interaction hot spots and key residues, as reported herein. For six of seven drug targets for which more than 20 3D-cliffs were available, series of 3D-cliffs were identified that were consistently involved in interactions with different hot spots. These 3D-cliffs often encoded chemical modifications resulting in interactions that were characteristic of highly potent compounds but absent in weakly potent ones, thus providing information for structure-based design.

  5. Asymmetric pallidal neuronal activity in patients with cervical dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian KE eMoll


    Full Text Available The origin of asymmetric clinical manifestation of symptoms in patients suffering from cervical dystonia (CD is hitherto poorly understood. Dysregulated neuronal activity in the basal ganglia has been suggested to have a role in the pathophysiology of CD. Here, we re-assessed the question to what extent relative changes occur in the direct versus indirect basal ganglia pathway in CD, whether these circuit changes are lateralized, and how these alterations relate to CD symptoms. To this end, we recorded ongoing single cell and local field potential (LFP activity from the external (GPe and internal pallidal segment (GPi of thirteen CD patients undergoing microelectrode-guided stereotactic surgery for deep brain stimulation in the GPi. We compared pallidal recordings from CD patients operated under local anaesthesia (LA with those obtained in CD patients operated under general anaesthesia (GA. In awake patients, mean GPe discharge rate (52 Hz was lower than that of GPi (72 Hz. Mean GPi discharge ipsilateral to the side of head turning was higher than contralateral and correlated with torticollis symptom severity. Lateralized differences were absent at the level of the GPe and in recordings from patients operated under GA. Furthermore, in the GPi of CD patients there was a subpopulation of theta-oscillatory cells with unique bursting characteristics. Power and coherence of GPe- and GPi-LFPs were dominated by a theta peak and also exhibited band-specific interhemispheric differences. Strong cross-frequency coupling of low-gamma amplitude to theta phase was a feature of pallidal LFPs recorded under LA, but not GA. These results indicate that CD is associated with an asymmetric pallidal outflow. Based on the finding of symmetric neuronal discharges in the GPe, we propose that an imbalanced interhemispheric direct pathway gain may be involved in CD pathophysiology.

  6. Probing the Role of Medication, DBS Electrode Position, and Antidromic Activation on Impulsivity Using a Computational Model of Basal Ganglia. (United States)

    Mandali, Alekhya; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa


    Everyday, we encounter situations where available choices are nearly equally rewarding (high conflict) calling for some tough decision making. Experimental recordings showed that the activity of Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN) increases during such situations providing the extra time needed to make the right decision, teasing apart the most rewarding choice from the runner up closely trailing behind. This prolonged deliberation necessary for decision making under high conflict was absent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery of STN. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of such adverse response, we built a 2D spiking network model (50 × 50 lattice) of Basal ganglia incorporating the key nuclei. Using the model we studied the Probabilistic learning task (PLT) in untreated, treated (L-Dopa and Dopamine Agonist) and STN-DBS PD conditions. Based on the experimental observation that dopaminergic activity is analogous to temporal difference (TD) and induces cortico-striatal plasticity, we introduced learning in the cortico-striatal weights. The results show that healthy and untreated conditions of PD model were able to more or less equally select (avoid) the rewarding (punitive) choice, a behavior that was absent in treated PD condition. The time taken to select a choice in high conflict trials was high in normal condition, which is in agreement with experimental results. The treated PD (Dopamine Agonist) patients made impulsive decisions (small reaction time) which in turn led to poor performance. The underlying cause of the observed impulsivity in DBS patients was studied in the model by (1) varying the electrode position within STN, (2) causing antidromic activation of GPe neurons. The effect of electrode position on reaction time was analyzed by studying the activity of STN neurons where, a decrease in STN neural activity was observed for certain electrode positions. We also observed that a higher antidromic

  7. Hippocampal activation of immediate early genes Zenk and c-Fos in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during learning and recall of a spatial memory task. (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Watanabe, Shigeru; Bischof, Hans-Joachim


    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to learn the position of food by orienting on spatial cues in a 'dry water maze'. In the course of spatial learning, the hippocampus shows high expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) Zenk and c-Fos, indicating high activation of this area during learning. In contrast, the IEG activity is nearly absent if the birds do not have to rely on spatial cues. In the present experiment it was investigated whether hippocampal activation can also be observed if the learned spatial task is recalled. For this purpose, the hippocampal Zenk and c-Fos activation of birds in an early learning stage was compared with that of others having well reached their maximal performance. The results show that the avian hippocampus is also active during recall of a learned spatial task, but the activation is significantly lower than in animals learning actually. As in previous experiments, hippocampal IEG expression showed strong variation not only in the position of the active patches of neurons, but also in size and cell density. The observed difference contributes to the view that immediate early genes may not be indicators of activation alone, but may be due to a combination of activation and plastic changes.

  8. Establishment of a reference interval for natural killer cell activity through flow cytometry and its clinical application in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. (United States)

    Chung, H J; Park, C J; Lim, J H; Jang, S; Chi, H S; Im, H J; Seo, J J


    Recently, the Histiocyte Society revised the diagnostic criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) to include low or absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, according to local laboratory reference. The aim of this study was to establish reference interval for functional NK-cell activity in 63 healthy Korean individuals using a flow-cytometric assay. We used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as effector cells and Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled K562 cells as target cells. NK-cell activity was calculated using the following equation: NK-cell activity (%) = (test lysis - spontaneous lysis) x 100/(maximum lysis - spontaneous lysis). NK-cell activity was analyzed in 13 known HLH patients and 16 suspected non-HLH patients using a flow-cytometric assay. The mean (+/-SD) cytotoxicity of PBMCs from healthy individuals was 20.9 +/- 5.3% and the reference interval was 11.8-31.9%. The mean NK-cell activity of HLH patients (8.3 +/- 8.9%) was significantly lower (P = 0.001) than that of non-HLH patients (20.1 +/- 7.8%). The sequential changes in NK-cell activity in the HLH group corresponded to clinical and laboratory findings following treatment. We successfully developed a functional NK-cell activity test for use in the clinical laboratory and obtained a reference interval of NK-cell activity from healthy donors. This assay, and associated reference interval, was used to analyze 30 clinically relevant specimens and the results were shown to be well correlated.

  9. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are heavily dependent on type I hair cell activity of the saccular macula in guinea pigs. (United States)

    Lue, June-Horng; Day, An-Shiou; Cheng, Po-Wen; Young, Yi-Ho


    This study applied the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test to guinea pigs coupled with electronic microscopic examination to determine whether VEMPs are dependent on type I or II hair cell activity of the saccular macula. An amount of 0.05 ml of gentamicin (40 mg/ml) was injected directly overlaying, but not through, the round window membrane of the left ear in guinea pigs.One week after surgery, auditory brainstem response test revealed normal responses in 12 animals (80%), and elevated thresholds in 3 animals (20%). The VEMP test using click stimulation showed absent responses in all 15 animals (100%). Another 6 gentamicin-treated animals underwent the VEMP test using galvanic stimulation and all 6 also displayed absent responses. Ultrathin sections of the saccular macula in the gentamicin-treated ears displayed morphologic alterations in type I or II hair cells, including shrinkage and/or vacuolization in the cytoplasm, increased electron density of the cytoplasm and nuclear chromatin, and cellular lucency. However, extrusion degeneration was rare and only present in type II hair cells. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the histological density of intact type I hair cells was 1.1 +/- 1.2/4000 microm(2) in the gentamicin-treated ears, showing significantly less than that in control ears (4.5 +/- 1.8/4000 microm(2)). However, no significant difference was observed in the densities of intact type II hair cells and supporting cells between treated and control ears. Furthermore, the calyx terminals surrounding the damaged type I hair cells were swollen and disrupted, while the button afferents contacting the damaged type II hair cells were not obviously deformed. Based on the above results, we therefore conclude that VEMPs are heavily dependent on type I hair cell activity of the saccular macula in guinea pigs.

  10. Is [FeO](2+) the active center also in iron containing zeolites? A density functional theory study of methane hydroxylation catalysis by Fe-ZSM-5 zeolite. (United States)

    Rosa, Angela; Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Jan Baerends, Evert


    Arguments are put forward that the active alpha-oxygen site in the Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst consists of the FeO(2+) moiety. It is demonstrated that this zeolite site for FeO(2+) indeed obeys the design principles for high reactivity of the FeO(2+) moiety proposed earlier: a ligand environment consisting of weak equatorial donors (rather oxygen based than nitrogen based) and very weak or absent trans axial donor. The alpha-oxygen site would then owe its high reactivity to the same electronic structure features that lends FeO(2+) its high activity in biological systems, as well as in the classical Fenton chemistry.

  11. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;


    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  12. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;


    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  13. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo or produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;


    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  14. Cultural Activation of Consumers. (United States)

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary


    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  15. Protein kinase A dependent phosphorylation activates Mg2+ efflux in the basolateral region of the liver. (United States)

    Cefaratti, C; Ruse, Cristian


    Isolated hepatocytes in physiological [Na(+)]( 0 ) tightly maintain [Mg(2+)]( i ). Upon beta-adrenergic stimulation or in the presence of permeable cAMP, hepatocytes release 5-10% (1-3 mM Mg(2+)) of their total Mg(2+) content. However, isolated basolateral liver plasma membranes (bLPM), release Mg(2+) in the presence of [Na(+)]( o ) even in the absence of catecholamine stimulation. The data indicate that a physiological brake for Mg(2+) efflux is present in the hepatocyte and is removed upon cellular signaling. In contrast, this regulation "brake" is absent in purified bLPM thus rendering them fully active. The present study was carried out to reconstruct the missing regulatory component. Activation of Mg(2+) extrusion in intact cells is consistent with cAMP dependent phosphorylation of the transporter or a regulatory protein. Treatment of bLPM with a non-specific phosphatase such as alkaline phosphatase (AP), decreased Mg(2+) efflux by 70% compared to untreated bLPM. When AP-treated bLPM were loaded with protein kinase A (PKA), and stimulated with permeable cAMP, Mg(2+) transport fully recovered. These data suggest that phosphorylation of the Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger or a nearby protein activates the Mg(2+) transport mechanism in hepatocytes.

  16. [Cellular mechanism of the generation of spontaneous activity in gastric muscle]. (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Kito, Yoshihiko; Fukuta, Hiroyasu; Yanai, Yoshimasa; Hashitani, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Yoshimichi; Suzuki, Hikaru


    In gastric smooth muscles, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) might be the pacemaker cells of spontaneous activities since ICC are rich in mitochondria and are connected with smooth muscle cells via gap junctions. Several types of ICC are distributed widely in the stomach wall. A group of ICC distributed in the myenteric layer (ICC-MY) were the pacemaker cells of gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Pacemaker potentials were generated in ICC-MY, and the potentials were conducted to circular smooth muscles to trigger slow waves and also conducted to longitudinal muscles to form follower potentials. In circular muscle preparations, interstitial cells distributed within muscle bundles (ICC-IM) produced unitary potentials, which were conducted to circular muscles to form slow potentials by summation. In mutant mice lacking inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor, slow waves were absent in gastric smooth muscles. The generation of spontaneous activity was impaired by the inhibition of Ca(2+)-release from internal stores through IP(3) receptors, inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-handling with proton pump inhibitors, and inhibition of ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels at the mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggested that mitochondrial Ca(2+)-handling causes the generation of spontaneous activity in pacemaker cells. Possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in the Ca(2+) signaling system was also suggested.

  17. Differences in Dietary Intake as a Function of Sexual Activity and Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Fleischman


    Full Text Available As a consequence of the need to downregulate some maternal immune responses so as to tolerate paternal genetic material following conception, the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased susceptibility to infection. Because meat was one of the primary sources of foodborne pathogens throughout our evolutionary history, Fessler (2001 predicted a decrease in meat intake during the luteal phase; the current research provides the first test of this prediction. Based on the assumption that any such behavioral changes would be hormonally mediated, we also investigated the effects of varying levels of exogenous hormones on meat consumption by examining dietary intake in women using hormonal contraceptives. Lastly, because, from a functional perspective, immunomodulation is unnecessary during anovulatory cycles and in women who are not currently sexually active, luteal phase compensatory behavioral prophylaxis was predicted to be absent in these contexts. Although we find that women who are sexually active eat less meat than those who are not, we do not find support for the core prediction regarding effect of cycle phase on meat consumption, nor do we find support for the ancillary prediction that meat consumption would be influenced by the presence or withdrawal of exogenous hormones. We replicate the finding that periovulatory total food intake is decreased compared to the rest of the cycle and find that sexually active women show a greater periovulatory decrease in food intake than sexually inactive women.

  18. Gamma band activity and the P3 reflect post-perceptual processes, not visual awareness. (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A; Padwal, Jennifer; Fennelly, Daniel; Martínez, Antígona; Hillyard, Steven A


    A primary goal in cognitive neuroscience is to identify neural correlates of conscious perception (NCC). By contrasting conditions in which subjects are aware versus unaware of identical visual stimuli, a number of candidate NCCs have emerged; among them are induced gamma band activity in the EEG and the P3 event-related potential. In most previous studies, however, the critical stimuli were always directly relevant to the subjects' task, such that aware versus unaware contrasts may well have included differences in post-perceptual processing in addition to differences in conscious perception per se. Here, in a series of EEG experiments, visual awareness and task relevance were manipulated independently. Induced gamma activity and the P3 were absent for task-irrelevant stimuli regardless of whether subjects were aware of such stimuli. For task-relevant stimuli, gamma and the P3 were robust and dissociable, indicating that each reflects distinct post-perceptual processes necessary for carrying-out the task but not for consciously perceiving the stimuli. Overall, this pattern of results challenges a number of previous proposals linking gamma band activity and the P3 to conscious perception.

  19. Convergence of inhibitory neural inputs regulate motor activity in the murine and monkey stomach. (United States)

    Shaylor, Lara A; Hwang, Sung Jin; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M


    Inhibitory motor neurons regulate several gastric motility patterns including receptive relaxation, gastric peristaltic motor patterns, and pyloric sphincter opening. Nitric oxide (NO) and purines have been identified as likely candidates that mediate inhibitory neural responses. However, the contribution from each neurotransmitter has received little attention in the distal stomach. The aims of this study were to identify the roles played by NO and purines in inhibitory motor responses in the antrums of mice and monkeys. By using wild-type mice and mutants with genetically deleted neural nitric oxide synthase (Nos1(-/-)) and P2Y1 receptors (P2ry1(-/-)) we examined the roles of NO and purines in postjunctional inhibitory responses in the distal stomach and compared these responses to those in primate stomach. Activation of inhibitory motor nerves using electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced frequency-dependent inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) that produced muscle relaxations in both species. Stimulation of inhibitory nerves during slow waves terminated pacemaker events and associated contractions. In Nos1(-/-) mice IJPs and relaxations persisted whereas in P2ry1(-/-) mice IJPs were absent but relaxations persisted. In the gastric antrum of the non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis, similar NO and purine neural components contributed to inhibition of gastric motor activity. These data support a role of convergent inhibitory neural responses in the regulation of gastric motor activity across diverse species.

  20. Determination of microsomal CYP2A6 activity by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavhekar S


    Full Text Available Coumarin has been reported to be a reliable probe for the determination of human microsomal CYP2A6 activity. Coumarin is converted to 7-hydroxycoumarin by CYP2A6. A high pressure liquid chromatographic assay for the estimation of CYP2A6 activity in microsomes was evaluated. A RP C-18 Novapak Waters (15 cm x 3.9 mm, 5 µm column was used for the assay. The mobile phase composition was methanol : 1% glacial acetic acid (35:65 v/v (pH~3.1, with a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min, injection volume of 100 µl and detection at 320 nm. The retention times for coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin were 8.7 min and 5.3 min, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD was 0.05 µM, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ was 0.1 µM, for 7-hydroxycoumarin. The percent coefficient of variation associated with 7-hydroxycoumarin determination after duplicate estimation was found to be in the range 0.03 to 3.6% for buffer matrix and 0.1 to 6.5% for microsomal matrix. The mean rate of 7-hydroxycoumarin formation in guinea pig liver microsomes was 0.084 nmol/min/nmol P450. Coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity was absent in rat liver microsomes. No interference was observed from incubation mixture components.

  1. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl ester. (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Bao-Ju; Ling, Yun; Miao, Hong-Jian; Shi, Yan-Xia; Yang, Xin-Ling


    Chitin, a major structural component of insect cuticle and fungus cell wall but absent in plants and vertebrates, is regarded as a safe and selective target for pest control agents. Chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) have been well-known as insect growth regulators (IGRs) but rarely found as fungicides in agriculture. To find novel CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 26 novel aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl esters were designed by converting the urea linkages of benzoylphenylureas to carbamic acid esters and changing the aniline parts into furanmethyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized and their structures confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis. Preliminary insecticidal and fungicidal bioassays were carried out. The results indicated that the title compounds had no insecticidal effect on Culex pipiens pallens and Plutella xylostella Linnaeus , but most compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against Corynespora cassiicola , Thanatephorus cucumeris , Botrytis cinerea , and Fusarium oxysporum . In particular, compounds V-4, V-6, V-7, and V-8 showed better activities against the four strains than those of the commercialized fungicides. The morphologic result suggested that compound V-21 had disturbed the cell wall formation of C. cassiicola. The results indicated that modification on the urea linkage of benzoylphenylurea was an effective way to discover new candidates for fungicides.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Apium graveolens. (United States)

    Uddin, Zakir; Shad, Anwar Ali; Bakht, Jehan; Ullah, Inam; Jan, Saleem


    The present study evaluates the phytochemical screenings, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assay of Apium graveolens L. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids in Apium graveolens while terpenoids was absent. The total phenolic content was slightly higher in methanolic fraction (63.46 ± 12.00 mg GAE/g) followed by ethanol (36.60 ± 12.28 mg GAE/g) and hexane fractions (34.86 ± 6.96 mg GAE/g). The flavonoid content was high in methanolic extract (56.95 ± 7.14 mg Quorcetin/g) and low level of the content was found in methylated spirit extract (29.2 ± 3.15 mg Quercitin/g). Antioxidant activity assayed by FRAP was higher in methanolic fraction (12.48 ± 1.06 mmole of FeSO₄equivalent/litre of extract) compared with other extracts. Likewise, good antimicrobial activity was measured by crude ethanol fraction against S. aureus (MIC=0.12 ± 0.03 μg/ml) and S. typhi (MIC= 0.5 ± 0.2 μg/ml). Results also that ethanolic fraction was effective against A. flavus (MIC= 05 ± 1.0 μg/ml).

  3. Plasma B-esterase activities in European raptors. (United States)

    Roy, Claudie; Grolleau, Gérard; Chamoulaud, Serge; Rivière, Jean-Louis


    Strigidae families were characterized by a BChE contribution that dominated the total ChE activity, while in the species of the Falconidae family, AChE activity dominated. With the exception of the barn owl, CbE activity (eserine-insensitive alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [alpha-NAE] activity) in all species was almost absent or very low. The values obtained in this study for ChE, AChE, and BChE activities and the AChE:BChE ratios for buzzard, kestrel, barn owl, and tawny owl provide a good estimate of the normal values in free-living individuals of these European species. They can be used as a baseline to evaluate the effect of anticholinesterase insecticides in the field.

  4. 'The king is on huntunge': on the relation between progressive and absentive in Old and Early Modern English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, C.; Hannay, M.; Steen, G.J.


    This paper addresses the diachronic development of two periphrastic constructions in Old and Middle English, 'He wæs huntende' and 'He wæs on huntunge', into the progressive in Modern English. The literature on the origin of the progressive offers several hypotheses for explaining the coalescence of

  5. Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis. (United States)

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; McLoon, Linda K


    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy.

  6. Correct, Fake and Absent Pre-Information Does Not Affect the Occurrence and Magnitude of the Bilateral Force Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath


    Full Text Available The present study examined whether different pre-information conditions could lead to a volitional modulation of the occurrence and magnitude of the bilateral force deficit (BFD during isometric leg press. Twenty trained male adults (age: 24.5 ± 1.7 years; weight: 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height: 1.81 ± 0.05 m were examined on three days within a week. Isometric leg press was performed on a negatively inclined leg press slide. Each participant completed three maximal isometric strength test sessions with different pre-information conditions given in a graphical chart: no pre-information (NPI; first day, false pre-information (FPI; bilateral force > sum of unilateral forces; second or third day and correct pre-information (CPI; bilateral force < sum of unilateral forces; second or third day during bilateral, unilateral-left and unilateral-right leg-press. The sum of left- and right-sided force values were calculated for bilateral (FBL = FBL_left + FBL_right and unilateral (FUL = FUL_left + FUL_right analyses. Force data for NPI revealed: Mean (SD: FUL_NPI = 3023 N (435 vs. FBL_NPI = 2812 (453; FPI showed FUL_FPI = 3013 N (459 vs. FBL_FPI = 2843 (446 and the CPI revealed FUL_CPI = 3035 (425 vs. FBL_CPI = 2844 (385. The three (no, false, correct x 2 (FUL, FBL rANOVA revealed a high significant main effect of Force (F = 61.82, p < 0.001. No significant main effect of the factor Condition and no significant interaction between Force x Condition was observed. The BFD does not rely on the trueness of the given pre-information (no, false, correct. Cognition-based volitional influences on the BFD on supra-spinal level seem negligible.

  7. Correct, fake and absent pre-information does not affect the occurrence and magnitude of the bilateral force deficit. (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Faude, Oliver; Puta, Christian


    The present study examined whether different pre-information conditions could lead to a volitional modulation of the occurrence and magnitude of the bilateral force deficit (BFD) during isometric leg press. Twenty trained male adults (age: 24.5 ± 1.7 years; weight: 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height: 1.81 ± 0.05 m) were examined on three days within a week. Isometric leg press was performed on a negatively inclined leg press slide. Each participant completed three maximal isometric strength test sessions with different pre-information conditions given in a graphical chart: no pre-information (NPI; first day), false pre-information (FPI; bilateral force > sum of unilateral forces; second or third day) and correct pre-information (CPI; bilateral force FUL = FUL_left + FUL_right) analyses. Force data for NPI revealed: Mean (SD): FUL_NPI = 3023 N (435) vs. FBL_NPI = 2812 (453); FPI showed FUL_FPI = 3013 N (459) vs. FBL_FPI = 2843 (446) and the CPI revealed FUL_CPI = 3035 (425) vs. FBL_CPI = 2844 (385). The three (no, false, correct) x 2 (FUL, FBL) rANOVA revealed a high significant main effect of Force (F = 61.82, p < 0.001). No significant main effect of the factor Condition and no significant interaction between Force x Condition was observed. The BFD does not rely on the trueness of the given pre-information (no, false, correct). Cognition-based volitional influences on the BFD on supra-spinal level seem negligible. Key pointsBFD is reliable occurring phenomenonAvailable theoretical knowledge does not affect the BFDAlternating sport should include alternating strength exercises.

  8. Anticipatory postural adjustments are unaffected by age and are not absent in patients with the freezing of gait phenomenon. (United States)

    Plate, A; Klein, K; Pelykh, O; Singh, A; Bötzel, K


    In bipedal gait, the initiation of the first step is preceded by a complex sequence of movements which shift the centre of mass of the body towards the stance foot to allow for a step of the swing foot. These anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been investigated in order to elucidate movement strategies in healthy and diseased persons. We studied the influence of several external parameters (age, type of step initiation) on APAs and investigated whether Parkinsonian patients may have different APAs. As a result, we found that externally elicited steps were preceded by faster and larger APAs than self-timed steps. Parkinsonian patients without the freezing of gait (FOG) phenomenon showed overall slightly reduced APAs but did not clearly differ from patients with FOG. Multiple APAs were seen in up to 25 % of the steps of the patients and in a much lower percentage of the steps of control subjects. The results indicate that APAs are significantly influenced by the timing of a step, i.e. are larger in externally elicited steps. The patients showed an overall preserved APA pattern but slowed movements and amplitude, indicating that increased bradykinesia due to progressive illness is a plausible explanation for these findings. The freezing phenomenon is not explained by a general absence or massive reduction in APA measures.

  9. SYT-SSX fusion is absent in sarcomatoid mesothelioma allowing its distinction from synovial sarcoma of the pleura. (United States)

    Weinbreck, Nicolas; Vignaud, Jean Michel; Begueret, Hugues; Burke, Louise; Benhattar, Jean; Guillou, Louis; Capron, Frédérique; Galateau-Salle, Françoise


    The diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma is still a worldwide challenge and it is often difficult, both clinically and by morphological analysis, to differentiate sarcomatoid mesothelioma from synovial sarcoma, the most frequent intrathoracic sarcoma. To confirm the absence of the synovial sarcoma translocation t(X; 18) (SYT-SSX) in sarcomatoid mesothelioma, and to test its usefulness differentiating sarcomatoid mesothelioma from synovial sarcoma, 28 tumours were examined using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RNA was extracted from paraffin blocks using standard methods, reverse-transcribed and PCR performed. Molecular analysis completed in two independent laboratories showed that sarcomatoid mesothelioma samples were negative for the t(X-18). This result confirms the usefulness of this analysis in differentiating sarcomatoid mesothelioma from synovial sarcoma.

  10. Embryology of the Absent Vas Supported by 2 Cases of Congenital Unilateral Absence of Vas With Varied Associations



    Congenital absence of the vas occurs in up to 1% of men. Congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens can be related to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations or in 79% of cases, renal agenesis. We present a case of each, diagnosed in children at operation for elective inguinal hernia repairs. One patient had associated ipsilateral renal agenesis with a normal cystic fibrosis screen. The other patient had an ipsilateral pelvic kidney and a mutation detected on cyst...

  11. Absent biologically relevant associations between serum inhibin B concentrations and characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.E. Laven (Joop); B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); F.H. de Jong (Frank); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: Dominant follicle selection is disturbed in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility [World Health Organization (WHO) 2] and remaining early antral follicles are either healthy or atretic. This study was conducted to investigate whether inhibin

  12. Fibrous dysplasia associated with primary hyperparathyroidism absent of McCune-albright syndrome: Tc-99m MDP findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Seok, Ju Won; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Dong Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder of the skeleton that causes expansion of one or more bones due to abnormal development of the fibrous, or connective tissue within the bone. The abnormality will cause uneven growth, brittleness and deformity in affected bones. Some patients have only one bone affected, whereas other patients have numerous bones affected. While any bone can be affected by fibrous dysplasia, the most common sites of the disease are the femur, tibia, ribs, skull, facial bones, humerus, and pelvis. In conclusion, Tc-99m MDP bone scan as well as Tc-99m MIBI scan may be useful for the detection of fibrous dysplasia. Also, factors responsible for the uptake of MIBI by fibrous dysplasia will need to be studied further.

  13. Absent organs—Present selves: Exploring embodiment and gender identity in young Norwegian women's accounts of hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Nyheim Solbrække


    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how younger women in Norway construct their embodiment and sense of self after hysterectomy. To do this, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight ethnic Norwegian women aged between 25 and 43 who had undergone hysterectomy. In line with a broad phenomenological approach to illness, the study was designed to explore the trajectories of the women's illness with a specific focus on concrete human experience and identity claims from a subjective point of view. In analysing the stories, we encountered feelings of suffering due to the loss of the uterus as well as profound side-effects, such as menopause. However, we also found evidence of relief from being treated for heavy bleeding and serious illness. In order to accentuate the individual voices in these illness stories, we chose a case-oriented analysis in line with Radley and Chamberlain (2001 and Riessman (2008. From this, two main seemingly contradictory storylines stood out: They have removed what made me a woman versus Without a uterus, I feel more like a woman. We also identified heteronormativity as an unstated issue in both these storylines and in the research data as a whole. Acknowledging diversity in the way women experience hysterectomy is important for a better understanding of the ways in which hysterectomy may affect women as humans as well as for developing more cultural competent healthcare services for this group.

  14. Supervisors’ experiences with the return-to-work process of hospital workers absent from work due to a health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    comparison analysis approach and computer assisted qualitative data analysis. Results: The study is in progress. Results will be available at the time of the conference. Conclusion: We will address questions regarding which factors supervisors feel are important to them in supporting returning workers....... On the other hand supervisors have the potential to hamper the RTW process if they do not have the necessary competencies, means, and level of engagement. In Denmark, formal responsibility for securing the return of a sick listed worker to the workplace lies outside of the workplace, and the workplace...... context. Aim: In order to gain knowledge about the potential role of supervisors in supporting RTW of a sick listed worker in Denmark, an exploratory qualitative pilot study will be conducted. We seek to open a window of understanding into the experience of managers who have been involved in RTW...

  15. The Absent Presence of the Parental Generation: Incest and the Ordering of Experience in The Sound and The Fury (United States)


    usually startling event of the present. 13 Further, Jean - Paul Sartre , in "On The Sound and the Fury: Time in the Work of Faulkner," observes that the...of William Faulkner. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1984. Sartre , Jean - Paul . "On The Sound and the Fury Time in the Work of Faulkner." Faulkner: A Collection of...them through the perspective and the use of the past. Sartre , in another famous passage, describes the relationship of past and present in the forma

  16. Millisecond dynamics in glutaredoxin during catalytic turnover is dependent on substrate binding and absent in the resting states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Winther, Jakob R; Teilum, Kaare


    on the time scale of catalytic turnover were not observed for the enzyme in the resting states, implying that alternative conformers do not accumulate to significant concentrations. These results infer that the turnover rate in glutaredoxin is governed by formation of a productive enzyme-substrate encounter...... to the glutathione exchange rate was observed for 23 residues. Binding of reduced glutathione resulted in competitive inhibition of the reduced enzyme having kinetics similar to that of the reaction. This observation couples the motions observed during catalysis directly to substrate binding. Backbone motions...

  17. Dorsal light reflex is absent in the postural control system of the upside-down swimming catfish, Synodontis nigriventris (United States)

    Ohnishi, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Okamoto, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Hosoi, H.; Takahashi, A.; Kawai, H.

    A kind of catfish, Synodontis nigriventris, has a unique habit of maintaining an upside-down posture under normal gravity conditions (1 G). We exposed S. nigriventris to a microgravity environment provided by the parabolic flights of an aircraft and observed the dorsal light reflex (DLR), which is well known to be an important visually guided postural reaction in fish. In general, fish directs its back to an illuminated direction, depending on DLR: DLR is observed more clearly under microgravity as compared with 1 G. Interestingly, S. nigriventris exhibited no DLR response even under microgravity. In contrast, clear DLR was observed under microgravity in two other species, which have an upside-up swimming habit, Synodontis multipunctatus, belonging to the same Synodontis family, and Corydoras paleatus, belonging to a different catfish family. Our parabolic flight experiments have confirmed for the first time that S. nigriventris has a novel balance sensation which does not induce DLR. This allows us to address a new and attractive strategy for the analysis of the postural control mechanism of vertebrate.

  18. Rapid deactivation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils: continuous replacement by newly activated enzyme sustains the respiratory burst. (United States)

    Akard, L P; English, D; Gabig, T G


    The cell-free system for activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase allowed us to examine activation of the oxidase in the absence of its NADPH-dependent turnover. The covalent sulfhydryl-modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide completely inhibited the activation step (Ki = 40 mumol/L) in the cell-free system but had no effect on turnover of the preactivated particulate NADPH oxidase (up to 1 mmol/L). When N-ethylmaleimide was added to intact neutrophils during the period of maximal O2 generation in response to stimuli that activate the respiratory burst (phorbol myristate acetate, f-Met-Leu-Phe, opsonized zymosan, arachidonic acid), O2- generation ceased within seconds. Study of components of the cell-free activation system indicated that the cytosolic cofactor was irreversibly inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide whereas the N-ethylmaleimide-treated, membrane-associated oxidase could be activated by arachidonate and control cytosolic cofactor. Likewise, the cell-free system prepared from intact neutrophils that had been briefly exposed to N-ethylmaleimide and then washed reflected the effects of N-ethylmaleimide on the isolated cell-free components: cytosolic cofactor activity was absent, but the membrane oxidase remained fully activatable. Thus inhibition of oxidase activation by N-ethylamaleimide unmasked a rapid deactivation step that was operative in intact neutrophils but not in isolated particulate NADPH oxidase preparations. The demonstrated specificity of N-ethylmaleimide for oxidase activation and lack of effect on turnover of the NADPH oxidase suggested that sustained O2- generation by intact neutrophils was a result of continued replenishment of a small pool of active oxidase. The existence of an inactive pool of NADPH oxidase molecules in particulate preparations from stimulated neutrophils was supported more directly by activating these preparations again in the cell-free system.

  19. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  20. ACS Community Activities Contests (United States)

    Burgener, Marisa


    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  1. Active Marine Station Metadata (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  2. USAID Activity Locatons (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  3. Active magnetic regenerator (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.


    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  4. Physical Activity (Exercise) (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  5. Guide to Physical Activity (United States)

    ... minutes Stairwalking for 15 minutes Sporting Activities Playing volleyball for 45–60 minutes Playing touch football for ... strenuous activities. Competitive sports, such as tennis and volleyball, can provide an enjoyable form of exercise for ...

  6. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi


    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  7. Facts about Physical Activity (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  8. Family Activities for Fitness (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.


    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  9. Activity Theory and Ontology (United States)

    Peim, Nick


    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  10. Measurement of Physical Activity. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.


    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  11. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen;


    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  12. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site. (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C


    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  13. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Di Lorenzo


    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  14. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.


    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  15. Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide blocks p38α-MAPK activation through the disruption of TLR-2 and TLR-4 association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eConti


    Full Text Available To survive in macrophages, Coxiella burnetii hijacks the activation pathway of macrophages. Recently, we have demonstrated that C. burnetii, via its lipopolysaccharide (LPS, avoids the activation of p38α-MAPK through an antagonistic engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4. We investigated the fine-tuned mechanism leading to the absence of activation of the p38α-MAPK despite TLR-4 engagement. In macrophages challenged with Escherichia coli LPS or with the LPS from the avirulent variants of C. burnetii, TLR-4 and TLR-2 co-immunoprecipitated. This association was absent in cells challenged by the LPS of pathogenic C. burnetii. The disruption makes TLRs unable to signal during the recognition of the LPS of pathogenic C. burnetii. The disruption of TLR-2 and TLR-4 was induced by the re-organization of the macrophage cytoskeleton by C. burnetii LPS. Interestingly, blocking the actin cytoskeleton re-organization relieved the disruption of the association TLR-2/TLR-4 by pathogenic C. burnetii and rescued the p38α-MAPK activation by C. burnetii. We elucidated an unexpected mechanism allowing pathogenic C. burnetii to avoid activating macrophages by the disruption of the TLR-2 and TLR-4 association.

  16. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the enzyme stability and activity in the presence of ionic liquids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Attri

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have examined the effect of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs on the stability and activity of proteolytic enzyme α-chymotrypsin (CT in the presence of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ. The present work aims to illustrate the state of art implementing the combined action of ILs and APPJ on the enzyme stability and activity. Our circular dichroism (CD, fluorescence and enzyme activity results of CT have revealed that buffer and all studied ILs {triethylammonium hydrogen sulphate (TEAS from ammonium family and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl], 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim][Cl] from imidazolium family} are notable to act as protective agents against the deleterious action of the APPJ, except triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (TEAP ammonium IL. However, TEAP attenuates strongly the deleterious action of reactive oxygen species (ROS created by APPJ on native structure of CT. Further, TEAP is able to retain the enzymatic activity after APPJ exposure which is absent in all the other systems.This study provides the first combined effect of APPJ and ILs on biomolecules that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities. Through this methodology, we can utilise both enzyme and plasma simultaneously without affecting the enzyme structure and activity on the material surface; which can prove to be applicable in various fields.

  17. Proteolytic activities in yeast. (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H


    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC, B (EC and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  18. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.


    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  19. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... ‘sites of active aging’ in Denmark. By presenting three technologies of active aging (billiards at an activity center for elderly persons, dancing tiles for rehabilitation after falls and an online fitness community for elderly persons) the paper suggests that active aging is more than regimes...

  20. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter


    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  1. A high-throughput screen against pantothenate synthetase (PanC identifies 3-biphenyl-4-cyanopyrrole-2-carboxylic acids as a new class of inhibitor with activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kumar

    Full Text Available The enzyme pantothenate synthetase, PanC, is an attractive drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is essential for the in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis and for survival of the bacteria in the mouse model of infection. PanC is absent from mammals. We developed an enzyme-based assay to identify inhibitors of PanC, optimized it for high-throughput screening, and tested a large and diverse library of compounds for activity. Two compounds belonging to the same chemical class of 3-biphenyl-4- cyanopyrrole-2-carboxylic acids had activity against the purified recombinant protein, and also inhibited growth of live M. tuberculosis in manner consistent with PanC inhibition. Thus we have identified a new class of PanC inhibitors with whole cell activity that can be further developed.

  2. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Rameshkumar; TSivasudha


    Objective: To investigate invitro antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis leaves (MN). Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoids content was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride method respectively. Invitro antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assays and antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method.Results:The phytochemical tests of Mollugo nudicaulis revealed the presence of alkaloid steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in the both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis. The total phenolics content of the methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves was 47.01 ± 0.8 and 46.4 ± 0.05 mg/100 g. The total flavonoid content was 41.3 ± 0.04 and 36.2 ± 0.01 mg/100 g respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 values of DPPH radical scavenging as 48 and 190 μg/ml respectively. The IC50 values of ABTS radical scavenging for methanolic of aqueous extracts was 83 and 198.3 μg/ml of plant extract respectively. The total phenolics and flavonoids content and invitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was higher compared with aqueous extract. The methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis used to determine antibacterial activity against bacterial species namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Streptococcus sp, Entrobacter sp. Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the methanolic extracts of Mollugo nudicaulis possess potential antioxidant and antibacterial compounds.

  3. Prevention of Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy Through Activation of the Central Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor System (United States)

    Naguib, Mohamed; Xu, Jijun J.; Diaz, Philippe; Brown, David L.; Cogdell, David; Bie, Bihua; Hu, Jianhua; Craig, Suzanne; Hittelman, Walter N.


    Background Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy, especially after multiple courses of paclitaxel. The development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the activation of microglia followed by the activation and proliferation of astrocytes, and the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn. Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors are expressed in the microglia in neurodegenerative disease models. Methods To explore the potential of CB2 agonists for preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, we designed and synthesized a novel CB2-selective agonist, namely MDA7. The effect of MDA7 in preventing paclitaxel-induced allodynia was assessed in rats and in CB2+/+ and CB2–/– mice. We hypothesize that the CB2 receptor functions in a negative-feedback loop and that early MDA7 administration can blunt the neuroinflammatory response to paclitaxel and prevent mechanical allodynia through interference with specific signaling pathways. Results We found that MDA7 prevents paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in rats and mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner without compromising paclitaxel's antineoplastic effect. MDA7's neuroprotective effect was absent in CB2-/- mice and was blocked by CB2 antagonists, suggesting that MDA7's action directly involves CB2 receptor activation. MDA7 treatment was found to interfere with early events in the paclitaxel-induced neuroinflammatory response as evidenced by relatively reduced Toll-like receptor and CB2 expression in the lumbar spinal cord, reduced levels of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activity, reduced numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators in vivo and in in vitro models. Conclusions Our findings suggest an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and may permit more aggressive use of active chemotherapeutic regimens with reduced long-term sequelae

  4. Rho-kinase inhibition ameliorates metabolic disorders through activation of AMPK pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Noda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders, caused by excessive calorie intake and low physical activity, are important cardiovascular risk factors. Rho-kinase, an effector protein of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA, is an important cardiovascular therapeutic target and its activity is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine whether Rho-kinase inhibition improves high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic disorders, and if so, to elucidate the involvement of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK, a key molecule of metabolic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a high-fat diet, which induced metabolic phenotypes, such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and glucose intolerance. These phenotypes are suppressed by treatment with selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, associated with increased whole body O2 consumption and AMPK activation in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, Rho-kinase inhibition increased mRNA expression of the molecules linked to fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial energy production and glucose metabolism, all of which are known as targets of AMPK in those tissues. In systemic overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice, body weight, serum lipid levels and glucose metabolism were improved compared with littermate control mice. Furthermore, in AMPKα2-deficient mice, the beneficial effects of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, on body weight, hypercholesterolemia, mRNA expression of the AMPK targets and increase of whole body O2 consumption were absent, whereas glucose metabolism was restored by fasudil to the level in wild-type mice. In cultured mouse myocytes, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Rho-kinase increased AMPK activity through liver kinase b1 (LKB1, with up-regulation of its targets, which effects were abolished by an AMPK inhibitor, compound C. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Rho-kinase inhibition ameliorates metabolic disorders through activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway, suggesting that

  5. Active Mobility and Environment: A Pilot Qualitative Study for the Design of a New Questionnaire (United States)

    Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Feuillet, Thierry; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; Perchoux, Camille; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Simon, Chantal; Oppert, Jean-Michel


    It is generally accepted that active mobility, mainly walking and cycling, contributes to people’s physical and mental health. One of the current challenges is to improve our understanding of this type of behaviour. This study aims to identify factors from the daily-life environment that may be related to active mobility behaviours, in order to design a new questionnaire for a quantitative study of a large adult population. The new questionnaire obtained through this pilot study combines information from interviews with existing questionnaires materials in order to introduce new factors while retaining the factors already assessed. This approach comprises three stages. The first was a content analysis (Reinert method) of interviews with a sample of participants about daily living activities as well as mobility. This stage led to a typology of factors suggested by interviews. The second was a scoping review of the literature in order to identify the active mobility questionnaires currently used in international literature. The last stage was a cross-tabulation of the factors resulting from the written interviews and the questionnaires. A table of the inter-relationships between the interview-based typology and the questionnaires shows discrepancies between factors considered by the existing questionnaires, and factors coming from individual interviews. Independent factors which were ignored in or absent from the questionnaires are the housing situation within the urban structure, overall consideration of the activity space beyond the limits of the residential neighbourhood, the perception of all the transportation modes, and the time scheduling impacting the modes actually used. Our new questionnaire integrates both the usual factors and the new factors that may be related to active mobility behaviours. PMID:28052086

  6. Reactive oxygen species mediate TNFR1 increase after TRPV1 activation in mouse DRG neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westlund Karin N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 is activated by low pH/protons and is well known to be involved in hyperalgesia during inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in nociceptive responses causing hyperalgesia through TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1 activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is also prominently increased in inflamed tissue. The present study investigated TNFR1 receptors in primary cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons after TRPV1 activation and the involvement of ROS. C57BL/6 mice, both TRPV1 knockout and wild type, were used for immunofluorescent and live cell imaging. The L4 and L5 DRGs were dissected bilaterally and cultured overnight. TRPV1 was stimulated with capsaicin or its potent analog, resiniferatoxin. ROS production was measured with live cell imaging and TNFR1 was detected with immunofluorescence in DRG primary cultures. The TRPV1 knockout mice, TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and ROS scavenger, N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN, were employed to explore the functional relationship among TRPV1, ROS and TNFR1 in these studies. Results The results demonstrate that TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 receptors and ROS generation in primary cultures of mouse DRG neurons. Activated increases in TNFR1 receptors and ROS production are absent in TRPV1 deficient mice. The PBN blocks increases in TNFR1 and ROS production induced by capsaicin/resiniferatoxin. Conclusion TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 in cultured mouse DRG neurons through a ROS signaling pathway, a novel sensitization mechanism in DRG neurons.

  7. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E


    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  9. Glial Cell-Elicited Activation of Brain Microvasculature in Response to Brucella abortus Infection Requires ASC Inflammasome-Dependent IL-1β Production. (United States)

    Miraglia, M Cruz; Costa Franco, Miriam M; Rodriguez, Ana M; Bellozi, Paula M Q; Ferrari, Carina C; Farias, Maria I; Dennis, Vida A; Barrionuevo, Paula; de Oliveira, Antonio C P; Pitossi, Fernando; Kim, Kwang Sik; Delpino, M Victoria; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H


    Blood-brain barrier activation and/or dysfunction are a common feature of human neurobrucellosis, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. In this article, we describe an immune mechanism for inflammatory activation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to infection with Brucella abortus Infection of HBMEC with B. abortus induced the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, and the upregulation of CD54 (ICAM-1), consistent with a state of activation. Culture supernatants (CS) from glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) infected with B. abortus also induced activation of HBMEC, but to a greater extent. Although B. abortus-infected glial cells secreted IL-1β and TNF-α, activation of HBMEC was dependent on IL-1β because CS from B. abortus-infected astrocytes and microglia deficient in caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD failed to induce HBMEC activation. Consistently, treatment of CS with neutralizing anti-IL-1β inhibited HBMEC activation. Both absent in melanoma 2 and Nod-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 are partially required for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion, suggesting that multiple apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD-dependent inflammasomes contribute to IL-1β-induced activation of the brain microvasculature. Inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in glial cells depends on TLR2 and MyD88 adapter-like/TIRAP. Finally, neutrophil and monocyte migration across HBMEC monolayers was increased by CS from Brucella-infected glial cells in an IL-1β-dependent fashion, and the infiltration of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma upon intracranial injection of B. abortus was diminished in the absence of Nod-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 and absent in melanoma 2. Our results indicate that innate immunity of the CNS set in motion by B. abortus contributes to the activation of the blood-brain barrier in neurobrucellosis and IL-1β mediates

  10. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants]. (United States)

    Krasowska, Anna


    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  11. CDBG Economic Development Activity (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  12. CDBG Housing Activity (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  13. CDBG Public Services Activity (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  14. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)


    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  15. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Mao, Bao-Hua; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Wang, Sui-Dong


    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O2/air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O2/air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O2/air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results.

  16. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. (United States)

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan


    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  17. Connective tissue growth factor promoter activity in normal and wounded skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Mohit


    Full Text Available Abstract In skin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2 is induced during tissue repair. However, what the exact cell types are that express CTGF in normal and wounded skin remain controversial. In this report, we use transgenic knock-in mice in which the Pacific jellyfish Aequorea victoria enhanced green fluorescent protein (E-GFP gene has been inserted between the endogenous CTGF promoter and gene. Unwounded (day 0 and wounded (days 3 and 7 skin was examined for GFP to detect cells in which the CTGF promoter was active, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA to detect myofibroblasts, and NG2 expression to detect pericytes. In unwounded mice, CTGF expression was absent in epidermis and was present in a few cells in the dermis. Upon wounding, CTGF expression was induced in the dermis. Double immunolabeling revealed that CTGF-expressing cells also expressed α-SMA, indicating the CTGF was expressed in myofibroblasts. A subset (~30% of myofibroblasts were also NG2 positive, indicating that pericytes significantly contributed to the number of myofibroblasts in the wound. Pericytes also expressed CTGF. Collectively, these results indicate that CTGF expression in skin correlates with myofibroblast induction, and that CTGF-expressing pericytes are significant contributors to myofibroblast activity during cutaneous tissue repair.

  18. Evolution of a transition state: role of Lys100 in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Miller, Stephen P; Gonçalves, Susana; Matias, Pedro M; Dean, Antony M


    An active site lysine essential to catalysis in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is absent from related enzymes. As all family members catalyze the same oxidative β-decarboxylation at the (2R)-malate core common to their substrates, it seems odd that an amino acid essential to one is not found in all. Ordinarily, hydride transfer to a nicotinamide C4 neutralizes the positive charge at N1 directly. In IDH, the negatively charged C4-carboxylate of isocitrate stabilizes the ground state positive charge on the adjacent nicotinamide N1, opposing hydride transfer. The critical lysine is poised to stabilize-and perhaps even protonate-an oxyanion formed on the nicotinamide 3-carboxamide, thereby enabling the hydride to be transferred while the positive charge at N1 is maintained. IDH might catalyze the same overall reaction as other family members, but dehydrogenation proceeds through a distinct, though related, transition state. Partial activation of lysine mutants by K(+) and NH4 (+) represents a throwback to the primordial state of the first promiscuous substrate family member.

  19. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J


    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (Ppost-menopausal women.

  20. Drosophila Hox and sex-determination genes control segment elimination through EGFR and extramacrochetae activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Foronda

    Full Text Available The formation or suppression of particular structures is a major change occurring in development and evolution. One example of such change is the absence of the seventh abdominal segment (A7 in Drosophila males. We show here that there is a down-regulation of EGFR activity and fewer histoblasts in the male A7 in early pupae. If this activity is elevated, cell number increases and a small segment develops in the adult. At later pupal stages, the remaining precursors of the A7 are extruded under the epithelium. This extrusion requires the up-regulation of the HLH protein Extramacrochetae and correlates with high levels of spaghetti-squash, the gene encoding the regulatory light chain of the non-muscle myosin II. The Hox gene Abdominal-B controls both the down-regulation of spitz, a ligand of the EGFR pathway, and the up-regulation of extramacrochetae, and also regulates the transcription of the sex-determining gene doublesex. The male Doublesex protein, in turn, controls extramacrochetae and spaghetti-squash expression. In females, the EGFR pathway is also down-regulated in the A7 but extramacrochetae and spaghetti-squash are not up-regulated and extrusion of precursor cells is almost absent. Our results show the complex orchestration of cellular and genetic events that lead to this important sexually dimorphic character change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaysing Hari Patil,


    Full Text Available Bactericidal potential of methanolic extract of stem bark (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was evaluated with respect to pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apical stem bark was effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive among all the bacterial species studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides,flavonoids, flavonols, phenols and terpenoids. Saponins were absent in all the bark samples.The concentrations of these phytoconstituents was higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature stem bark. The percent extract yield was maximum in apical stem bark. Thus, in the pharmacological point of view, it is important to study the biochemistry of apical bark in order to isolate and screen the new pharmacological active principals which can be useful in designing of new drugs active against various infectious micro- rganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses etc.

  2. Interspecies differences in membrane-associated protease activities of thyrocytes and their relevance for thyroid cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Eleonore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the role of proteases involved in human thyroid cancer progression and tissue invasion, thyrocytes from other species could potentially be used provided their characteristics are similar. It is not known whether dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N activities, which are overexpressed in human thyroid cancer, are, as in human, also absent in normal thyrocytes of other species, making them suitable models for studies on the regulation of these proteases. Methods To assess the role of these proteases, activity was measured in thyroid tissue of human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine and ovine origin. The lysosomal protease, dipeptidyl peptidase II, was used for comparison. Results Murine, rat, ovine, bovine and human thyrocytes all lacked dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N activity, but porcine thyrocytes were found to possess both. In contrast, lysosomal dipeptidyl peptidase II was strongly expressed in all species. These activity patterns were maintained in cultured cells. Cultured porcine thyrocytes formed follicles with typical morphology upon stimulation with TSH but differed from human thyrocytes in their response to thiamazole. Conclusions These species differences in the expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N, indicate that porcine thyrocytes cannot be considered appropriate for the study of proteases in human cancer development.

  3. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang


    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  4. The Na+/Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitor Canagliflozin Activates AMPK by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Increasing Cellular AMP Levels. (United States)

    Hawley, Simon A; Ford, Rebecca J; Smith, Brennan K; Gowans, Graeme J; Mancini, Sarah J; Pitt, Ryan D; Day, Emily A; Salt, Ian P; Steinberg, Gregory R; Hardie, D Grahame


    Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, all recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes, were derived from the natural product phlorizin. They reduce hyperglycemia by inhibiting glucose reuptake by sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the kidney, without affecting intestinal glucose uptake by SGLT1. We now report that canagliflozin also activates AMPK, an effect also seen with phloretin (the aglycone breakdown product of phlorizin), but not to any significant extent with dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, or phlorizin. AMPK activation occurred at canagliflozin concentrations measured in human plasma in clinical trials and was caused by inhibition of Complex I of the respiratory chain, leading to increases in cellular AMP or ADP. Although canagliflozin also inhibited cellular glucose uptake independently of SGLT2, this did not account for AMPK activation. Canagliflozin also inhibited lipid synthesis, an effect that was absent in AMPK knockout cells and that required phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and/or ACC2 at the AMPK sites. Oral administration of canagliflozin activated AMPK in mouse liver, although not in muscle, adipose tissue, or spleen. Because phosphorylation of ACC by AMPK is known to lower liver lipid content, these data suggest a potential additional benefit of canagliflozin therapy compared with other SGLT2 inhibitors.

  5. Gamma activation in young people with autism spectrum disorders and typically-developing controls when viewing emotions on faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural studies have highlighted irregularities in recognition of facial affect in children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Recent findings from studies utilising electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG have identified abnormal activation and irregular maintenance of gamma (>30 Hz range oscillations when ASD individuals attempt basic visual and auditory tasks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pilot study reported here is the first study to use spatial filtering techniques in MEG to explore face processing in children with ASD. We set out to examine theoretical suggestions that gamma activation underlying face processing may be different in a group of children and young people with ASD (n = 13 compared to typically developing (TD age, gender and IQ matched controls. Beamforming and virtual electrode techniques were used to assess spatially localised induced and evoked activity. While lower-band (3-30 Hz responses to faces were similar between groups, the ASD gamma response in occipital areas was observed to be largely absent when viewing emotions on faces. Virtual electrode analysis indicated the presence of intact evoked responses but abnormal induced activity in ASD participants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings lend weight to previous suggestions that specific components of the early visual response to emotional faces is abnormal in ASD. Elucidation of the nature and specificity of these findings is worthy of further research.

  6. Primary motor cortex of the parkinsonian monkey: altered encoding of active movement. (United States)

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; DeLong, Mahlon R; Turner, Robert S


    Abnormalities in the movement-related activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) are thought to be a major contributor to the motor signs of Parkinson's disease. The existing evidence, however, variably indicates that M1 is under-activated with movement, overactivated (due to a loss of functional specificity) or activated with abnormal timing. In addition, few models consider the possibility that distinct cortical neuron subtypes may be affected differently. Those gaps in knowledge were addressed by studying the extracellular activity of antidromically-identified lamina 5b pyramidal-tract type neurons (n = 153) and intratelencephalic-type corticostriatal neurons (n = 126) in the M1 of two monkeys as they performed a step-tracking arm movement task. We compared movement-related discharge before and after the induction of parkinsonism by administration of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and quantified the spike rate encoding of specific kinematic parameters of movement using a generalized linear model. The fraction of M1 neurons with movement-related activity declined following MPTP but only marginally. The strength of neuronal encoding of parameters of movement was reduced markedly (mean 29% reduction in the coefficients from the generalized linear model). This relative decoupling of M1 activity from kinematics was attributable to reductions in the coefficients that estimated the spike rate encoding of movement direction (-22%), speed (-40%), acceleration (-49%) and hand position (-33%). After controlling for MPTP-induced changes in motor performance, M1 activity related to movement itself was reduced markedly (mean 36% hypoactivation). This reduced activation was strong in pyramidal tract-type neurons (-50%) but essentially absent in corticostriatal neurons. The timing of M1 activation was also abnormal, with earlier onset times, prolonged response durations, and a 43% reduction in the prevalence of movement-related changes beginning in the 150

  7. Hydroxytyrosol: a new class of microbicide displaying broad anti-HIV-1 activity (United States)

    Bedoya, Luis M.; Beltrán, Manuela; Obregón-Calderón, Patricia; García-Pérez, Javier; de la Torre, Humberto E.; González, Nuria; Pérez-Olmeda, Mayte; Auñón, David; Capa, Laura; Gómez-Acebo, Eduardo; Alcamí, José


    Objective: To investigate the toxicity and activity against HIV of 5-hydroxytyrosol as a potential microbicide. Design: The anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound, was tested against wild-type HIV-1 and viral clones resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors. In addition to its activity against founder viruses, different viral subtypes and potential synergy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and emtricitabine was also tested. 5-Hydroxytyrosol toxicity was evaluated in vivo in rabbit vaginal mucosa. Methods: We have cloned pol gene from drug-resistant HIV-1 isolated from infected patients and env gene from Fiebeg III/IV patients or A, C, D, E, F and G subtypes in the NL4.3-Ren backbone. 5-Hydroxytyrosol anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated in infections of MT-2, U87-CCR5 or peripheral blood mononuclear cells preactivated with phytohemagglutinin + interleukin-2 with viruses obtained through 293T transfections. Inhibitory concentration 50% and cytotoxic concentration 50% were calculated. Synergy was analysed according to Chou and Talalay method. In-vivo toxicity was evaluated for 14 days in rabbit vaginal mucosa. Results: 5-Hydroxytyrosol inhibited HIV-1 infections of recombinant or wild-type viruses in all the target cells tested. Moreover, 5-hydroxytyrosol showed similar inhibitory concentration 50% values for infections with NRTIs, NNRTIs, protease inhibitors and INIs resistant viruses; founder viruses and all the subtypes tested. Combination of 5-hydroxytyrosol with tenofovir was found to be synergistic, whereas it was additive with lamivudine and emtricitabine. In-vivo toxicity of 5-hydroxytyrosol was very low even at the highest tested doses. Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytyrosol displayed a broad anti-HIV-1 activity in different cells systems in the absent of in-vivo toxicity, therefore supporting its

  8. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  9. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology. (United States)

    Learning, 1992


    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  10. Reflections on Activity Theory (United States)

    Bakhurst, David


    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  11. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin


    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  12. Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostencka Alicja


    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS, according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

  13. Active and Healthy Schools (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather


    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  14. Activating Event Knowledge (United States)

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken


    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  15. Emotionally Intense Science Activities (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka


    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  16. Peak Longevity Physical Activity (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  17. Activities of the ILO. (United States)

    Labour Education, 1984


    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  18. Choreography of AMPK activation. (United States)

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E


    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  19. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children. (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  20. Active at Any Size (United States)

    ... go to the gym all the time to benefit from being active. To make physical activity more fun, try something you enjoy doing, such as dancing to the radio or taking a yoga class with friends. Many people find they start ...

  1. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C


    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  2. Biomedical activity of biosurfactants


    Anna Krasowska


    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of k...

  3. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh


    : what you can do depends upon where you are. Finally, human and automatic machinery alternate in filling certain roles in the activity: sometime the officer maintains the course, sometimes the autopilot. Such activities require us to rethink the traditional oppositions between communication...

  4. A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized Study, Comparing Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2% (Watson Laboratories, Inc.) to Clindesse® (Ther-Rx™, Clindamyin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2%) and Both Active Treatments to a Placebo Control in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis in Non-pregnant Women (United States)


    BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS; Signs and Symptoms to be Evaluated and Recorded Include:; Vaginal Discharge: Color, Odor, and Consistency;; Vulvovaginal Itching and Irritation (Subjective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe; Vulvovaginal Inflammation (Objective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe.

  5. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth. (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William


    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  6. Optical Tomography of MMP Activity Allows a Sensitive Noninvasive Characterization of the Invasiveness and Angiogenesis of SCC Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa'el Al Rawashdeh


    Full Text Available For improved tumor staging and therapy control, imaging biomarkers are of great interest allowing a noninvasive characterization of invasiveness. In squamous epithelial skin and cervix lesions, transition to invasive stages is associated with enhanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity, increased angiogenesis, and worsened prognosis. Thus, we investigated MMP activity as imaging biomarker of invasiveness and the potential of optical tomography in characterizing the angiogenic and invasive behavior of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC xenografts. MMP activity was measured in vivo in HaCaT-ras A-5RT3 tumors at different angiogenic and invasive stages (onset of angiogenesis, intermediate and highly angiogenic, invasive stage and after 1 week of sunitinib treatment by fluorescence molecular tomography–microcomputed tomography imaging using an activatable probe. Treatment response was additionally assessed morphologically by optical coherence tomography (OCT. In vivo MMP activity significantly differed between the groups, revealing highest levels in the highly angiogenic, invasive tumors that were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. At the onset of angiogenesis with lowest MMP activity, fibroblasts were detected in the MMP-positive areas, whereas macrophages were absent. Accumulation of both cell types occurred in both invasive groups, again to a significantly higher degree at the most invasive and angiogenic stage. Sunitinib treatment significantly reduced the MMP activity and accumulation of fibroblasts and macrophages and blocked tumor invasion that was additionally visualized by OCT. Human cervical SCCs also showed high MMP activity and a similar stromal composition as the HaCaT xenografts, whereas normal tissue was negative. This study strongly suggests MMP activity as imaging biomarker and demonstrates the high sensitivity of optical tomography in determining tumor invasiveness that can morphologically be supported by OCT.

  7. Differential activation of the amygdala and the 'social brain' during fearful face-processing in Asperger Syndrome. (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; O'Riordan, Michelle; Bullmore, Edward T


    Impaired social cognition is a core feature of autism. There is much evidence showing people with autism use a different cognitive style than controls for face-processing. We tested if people with autism would show differential activation of social brain areas during a face-processing task. Thirteen adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) and 13 matched controls. We used fMRI to investigate 'social brain' activity during perception of fearful faces. We employed stimuli known to reliably activate the amygdala and other social brain areas, and ROI analyses to investigate brain areas responding to facial threat as well as those showing a linear response to varying threat intensities. We predicted: (1) the HFA/AS group would show differential activation (as opposed to merely deficits) of the social brain compared to controls and (2) that social brain areas would respond to varied intensity of fear in the control group, but not the HFA/AS group. Both predictions were confirmed. The controls showed greater activation in the left amygdala and left orbito-frontal cortex, while the HFA/AS group showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal cortex. The control group also showed varying responses in social brain areas to varying intensities of fearful expression, including differential activations in the left and right amygdala. This response in the social brain was absent in the HFA/AS group. HFA/AS are associated with different patterns of activation of social brain areas during fearful emotion processing, and the absence in the HFA/AS brain of a response to varying emotional intensity.

  8. Structures of the HIN Domain:DNA Complexes Reveal Ligand Binding and Activation Mechanisms of the AIM2 Inflammasome and IFI16 Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Perry, Andrew; Jiang, Jiansheng; Smith, Patrick; Curry, James A.; Unterholzner, Leonie; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Horvath, Gabor; Rathinam, Vijay A.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Hornung, Veit; Latz, Eicke; Bowie, Andrew G.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Xiao, T. Sam (UMASS, MED); (Bonn); (Trinity); (PMCI-A); (NIH)


    Recognition of DNA by the innate immune system is central to antiviral and antibacterial defenses, as well as an important contributor to autoimmune diseases involving self DNA. AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) and IFI16 (interferon-inducible protein 16) have been identified as DNA receptors that induce inflammasome formation and interferon production, respectively. Here we present the crystal structures of their HIN domains in complex with double-stranded (ds) DNA. Non-sequence-specific DNA recognition is accomplished through electrostatic attraction between the positively charged HIN domain residues and the dsDNA sugar-phosphate backbone. An intramolecular complex of the AIM2 Pyrin and HIN domains in an autoinhibited state is liberated by DNA binding, which may facilitate the assembly of inflammasomes along the DNA staircase. These findings provide mechanistic insights into dsDNA as the activation trigger and oligomerization platform for the assembly of large innate signaling complexes such as the inflammasomes.

  9. Intracellular light-activation of riboswitch activity. (United States)

    Walsh, Steven; Gardner, Laura; Deiters, Alexander; Williams, Gavin J


    By combining a riboswitch with a cell-permeable photocaged small-molecule ligand, an optochemical gene control element was constructed that enabled spatial and temporal control of gene expression in bacterial cells. The simplicity of this strategy, coupled with the ability to create synthetic riboswitches with tailored ligand specificities and output in a variety of microorganisms, plants, and fungi might afford a general strategy to photocontrol gene expression in vivo. The ability to activate riboswitches by using light enables the interrogation and manipulation of a wide range of biological processes with high precision, and will have broad utility in the regulation of artificial genetic circuits.

  10. Multi-bioindicators to assess soil microbial activity in the context of an artificial groundwater recharge with treated wastewater: a large-scale pilot experiment. (United States)

    Michel, Caroline; Joulian, Catherine; Ollivier, Patrick; Nyteij, Audrey; Cote, Rémi; Surdyk, Nicolas; Hellal, Jennifer; Casanova, Joel; Besnard, Katia; Rampnoux, Nicolas; Garrido, Francis


    In the context of artificial groundwater recharge, a reactive soil column at pilot-scale (4.5 m depth and 3 m in diameter) fed by treated wastewater was designed to evaluate soil filtration ability. Here, as a part of this project, the impact of treated wastewater filtration on soil bacterial communities and the soil's biological ability for wastewater treatment as well as the relevance of the use of multi-bioindicators were studied as a function of depth and time. Biomass; bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity fingerprints; potential nitrifying, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing activities; and functional gene (amo, nir, nar, and dsr) detection were analyzed to highlight the real and potential microbial activity and diversity within the soil column. These bioindicators show that topsoil (0 to 20 cm depth) was the more active and the more impacted by treated wastewater filtration. Nitrification was the main activity in the pilot. No sulfate-reducing activity or dsr genes were detected during the first 6 months of wastewater application. Denitrification was also absent, but genes of denitrifying bacteria were detected, suggesting that the denitrifying process may occur rapidly if adequate chemical conditions are favored within the soil column. Results also underline that a dry period (20 days without any wastewater supply) significantly impacted soil bacterial diversity, leading to a decrease of enzyme activities and biomass. Finally, our work shows that treated wastewater filtration leads to a modification of the bacterial genetic and functional structures in topsoil.

  11. Biological activities of alginate. (United States)

    Ueno, Mikinori; Oda, Tatsuya


    To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.

  12. Emotionally Intense Science Activities (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka


    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  13. Active optical zoom system (United States)

    Wick, David V.


    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  14. A universe of activities (United States)

    Armentia, J.; Jáuregui, F.; Gordón, N.; Manzanal, R.

    Since its opening back in november 1993 the Planetarium of Pamplona has gone a long way creating activities related to teaching and communicating Astronomy, Science and other areas of what we call Culture. In this poster we present a summary of some of the most relevant activities that have had an special relevance throughout these years. We will refer to our “School of Stars” in which more than 400 000 students have already been involved and other activities that have been very appreciated by our visitors.

  15. Physics of solar activity (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.


    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  16. China's Space Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration


    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  17. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura


    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  18. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  19. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea


    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  20. Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in white fat through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 (United States)

    Wang, Songbo; Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Fu, Xing; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhu, Meijun; Rodgers, B. D.; Jiang, Qingyan; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min


    Objective Development of brown-like/beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) helps to reduce obesity. Thus, we investigated the effects of resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol capable of preventing obesity and related complications in humans and animal models, on brown-like adipocyte formation in inguinal WAT (iWAT). Methods CD1 female mice (5-month-old) were fed a high-fat diet with/without 0.1% resveratrol. In addition, primary stromal vascular cells separated from iWAT were subjected to resveratrol treatment. Markers of brown-like (beige) adipogenesis were measured and the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 was assessed using conditional knockout. Results Resveratrol significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16), Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A (Cidea), elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 3 (Elovl3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), cytochrome C and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in differentiated iWAT stromal vascular cells (SVC), suggesting that resveratrol induced brown-like adipocyte formation in vitro. Concomitantly, resveratrol markedly enhanced AMPKα1 phosphorylation and differentiated SVC oxygen consumption. Such changes were absent in cells lacking AMPKα1, showing that AMPKα1 is a critical mediator of resveratrol action. Resveratrol also induced beige adipogenesis in vivo along with the appearance of multiocular adipocytes, increased UCP1 expression and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. Conclusion Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT via AMPKα1 activation and suggest that its beneficial anti-obesity effects may be partly due to the browning of WAT and as a consequence, increased oxygen consumption. PMID:25761413

  1. Creating Art Appreciation Activities. (United States)

    Heidt, Ann H.


    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  2. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn


    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  3. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  4. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia


    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  5. Homebuyer Activities Report (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  6. Math Lab Activities (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.


    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  7. PRCR Classes and Activities (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  8. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin


    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ......, and pragmatic, 2) proposes a notation, and 3) sketches a method and exemplifies areas of application using authentic cases from hospital work, primary school education, the maritime domain, and other areas......Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational...

  9. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  10. CDBG Public Improvements Activity (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  11. Extravehicular activity technology discipline (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.


    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.


    Loewe, S


    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  13. OTI Activity Database (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  14. Vessel Activity Record (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  15. Sustained Attention, Activation and MPH in ADHD : A Research Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Shalev, Ruth; Börger, Norbert; Gross-Tsur, Varda


    Sustained attention was studied in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal controls using a continuous performance task with slow presentation of stimuli and carried out with an experimenter-present and absent condition. Children with ADHD were slower than controls,

  16. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  17. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  18. TPR And TPR Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper presents the definition of Total Physical Response(TPR),elaborates the process and the principles of it 80 that more and more TPR activities can be created according to them.The use of TPR shows us an interesting and effective way of teaching and learning English.TPR activities are interesting,challenging and motivating that almost all the students enjoy them.

  19. Toroidal optical activity

    CERN Document Server

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I


    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  20. Phytase activity in lichens. (United States)

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D


    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. (United States)

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J


    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  2. Hypoglycemic Activity of Jatrorrhizine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The hypoglycemic activity and its mechanism of Jatrorrhizine (Jat) were studied. The normal mice and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were given with different doses of Jat. Blood glucose and liver glycogen levels were determined by spectrophotometry with glucose-oxidase and iodine reagents respectively. The levels of blood lactic acid (LC) and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to explore the effect of Jat on anaerobic glycolysis. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in liver was measured to evaluate the effect of Jat on aerobic glycolysis in liver. It was found that Jat (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) could significantly decrease blood glucose level in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both normal and alloxan-diabetic mice, increase the activity of SDH, but had no significant effects on the LC level and LDH activity. Jat could significantly reduce the content of liver glycogen in normal mice. Moreover, Jat could inhibit the platelet aggregation in rabbits in vitro in a dose-effect relationship. It was concluded that Jat induced the pronounced decrease in blood glucose in normal and hyperglycemic mice. The hypoglycemic activity of Jat may be attributed to the enhancement of aerobic glycolysis.

  3. The EYA tyrosine phosphatase activity is pro-angiogenic and is inhibited by benzbromarone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tadjuidje

    Full Text Available Eyes Absents (EYA are multifunctional proteins best known for their role in organogenesis. There is accumulating evidence that overexpression of EYAs in breast and ovarian cancers, and in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, correlates with tumor growth and increased metastasis. The EYA protein is both a transcriptional activator and a tyrosine phosphatase, and the tyrosine phosphatase activity promotes single cell motility of mammary epithelial cells. Since EYAs are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and cell motility is a critical feature of angiogenesis we investigated the role of EYAs in this process. Using RNA interference techniques we show that EYA3 depletion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells inhibits transwell migration as well as Matrigel-induced tube formation. To specifically query the role of the EYA tyrosine phosphatase activity we employed a chemical biology approach. Through an experimental screen the uricosuric agents Benzbromarone and Benzarone were found to be potent EYA inhibitors, and Benzarone in particular exhibited selectivity towards EYA versus a representative classical protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B. These compounds inhibit the motility of mammary epithelial cells over-expressing EYA2 as well as the motility of endothelial cells. Furthermore, they attenuate tubulogenesis in matrigel and sprouting angiogenesis in the ex vivo aortic ring assay in a dose-dependent fashion. The anti-angiogenic effect of the inhibitors was also demonstrated in vivo, as treatment of zebrafish embryos led to significant and dose-dependent defects in the developing vasculature. Taken together our results demonstrate that the EYA tyrosine phosphatase activity is pro-angiogenic and that Benzbromarone and Benzarone are attractive candidates for repurposing as drugs for the treatment of cancer metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and vasculopathies.

  4. Influence of red algal sulfated polysaccharides on blood coagulation and platelets activation in vitro. (United States)

    Sokolova, Ekaterina V; Byankina, Anna O; Kalitnik, Alexandra A; Kim, Yong H; Bogdanovich, Larisa N; Solov'eva, Tamara F; Yermak, Irina M


    The influence of sulfated polysaccharides (λ-, κ-, and κ/β-carrageenan and porphyran) - on platelet activation was studied. Carrageenans were much weaker inhibitors of a coagulation process than heparin, while porphyran had not that effect. Results of the aPTT and PT assays suppose that carrageenans affected mostly intrinsic pathway of coagulation, while their effect on the extrinsic pathway is extremely low (λ and κ/β) or absent (κ, LMW derivative of κ-carrageenan). λ-Carrageenan was the most potent anticoagulant agent in TT, aPTT, PT, and anti-factor Xa activity. This sample was also the strongest inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Generally, the correlation of anticoagulant and antithrombotic action in PRP is preserved for carrageenans but not for heparin. Carrageenans and porphyran affected platelet adhesion to collagen by influencing glycoprotein VI. Low molecular weight κ-carrageenan had a similar effect on platelet adhesion mediated with both major collagen receptors: integrin α2 β1 and glycoprotein VI as native polysaccharide had. Carrageenans resulted in activation of platelets under platelet adhesion mediated by integrin αIIb β3 with less degree than heparin. The least sulfated κ/β-carrageenan that possessed an inhibiting effect on thrombin- and collagen-induced aggregation of washed platelets and on the PT test but it had no significant effect on TT was the weakest promoter of integrin αIIb β3 mediated platelet activation. In summary, our study showed that the polysaccharide action was complex, since it depended on its molecular mass, sulfation degree, and monosaccharide contents (3,6-anhydrogalactose).

  5. Pharmacological activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity of methanol extract ofEtlingera elatior (torch ginger) flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanion Jo Thy Lachumy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Vello Sumathy; Zakaria Zuraini


    Objective:To elucidate its pharmacological activities and medicinal potential of extract of Etlingera elatior (E. elatior).Methods: Phytochemical screening of the flower extract was done to determine the phytochemical in the extract. The pharmacological study included the determination of antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of metabolic flower extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against medically important bacterial, yeast and fungal strains. Apart from that, the methanolic extract ofE. elatior flower was further testedin vivo toxicity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Moreover, the flower extract was qualitatively screened for their free radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay.Results:The extract was effective on tested microorganisms andMIC values were in the range of1.563-50.000 mg/mL. The brine shrimp lethality test exhibited no significant toxicity (LC50 = 2.52 mg/mL) againstArtemia salina. TheE. elatior flower extract with highLC50 value signified that this plant is not toxic to humans. While the phytochemical screening of the flower extract revealed the presence of the following compounds: flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin, tannins and carbohydrates whereas, alkaloids, anthraquinone and reducing sugars were absent. The concentration of the flower extract required for50% inhibition ofDPPH radical scavenging effect (IC50) were9.14 mg/mL and8.08 mg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene8.08 mg/mL.Conclusions:These findings indicate that the extract ofE. elatior flower possesses pharmacological properties and potential to develop natural products based pharmaceuticals products.

  6. Effects of Multiglycoside of Tripterygium Wilfordii (GTW) on Spermatogenic Ceils and Enzymatic Activities in Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田健; 周孝瑚


    This study was undertaken to observe consecutively the morphology of testis and epididymis and the changes of enzymatic activities of AKP, ACP, 3β-HSD and LDH-C4 in male rats treated with GTW 30 to 80 days. In addition, male antifertility effect and its possible reversibility were also observed. The results showed that GTW is a potential testicular toxicant in the animals. It can cause damage of the sperm cells with close relation to the treated time and dosage, Sloughing of sperm cells and many multinucleated giant cells in the seminiferous tubules were found on day 40 and 50 after the treatment. The tubules were hyperatrophic and the sperm cells were almost absent at the end of the study(80 days), No obvious morphological alteration was observed in the epididymal epithelial tissue, But changes of quality and number df the spermatozoa in epididymides were found prior to those of testes. Reduced number and abnormal cauda sperm were observed 30 days after the treatment, The ACP activity of Sertoli cells increased slightly, whereas the activities of ACP and LDH-C4 decreased gradually as the treated time prolonged. The 3β-HSD of Leydig cells was changed or subtle by m-phase or treatment and dramatically decreased at the end of treatment, The infertility caused by GTW was reversible 8 weeks after cessation of the treatment.

  7. Effects of Exergaming and Message Framing in School Environments on Physical Activity Attitudes and Intentions of Children and Adolescents. (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S; Younbo, Jung; Leng, Theng Yin; Wardoyo, Reidinar J; Jung, Kim Hyo


    Although interventions targeting the health of students in schools are becoming common, few studies have examined how health messages operate at the group level in school environments. This study examines the effects of message-based health interventions (extrinsic vs. intrinsic goal framing) in group environments (exergame competitive vs. exergame noncompetitive) on eliciting attitudes and intentions toward physical activity among children and adolescents. We conducted a 7-week school-based intervention program involving 336 children and 259 adolescents in Singapore in which pre- and post-intervention responses were recorded. Our findings revealed the difference in responses between child and adolescent groups. Children who participated in noncompetitive exergames with extrinsically framed health messages and those who participated in competitive exergames with intrinsically framed health messages demonstrated more favorable attitudes toward physical activity. However, the same effects were absent in our adolescent group. These findings suggest that the integration of exergames into competitive and noncompetitive environments can serve as a gateway to traditional physical activity in schools when strategically combined with intrinsically and extrinsically framed messages. Practical and theoretical implications for schools and health educators are discussed.

  8. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells. (United States)

    Duymich, Christopher E; Charlet, Jessica; Yang, Xiaojing; Jones, Peter A; Liang, Gangning


    Promoter DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for stable gene silencing, but is correlated with expression when located in gene bodies. Maintenance and de novo DNA methylation by catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A/B) require accessory proteins such as UHRF1 and DNMT3L. DNMT3B isoforms are widely expressed, although some do not have active catalytic domains and their expression can be altered during cell development and tumourigenesis, questioning their biological roles. Here, we show that DNMT3B isoforms stimulate gene body methylation and re-methylation after methylation-inhibitor treatment. This occurs independently of the isoforms' catalytic activity, demonstrating a similar functional role to the accessory protein DNMT3L, which is only expressed in undifferentiated cells and recruits DNMT3A to initiate DNA methylation. This unexpected role for DNMT3B suggests that it might substitute for the absent accessory protein DNMT3L to recruit DNMT3A in somatic cells.

  9. Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood mutations have a differential effect on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and ouabain binding. (United States)

    Weigand, Karl M; Messchaert, Muriël; Swarts, Herman G P; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B


    De novo mutations in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3-subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, are associated with the neurodevelopmental disorder Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC). The aim of this study was to determine the functional consequences of six ATP1A3 mutations (S137Y, D220N, I274N, D801N, E815K, and G947R) associated with AHC. Wild type and mutant Na(+),K(+)-ATPases were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Ouabain binding, ATPase activity, and phosphorylation were absent in mutants I274N, E815K and G947R. Mutants S137Y and D801N were able to bind ouabain, although these mutants lacked ATPase activity, phosphorylation, and the K(+)/ouabain antagonism indicative of modifications in the cation binding site. Mutant D220N showed similar ouabain binding, ATPase activity, and phosphorylation to wild type Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Functional impairment of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in mutants S137Y, I274N, D801N, E815K, and G947R might explain why patients having these mutations suffer from AHC. Moreover, mutant D801N is able to bind ouabain, whereas mutant E815K shows a complete loss of function, possibly explaining the different phenotypes for these mutations.

  10. Genomic sequence of bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 and activity of its endolysin and engineered variants against Clostridium sporogenes. (United States)

    Mayer, Melinda J; Gasson, Michael J; Narbad, Arjan


    Lytic bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 produces large plaques on its host Clostridium sporogenes. Sequencing of the 47,595-bp genome allowed the identification of 82 putative open reading frames, including those encoding proteins for head and tail morphogenesis and lysis. However, sequences commonly associated with lysogeny were absent. ORF 22 encodes an endolysin, CS74L, that shows homology to N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases, and when expressed in Escherichia coli, the protein causes effective lysis of C. sporogenes cells when added externally. CS74L was also active on Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum. The catalytic domain expressed alone (CS74L(1-177)) exhibited a similar activity and the same host range as the full-length endolysin. A chimeric endolysin consisting of the CS74L catalytic domain fused to the C-terminal domain of endolysin CD27L, derived from Clostridium difficile bacteriophage ΦCD27, was produced. This chimera (CSCD) lysed C. sporogenes cells with an activity equivalent to that of the catalytic domain alone. In contrast, the CD27L C-terminal domain reduced the efficacy of the CS74L catalytic domain when tested against C. tyrobutyricum. The addition of the CD27L C-terminal domain did not enable the lysin to target C. difficile or other CD27L-sensitive bacteria.

  11. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in diseased prostates and its inflammatory and transforming activity on prostate epithelial cells. (United States)

    Fassi Fehri, Lina; Mak, Tim N; Laube, Britta; Brinkmann, Volker; Ogilvie, Lesley A; Mollenkopf, Hans; Lein, Michael; Schmidt, Timo; Meyer, Thomas F; Brüggemann, Holger


    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of male cancer deaths in the Western world. Mounting evidence has revealed that chronic inflammation can be an important initiating factor of PCa. Recent work has detected the anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in cancerous prostates, but with wide-ranging detection rates. Here, using in situ immunofluorescence (ISIF), P. acnes was found in 58 out of 71 (81.7%) tested cancerous prostate tissue samples, but was absent from healthy prostate tissues (20 samples) and other cancerous tissue biopsies (59 mamma carcinoma samples). Live P. acnes bacteria were isolated from cancerous prostates and cocultured with the prostate epithelial cell line RWPE1. Microarray analysis showed that the host cell responded to P. acnes with a strong multifaceted inflammatory response. Active secretion of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8, from infected cells was confirmed. The host cell response was likely mediated by the transcriptional factors NF-κB and STAT3, which were both activated upon P. acnes infection. The P. acnes-induced host cell response also included the activation of the COX2-prostaglandin, and the plasminogen-matrix metalloproteinase pathways. Long-term exposure to P. acnes altered cell proliferation, and enabled anchorage-independent growth of infected epithelial cells, thus initiating cellular transformation. Our results suggest that P. acnes infection could be a contributing factor to the initiation or progression of PCa.

  12. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Francisco Caracheo


    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  13. Usefulness of spectral computed tomography for evaluation of intestinal activity and severity in ileocolonic Crohn’s disease (United States)

    Peng, Jiang Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhu, Jiong; Shen, Jun; Qiao, Yu Qi; Xu, Jian Rong; Ran, Zhi Hua


    Background: Assessment of intestinal activity and severity of Crohn’s disease (CD) is crucial to guide treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of spectral computed tomography (CT) in this assessment and make a comparison with conventional CT. Methods: A total of 50 patients with ileocolonic CD underwent spectral CT scanning. Conventional CT and spectral CT images were reconstructed. Endoscopic lesions were classified as absent, mild lesions and severe lesions. Qualitative and quantitative findings in CT images were compared in these segments. Logistic regressions were established, based on conventional and spectral CT parameters, to predict intestinal activity and severity. Comparisons were made by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The results showed that bowel wall hyperenhancement, ulcers on CT images, comb sign, bowel wall thickness, normalized iodine concentration (NIC) and slope of HU curve (λHU) increased significantly (p NIC and λHU correlated significantly with Simple Endoscopic Score for CD (r = 0.833 and r = 0.771; both p < 0.001), but their correlations with C-reactive protein (r = 0.578 and r = 0.513; both p < 0.01) and Harvey–Bradshaw Index (r = 0.545 and r = 0.522; both p < 0.01) were moderate. Conclusions: Compared with conventional CT, spectral CT had higher accuracy in detecting intestinal activity and severity of CD, which could be an alternative choice in evaluation of CD. PMID:27803734

  14. Antitumor activity and systemic effects of PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules in lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice (United States)

    de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Alexandre Muehlmann, Luis; Carneiro Matos, Lívia; Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Guerreiro Marques Lacava, Zulmira; Maurício Batista De-Paula, Alfredo; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, Ewa; Suchocki, Piotr; César Morais, Paulo; González-Fernández, África; Nair Báo, Sônia; Bentes Azevedo, Ricardo


    Selol is a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite that is effective against cancerous cells and safer for clinical applications in comparison with other inorganic forms of selenite. Recently, we have developed a formulation of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-shelled selol nanocapsules (SPN), which reduced the proliferative activity of lung adenocarcinoma cells and presented little deleterious effects on normal cells in in vitro studies. In this study, we report on the antitumor activity and systemic effects induced by this formulation in chemically induced lung adenocarcinoma-bearing mice. The in vivo antitumor activity of the SPN was verified by macroscopic quantification, immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses. Toxicity analyses were performed by evaluations of the kidney, liver, and spleen; analyses of hemogram and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, urea, and creatinine; and DNA fragmentation and cell cycle activity of the bone marrow cells. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of the SPN formulation to cause hemolysis, activate the complement system, provoke an inflammatory response and change the conformation of the plasma proteins. Our results showed that the SPN reduced the area of the surface tumor nodules but not the total number of tumor nodules. The biochemical and hematological findings were suggestive of the low systemic toxicity of the SPN formulation. The surface properties of the selol nanocapsules point to characteristics that are consistent with the treatment of the tumors in vivo: low hemolytic activity, weak inflammatory reaction with no activation of the complement system, and mild or absent conformational changes of the plasma proteins. In conclusion, this report suggests that the SPN formulation investigated herein exhibits anti-tumoral effects against lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and is associated with low systemic toxicity and high biocompatibility.

  15. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus: indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P Ensing

    Full Text Available Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus, one in the Netherlands (red deer, the other in Canada (elk. GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands or after sunrise (Canada and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale and local weather (on an annual scale. In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  16. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus): indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates. (United States)

    Ensing, Erik P; Ciuti, Simone; de Wijs, Freek A L M; Lentferink, Dennis H; Ten Hoedt, André; Boyce, Mark S; Hut, Roelof A


    Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS) is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus), one in the Netherlands (red deer), the other in Canada (elk). GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands) or after sunrise (Canada) and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale) and local weather (on an annual scale). In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in) light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  17. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  18. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint. (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H


    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai


    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  20. Interpreting EEG alpha activity. (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D


    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  1. Active flows on trees (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn


    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  2. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D


    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  3. Software Activation Using Multithreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrui Zhang


    Full Text Available Software activation is an anti-piracy technology designed to verify that software products have been legitimately licensed. Activation should be quick and simple while simultaneously being secure and protecting customer privacy. The most common form of software activation is for the user to enter a legitimate product serial number. However, software activation based on serial numbers appears to be weak, since cracks for many programs are readily available on the Internet. Users can employ such cracks to bypass software activation.Serial number verification logic usually executes sequentially in a single thread. Such an approach is relatively easy to break since attackers can trace the code to understand how the logic works. In this paper, we develop a practical multi-threaded verification design. Our results show that by proper use of multi-threading, the amount of traceable code in a debugger can be reduced to a low percentage of the total and the traceable code in each run can differ as well. This makes it significantly more difficult for an attacker to reverse engineer the code as a means of bypassing a security check. Finally, we attempt to quantify the increased effort needed to break our verification logic.

  4. α2-Null mutant mice have altered levels of neuronal activity in restricted midbrain and limbic brain regions during nicotine withdrawal as demonstrated by cfos expression. (United States)

    Upton, Montana; Lotfipour, Shahrdad


    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the primary binding sites for nicotine within the brain. Using alpha(α)2 nAChR subunit-null mutant mice, the current study evaluates whether the absence of this gene product during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal eliminates neuronal activity within selective midbrain and limbic brain regions, as determined by the expression of the immediate early gene, cfos. Our results demonstrate that nicotine withdrawal enhances neuronal activity within the interpeduncular nucleus and dorsal hippocampus, which is absent in mice null for α2-containing nAChRs. In contrast, we observe that α2-null mutant mice exhibit a suppression of neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. Interestingly, α2-null mutant mice display potentiated neuronal activity specifically within the stratum lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus, independent of nicotine withdrawal. Overall, our findings demonstrate that α2-null mutant mice have altered cfos expression in distinct populations of neurons within selective midbrain and limbic brain structures that mediate baseline and nicotine withdrawal-induced neuronal activity.

  5. `In crystallo' substrate binding triggers major domain movements and reveals magnesium as a co-activator of Trypanosoma brucei pyruvate kinase. (United States)

    Zhong, Wenhe; Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D


    The active site of pyruvate kinase (PYK) is located between the AC core of the enzyme and a mobile lid corresponding to domain B. Many PYK structures have already been determined, but the first `effector-only' structure and the first with PEP (the true natural substrate) are now reported for the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei. PEP soaked into crystals of the enzyme with bound allosteric activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) and Mg(2+) triggers a substantial 23° rotation of the B domain `in crystallo', resulting in a partially closed active site. The interplay of side chains with Mg(2+) and PEP may explain the mechanism of the domain movement. Furthermore, it is apparent that when F26BP is present but PEP is absent Mg(2+) occupies a position that is distinct from the two canonical Mg(2+)-binding sites at the active site. This third site is adjacent to the active site and involves the same amino-acid side chains as in canonical site 1 but in altered orientations. Site 3 acts to sequester Mg(2+) in a `priming' position such that the enzyme is maintained in its R-state conformation. In this way, Mg(2+) cooperates with F26BP to ensure that the enzyme is in a conformation that has a high affinity for the substrate.

  6. Regional NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia; Collins, Julie; Johnson, Jeff; DeCarli, Charles


    Converging evidence supports the role of oxidative stress in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This notion is further supported by recent findings of increased NAD(P)H:quinone oxidodreductase (NQO1) activity, a potent antioxidant system, in association with hippocampal AD pathology. If increased NQO1 activity is truly related to the AD process, however, we would expect to see regional co-localization of NQO1 activity with AD pathology throughout affected brain regions and the absence of NQO1 activity in regions unaffected by AD. We examined this hypothesis by measuring NQO1 enzymatic activity and NQO1 immunohistochemical staining in regions commonly affected by the AD process such as frontal cortex and compared this to regions generally unaffected by the AD process such as occipital cortex, cerebellum, and substantia nigra for a group of AD patients and controls. The ratio of frontal to cerebellar NQO1 enzymatic activity was significantly increased in patients with AD (2.07 +/- 1.90) versus controls (0.60 +/- 0.31; P < 0.03). Moreover, regional immunohistochemical staining revealed specific localization of NQO1 staining to astrocytes and neurites surrounding senile plaques. The extent of immunohistochemical staining also closely correlated with the extent of local AD pathology across the various brain regions examined. Neuronal NQO1 staining seen in frontal cortex of AD patients was absent in frontal cortex of controls, but was found to the same extent in neurons of the substantia nigra of both AD patients and controls. We conclude that NQO1 activity co-localizes closely with AD pathology supporting a presumed role as an antioxidant system upregulated in response to the oxidative stress of the AD process. The antioxidant role for NQO1 is further supported by finding increased neuronal NQO1 activity in substantia nigra neurons of both AD patients and controls as this neuronal population is known to be under constant oxidative stress. While requiring further

  7. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium. (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A


    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of some Brazilian indigenous medicinal drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available

    Tuberculosis (TB is a very serious problem worldwide and the increasing number of multiple drugs resistant TB cases makes the search for new anti-TB drugs an urgent need. Indigenous knowledge about the use of native plants to treat illnesses has contributed to the discovery of new medicines. In this study, the antimycobacterial activity of seven medicinal drinks was assessed: Ananas sativus (hydroalcoholic fruit extract, Aristolochia triangularis (aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf, root and stem extracts, Bromelia antiacantha (hydroalcoholic fruit extract, Stryphnodendron adstringens (hydroalcoholic bark extract, Tabebuia ovellanedae (hydroalcoholic bark extract, Vernonia polyanthes (hydroalcoholic root extract, all used by the Vanuíre indigenous community in the treatment of respiratory diseases. The activity was evaluated by using a time-to-kill assay, in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium, after thirty minutes, one, three, six, twelve and twenty-four hours contact of the bacteria with each drink. Within half to one hour contact, the hydroalcoholic drinks of A. triangularis, S. adstringens, T. ovellanedae and V. polyanthes reduced the bacterial growth by 2 orders of magnitude in CFU/mL, and all bacterial growth was absent after three hours contact. In contrast, no mycobactericidal effect was detected in the aqueous extract of A. triangularis or in the hydroalcoholic beverages of A. sativus and B. antiacantha, even after twenty-four hours contact. Keywords: Tuberculosis; indigenous drinks; Aristolochia triangularis; Stryphnodendron adstringens; Tabebuia ovellanedae; Vernonia polyanthes.

  9. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue


    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  10. IHY activities in Brazil (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (, hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  11. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;


    . The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  12. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  13. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier


    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  14. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F


    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  15. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim


    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  16. Slit-Robo GTPase-Activating Protein 2 as a metastasis suppressor in osteosarcoma. (United States)

    Marko, Tracy A; Shamsan, Ghaidan A; Edwards, Elizabeth N; Hazelton, Paige E; Rathe, Susan K; Cornax, Ingrid; Overn, Paula R; Varshney, Jyotika; Diessner, Brandon J; Moriarity, Branden S; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Odde, David J; Largaespada, David A


    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, with metastatic disease responsible for most treatment failure and patient death. A forward genetic screen utilizing Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis in mice previously identified potential genetic drivers of osteosarcoma metastasis, including Slit-Robo GTPase-Activating Protein 2 (Srgap2). This study evaluates the potential role of SRGAP2 in metastases-associated properties of osteosarcoma cell lines through Srgap2 knockout via the CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system and conditional overexpression in the murine osteosarcoma cell lines K12 and K7M2. Proliferation, migration, and anchorage independent growth were evaluated. RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry of human osteosarcoma tissue samples were used to further evaluate the potential role of the Slit-Robo pathway in osteosarcoma. The effects of Srgap2 expression modulation in the murine OS cell lines support the hypothesis that SRGAP2 may have a role as a suppressor of metastases in osteosarcoma. Additionally, SRGAP2 and other genes in the Slit-Robo pathway have altered transcript levels in a subset of mouse and human osteosarcoma, and SRGAP2 protein expression is reduced or absent in a subset of primary tumor samples. SRGAP2 and other axon guidance proteins likely play a role in osteosarcoma metastasis, with loss of SRGAP2 potentially contributing to a more aggressive phenotype.

  17. Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit. (United States)

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly


    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.

  18. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita


    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Pa alpha and Pa beta, and find that it scales with the ionising continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionisation theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution ...

  19. Atypical developmental trajectory of local spontaneous brain activity in autism spectrum disorder (United States)

    Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Heng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Huafu


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by atypical trajectory of brain maturation, yet the developmental abnormalities in brain function remain unclear. The current study examined the effect of age on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ASD and typical controls (TC) using a cross-sectional design. We classified all the participants into three age cohorts: child (<11 years, 18ASD/20TC), adolescent (11–18 years, 28ASD/26TC) and adult (≥18 years, 18ASD/18TC). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to ascertain main effects and interaction effects on whole brain ALFF maps. Results exhibited significant main effect of diagnosis in ASD with decreased ALFF in the right precuneus and left middle occipital gyrus during all developmental stages. Significant diagnosis-by-age interaction was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) with ALFF lowered in autistic children but highered in autistic adolescents and adults. Specifically, remarkable quadratic change of ALFF with increasing age in mPFC presented in TC group was absent in ASD. Additionally, abnormal ALFF values in diagnosis-related brain regions predicted the social deficits in ASD. Our findings indicated aberrant developmental patterns of spontaneous brain activity associated with social deficits in ASD and highlight the crucial role of the default mode network in the development of disease. PMID:28057930

  20. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hawa Ali Hassan


    Full Text Available Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana, which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2±0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 5.9±0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0±0.3 and 3.0±0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer’s agents.