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Sample records for absence register study

  1. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed : a historic register study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; De Boer, Michiel R.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated

  2. The regular general practitioner and sickness absence--a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Lee; Haukenes, Inger; Hetlevik, Øystein; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2013-01-08

    Undertaking research on the role of regular GPs with regard to rates of sickness absence is methodologically challenging, and existing results show a wide divergence. We investigated how long-term sickness absence is affected by the characteristics of doctors and their patient lists. The study encompassed all those vocationally active residents of Oslo and Bergen in 2005-2006 who had the same regular GP throughout 2006 (N = 298,039). Encrypted data on sickness absence for each individual in 2006, as well their age, gender and level of education were merged with data on the regular GPs (N = 568) and their patient lists, and subsequently analysed with the aid of logistic regression. The outcome variable was at least one period of sickness absence which had been paid for by the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NLWA). The explanatory variables included the age, gender, list length and list status (open/closed) of the regular GPs, as well as variables that characterised the composition of the patient lists. The analyses were stratified by gender and controlled for individual age and education. The age, gender and list length of the regular GPs were not associated with sickness absence paid for by the NLWA. The odds ratio for sickness absence > 16 days was reduced for both women and men when the list contained many highly educated patients, a high proportion of elderly people and few disability pensioners. Men on lists with a high proportion of men and lists with a high proportion of vocationally active patients also had lower odds rates for sickness absence > 16 days. Among women, the rate of sickness absence was lower for those on open lists than for those on closed lists. In addition to well-known individual factors, the study shows that the likelihood of sickness absence is affected by the socio-demographic composition of the patient list to which one belongs.

  3. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Finland. Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). N/A. Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in Ja

  5. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients: a Danish register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J; Bonnema, S J; Hegedüs, L; Rasmussen, A K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Bjorner, J B

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. In a longitudinal register study, outpatients (n = 862) with nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves' orbitopathy (GO), autoimmune hypothyroidism, or other thyroid diseases and their matched controls (n = 7043) were observed in the years 1994-2011 in Danish national registers of social benefits, health, and work characteristics. Cox regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. Patients differed significantly from the general population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62) and higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.15). Patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism showed a lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62). In subsequent years, GO patients had significantly higher risk of sickness absence (HR 2.08), lower probability of return from sickness absence (HR 0.51), and unemployment (HR 0.52) and a higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.40). Hyperthyroid patients also had difficulties returning from sickness absence (HR 0.71). Thyroid patients' risk of work disability is most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis and attenuates in subsequent years. GO patients have the highest risk of work disability.

  6. Self-rated coping styles and registered sickness absence among nurses working in hospital care : A prospective 1-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Plat, N.; Mageroy, N.; Moen, B. E.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence is an important problem in healthcare that affects the quality of care. Sickness absence has been related to coping strategies. Problem-focused coping was shown to be associated with low sickness absence and emotion-focused coping with high sickness absence among postal

  7. Self-rated coping styles and registered sickness absence among nurses working in hospital care : A prospective 1-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Plat, N.; Mageroy, N.; Moen, B. E.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence is an important problem in healthcare that affects the quality of care. Sickness absence has been related to coping strategies. Problem-focused coping was shown to be associated with low sickness absence and emotion-focused coping with high sickness absence among postal

  8. Psychosocial work environment predictors of short and long spells of registered sickness absence during a 2-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on short and long absence spells. METHODS: Questionnaire data on work environment exposures and registered absence data during 2-year follow up were analyzed with Poisson regression...... for 1919 employees from the private and public sector. RESULTS: Short spells (1-10 working days) were predicted by low supervisor support, low predictability, and low meaning at work among men and high skill discretion among women. Long spells (>10 days) were predicted by low decision authority, low...... and long absence spells. Effects also differ by gender....

  9. Return to Work among Employees with Long-Term Sickness Absence in Eldercare: A Prospective Analysis of Register-Based Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas; Friis Andersen, Malenea; Bang Christensen, Karl; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states predict return to work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence among eldercare staff. We followed 9947 employees in a national register on payment of sickness-absence compensation for 1 year and found that 598 employees had absence periods of 8…

  10. Psychosocial work environment and registered absence from work: estimating the etiologic fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is growing that an adverse psychosocial work environment increases sickness absence, but little is known on the magnitude of this problem or the impact of specific factors. METHODS: Psychological demands, decision authority, skill discretion, social support from colleagues...... or supervisor, predictability, and meaning of work were assessed with questionnaires at baseline and sickness absence was followed-up in employers' registers for 1,919 respondents (response rate 75.2%, 68% women, mainly low-skilled jobs) from 52 Danish workplaces during a 2-year period. Etiologic fractions (EFs......) were calculated with the most favorable quartiles as reference. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, the following EFs were found: decision authority: 12%; social support from supervisors: 8%; psychological demands: 6%; and predictability: 5%. In total, the seven psychosocial factors explained 29...

  11. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from......Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...

  12. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. Purposes: This study investigated the relationship betwee

  13. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  14. Estimating vaccination coverage in the absence of immunisation registers--the German experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedler, A; Rieck, T; Reuss, A; Walter, D; Poggensee, G; Poethko-Muller, C; Reiter, S

    2012-04-26

    Immunisation registers are regarded as an appropriate solution to measure vaccination coverage on a population level. In Germany, a decentralised healthcare system and data protection regulations constrain such an approach. Moreover, shared responsibilities in the process of immunisation and multiple providers form the framework for public health interventions on vaccination issues. On the national level, those interventions consist mainly of conceptualising immunisation strategies, establishing vaccination programmes, and issuing recommendations. This paper provides an overview on sources and methods for collecting appropriate coverage data at national level and their public health relevance in Germany. Methods of data collection and available information on immunisations are described for three approaches: school entrance health examination, population surveys and insurance refund claim data. School entrance health examinations allow regional comparisons and estimation of trends for a specific cohort of children and for all recommended childhood vaccinations. Surveys deliver population based data on completeness and timeliness of selected vaccinations in populations defined by age or socio-demographic parameters and on knowledge and attitudes towards vaccination. Insurance refund claim data inform continuously on immunisation status (e.g. of children aged two years) or on vaccination incidence promptly after new or modified recommendations. In a complex healthcare system, the German National Public Health Institute (Robert Koch Institute, RKI) successfully compiles coverage data from different sources, which complement and validate one another. With the German approach of combining different data sources in the absence of immunisation registers, it is possible to gain solid and reliable data on the acceptance of vaccination programmes and target groups for immunisation. This approach might be of value for other countries with decentralised healthcare systems.

  15. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs.......Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...

  16. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divide...... a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs....

  17. Visual impairment and falls: a register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand-Ericson, Jeanette; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this register study was to investigate falls and fall injuries of inpatients 65 years and over to determine whether a causal factor of visual impairment was documented. All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have an increasing older population with falls and fall injuries becoming a major problem. A visual impairment can be an independent risk factor for falls but can also occur in combination with other intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. A retrospective non-randomised register study. In 2004, all documented falls of inpatients aged 65 years and over were examined. Medical records and eye clinic records were scrutinised to identify whether any visual impairment have been documented. The majority of falls occurred between the hours of 24:00-06:00 and the inpatients most often affected were those with a visual impairment. The falls occurred in connection with movement when the inpatient was unaccompanied. Documentation in records at the medical clinic was defective and subjectively perceived visual impairment was not documented at all. Both subjective and objective visual impairment occurred in all eye clinic records. Visual impairment along with the ageing process are features affecting falls and the hospital environment needs to be adapted by improving the use of strong, contrasting colours and providing good lighting for older inpatients with visual impairment during the night time period. Hospital safety for older people with visual impairment is a concern if falls are to be reduced. Healthcare professionals need to undertake individual risk assessments to establish the degree of visual impairment of the older person so that appropriate interventions can be implemented to reduce the incidence of falls and fall injuries.

  18. Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse the predictive validity of 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ II) with regard to risk of sickness absence. METHODS: The study population consisted of 3188 wage earners (52% women) from a representative sample......% CI 1.15-1.52). After applying adjustment for multiple testing, the effect of emotional demands and of role conflict remained statistically significant, but not the effect of cognitive demands. CONCLUSIONS: Selected psychosocial work environment factors from the COPSOQ predict register-based sickness...

  19. Comparison of self-reported and register data on sickness absence among Norwegian patients participating in an occupational rehabilitation program

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    Irene Øyeflaten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sick leave and return to work are common outcome variables in studies where the aim is to measure the effect of targeted interventions for individuals that are on sick leave benefits or other allowances. Use of official register data is often restricted, and research on sick leave and return to work are often based on the participants self-reports. However, there is insufficient documentation that there is agreement between self-reports and register data on sick leave benefits and allowances.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the individuals' knowledge about states of sick leave benefits or allowances compared with register data from The Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV in Norway.Method: 153 individuals, sick-listed or on allowances, participated in a 4-week inpatient occupational rehabilitation program. 132 (86% answered a questionnaire on assessments of work, sick leave, and allowances three months after completed rehabilitation. Self-reported data were compared with register data from NAV according to four categories: working, sick-listed, on medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance or disability pension. Agreement between self-reported and register data was evaluated in cross-tabulations and reported with kappa values. Stratified analyses were done for gender, age, education, medical diagnosis and length of sick leave/allowances at baseline.Results: Good agreement was found for medical/vocational rehabilitation allowance (kappa=.70 and disability pension (kappa=.65. Moderate agreement was found for working (kappa=.49 and fair agreement for sick-listed (kappa=.36. Stratified analyses showed significant better kappa values for individuals that had been sick-listed less than 12 months before entering the rehabilitation program.Conclusions: Agreements from good to fair were found between self-reported and official register data on sick leave. However, official register data is preferred in research because this will

  20. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  1. Hirschsprung's disease prevalence in Europe. A register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital gut motility disorder, characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglion cells along the distal gut. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Hirschsprung's disease, including additional congenital anomalies, total prevalence......, trends, and association with maternal age. METHODS: Cases of Hirschsprung's disease delivered during 1980 to 2009 notified to 31 European Surveillance of Congenital Anomaly registers formed the population-based case-series. Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as the number...... of cases per 10,000 births. Multilevel Poisson regression was performed to investigate trends in prevalence, geographical variation and the association with maternal age. RESULTS: There were 1,322 cases of Hirschsprung's disease among 12,146,210 births. The total prevalence was 1.09 (95% confidence...

  2. Register-based studies on migration, ethnicity, and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Kastrup, Marianne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    to highlight the process of how migrant study populations have been established and studied in relation to different registers: The Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Danish National Patient Register, the Danish National Health Service Register, the Danish Injury...... the person is an immigrant or not, and on ethnic background. Data on migration background (i.e. refugee status vs. family reunification, etc.) is more difficult to obtain and therefore less used. It has been debated if ethnicity should be registered upon using health services; however, some consider...

  3. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15 years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-07-21

    Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents' and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would have a stronger impact for women than for men. All persons born alive between 1974 and 1976 in Norway were followed up in several national registries. Employed persons considered to be at risk of sickness absence and also with parents at risk of sickness absence (n = 78,878) were followed in the calendar year of their 33(rd) birthday with respect to spells lasting >16 days. The probability of one or more spells during this year constituted the one-year risk under study. Additive risk differences in association with an exposure (parental sickness absence 15 years earlier) were estimated in a binomial regression analysis. The estimates were adjusted for parental socioeconomic factors. The 1-year sickness absence risk was higher for women (30.4%) than for men (12.3%). The crude risk differences between those exposed and those unexposed to parental sickness absence were similar in percentage points (PP) for women (3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 4.9) and men (3.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.6). The risk differences were moderately attenuated after adjustment for parental education and father's income to 3.4 PP (2.2 to 4.5) for women and 2.8 PP (2.0 to 3.7) for men. Male absence was more strongly associated with the father's than with the mother's sickness absence, while associations for women were stronger for the same diagnostic groups as their parents. Parental sickness absence was moderately associated with sickness absence in the next generation. Bias from unmeasured confounders cannot

  4. The EULAR Study Group for Registers and Observational Drug Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Závada, Jakub; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), a study group of investigators representing European biologic DMARD (bDMARD) registers was convened. The purpose of this initial assessment was to collect and compare a cross section of patient characteristics...

  5. A descriptive case-register study of delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Portugal, Enrique; González, Nieves; Haro, Josep M; Autonell, Jaume; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2008-03-01

    A few empirically based studies' data on delusional disorder (DD) exist. We aim to describe sociodemographic and clinical correlates of DD and to identify clinical profiles associated to DD and its subtypes. This is a case-register study based on all those subjects attending community mental health services within a geographically well-defined area. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients had been diagnosed as DD cases at psychiatric services serving a catchment area of some 607,494 inhabitants living in South Barcelona (Spain) during a three-year period (2001-2003). A thorough systematic review of computerised medical records was used to establish DSM-IV diagnosis, rendering a valid sample of 370 patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for DD. Independent variables gathered include sociodemographic data, family and personal psychiatric history, and comorbid diagnoses on all DSM-IV axes (including GAF). We used descriptive and univariate statistical methods to explore sample frequencies and correlates across DD types. The mean age of the patients was 55 years and the sample had a mean GAF score of 51 suggesting a poor functionality; 56.5% of the patients were female. The most frequent DD types were persecutory (48%), jealous (11%), mixed (11%) and somatic (5%), whilst 23% qualified for the NOS type. Most frequent symptoms identified were self-reference (40%), irritability (30%), depressive mood (20%) and aggressiveness (15%). Hallucinations were present in 16% of the patients (6% tactile; 4% olfactory). Nearly 9% had a family history of schizophrenia (higher among those with the jealous subtype) and 42% had a comorbid axis II diagnosis (mostly paranoid personality disorder). Depression was significantly more frequent among the persecutory and jealous types. Finally, global functioning was significantly better among jealous and mixed types and worse amongst erotomanic and grandiose cases (p=0.008). In the absence of other similar empirical data, this modest study

  6. A Study of Register Labeling in Bilingual Dictionary---Based on the Register Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiu

    2013-01-01

    Register theory is one of the most important theories of systemic functional linguistics,which is concerned with the vari-ables of field,tenor,and mode,and is a useful abstraction which relates variations of language use to variations of social context.Bilingual dic-tionaries contain as adrule in the front matter systematic categorization and detailed description of register labels.This paper attempts to analyze the register labels in bilingual dictionaries and discuss the problems existing indregister labeling.

  7. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national regis...

  8. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  9. Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of

  10. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To outline the principles underlying changes overtime in entitlement to sickness absence benefit in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish sickness benefit scheme during the past 30 years has been studied based on a comprehensive review of the Sickness Benefit Act from 1973, and all later...... amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...... administration with focus on monitoring and evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The Sickness Benefit Act was initially based on a broad concept of disease but the implementation underwent major changes. In the 1970s and 1980s entitlement to benefit depended very much on medical diagnosis. This practice changed and today...

  11. Databases and registers: useful tools for research, no studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curbelo, Rafael J; Loza, Estíbaliz; de Yébenes, Maria Jesús García; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-04-01

    There are many misunderstandings about databases. Database is a commonly misused term in reference to any set of data entered into a computer. However, true databases serve a main purpose, organising data. They do so by establishing several layers of relationships; databases are hierarchical. Databases commonly organise data over different levels and over time, where time can be measured as the time between visits, or between treatments, or adverse events, etc. In this sense, medical databases are closely related to longitudinal observational studies, as databases allow the introduction of data on the same patient over time. Basically, we could establish four types of databases in medicine, depending on their purpose: (1) administrative databases, (2) clinical databases, (3) registers, and (4) study-oriented databases. But a database is a useful tool for a large variety of studies, not a type of study itself. Different types of databases serve very different purposes, and a clear understanding of the different research designs mentioned in this paper would prevent many of the databases we launch from being just a lot of work and very little science.

  12. Retaining early career registered nurses: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Harrison, Helena; Yates, Karen; O'Shea, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A core objective of the Australian health system is to provide high quality, safe health care that meets the needs of all Australians. To achieve this, an adequate and effective workforce must support the delivery of care. With rapidly changing health care systems and consumer demographics, demand for care is increasing and retention of sufficient numbers of skilled staff is now a critical priority to meet current and future health care demands. Nurses are the largest cohort of professionals within the health workforce. Reducing the rates at which nurses leave the profession and supporting nurses to practice in their profession longer will have beneficial implications for the sustainability of a nursing workforce and, ultimately, to patient outcomes. The aim of the study was to describe and explain early career registered nurses' (ECRNs) experiences and support requirements during the first five years of practice for the purposes of identifying strategies that would support greater retention of ECRNs. A single case study design focused on early career registered nurses (ECRNs) working in a hospital and health service in northern Australia. The research team adopted Djukic et al's definition of ECRNs as "RNs who have practiced for less than 5 years". Data was collected via three individual interviews and two focus groups. Thirty-five ECRNs participated in the study. Qualitative analysis of data generated during interviews and focus groups, identified the key themes of receiving career advice and choice or no choice. Analysis of study data in the context of the broader literature resulted in the researchers identifying six areas of focus for ECRN retention: 1) well-planned, supported and structured transition periods; 2) consideration of rotation through different areas with a six month minimum for skills development; 3) empowering decision making; 4) placement opportunities and choice in decisions of where to work; 5) career advice and support that considers ECRNs

  13. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  14. The Female Register: An Empirical Study of Lakoff's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye; Nyquist, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The data support Lakoff's hypotheses that the female register is used more by women than by men, although they do not necessarily justify her further assertion that women's speech reflects, or is caused by, the low status of women in our society. (Author/HP)

  15. Widespread pain - do pain intensity and care-seeking influence sickness absence? - A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Søren; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Jensen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    pain and sickness absence has not been studied. Additionally it is unknown whether care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders has a positive or negative impact on future absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain intensity on the association...... between number of musculoskeletal pain sites and sickness absence, and to analyze the impact on absenteeism from care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders.METHODS: 3745 Danish adults registered with eight General Practitioners (GPs) in one primary medical center reported location...... the results. Similar findings were observed for sickness absence of shorter duration, although the association was weaker. Care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders did not overall alter the odds of later sickness absence.CONCLUSION: Pain intensity and care-seeking due...

  16. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  17. Excess body weight and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes who were registered in Swedish National Diabetes Register--register-based cohort study in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Miao Jonasson

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the association between excess body weight and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D who were registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR. METHODS: This is a cohort study based on 25,268 patients with T2D and baseline BMI≥18.5 kg/m(2 from NDR 1997-1999. Subjects were grouped according to BMI into normal weight (18.5 to 24.9, overweight (25 to 29.9 or obesity (30 or more. All subjects were followed until the first occurrence of cancer, or death, or the end of follow-up (December 31, 2009. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence interval (CI for cancer risks were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: In men with T2D, overweight was associated with increased risks of all cancer [1.13 (1.02-1.27], gastrointestinal cancer [1.34 (1.07-1.72] and colorectal cancer [1.59 (1.18-2.13]; obesity was related to higher risks of all cancer [1.17 (1.04-1.33], gastrointestinal cancer [1.40 (1.08-1.82] and colorectal cancer [1.62 (1.17-2.24]. In women with T2D, obesity was associated with increased risk of all cancer [1.30 (1.12-1.51], gastrointestinal cancer [1.40 (1.03-1.91] and postmenopausal breast cancer [1.39 (1.00-1.91]. CONCLUSIONS: Excess body weight was associated with increased risks of all cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer in men with T2D. Obesity was related with elevated risks of all cancer, gestational cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer in women with T2D.

  18. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P synchronization during breeding season resulted in higher heat response and lambing rate than two injections given 10 days apart.

  19. Adjustment for misclassification in studies of familial aggregation of disease using routine register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the misclassification that occurs when relying solely on routine register data in family studies of disease clustering. A register study of familial aggregation of schizophrenia is used as an example. The familial aggregation is studied using a regression model for the disease...... in the child including the disease status of the parents as a risk factor. If all the information is found in the routine registers then the disease status of the parents is only known from the time when the register started and if this information is used unquestioningly the parents who have had the disease...

  20. The EULAR Study Group for Registers and Observational Drug Studies: comparability of the patient case mix in the European biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Závada, Jakub; Hetland, Merete Lund; Nordström, Dan C; Aaltonen, Kalle J; Listing, Joachim; Zink, Angela; Gati, Tamas; Rojkovich, Bernadette; Iannone, Florenzo; Gremese, Elisa; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Martinus A F J; Lie, Elisabeth; Kvien, Tore K; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E; Rotar, Žiga; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto; Askling, Johan; Johansson, Kari; Finckh, Axel; Dixon, William G; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2015-06-01

    Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), a study group of investigators representing European biologic DMARD (bDMARD) registers was convened. The purpose of this initial assessment was to collect and compare a cross section of patient characteristics and collate information on the availability of potential confounders within these registers. Baseline characteristics of patients starting their first bDMARD in an arbitrary year (2008) for the treatment of RA, including demographic and disease characteristics, bDMARD drug details and co-morbidities, were collected and compared across 14 European bDMARD registers. A total of 5320 patients were included. Half the registers had restricted recruitment to certain bDMARDs during the study year. All registers` collected data on age, gender, disease duration, seropositivity for IgM-RF and 28-joint DAS (DAS28). The mean DAS28 ranged from 4.2 to 6.6 and the mean HAQ from 0.8 to 1.9. Current smoking ranged from 9% to 34%. Nine registers reported co-morbidities with varying prevalence. In addition to demonstrating European-wide collaboration across rheumatology bDMARD registers, this assessment identified differences in prescribing patterns, recruitment strategies and data items collected. These differences need to be considered when applying strategies for combined analysis. The lack of a common data model across Europe calls for further work to harmonize data collection across registers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  2. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  3. Registered nurses' clinical reasoning skills and reasoning process: A think-aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Young Joo; Bae, JuYeon; Seo, Minjeong

    2016-11-01

    As complex chronic diseases are increasing, nurses' prompt and accurate clinical reasoning skills are essential. However, little is known about the reasoning skills of registered nurses. This study aimed to determine how registered nurses use their clinical reasoning skills and to identify how the reasoning process proceeds in the complex clinical situation of hospital setting. A qualitative exploratory design was used with a think-aloud method. A total of 13 registered nurses (mean years of experience=11.4) participated in the study, solving an ill-structured clinical problem based on complex chronic patients cases in a hospital setting. Data were analyzed using deductive content analysis. Findings showed that the registered nurses used a variety of clinical reasoning skills. The most commonly used skill was 'checking accuracy and reliability.' The reasoning process of registered nurses covered assessment, analysis, diagnosis, planning/implementation, and evaluation phase. It is critical that registered nurses apply appropriate clinical reasoning skills in complex clinical practice. The main focus of registered nurses' reasoning in this study was assessing a patient's health problem, and their reasoning process was cyclic, rather than linear. There is a need for educational strategy development to enhance registered nurses' competency in determining appropriate interventions in a timely and accurate fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of improved recording of work-relatedness in primary care visits at occupational health services on sickness absences: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Ojajärvi, Ulla; Talola, Nina; Viljamaa, Mervi; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Uitti, Jukka

    2017-07-26

    Employment protects and fosters health. Occupational health services, particularly in Finland, have a central role in protecting employee health and preventing work ability problems. However, primary care within occupational health services is currently underused in informing preventive activities. This study was designed to assess whether the recording of work ability problems and improvement of follow-up of work-related primary care visits can reduce sickness absences and work disability pensions after 1 year. A pragmatic trial will be conducted using patient electronic registers and registers of the central pensions agency in Finland. Twenty-two occupational health centres will be randomised to intervention and control groups. Intervention units will receive training to improve recording of work ability illnesses in the primary care setting and improved follow-up procedures. The intervention impact will be assessed through examining rates of sickness absence across intervention and control clinics as well as before and after the intervention. The trial will develop knowledge of the intervention potential of primary care for preventing work disability pensions and sickness absence. The use of routine patient registers and pensions registers to assess the outcomes of a randomised controlled trial will bring forward trial methodology, particularly when using register-based data. If successful, the intervention will improve the quality of occupational health care primary care and contribute to reducing work disability. ISRCTN Registry reference number ISRCTN45728263 . Registered on 18 April 2016.

  5. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Rugulies, R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  6. The EULAR Study Group for Registers and Observational Drug Studies: comparability of the patient case mix in the European biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Zavada, Jakub; Lund Hetland, Merete; Nordstrom, Dan C.; Aaltonen, Kalle J.; Listing, Joachim; Zink, Angela; Gati, Tamas; Rojkovich, Bernadette; Iannone, Florenzo; Gremese, Elisa; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Lie, Elisabeth; Kvien, Tore K.; Canhao, Helena; Fonseca, Joao E.; Rotar, Ziga; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loretto; Askling, Johan; Johansson, Kari; Finckh, Axel; Dixon, William G.; Hyrich, Kimme L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), a study group of investigators representing European biologic DMARD (bDMARD) registers was convened. The purpose of this initial assessment was to collect and compare a cross section of patient characteristics and

  7. Who is at risk for long-term sickness absence? A prospective cohort study of Danish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Villadsen, Ebbe

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify who is at risk for long-term sickness absence according to occupation, gender, education, age, business sector, agency size and ownership. The study is based on a sample of 5357 employees aged 18-69, interviewed in 2000. The cohort was followed up in a national register from January 1st 2001 to June 30th 2003, to identify cases with sickness absences that exceeded 8 weeks. During follow-up 486 persons (9.1%) experienced one or more periods of absence that exceeded 8 weeks. Higher risk of long-term sickness absence was associated with gender, age, educational level, and the municipal employment sector. Kindergarten teachers and people employed in day care, health care, janitorial work, food preparation, and unskilled workers were at greatest risk. Managers, computer professionals, technicians and designers, and professionals had lower risks. The health care and social service sectors were also in the high risk category, whereas the private administration sector had a lower risk. The study identifies specific occupational target populations and documents the need to perform job-specific research and tailor interventions if the intended policy of decreasing long-term sickness absence within the Danish labour market is to be realized.

  8. 0156 Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy - a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten Hansen, Mette; Marie Thulstrup, Ane; Kolding Kristensen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    30 was 36%. Preliminary results indicate that sickness absence is related to fertility treatment and obesity. Women receiving fertility treatment had increased odds of sickness absence in pregnancy week 30; OR: 1.31 (95% CI: 1.21-1.42). Obese women had increased odds of sickness absence compared......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if parity, fertility treatment, body mass index (BMI), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise are risk factors for sickness absence during pregnancy weeks 10 to 30. METHOD: We use data from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Danish...... Register for Evaluation of Marginalisation (DREAM). DNBC contains information on 100 418 pregnancies included from 1996 until 2002. Around pregnancy weeks 12-16 the participants were interviewed by telephone and provided information on potential predictors, on occupational exposures, lifestyle factors...

  9. Studying Hospitalizations and Mortality in the Netherlands: Feasible and Valid Using Two-Step Medical Record Linkage with Nationwide Registers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske Sieswerda

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the postal code is needed to study hospitalizations of individuals in the nationwide hospitalization register. Studying hospitalizations longitudinally becomes troublesome if individuals change address. We aimed to report on the feasibility and validity of a two-step medical record linkage approach to examine longitudinal trends in hospitalizations and mortality in a study cohort. First, we linked a study cohort of 1564 survivors of childhood cancer with the Municipal Personal Records Database (GBA which has postal code history and mortality data available. Within GBA, we sampled a reference population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year. Second, we extracted hospitalizations from the Hospital Discharge Register (LMR with a date of discharge during unique follow-up (based on date of birth, gender and postal code in GBA. We calculated the agreement of death and being hospitalized in survivors according to the registers and to available cohort data. We retrieved 1477 (94% survivors from GBA. Median percentages of unique/potential follow-up were 87% (survivors and 83% (reference persons. Characteristics of survivors and reference persons contributing to unique follow-up were comparable. Agreement of hospitalization during unique follow-up was 94% and agreement of death was 98%. In absence of unique identifiers in the Dutch hospitalization register, it is feasible and valid to study hospitalizations and mortality of individuals longitudinally using a two-step medical record linkage approach. Cohort studies in the Netherlands have the opportunity to study mortality and hospitalization rates over time. These outcomes provide insight into the burden of clinical events and healthcare use in studies on patients at risk of long-term morbidities.

  10. Studying Hospitalizations and Mortality in the Netherlands: Feasible and Valid Using Two-Step Medical Record Linkage with Nationwide Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Geskus, Ronald B; Heinen, Richard C; van der Pal, Helena J; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Caron, Huib N; Kremer, Leontien C; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the postal code is needed to study hospitalizations of individuals in the nationwide hospitalization register. Studying hospitalizations longitudinally becomes troublesome if individuals change address. We aimed to report on the feasibility and validity of a two-step medical record linkage approach to examine longitudinal trends in hospitalizations and mortality in a study cohort. First, we linked a study cohort of 1564 survivors of childhood cancer with the Municipal Personal Records Database (GBA) which has postal code history and mortality data available. Within GBA, we sampled a reference population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year. Second, we extracted hospitalizations from the Hospital Discharge Register (LMR) with a date of discharge during unique follow-up (based on date of birth, gender and postal code in GBA). We calculated the agreement of death and being hospitalized in survivors according to the registers and to available cohort data. We retrieved 1477 (94%) survivors from GBA. Median percentages of unique/potential follow-up were 87% (survivors) and 83% (reference persons). Characteristics of survivors and reference persons contributing to unique follow-up were comparable. Agreement of hospitalization during unique follow-up was 94% and agreement of death was 98%. In absence of unique identifiers in the Dutch hospitalization register, it is feasible and valid to study hospitalizations and mortality of individuals longitudinally using a two-step medical record linkage approach. Cohort studies in the Netherlands have the opportunity to study mortality and hospitalization rates over time. These outcomes provide insight into the burden of clinical events and healthcare use in studies on patients at risk of long-term morbidities.

  11. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. Th...

  12. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    : 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact...

  13. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  14. Drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behaviour: register based study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qi; Sjölander, Arvid; Runeson, Bo; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk of concomitant suicidal behaviour among patients with ADHD. Design Register based longitudinal study using within patient design. Setting Linkage of multiple national registers in Sweden. Participants 37 936 patients with ADHD born between 1960 and 1996 and followed from 2006 to 2009 for treatment status by ADHD drug treatment and suicide related events (suicide attempt...

  15. Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: register linkage study.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of suicide associated with pregnancy by the type of pregnancy. DESIGN: Register linkage study. Information on suicides in women of reproductive age was linked with the Finnish birth, abortion, and hospital discharge registers to find out how many women who committed suicide had had a completed pregnancy during her last year of life. SETTING: Nationwide data from Finland. SUBJECTS: Women who committed suicide in 1987-94. RESULTS: There were 73 suicides associated ...

  16. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  17. How do job characteristics, family situation, domestic work, and lifestyle factors relate to sickness absence? A study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Margaretha; Floderus, Birgitta; Diderichsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how do working life and private life characteristics relate to sickness absence. METHODS: Questionnaire data for 1557 female and 1913 male employees were related to registered sickness absence by multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Apart from health problems, clear...... associations with sickness absence were observed for complaints attributed to heavy, arduous work, and sickness presenteeism. The use of tranquilizers, occurrence of bullying, and the existence of a high total workload from paid and unpaid work were associated with sickness absence in women. In men, the use...... of alcohol as sedative, anxiety of reorganization, not holding a supervisor position, adverse life events, and divorce were related with sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified different areas at work and outside work for women and men that could be targets for actions aiming at preventing high...

  18. The Viability and Constitutionality of the South African National Register for Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Section 42 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 established a National Register for Sex Offenders where the particulars of all offenders guilty of sexual transgressions against children or mentally-ill persons have to be included, regardless of whether they were found guilty before or after the coming into force of the Act. Although the purpose of the Act clearly is to protect and promote the constitutional rights of victims and society in general, it is apparent that the register may infringe on the rights of sexual offenders. The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South African register will be examined by means of a comparative study with the United States and United Kingdom, where similar registers are already in place. This legislative assessment will also provide answers as to the viability of the South African register. It is argued that South Africa's sex offender registration system may not fulfil the function it was designed for because of misconceptions as well as serious implementation and administrative issues; and that alternative solutions may be more suitable in this regard.

  19. What do register-based studies tell us about migrant mental health? A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kishan; Kouvonen, Anne; Close, Ciara; Väänänen, Ari; O'Reilly, Dermot; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-04-11

    Previous studies investigating the mental health of migrants have shown mixed results. The increased availability of register data has led to a growing number of register-based studies in this research area. This is the first scoping review on the use of registry and record-linkage data to examine the mental health of migrant populations. The aim of this scoping review is to investigate the topics covered and to assess the results yielded from these studies. We used a scoping review methodology to search MedLine, PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and SCOPUS for all register-based studies on the mental health of migrants. Two reviewers screened all papers, independently, using iteratively applied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using gradually broadening inclusion and exclusion criteria for maximum "scope," newly published criteria developed to appraise the methodological quality of record-linkage studies were applied to eligible papers and data were extracted in a charting exercise. A total of 1309 papers were screened and appraised, 51 of which met the eligibility and quality criteria and were included in the review. This review identified four major domains of register-based research within the topic of migrant mental health: rates and risks of psychiatric disorders, rates and risks of suicide mortality, the use of psychotropic drugs, and health service utilisation and mental health-related hospitalisation rates. We found that whilst migrants can be at an increased risk of developing psychotic disorders and suicide mortality, they are less likely to use psychotropic medication and mental health-related services. This review systematically charts the register-based studies on migrants' mental health for the first time. It shows the main topics and gaps in knowledge in this research domain, discusses the disadvantages of register-based studies, and suggests new directions for forthcoming studies.

  20. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  1. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  2. Sickness absence following coronary revascularisation. A national study of women and men of working age in Sweden 1994-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Voss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based and gender specific knowledge about sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is lacking. The objective was to investigate sickness absence after a first coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI among women and men in a national Swedish study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients 30-63 years of age, who underwent a first CABG (n = 22,985, 16% women or PCI (40,891, 22% women in Sweden between 1994 and 2006 were included. Information on sickness absence, co-morbidity, and other patient characteristics was obtained from national registers. Long-term sickness absence (LTSA was defined as >180 and >90 sick-leave days in the first sick-leave spell following CABG and PCI, respectively. Prevalence ratio (PR and 95% confidence interval (CI of LTSA were calculated. FINDINGS: LTSA followed the interventions in 41% and 36% for CABG and PCI patients, respectively. Women had more often LTSA compared with men, (CABG PR = 1.23: 95% CI 1.19-1.28 and PCI PR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.16-1.23. A history of sickness absence the year before the intervention increased the risk for LTSA after the intervention in both genders. Among women, older age, or being self employed or unemployed was associated with a lower risk for LTSA. Among men previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes and low socio-economic position increased the risk. During the observation period, there was no change in sickness absence rates among PCI patients but an increase among CABG patients adjusting for patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: This national study covering a 13-year period shows that long-term sickness absence following coronary revascularisation is common in Sweden, especially among women, and is associated with socio-economic position, co-morbidity, and sickness absence during the year before the intervention. Gender specific scientific knowledge about use and effects of sickness absence following coronary

  3. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  4. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Australian Registered Training Organisations. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a study examining organisational culture and structure in ten Australian registered training organisations (RTOs) and is part of a program of research examining the factors which affect and help build the capability of vocational education and training (VET) providers. The study sought to determine: (1) how…

  5. The Netherlands twin register biobank: A resource for genetic epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.T. van; Brooks, A.I.; Estourgie-van Burk, G.F.; Fugman, D.A.; Hoekstra, C.; Hottenga, J.-J.; Kluft, K.; Meijer, P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Rizzu, P.; Sondervan, D.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Tischfield, J.A.; Lehner, T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) started a large scale biological sample collection in twin families to create a resource for genetic studies on health, lifestyle and personality. Between January 2004 and July 2008, adult participants from NTR research projects were invited into the study

  6. Studies on Agricultural Scientific and Technical Information Core Metadata Register System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yun-peng; QIAN Ping; SUN Su-fen; ZHANG Jun-feng; LUO Chang-shou

    2008-01-01

    To construct the Agricultural Scientific and Technical Information Core Metadata(ASTICM)standard and its expanding principles,and to develop a register system based on ASTICM,the policy and methods of DC(Dublin Core)and SDBCM (Scientific Database Core Metadata)were studied.The construction of ASTICM has started from the proposed elements of the DCMI(Dublin Core Metadata Initiative),and has expanded the DC and SDBCM with related expanding principles.ASTICM finally includes 75 metadata elements,five expanded principles,and seven application profile creation methods.According to the requirement analysis of a large number of users of agricultural information,a register system based on ASTICM was developed.The ASTICM standard framework and its register system supported the search,sharing,integration exchange and other applications,effectively.

  7. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  8. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  9. Retrospective Comparative Study of Obstetric complications and Maternal Mortality in Registered and Unregistered women at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Deliwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At tertiary care hospital, many women with obstetric complications are referred not only from private clinics/hospitals, but also from nearby primary health centers and urban health centers. There are women who come for delivery, who have not taken any ante natal care (ANC. Complication can arise at any time during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period and in absence of intervention, there is a high feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. With every maternal death there are many life threatening complications known as ‘maternal near miss’.Objectives: 1.To analyze causes of referrals of unregistered patients coming to our institute.2.To analyze pregnancy outcomes, Obstetric complications and maternal mortality in registered and unregistered women coming to our institute. 3.To analyze near miss cases and to analyze causes of maternal mortality and reasons of delay. Methods:This retrospective comparative study was conducted after due permission from the Scientific Advisory Committee and Institutional Ethics Committee of Sheth V S Medical Research Foundation Trust and data was collected as per pre-tested structured proforma from December 2009 to February 2010. Analysis of 1171 patients was done. Results: Out of total 1171 women included in the study, 952 (81.2 % were registered and 219 (18.7% were unregistered women. Proportion of unregistered women who had less than 3 ante natal visits 109 (49.7% was significantly higher compared to registered women 95 (9.9% (x2 = 195.97; P<0.0001. Severe anaemia was found to be significantly higher in unregistered women 18 (8.2% as compared to registered women 1 (0.1% (x2 = 68.442; P<0.0001. Transfusion of blood or other blood product was significantly higher in unregistered women 44 (20% compared to registered women 31 (3.2% (x2 = 84.177; P<0.0001 . Because of multi-disciplinary team approach at our institute, many women with complications in unregistered group could be saved (maternal near

  10. Overview of registered studies in orthodontics: Evaluation of the ClinicalTrials.gov registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rampa, Sankeerth; Masoud, Mohamed I; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2014-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 made it mandatory for all phase II through IV trials regulated by this Act to be registered. After this, the National Institutes of Health created ClinicalTrials.gov, which is a registry of publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of registered studies in orthodontics. The ClinicalTrials.gov Web site was used to query all registered orthodontic studies. The search term used was "orthodontics." No limitations were placed for the time period. All registered studies regardless of their recruitment status, study results, and study type were selected for analysis. A total of 64 orthodontic studies were registered as of January 1, 2014. Of these, 52 were interventional, and 12 were observational. Close to 60% of the interventional studies and 66.7% of the observational studies had sample sizes of 50 or fewer subjects. About 21.2% of the interventional studies and 16.7% of the observational studies had sample sizes greater than 100. Only 1 study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, and the rest were funded by "other" or "industry" sources. Close to 87.7% of the interventional studies were randomized. Interventional model assignments included factorial assignment (3.9%), parallel assignments (74.5%), crossover assignment (7.8%), and single-group assignment (13.7%). Most studies were treatment oriented (80.4%). The types of masking used by the interventional studies included open label (28.9%), single blind (44.2%), and double blind (26.9%). Outcome assessors were blinded in only 6 studies. Orthodontic studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov are dominated by small single-center studies. There are wide variations with regard to treatment allocation approaches and randomization methods in the studies. These results also indicate the need for multicenter clinical studies in orthodontics. Copyright © 2014

  11. Overdiagnosis of Dementia in Young Patients - A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, L C; Andersen, B B; Nielsen, T R;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the quality of the diagnostic evaluation and the validity of dementia diagnoses in young patients established in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the diagnosis of dementia registered in the Danish nationwide...

  12. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations. Support Document 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The limitations of…

  13. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically......PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...

  14. Utility of local health registers in measuring perinatal mortality: a case study in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Leona; Suswardany, Dwi Linna; Michener, Keryl; Mazurki, Setiawaty; Adair, Timothy; Elmiyati, Catur; Rao, Chalapati

    2011-03-17

    Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of obstetric and newborn care services. Although the vast majority of global perinatal mortality is estimated to occur in developing countries, there is a critical paucity of reliable data at the local level to inform health policy, plan health care services, and monitor their impact. This paper explores the utility of information from village health registers to measure perinatal mortality at the sub district level in a rural area of Indonesia. A retrospective pregnancy cohort for 2007 was constructed by triangulating data from antenatal care, birth, and newborn care registers in a sample of villages in three rural sub districts in Central Java, Indonesia. For each pregnancy, birth outcome and first week survival were traced and recorded from the different registers, as available. Additional local death records were consulted to verify perinatal mortality, or identify deaths not recorded in the health registers. Analyses were performed to assess data quality from registers, and measure perinatal mortality rates. Qualitative research was conducted to explore knowledge and practices of village midwives in register maintenance and reporting of perinatal mortality. Field activities were conducted in 23 villages, covering a total of 1759 deliveries that occurred in 2007. Perinatal mortality outcomes were 23 stillbirths and 15 early neonatal deaths, resulting in a perinatal mortality rate of 21.6 per 1000 live births in 2007. Stillbirth rates for the study population were about four times the rates reported in the routine Maternal and Child Health program information system. Inadequate awareness and supervision, and alternate workload were cited by local midwives as factors resulting in inconsistent data reporting. Local maternal and child health registers are a useful source of information on perinatal mortality in rural Indonesia. Suitable training, supervision, and quality control, in conjunction with computerisation to

  15. The Tromsø study: registration of fractures, how good are self-reports, a computerized radiographic register and a discharge register?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joakimsen, R M; Fønnebø, V; Søgaard, A J; Tollan, A; Størmer, J; Magnus, J H

    2001-12-01

    In order to compare different methods of fracture registration, we sought all nonvertebral fractures suffered during 8 years (1988-95) among 21,441 persons invited to a survey in 1979/80. We registered a total of 54 hip fracture cases through three separate sources (self-report, computer linkage to the local radiographic archives, discharge register), whereas forearm fractures (a total of 291 cases) were registered through two separate sources (self-report, computer linkage to the radiographic archives). The registration of fractures at other sites (a total of 1321 cases) were from one source (computer linkage to the local radiographic archives), and we have compared three ways of obtaining data from this single source (no ascertainment, ascertainment of records coded as fracture, ascertainment of all records). Ninety-three percent of all hip fractures and 97% of all wrist fractures in the entire study population were found by computer linkage to the radiographic archives, whereas the discharge register detected 87% of all the hip fractures. Computer linkage with ascertainment gave no overreporting of fractures. Among the 11,626 persons who answered a follow-up questionnaire in 1994/95, 97% (CI 84-100%) of all hip fractures and 72% (CI 66-78%) of all wrist fractures were self-reported. We conclude that a computerized search of radiographic archives is a viable method of fracture registration.

  16. Developing register-based measures for assessment of working time patterns for epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Koskinen, Aki; Vanttola, Päivi; Puttonen, Sampsa; Sallinen, Mikael; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long working hours and shift work may increase the risk of chronic diseases, but the "toxic" elements remain unclear due to crude assessment of working time patterns based on self-reports. In this methodological paper, we present and evaluate objective register-based algorithms for assessment of working time patterns and validate a method to retrieve standard payroll data on working hours from the employer electronic records. Detailed working hour records from employers' registers were obtained for 12 391 nurses and physicians, a total 14.5 million separate work shifts from 2008-2013. We examined the quality and validity of the obtained register data and designed 29 algorithms characterizing four potentially health-relevant working time patterns: (i) length of the working hours; (ii) time of the day; (iii) shift intensity; and (iv) social aspects of the working hours. The collection of the company-based register data was feasible and the retrieved data matched with the originally published shift plans. The transferred working time records included working time patterns, generated for each year, were stable across the follow-up (year-to-year correlation coefficients from r=0.7-0.9 for 23 variables), their distributions were as expected, and correlations of the variables within the four main dimensions of working hours were plausible. The developed method and algorithms allow a detailed characterization of four main dimensions of working time patterns potentially relevant for health. We recommend this method for future large-scale epidemiological studies.

  17. Referring to multimodal rehabilitation for patients with musculoskeletal disorders - a register study in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennehed, Charlotte Post; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Petersson, Ingemar F; Nyberg, Anja; Grahn, Birgitta

    2017-01-07

    In 2008, the Swedish government introduced a National Rehabilitation Program, in which the government financially reimburses the county councils for evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation (MMR) interventions. The target group is patients of working age with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), expected to return to work or remain at work after rehabilitation. Much attention in the evaluations has been on patient outcomes and on processes. We lack knowledge about how factors related to health care providers and community can have an impact on how patients have access to MMR. The aim of this study was therefore to study the impact of health care provider and community related factors on referrals to MMR in patients with MSD applying for health care in primary health care. This was a primary health care-based cohort study based on prospectively ascertained register data. All primary health care centres (PHCC) contracted in Region Skåne in 2010-2012, referring to MMR were included (n = 153). The health care provider factors studied were: community size, PHCC size, public or private PHCC, whether or not the PHCCs provided their own MMR, burden of illness and the community socioeconomic status among the registered population at the PHCCs. The results are presented with descriptive statistics and for the analysis, non-parametric and multiple linear regression analyses were applied. PHCCs located in larger communities sent more referrals/1000 registered population (p = 0.020). Private PHCCs sent more referrals/1000 registered population compared to public units (p = 0.035). Factors related to more MMR referrals/1000 registered population in the multiple regression analyses were PHCCs located in medium and large communities and with above average socioeconomic status among the registered population at the PHCCs, private PHCC and PHCCs providing their own MMR. The explanation degree for the final model was 24.5%. We found that referral rates to MMR were positively

  18. [Greenhouse gardeners and sickness absence. A questionnaire study among greenhouse gardeners in Aarhus region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ellen; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Drews, Birgit Mammen

    2007-02-26

    The aim of the study was to examine sickness absence and risk factors for sickness absence in a population of greenhouse gardeners in the county of Arhus. The study was cross sectional and based on data from questionnaires sent to all employees and greenhouse gardens in the county. Greenhouse gardeners had an average of four days of sickness absence a year. Self-rated health was poorer than average of the Danish population in general. Female gender, age below 40 years, troublesome relationships to family and friends, "poor" physical working environment and job insecurity were all predictors for increased risk of sickness absence lasting more than two weeks a year. Sickness absence was low compared to the average of the Danish labour market. Considering poorer self-rated health and frequent occurrence of some of the above-mentioned predictors for increased risk of sickness absence--female gender, age below 40 years and for women, high exposure to "poor" physical working environment--an average sickness absence of only four days was a puzzle. The data from the study were not sufficient to explain this paradox. It might be due to compensating factors at work or at a personal level. It might be due to information bias, as sickness absence could be underestimated, but agreement between reported sickness absence from employees and greenhouse gardens diminished that probability. It might have been a consequence of selection bias, the "healthy workers'" effect. Employees with considerable sickness absence might have been dismissed for long-term absence or might have quit the job because they were not able to cope with it.

  19. The prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis and its clinical manifestations: a nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lindström, Ulf; Askling, Johan; Eriksson, Jonas K; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Neovius, Martin; Turesson, Carl; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jacobsson, Lennart T H

    2015-05-09

    Prevalence estimates of ankylosing spondylitis vary considerably, and there are few nationwide estimates. The present study aimed to describe the national prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis in Sweden, stratified according to age, sex, geographical, and socio-economic factors, and according to subgroups with ankylosing spondylitis-related clinical manifestations and pharmacological treatment. All individuals diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Disease codes, between 1967 and 2009, were identified from the National Patient Register. Data regarding disease manifestations, patient demographics, level of education, pharmacological treatment, and geographical region were retrieved from the National Patient Register and other national registers. A total of 11,030 cases with an ankylosing spondylitis diagnosis (alive, living in Sweden, and 16 to 64 years old in December 2009) were identified in the National Patient Register, giving a point prevalence of 0.18% in 2009. The prevalence was higher in northern Sweden, and lower in those with a higher level of education. Men had a higher prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (0.23% versus 0.14%, P ankylosing spondylitis of 0.18%. It revealed phenotypical and treatment differences between the sexes, as well as geographical and socio-economic differences in disease prevalence.

  20. Psychosocial correlates of police-registered youth crime. A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on psychosocial correlates of youth crime in a sample of 2330 Finnish boys born in 1981. Two kinds of data were combined: questionnaires completed by the boys at call-up in 1999 and crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001. One-fifth of the boys were registered to offending during the 4-year period in late adolescence; 14% were registered for one or two offences, 4% for three to five offences, and 3% for more than five offences. Crime accumulated heavily in those with more than five offences, as they accounted for 68% of all crime. Independent correlates of crime were living in a small community, parents' low educational level and divorce, having a regular relationship, self-reported delinquency, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness, whereas anxious-depressiveness was reversely associated with crime. Most psychosocial problems covaried linearly with offending frequency, being particularly manifested by multiple recidivists. However, recidivists had very rarely used mental health services. The results indicate that offending and various psychosocial problems accumulate in a small minority of boys not reached by mental health services.

  1. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...... compared with the Danish labour market. A possible explanation for the differences in sickness absence ascertained in this study could be due to differences in the sickness insurance legislation....

  2. Register studies of cancer in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Attner, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim was to study different aspect of health care use and health care costs on a population based level for persons with cancer and their partners, and from an individual level to explore the impact of comorbidities in incidence and survival. In the beginning of the study all persons in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden diagnosed with colon, rectal, breast, prostate and lung cancer during the period 2000 to 2005 were identified via the Swedish Cancer Register. Lately, inclu...

  3. Register-based studies of delivery outcome after maternal use of some common drugs

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study neonatal outcome including the presence of congenital malformations and to describe maternal characteristics for women using some common drugs during pregnancy. Drugs used in one benign condition (nausea and vomiting) and one chronic disease (hypothyroidism) and the CNS-active drugs benzodiazepines and hypnotic benzodiazepine receptor agonists were selected. The studies were based on the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR). The main advantages...

  4. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Strand, Bjørn Heine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on a...

  5. A Disease Register for ME/CFS: Report of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Featherstone Valerie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ME/CFS Disease Register is one of six subprojects within the National ME/CFS Observatory, a research programme funded by the Big Lottery Fund and sponsored by Action for ME. A pilot study in East Anglia, East Yorkshire, and London aimed to address the problem of identifying representative groups of subjects for research, in order to be able to draw conclusions applicable to the whole ME/CFS population. While not aiming for comprehensive population coverage, this pilot register sought to recruit participants with ME/CFS in an unbiased way from a large population base. Those recruited are constituting a cohort for long-term follow-up to shed light on prognosis, and a sampling frame for other studies. Findings Patients with unidentified chronic fatigue were identified in GP databases using a READ-code based algorithm, and conformity to certain case definitions for ME/CFS determined. 29 practices, covering a population aged 18 to 64 of 143,153, participated. 510 patients with unexplained chronic fatigue were identified. 265 of these conformed to one or more case definitions. 216 were invited to join the register; 160 agreed. 96.9% of participants conformed to the CDC 1994 (Fukuda definition; the Canadian definition defined more precisely a subset of these. The addition of an epidemiological case definition increased case ascertainment by approximately 4%. A small-scale study in a specialist referral service in East Anglia was also undertaken. There was little difference in pattern of conformity to case definitions, age or sex among disease register participants compared with subjects in a parallel epidemiological study who declined to participate. One-year follow-up of 50 subjects showed little change in pain or fatigue scores. There were some changes in conformity to case definitions. Conclusions Objective evaluation indicated that the aim of recruiting participants with ME/CFS to a Disease Register had been fulfilled, and

  6. The influence of managers' and colleagues' absence on public employee absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2015-01-01

    public sector employees (De Paola, 2010). Research on the effect of managers’ own absence on their employees’ absence is scarce (Kristensen et al., 2006, Løkke, 2008) and so is the effect of colleagues’ absence in a large scale (Bradley et al., 2007, Dale-Olsen et al., 2010, Hesselius et al., 2009......). To date, research on the simultaneous effect of managers’ and colleagues’ absence behavior does not exist. The most acknowledged literature on absence (e.g., Steers and Rhodes, 1978) concludes that absence is influenced by many determinants; this makes it relevant to control for gender, age etc. Aim......: The aim of this study is to identify the effect of managers’ and colleagues’ absence on employee absence in the public sector. Method: We use register data from a large Danish municipality including 8000 employees. We use multilevel analysis to explain the number of periods of absence due to sickness...

  7. Operative Complications During Pregnancy After Gastric Bypass—a Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lisbeth A; Nilas, Lisbeth; Kjær, Mette M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Late complications to bariatric surgery during pregnancy have become an area of concern. Expansion of the uterus and the following displacement of the small intestine may increase the risk of internal herniation. We wanted to estimate the risk and consequences of surgical complications...... during pregnancy in a national cohort of women with a history of gastric bypass surgery. METHODS: A national, register-based cohort study of all Danish women with a history of gastric bypass surgery who had given birth from 2004 to 2010 was conducted. Surgical codes registered during pregnancy and until...... the puerperium. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of internal herniation during pregnancy was 1 % in our study. Internal herniation may be a serious complication in pregnant women, and both the diagnosis and treatment requires handling by experienced obstetrical, radiological, and surgical staff....

  8. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity ...

  9. Socioeconomic Differences in Crime and Victimization : A Register-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and crime is one of the central themes in criminology. While empirical studies on this issue have given mixed results, strong belief in an inverse association between SES and crime underlies Finnish criminal policy, where social policy is seen as an integral part of crime prevention. However, no proper population-based analysis of socioeconomic differences in crime in Finland is available. Using a register-based sample of the general populati...

  10. Statistics available for site studies in registers and surveys at Statistics Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldorson, Marie [Statistics Sweden, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    Statistics Sweden (SCB) has produced this report on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), as part of the data to be used by SKB in conducting studies of potential sites. The report goes over the statistics obtainable from SCB in the form of registers and surveys. The purpose is to identify the variables that are available, and to specify their degree of geographical detail and the time series that are available. Chapter two describes the statistical registers available at SCB, registers that share the common feature that they provide total coverage, i.e. they contain all 'objects' of a given type, such as population, economic activities (e.g. from statements of employees' earnings provided to the tax authorities), vehicles, enterprises or real estate. SCB has exclusive responsibility for seven of the nine registers included in the chapter, while two registers are ordered by public authorities with statistical responsibilities. Chapter three describes statistical surveys that are conducted by SCB, with the exception of the National Forest Inventory, which is carried out by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In terms of geographical breakdown, the degree of detail in the surveys varies, but all provide some possibility of reporting data at lower than the national level. The level involved may be county, municipality, yield district, coastal district or category of enterprises, e.g. aquaculture. Six of the nine surveys included in the chapter have been ordered by public authorities with statistical responsibilities, while SCB has exclusive responsibility for the others. Chapter four presents an overview of the statistics on land use maintained by SCB. This chapter does not follow the same pattern as chapters two and three but instead gives a more general account. The conclusion can be drawn that there are good prospects that SKB can make use of SCB's data as background information or in other ways when

  11. A phenomenographic study of registered nurses' understanding of their role in student learning--an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jillian

    2006-11-01

    Students may be 'buddied' with registered nurses during their clinical experience since the designated clinical facilitator cannot be available for each student at all times. Little is known about the way registered nurses understand this informal role. The rationale for this study was to gain an insight of the variation of understanding registered nurses have of their role with students, and explored the qualitatively different ways registered nurses perceive their role with students on clinical experience and the implications of this understanding for student learning. A phenomenographic approach was used to identify the variation of understanding and meaning of the role of the registered nurse with students on clinical practice from the perspective of the registered nurse. Phenomenography is a field of descriptive research concerned with the variation in ways people experience and understand similar phenomena. A purposive sample of 30 registered nurses from 15 public and private hospitals in central and south eastern Queensland, Australia. Individual semi-structured interviews from a final sample of 28 interviews were analysed to identify Categories of Description. Eight variations of understanding registered nurses have of their informal role with students were identified. The registered nurses' understanding varies from a focus that is 'student-centred', to 'completion of workload-centred', to 'registered nurse control', to a preference for no contact with students. As a consequence some students may have positive learning experiences while others will have limited learning opportunities. The research highlights the varied ways registered nurses understand their role with students that may promote or impede the quality of student learning and development to meet professional competency standards. Formal recognition of the complexity of the registered nurse role by health care agencies and tertiary education providers is essential to ensure registered nurses

  12. Prior depression and incident back pain among military registered nurses: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D Alan; Menzel, Nancy; Horoho, Patricia

    2017-06-28

    Occupational back pain rates are substantial among registered nurses, and nurses also report high rates of depression. The role of depression as a potential predictor of back pain among nurses appears understudied. The objective of the study was to determine whether a history of depression predicted incident back pain in a population of military registered nurses when controlling for relevant risk factors. We employed a retrospective cohort approach using longitudinal data in which gender-specific subject groups were followed from the beginning of duty as a registered nurse to the occurrence of an outcome, or to censoring due to completion of service or the end of available data. This study included all United States Army registered nurses who began work during 2011-2014 without evidence of prior back pain in clinical records. Data from automatically-collected medical and administrative sources were combined and used to provide 2134 person-years of observation on 1248 individuals. These data were organized at the person-month level in a panel data structure to support discrete-time multivariable logistic regression models. The models examined the relationships between prior depression, Body Mass Index, the presence of prior combat duty and selected control variables and the outcome, the incident occurrence of back pain. The incidence rate of back pain was 18.6 per 100 person-years and the period prevalence was 31.7%. Prior depression was a statistically-significant predictor of incident back pain among female subjects (odds ratio [OR]: 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.83, P-valueback pain for male and female nurses. The study's findings provide the first evidence of a temporal link between antecedent depression and later back pain among female military nurses. High Body Mass Index was found to be a further, modifiable risk factor for back pain in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama K Farran

    Full Text Available Infant-directed speech (IDS provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR, an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS, and adult register (IDS/AR, the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored.

  14. Breech at term--mode of delivery? A register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    . Register-based cohort study of all (n = 15718) singleton term breech deliveries of non-malformed infants in Denmark 1982-1990. Process and outcome measures: mode of delivery, gestational age, birth weight, congenital malformations, intrapartum death, Apgar scores and early neonatal death. RESULTS. A total...... of 3247 (20.7%) term infants were delivered vaginally, 7106 (45.3%) by elective and 5356 (34.1%) by emergency cesarean section. Infants delivered vaginally and by emergency cesarean section had significantly higher rates of mortality (intrapartum and early neonatal death) and morbidity (low Apgar scores......) when compared to those delivered by elective cesarean section. In vaginal deliveries, parity was not correlated with outcome, but infants with a birth weight above 4000 grams had significantly higher rates of low Apgar scores. CONCLUSIONS. Register data on singleton term breech deliveries imply...

  15. A register-based study of variations in services received among dental care attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Kasper; Hede, Børge; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2016-01-01

    . Materials and methods . This retrospective register-based study followed two Danish cohorts, aged 25 and 40, with a dental examination in 2009 (n = 32,351). The dental service data were registered during 2005–2009. The number of dental examinations, individual preventive services (IPS), tooth extractions......Objectives . To investigate whether receipt of dental services, among attenders, reflects variations in dental health or whether and to what degree it is associated with socioeconomic status, with irregular or regular dental attendance and with the availability of dentists in residential areas......, root fillings and composite fillings were analyzed in relation to socioeconomic status, irregular/regular dental attendance, inhabitant/dentist ratio and to DMFT at age 15 (DMFT15) and change in DMFT (ΔDMFT) from age 15 to age 25 and age 40, respectively. Poisson regression and negative binomial...

  16. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe

    2016-01-01

    .05;2.20] and herds with an inconsistent pattern of movements (n=96): 0.62 [0.00;2.24]. Full-line herds are herds, which purchase calves directly from a dairy herd and raise them to slaughter. Furthermore, we performed a risk factor analysis on the 183 herds with a full-line production. Here, we investigated, whether......High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database...

  17. Predictors of psychiatric inpatient suicide: a national prospective register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben B;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence and risk factors of psychiatric inpatient suicide within a national cohort representing all psychiatric hospital admissions. METHOD: This national prospective register-based study followed all psychiatric hospital admissions in Denmark from the date of patient...... admission until patient discharge or inpatient suicide over a 10-year study period from 1997 through 2006. By using survival analysis techniques, this study was the first to take the inpatient time at risk into account in the estimation of the suicide rate and the predictors of suicide among hospital...

  18. A prospective cohort study examining the preferred learning styles of acute care registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrow, Judy; Yevchak, Andrea; Lewis, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the preferred learning styles of Registered Nurses practicing in acute care environments and relationships between gender, age, post-graduate experience and the identified preferred learning styles. A prospective cohort study design was used. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and the Felder-Silverman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire to determine preferred learning styles. Most of the Registered Nurse participants were balanced across the Active-Reflective (n = 77, 54%), and Sequential-Global (n = 96, 68%) scales. Across the other scales, sensing (n = 97, 68%) and visual (n = 76, 53%) were the most common preferred learning style. There were only a small proportion who had a preferred learning style of reflective (n = 21, 15%), intuitive (n = 5, 4%), verbal (n = 11, 8%) or global learning (n = 15, 11%). Results indicated that gender, age and years since undergraduate education were not related to the identified preferred learning styles. The identification of Registered Nurses' learning style provides information that nurse educators and others can use to make informed choices about modification, development and strengthening of professional hospital-based educational programs. The use of the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and its ability to identify 'balanced' learning style preferences may potentially yield additional preferred learning style information for other health-related disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Registered partnerships

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, family patterns have changed significantly. National laws have taken these changes into account, recognizing new forms of unions, different to heterosexual marriage. Indeed, recently some countries have given the possibility to same-sex couples to enter into various forms of unions. Staff regulations of international organizations are not directly affected by national laws, but in the context of diversity policies, the lack of recognition of these new forms of unions, may appear to discriminate based on sexual orientation and to limit the freedom of choosing marital status. A study by the International Service for Remunerations and Pensions (iSRP) of the OECD in January 2015 (PROS Report (1015) 04) shows that in comparison with other international organizations, CERN offers the least favorable social conditions for its Staff with in a registered partnership. As part of the Five-year review in 2015, it is important that CERN aligns itself with the practice of these other organizations...

  20. Migration and health: exploring the role of migrant status through register-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørredam, Marie

    2015-04-01

    This thesis aims to explore migrant status as a determinant in register-based studies on migrant health. It is based on eight studies that investigate the following three main issues: 1) What is the importance of migrant status for morbidity patterns among migrants compared with Native Danes? 2) Do migrant status and ethnicity affect clinical indicators of access among migrants compared with native Danes? 3) What is the importance of migrant status for mortality patterns among migrants compared with Native Danes? The thesis builds on a register-based historical prospective cohort design. Through Statistics Denmark, all refugees (n = 29,174) and family reunification immigrants (n = 33,287) who received residence permits in Denmark from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 1999 were included and matched 4:1 on age and sex with Native Danes. Register linkage was obtained twice during follow-ups in 2004 and 2008 respectively. Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the National Patient Registry, the Registry of Coercive Measures in Psychiatric Treatment, the Register of Causes of Death, and the Danish Cancer Registry. Migrant status defined by legal grounds for obtaining a residence permit was dichotomised into refugees and family reunification immigrants and used as the determinant in most studies. Analyses involved both Poisson and Cox regression analysis. Most analyses were stratified by ethnicity and adjusted for age and sex. Some were also stratified for individual income. Three sub-themes were investigated: morbidity, clinical indicators of access, and mortality. The first sub-theme (Papers I-III) showed that refugees had a consistently higher morbidity from several mental health disorders in contrast to family reunification immigrants, whose morbidity from mental disorders was lower than or similar to native Danes. The cancer incidence study did not find an effect of migrant status but found, rather, that migrants

  1. Epilepsy in individuals with a history of Asperger's syndrome: a Danish nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-06-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register (DNHR) with respect to epilepsy. Mean age at follow-up was 18.1 years (range 4-31 years). Of the 4,180 individuals with AS, 164 (3.9%) were registered with at least one epilepsy diagnosis in the DNHR, which is significantly increased (p < 0.0001) relative to the same age group in the general population, where an estimate is about 2.0%.

  2. Comorbidity and temporal ordering of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders: results from a Danish register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Knop, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    . The study population was linked to national Danish hospital registers and a greater Copenhagen alcohol unit treatment register to detect registrations with AUD and other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Of the individuals invited to the study, 7.6% were registered with AUD, and among these, 50.3% had......BACKGROUND: Understanding the comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other psychiatric disorders may have important implications for treatment and preventive interventions. However, information on the epidemiology of this comorbidity is lacking. The objective of this study was to present...

  3. Electronic mail, a new written-language register: a study with French-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar and familiar forms). Data were collected from 80 adolescents ages 12 to 15 in a natural situation where they had to introduce themselves by e-mail to two addressees (peer/teacher). Participants were divided into two groups (skilled/unskilled in computer-mediated communication). Their emails contained a large number of orthographic deviations (the most frequent being neographic forms). Participants skilled in computer-mediated communication (CMC) deviated more than unskilled ones did. The number of orthographic deviations was not linked to the participants' standard writing ability. The personal-pronoun data clearly showed that adolescents used the familiar form of 'you' (tu) to address the peer and the unfamiliar form (vous) to address the teacher. We conclude that, for adolescents, e-mail constitutes a distinct written-language register. Nevertheless, the e-mail register seems to follow the pragmatic rules of standard spoken and written interaction.

  4. Dementia and traffic accidents: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, CT;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...

  5. Health Care Use by Patients with Somatoform Disorders A Register-Based Follow-Up Study*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nadia Lyhne Trærup; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Andersen, Jon Trærup

    2012-01-01

    to investigate medical care use prior to and three years after diagnosis in patients with somatoform disorders. METHODS: We included 380 patients with somatoform diagnoses (SCID-NP for DSM-IIIR) in a case-control study and compared them with 174 patients with anxiety disorders and 5540 controls from...... effect on health care use when controlling for psychiatric comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with somatoform disorders make significantly greater use of health care services than do controls and patients with anxiety. Somatoform patients made more use of psychiatric services than expected. The use......OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown a greater use of medical than mental health services in patients with somatoform disorders. However, not many studies are based on structured interviews and include the entire somatoform spectrum of diagnoses. We conducted a register-based case-control study...

  6. A prospective cohort study on musculoskeletal risk factors for long-term sickness absence among healthcare workers in eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Thomas; Mortensen, Ole S;

    2012-01-01

    The socioeconomic burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. However, knowledge about the risk of sickness absence from pain in different body regions among specific job groups is needed to more efficiently target preventative strategies. This study estimates...

  7. Over- and under-diagnosis of dementia in ethnic minorities: a nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T R; Vogel, A; Phung, Tien Kieu

    2011-01-01

    was to compare the prevalence of register-based dementia diagnoses in the largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark with the prevalence of register-based dementia diagnoses in the general Danish population. METHODS: By linking the Danish hospital registers with the Danish Civil Registration System, nationwide......, cross-cultural assessment of dementia can be difficult because of language barriers and cultural differences. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Meta-Analysis of Studies Investigating the Effects of Father Absence on Children's Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A meta-analysis was conducted of 137 studies investigating the effects of father absence due to employment, military service, death, divorce, separation, or desertion on children's cognitive performance as assessed by scores on standardized intelligence, scholastic aptitude, and academic achievement tests and school grades. Aggregation of the…

  9. Long-term outcome of childhood absence epilepsy : Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Bouma, Paul A. D.; Geerts, Ada T.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Stroink, Hans; Peeters, Els A. J.; van Donselaar, Cees A.; Peters, A. C. Boudewijn; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2009-01-01

    We determined long-term outcome and the predictive value of baseline and EEG characteristics on seizure activity evolution in 47 children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) included in the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood. All children were followed for 12-17 years. The childr

  10. Breech at term--mode of delivery? A register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    . Register-based cohort study of all (n = 15718) singleton term breech deliveries of non-malformed infants in Denmark 1982-1990. Process and outcome measures: mode of delivery, gestational age, birth weight, congenital malformations, intrapartum death, Apgar scores and early neonatal death. RESULTS. A total...... of 3247 (20.7%) term infants were delivered vaginally, 7106 (45.3%) by elective and 5356 (34.1%) by emergency cesarean section. Infants delivered vaginally and by emergency cesarean section had significantly higher rates of mortality (intrapartum and early neonatal death) and morbidity (low Apgar scores......BACKGROUND. The present study was designed to determine neonatal mortality and morbidity in non-malformed singleton term infants delivered in breech presentation and identify a possible correlation between outcome on the one hand and mode of delivery, parity and birth weight on the other. METHODS...

  11. Obstetric conditions and risk of first admission with schizophrenia: A Danish national register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Majella; Agerbo, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    and 24, 826 individually matched controls. Adjusting for the other obstetric factors, family psychiatric history, and socio-economic and demographic factors, risk of schizophrenia was associated with maternal non-attendance at antenatal appointments (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 2.08, 95% CI: 1.0, 4......A range of complications of pregnancy, abnormal fetal growth and development, and complications of delivery have been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies have been able to adjust for a broad range of potential confounding factors. A national population nested case......-control study based on Danish longitudinal registers was conducted to investigate the risk of schizophrenia associated with exposure to a range of obstetric events. The sample included 1039 first admissions to, or contacts with Danish psychiatric services with an ICD-8 or ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia...

  12. Danish register-based study on the association between specific cardiovascular drugs and fragility fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torstensson, Maia; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Leth-Møller, Katja;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether drugs used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD-drugs), including hypertension, increase the risk of fragility fractures in individuals above the age of 65 years. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Danish nationwide national registers....... PARTICIPANTS: All individuals in Denmark ≥65 years who used specified CVD-drugs in the study period between 1999 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Time-dependent exposure to CVD-drugs (nitrates, digoxin, thiazides, furosemide, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, β-blockers, calcium antagonists...... and statins) was determined by prescription claims from pharmacies. The association between use of specific CVD-drugs and fragility fractures was assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models, and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 1 586 554 persons were included...

  13. The fate of prospective spine studies registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnmeiss, Donna D

    2015-03-01

    There has been concern expressed about research ethics with respect to not fully reporting data collected during clinical studies. One site available for all clinical trials is ClinicalTrials.gov. The original purpose of this site was to facilitate patients seeking a trial for the treatment of their particular condition. The internationally available site offers general information about the study, sponsor name, principal investigator, patient selection criteria, enrollment goal, study design, outcome measures, participating centers, initiation date, date posted, date completed, and other pertinent data. The site can be used to identify studies conducted for a particular condition or intervention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fate of spine-related studies registered on www.ClinicalTrials.gov, with particular focus on the publication rate of completed trials. Analysis and classification of clinical studies posted on an international research registry Web page and literature search for related publications. Not applicable. The primary outcome measure was publication of the study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Multiple searches were conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov Web site to identify studies related to commonly treated spinal conditions, including herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and spondylolisthesis. Studies related to tumors, fractures, or that included nonspine conditions were not included. For studies classified as completed more than 18 months before this review, literature searches were conducted to determine if the results of the study had been published and factors related to publication. The author has no financial conflict related to this work. There were 263 spine-related studies identified from searches on the ClinicalTrials.gov site. Data on the site had the studies classified as follows: 72 completed, 70 active, not recruiting (generally indicates collecting follow-up data), 74 recruiting, 11 recruiting by

  14. Management of COPD, equal treatment across age, gender, and social situation? A register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henoch I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ingela Henoch,1,2 Susann Strang,1,2 Claes-Göran Löfdahl,1,3 Ann Ekberg-Jansson1,4 1Angered Hospital, Research and Development Department, 2The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3University of Lund, Lund, 4Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive chronic disease where treatment decisions should be based on disease severity and also should be equally distributed across age, gender, and social situation. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent patients with COPD are offered evidence-based interventions and how the interventions are distributed across demographic and clinical factors in the sample. Baseline registrations of demographic, disease-related, and management-related variables of 7,810 patients in the Swedish National Airway Register are presented. One-third of the patients were current smokers. Patient-reported dyspnea and health-related quality of life were more deteriorated in elderly patients and patients living alone. Only 34% of currently smoking patients participated in the smoking cessation programs, and 22% of all patients were enrolled in any patient education program, with women taking part in them more than men. Less than 20% of the patients had any contact with physiotherapists or dieticians, with women having more contact than men. Men had more comorbidities than women, except for depression and osteoporosis. Women were more often given pharmacological treatments. With increasing severity of dyspnea, participation in patient education programs was more common. Dietician contact was more common in those with lower body mass index and more severe COPD stage. Both dietician contact and physiotherapist contact increased with deteriorated health-related quality of life, dyspnea, and increased exacerbation frequency. The present study

  15. Drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behaviour: register based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Sjölander, Arvid; Runeson, Bo; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-06-18

    To investigate the association between drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risk of concomitant suicidal behaviour among patients with ADHD. Register based longitudinal study using within patient design. Linkage of multiple national registers in Sweden. 37,936 patients with ADHD born between 1960 and 1996 and followed from 2006 to 2009 for treatment status by ADHD drug treatment and suicide related events (suicide attempt and completed suicide). Incidence rate of suicide related events during ADHD drug treatment periods compared with that during non-treatment periods. Among 37,936 patients with ADHD, 7019 suicide related events occurred during 150,721 person years of follow-up. At the population level, drug treatment of ADHD was associated with an increased rate of suicide related events (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.44). However, the within patient comparison showed a reverse association between ADHD drug treatment and rate of suicide related events (0.89, 0.79 to 1.00). Among stimulant users, a reduced within patient rate of suicide related events was seen during treatment periods (0.81, 0.70 to 0.94). Among non-stimulant/mixed users, no significantly increased within patient rate of suicide related events during non-stimulant treatment periods was seen (0.96, 0.72 to 1.30). This study found no evidence for a positive association between the use of drug treatments for ADHD and the risk of concomitant suicidal behaviour among patients with ADHD. If anything, the results pointed to a potential protective effect of drugs for ADHD on suicidal behaviour, particularly for stimulant drugs. The study highlights the importance of using within patient designs to control for confounding in future pharmacoepidemiological studies. © Chen et al 2014.

  16. 父亲缺失研究评述%Review on the Study of Father Absence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小萍; 张海钟

    2008-01-01

    国内外近期关于父亲缺失的研究虽然取得了一些研究成果,但总的说来存在着概念的界定模糊,研究内容、研究对象和研究方法上的单一等问题.父亲缺失应该分为生理缺失与心理缺失两种情况.就我国实际情况而言,应该将研究的视角更多地转向广大的农村留守儿童;应注重研究内容的多样性与系统性;应坚持研究方法的多样性,将量化研究与质性研究相结合.%The research on father absence has scored some achievements at home and abroad recently, but there are still some questions: obscure in concept definition, monotonous in the studies, subjects and research methods. The concept of father absence includes physical absence and psychological absence. As far as our country is concerned, the study should turn perspective to the children left in rural areas, pay more attention to the diversity and systematicness of the study content, and insist the diversity of research methods to combine quantitative research with qualitative research.

  17. The Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A;

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....

  18. The Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....

  19. Are the Cochrane group registers comprehensive? A case study of Japanese psychiatry trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Hugh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language bias is a form of publication bias and constitutes a serious threat to meta-analyses. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register is one attempt to remedy this and now contains more than 300,000 citations. However we are still unsure if it provides comprehensive coverage, particularly for non-English trials. Methods We have recently established a comprehensive register of Japanese trials of psychotropic drugs through extensive personal contacts, electronic searches and handsearches. We examined two Cochrane psychiatry group registers against this Japanese database. Results The Japanese register contained 56 reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of antidepressants for depression but the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis group register contained 18, with an overlap of only nine. The Japanese register contained 61 reports of RCTs of neuroleptics for schizophrenia and the Cochrane Schizophrenia group register contained 36, with an overlap of only six. Taking account of some duplicate publications, only a quarter to a third of all relevant Japanese RCTs were retrievable from the Cochrane group registers. Conclusions Similar, or worse, yields may be expected with RCTs conducted in other East Asian countries, and in other fields of medicine. What evidence there is suggests that this situation may lead to a systematic over estimate of treatment effect.

  20. Collective Legitimacy and Organizational Attachment: A Longitudinal Case Study of School Personnel Absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R. Oliver; Lafornara, Paul

    This speech contains an analysis of school personnel absence, that seeks to develop a formula useful for understanding more clearly the nature of absence behavior. Since absence is an important aspect of productivity, it is important to understand better the dynamics of absence. Absence could be conceptualized as contractual relationships within a…

  1. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  2. Transfemoral Amputation After Failure of Knee Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfriedsen, Tinne B; Schrøder, Henrik M; Odgaard, Anders

    2016-12-07

    Transfemoral amputation is considered the last treatment option for failed knee arthroplasty. The extent to which this procedure is performed is not well known. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and causes of amputation following failure of knee arthroplasty in a nationwide population. Data were extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Patient Register, and the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register. With use of individual data linkage, 92,785 primary knee arthroplasties performed from 1997 to 2013 were identified. Of these, 258 were followed by amputation. Hospital records of all identified cases were reviewed. A competing-risk model was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of amputation. Differences in cumulative incidences were analyzed with use of the Gray test. A total of 115 amputations were performed for causes related to failed knee arthroplasty. The 15-year cumulative incidence of amputation was 0.32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23% to 0.48%). The annual incidence of amputation following arthroplasties performed from 1997 to 2002 was 0.025% compared with 0.018% following arthroplasties performed from 2008 to 2013 (p = 0.06). The causes of the amputation were periprosthetic infection in 95 cases (83%), soft-tissue deficiency in 26 (23%), severe bone loss in 21 (18%), extensor mechanism disruption in 11 (10%), intractable pain in 11 (10%), periprosthetic fracture in 10 (9%), and vascular complications in 9 (8%). In 92 (80%) of the cases, there were ≥2 indications for amputation. The cumulative incidence of amputation within 15 years after primary knee arthroplasty was 0.32%, with a tendency toward a decreasing incidence in the last part of the study period. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Workplace bullying and subsequent psychotropic medication: a cohort study with register linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine longitudinally whether workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women and men. Design A cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=6606, 80% women), 40–60 years at baseline in 2000–2002, and a register-based follow-up on medication. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workplace bullying comprised questions about current and earlier bullying as well as observing bullying. The Finnish Social Insurance Institution's register data on purchases of prescribed reimbursed psychotropic medication were linked with the survey data. All psychotropic medication 3 years prior to and 5 years after the baseline survey was included. Covariates included age, prior psychotropic medication, childhood bullying, occupational class, and body mass index. Cox proportional hazard models (HR, 95% CI) were fitted and days until the first purchase of prescribed psychotropic medication after baseline were used as the time axis. Results Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication after adjusting for age and prior medication among both women (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.93) and men (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Also observing bullying was associated with subsequent psychotropic medication among women (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.88) and men (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.99). The associations only modestly attenuated after full adjustment. Conclusions Our findings highlight the significance of workplace bullying to subsequent psychotropic medication reflecting medically confirmed mental problems. Tackling workplace bullying likely helps prevent mental problems among employees. PMID:23242240

  4. Joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement: a register-linked cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the risk of disability retirement by smoking and physical activity, and particularly whether the risk due to smoking is affected by the level of physical activity. Additionally, the contribution of baseline health, sociodemographic and work-related factors to the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement was considered. Design Cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40–60 years at baseline in 2000–2002, were followed up using complete register data from the Finnish Centre of Pensions until the end of 2010 (n=6390, with a consent to register linkage from 74%). Primary outcome measure All-cause disability retirement (ICD-10). Results Altogether, 608 employees (9.5%) retired due to disability during the follow-up. Cox regression models were fitted to examine the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with subsequent disability retirement. Never-smokers, ex-smokers and moderate smokers who were inactive or moderately active had an increased risk of disability retirement, but if they were vigorously active, they had no excess risk. Instead, all heavy smokers (15 or more cigarettes per day among women, and 20 or more among men), irrespective of physical activity, had an increased risk of disability retirement. The examined associations attenuated but remained for ex-smokers and heavy smokers after adjustments for gender, age, socioeconomic position, mental and physical workload, problem drinking, body mass index and self-rated health. No gender interactions were found. Conclusions Vigorous physical activity might help prevent disability retirement not only among never-smokers, but even among ex-smokers and moderate smokers. However, among heavy smokers, physical activity is not sufficient to eliminate the adverse effects of smoking on health and work ability. PMID:26224014

  5. EEG-fMRI study of resting-state networks in childhood absence epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Ling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the alterations of resting-state brain functional networks in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI analysis, and to explore the cognitive disorders of children in epileptic seizures. Methods According to case selection criteria, 12 children with absence seizure were selected, from whom 17 fMRI data with generalized slow-wave discharges (GSWD and the matched data without discharges were collected by using electroencephalogram (EEG-fMRI synchronization. Independent component analysis was used to investigate the alterations in different states of 7 resting-state networks including the thalamus, default-mode network, dorsal attention network, central execution network and perceptive networks. Results Paired t-test and correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. The thalamus showed increased coherence of brain activity in GSWD state, and the increased coherence was positively correlated with the durations of GSWD (r = 0.890, P = 0.000. The default-mode network (r = - 0.706, P = 0.000, dorsal attention network (r = - 0.829, P = 0.000 and central execution network (r = - 0.905, P = 0.000, which dealt with high -grade cognitive functions, showed decreased coherence, and the brain activity coherence in these networks were negatively correlated with GSWD durations. However, none of low-grade perceptive networks was found to have significant alteration in GSWD state. Conclusion The increased coherence of brain activity in the thalamus may be associated with the generation of GSWD in childhood absence epilepsy. Besides the default brain function, the processes of attention and cognitive execution may also be impaired in childhood absence epilepsy, while low-grade perceptive functions may not be greatly impacted. This study may contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanism of impaired consciousness in childhood absence epilepsy.

  6. A Prospective Study of Ventilation Rates and Illness Absence in California Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseeva, Ekaterina A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Background – This study investigated the associations of ventilation rates (VRs), estimated from indoor CO2 concentrations, in offices with the amount of respiratory infections, illness absences, and building-related health symptoms in occupants. Methods – Office buildings were recruited from three California climate zones. In one or more study spaces within each building, real-time logging sensors measured carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity for one year. Ventilation rates were estimated using daily peak CO2 levels, and also using an alternative metric. Data on occupants and health outcomes were collected through web-based surveys every three months. Multivariate models were used to assess relationships between metrics of ventilation rate or CO2 and occupant outcomes. For all outcomes, negative associations were hypothesized with VR metrics, and positive associations with CO2 metrics. Results – Difficulty recruiting buildings and low survey response limited sample size and study power. In 16 studied spaces within 9 office buildings, VRs were uniformly high over the year, from twice to over nine times the California office VR standard (7 L/s or 15 cfm per person). VR and CO2 metrics had no statistically significant relationships with occupant outcomes, except for a small significantly positive association of the alternative VR metric with respiratory illness-related absence, contrary to hypotheses. Conclusions– The very high time-averaged VRs in the California office buildings studied presumably resulted from “economizer cycles” bringing in large volumes of outdoor air; however, in almost all buildings even the estimated minimum VRs supplied (without the economizer) substantially exceeded the minimum required VR. These high VRs may explain the absence of hypothesized relationships with occupant outcomes. Among uniformly high VRs, little variation in contaminant concentration and occupant effects would be expected. These findings may

  7. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  8. FORMAL ORAL INDONESIAN REGISTER USED IN OPEN EXAMINATION A SYNTHATICAL-PRAGMATIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sartini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the formal oral Indonesian register ‘Bahasa Indonesia ragam lisan formal’ (hereinafter referred to as BIRLF used in open examinations from syntactical-pragmatic perspective. In general, this study aims at analyzing the grammatical-pragmatic elements of the formal oral register used in open examinations; in particular, it aims at analyzing the forms of speech acts and the forms of politeness used in the open examinations held at the University of Airlangga ‘Universitas Airlangga’ (Unair and the State University of Surabaya ‘Universitas Negeri Surabaya’ (Unesa. The theories used were the structural theory and the theory of pragmatics. The structural theory was used to analyze the grammatical structures of the sentences used in the dialogues taking place in the open examinations. The theory of pragmatics used in this study refers to the theory of politeness proposed by Lakoff (1972, Leech (1983, Brown and Levinson (1987, and the theory of speech act developed by Austin (1962 and Searle (1975. The data analysis showed that, based on the direction of extension in which the verb was the center, and the extending components, eleven types of imperative sentences were found. The extension took place to the left, to the right and to the left and to the right from the verb simultaneously. The extending components included words, phrases, clauses and combinations of phrases and clauses. The interrogative sentences used were both the close interrogative sentences and the open interrogative ones. The declarative sentences used were the complex coordinative and subordinative ones. Deletion, pronominalization,, and repetition characterized the two types of sentences. To identify politeness, the layers of the components constructing the sentences were analyzed. The imperative politeness was expressed grammatically and lexically. Grammatically, the grammatical politeness was shown by passivizing the verb, shifting moods, and

  9. Suicide or undetermined intent? A register-based study of signs of misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Johansson, Lars-Age; Nordström, Peter; Thiblin, Ingemar; Fugelstad, Anna; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that some deaths classified as undetermined intent are in fact suicides, and it is common in suicide research in Europe to include these deaths. Our aim was to investigate if information on background variables would be helpful in assessing if deaths classified as undetermined intent should be included in the analyses of suicides. We performed a register study of 31,883 deaths classified as suicides and 9,196 deaths classified as undetermined intent in Sweden from 1987 to 2011. We compared suicide deaths with deaths classified as undetermined intent with regard to different background variables such as sex, age, country of birth, marital status, prior inpatient care for self-inflicted harm, alcohol and drug abuse, psychiatric inpatient care, and use of psychotropics. We also performed a multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Our results showed differences in most studied background factors. Higher education was more common in suicides; hospitalization for self-inflicted harm was more common among female suicides as was prior psychiatric inpatient care. Deaths in foreign-born men were classified as undetermined intent in a higher degree and hospitalization for substance abuse was more common in undetermined intents of both sexes. Roughly 50% of both suicide and deaths classified as undetermined intent had a filled prescription of psychotropics during their last six months. Our multivariate analysis showed male deaths to more likely be classified as suicide than female: OR: 1.13 (1.07-1.18). The probability of a death being classified as suicide was also increased for individuals aged 15-24, being born in Sweden, individuals who were married, and for deaths after 1987-1992. By analyzing Sweden's unique high-validity population-based register data, we found several differences in background variables between deaths classified as suicide and deaths classified as undetermined intent. However, we were not able to clearly

  10. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension, was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005 and outpatient (2001-2005 care. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  11. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  12. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders.

  13. Cognitive, Instructional, and Social Presence as Factors in Learners’ Negotiation of Planned Absences from Online Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Conrad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult learners value the flexibility and convenience offered to them as online learners, and many learners are required to absent themselves from their online classes during courses in order to accommodate demanding schedules. What factors and tensions contribute to learners’ decision-making at these times? This qualitative study considered the planned absences of learners engaged in an online graduate course at a large university. Working within the framework provided by cognitive, instructional, and social presences, findings showed the following: (1 learners understood and accommodated the relationship and importance of the affective domain to their cognitive successes in learning, (2 successful learners demonstrated insightful self-knowledge in using metacognitive strategies, and (3 learners’ external support systems were fundamental to their ability to continue to learn when absences occurred. The study’s findings corroborate other recent research that similarly stresses the complexity and interrelated nature of the adult learning process.

  14. The competencies of Registered Nurses working in care homes: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanyon, Miriam Ruth; Goldberg, Sarah Elizabeth; Astle, Anita; Griffiths, Amanda; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2017-07-01

    registered Nurses (RNs) working in UK care homes receive most of their training in acute hospitals. At present the role of care home nursing is underdeveloped and it is seen as a low status career. We describe here research to define core competencies for RNs working in UK care homes. a two-stage process was adopted. A systematic literature review and focus groups with stakeholders provided an initial list of competencies. The competency list was modified over three rounds of a Delphi process with a multi-disciplinary expert panel of 28 members. twenty-two competencies entered the consensus process, all competencies were amended and six split. Thirty-one competencies were scored in round two, eight were agreed as essential, one competency was split into two. Twenty-four competencies were submitted for scoring in round three. In total, 22 competencies were agreed as essential for RNs working in care homes. A further 10 competencies did not reach consensus. the output of this study is an expert-consensus list of competencies for RNs working in care homes. This would be a firm basis on which to build a curriculum for this staff group.

  15. Disclosure of Environmental Items: A Study of Metal Mining Companies Registered at BM & FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodrigues Batista

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Accounting, as regards the requirements for environmental management, may contribute as an important instrument for disclosure and dissemination of environmental information. This study aimed to identify the disclosure of environmental items in Metal Mining companies registered in at BM & FBOVESPA. The research is relevant in the Metal sector, because it represents companies with highly polluting activities, which use non-renewable natural resources. This was a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research, in which we used the content analysis technique of environmental items in Notes in the Reports of Directors and four mining companies sustainability reports from 2009 to 2013. Through a ranking, we analyzed the degree of clarity in the disclosure of environmental companies, which ranked first in the Vale SA, then Manabi SA a second, MMX Metálicos SA mining in the third place and, lastly, Litel Participações SA. Through environmental research variables based on the ISE questionnaire, it was found that the main items were disclosed environmental investments with environmental management certificates, accrued fines, costs licenses, processes and sanctions; and costs of energy consumption, water use, wastewater and solid waste. However, the result of the survey revealed that are not enough disclosed environmental items for a deeper analysis yet.

  16. Priorities for the professional development of registered nurses in nursing homes: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily; Spilsbury, Karen; McCaughan, Dorothy; Thompson, Carl; Butterworth, Tony; Hanratty, Barbara

    2017-01-08

    To establish a consensus on the care and professional development needs of registered nurses (RNs) employed by UK care homes. Two-stage, online modified Delphi study. A panel (n = 352) of individuals with experience, expertise or interest in care home nursing: (i) care home nurses and managers; (ii) community healthcare professionals (including general practitioners, geriatricians, specialist and district nurses); and (iii) nurse educators in higher education. RNs employed by nursing homes require particular skills, knowledge, competence and experience to provide high-quality care for older residents. The most important responsibilities for the nursing home nurse were: promoting dignity, personhood and wellbeing, ensuring resident safety and enhancing quality of life. Continuing professional development priorities included personal care, dementia care and managing long-term conditions. The main barrier to professional development was staff shortages. Nursing degree programmes were perceived as inadequately preparing nurses for a nursing home role. Nursing homes could improve by providing supportive learning opportunities for students and fostering challenging and rewarding careers for newly RNs. If nurses employed by nursing homes are not fit for purpose, the consequences for the wider health and social-care system are significant. Nursing homes, the NHS, educational and local authorities need to work together to provide challenging and rewarding career paths for RNs and evaluate them. Without well-trained, motivated staff, a high-quality care sector will remain merely an aspiration.

  17. A metadata-based patient register for cooperative clinical research: a case study in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anja S; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In many medical indications clinical research is organized within study groups which provide and maintain the clinical infrastructure for their randomized clinical trials. Each group also manages a data center where high quality databases store the study specific individual patient data. Sharing this data between study groups is not straightforward. Therefore, a concept is needed which allows to represent a detailed overview on the information available across the cooperating groups. We propose a metadata based patient register and describe a first prototype. It provides information about available patient data sets to interested research partners while the typical register approach only collects a predefined limited core data set. This register implementation enables cooperative groups to allocate clinical data for future research projects in distributed data sources beyond the restrictions of core data sets. Additionally, it supports the research network in communication and data standardization and complies with a governance structure which is compatible with ethical aspects, privacy protection, and patient rights.

  18. Use and overuse of sumatriptan. Pharmacoepidemiological studies based on prescription register and interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaist, D

    1999-10-01

    from 6.4 to 9.6 per 1,000 inhabitants. The period prevalence of sumatriptan use in the county of Funen was highly comparable with that of the entire nation. Among the 43,389 sumatriptan users presenting prescriptions for sumatriptan in Denmark in 1994 and 1995, 507 (1.1%) and 1726 (4.0%) belonged to the high and intermediate-peak-use group, respectively. Patients belonging to these two groups were responsible for 38% of the total consumption of sumatriptan. For patients in the high-peak-use group the median span between first and last prescription was 693 days while the median quantity of sumatriptan purchased was 648 DDD. Highly comparable patterns of long-term intense sumatriptan use were found in the data from the regional registry, which covered the 27-month period after the introduction of the drug (February 1992). The register data were highly suggestive of overuse, but lacked essential information, e.g., the indication for use. A third study was therefore conducted using a combination of register and interview data. During a 14-day period, current users of sumatriptan were recruited through community pharmacies in the county of Funen. Respondents returned a signed consent form, including their unique personal identification number (CPR), allowing us to retrieve patient-specific data from the regional registry. For each respondent, all available relevant prescription data for the period 1992-96 were retrieved. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low-peak-use groups according to register data from the 4-year period. The register data were used to evaluate representativity after anonymizing nonrespondent data. The response rates were 33% (7/21) in the high-peak-use group, 47% (30/64) in the intermediate-peak-use group, and 56% (196/350) in the low-peak-use group. Respondents and nonrespondents in the three groups were comparable with regard to age and use of other drugs. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  19. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  20. Educational achievements of children of parents with multiple sclerosis: A nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, J Y; Magyari, M; Koch-Henriksen, N; Thygesen, L C; Laursen, B; Soelberg Sørensen, P

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the impact of parental multiple sclerosis (MS) on offspring's educational attainment. The objective of the study was to examine educational achievements in offspring of parents with MS compared with matched children of parents without MS in a nationwide register-based cohort study. Children of all Danish-born residents with onset between 1950 and 1986 were identified by linking the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry with the Civil Registration System. Twins, children with MS, and emigrated persons were excluded. The reference cohort consisted of randomly drawn individuals from the Civil Registration System without parental MS matched 8:1 to the MS offspring by sex and year of birth. Information about education was linked to the cohorts from nationwide educational registries. We included 4177 children of MS parents and 33,416 reference persons. Children of MS parents achieved statistically significant higher average grades than the reference cohort in their final exam of basic school with a mean grade difference of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.22-0.69; p = 0.0002). We found no difference in achievement of educational level above basic school (OR 1.04; 95 % CI 0.98-1.10; p = 0.20). There was a trend toward more MS offspring attaining health-related educations (OR 1.10; 95 % CI 1.00-1.21; p = 0.06). In conclusion, children of MS parents showed a small advantage in grade point average in final examinations in basic school, and they more often tended toward health-related educations. This study revealed no negative consequences of parental MS on grades and highest educational level achieved.

  1. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-05-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How voter turnout varies between different chronic conditions? A population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Reijo; Lahtinen, Hannu; Wass, Hanna; Mattila, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-05-01

    While poor self-rated health is known to decrease an individual's propensity to vote, disaggregation of the components of health on turnout has thus far received only little attention. This study deepens on the understanding of such relationships by examining the association between chronic diseases and voting. The study uses an individual-level register-based data set that contains an 11% random sample of the entire electorate in the 1999 Finnish parliamentary elections. With information on hospital discharge diagnoses and reimbursements for drugs prescribed, we identify persons with chronic hospital-treated diseases (coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, depression, cancer, psychotic mental disease, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic disease, epilepsy, arthrosis, alcoholism, dementia, atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease, other degenerative brain diseases, multiple sclerosis and kidney disease). After adjusting for gender, age, education, occupational class, income, partnership status, cohabitation with underaged children and hospitalisation during Election Day, neurodegenerative brain diseases had the strongest negative relationship with voting (dementia OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.22; others up to OR=0.70). Alcoholism (OR=0.66) and mental disorders also had a negative association (depression OR=0.91; psychotic mental disease OR=0.79), whereas cancer and COPD/asthma had a positive association (both OR=1.05). Having more than one condition at a time further decreased voting probability. By showing how different health conditions are related to voter turnout, this study provides essential information for identifying gaps in the potential for political participation and for further inquiries aiming to develop models that explain the link between health and voting probability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Norwegian GPs' participation in multidisciplinary meetings: A register-based study from 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjesdal Sturla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of patients with chronic disorders and a more complex health service demand greater interdisciplinary collaboration in Primary Health Care. The aim of this study was therefore to identify factors related to general practitioners (GPs, their list populations and practice municipalities associated with a high rate of GP participation in multidisciplinary meetings (MDMs. Methods A national cross-sectional register-based study of Norwegian general practice was conducted, including data on all GPs in the Regular GP Scheme in 2007 (N = 3179. GPs were grouped into quartiles based on the annual number of MDMs per patient on their list, and the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse associations between high rates of participation and characteristics of the GP, their list population and practice municipality. Results On average, GPs attended 30 MDMs per year. The majority of the meetings concerned patients in the age groups 20-59 years. Psychological disorders were the motivation for 53% of the meetings. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the following characteristics predicted a high rate of MDM attendance: younger age of the GP, with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1 for GPs Conclusions Psychological problems including substance addiction gave grounds for the majority of MDMs. GPs with a high proportion of consultations with such problems also participated more frequently in MDMs. List size was negatively associated with the rate of MDMs, while a more disadvantaged list population was positively associated. Working in smaller organisational units seemed to facilitate cooperation between different professionals. There may be a generation shift towards more frequent participation in interdisciplinary work among younger GPs.

  4. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Crime in Huntington's disease: a study of registered offences among patients, relatives, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Fenger, K; Bolwig, T G; Sørensen, S A

    1998-10-01

    Criminal behaviour has been described as a problem in Huntington's disease, but systematic studies including control groups have been missing. Based on information from Danish registries, rates and types of crime committed by patients with Huntington's disease, non-affected relatives, and controls were studied. 99 males and 151 females with Huntington's disease were compared with 334 non-affected first degree relatives (134 men and 200 women) and to matched control groups as to frequencies and types of registered criminal convictions. Due to specific age criteria, the group of relatives comprised only about 9% carriers of the gene coding for Huntington's disease. In male patients, crime rates were significantly increased compared with first degree relatives (RR=2.8) and controls (RR=2.3). All types of crime occurred more often in male patients; more severe crimes (murder, rape, arson) were not reported. Rates of drunken driving were significantly increased compared with relatives (RR=3.8) and controls (RR=7.1). Crime rates were neither increased in female patients nor in male and female first degree relatives. The results indicate increased prevalence of criminal behaviour in males carrying the gene for Huntington's disease. The crimes committed seem to be of relatively minor severity and are probably closely linked to the personality changes often seen as a result of the disease process, although depressive reactions to the disease, with secondary alcohol misuse, may also play a part. Environmental and familial factors shared by patients and non-affected at risk persons seem to be of less aetiological importance.

  6. Registered nurses' experiences of patient violence on acute care psychiatric inpatient units: an interpretive descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kelly N; Jack, Susan M; O'Mara, Linda; LeGris, Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    Nurses working in acute care psychiatry settings experience high rates of patient violence which influences outcomes for nurses and the organization. This qualitative study explored psychiatric nurses' experiences of patient violence in acute care inpatient psychiatric settings. An interpretive descriptive design guided this study that included 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of 12 Canadian registered nurses who self-reported experiencing patient violence within acute care inpatient psychiatry. Thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques were used for analysis. A problem, needs and practice analysis was also used to structure overall data interpretation. Thirty three unique exposures to patient violence among the sample of nurses were analysed. Nurses reported experiencing physical, emotional and verbal violence. For many, patient violence was considered "part of the job." Nurses often struggled with role conflict between one's duty to care and one's duty to self when providing care following a critical incident involving violence. Issues of power, control and stigma also influenced nurse participant perceptions and their responses to patient violence. Nurses used a variety of strategies to maintain their personal safety and to prevent, and manage patient violence. Nurses endorsed the need for improved education, debriefing following an incident, and a supportive work environment to further prevent patient violence. Present findings have implications for reducing the barriers to reporting violent experiences and the creation of best practice guidelines to reduce patient violence in the workplace. Understanding the perspectives and experiences of nurses in acute inpatient psychiatry leads to greater understanding of the phenomenon of patient violence and may inform the development of interventions to prevent and to respond to patient violence, as well as support nurses working within the acute care setting.

  7. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  8. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  9. Working conditions as risk factors for disability retirement: a longitudinal register linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahelma Eero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early retirement due to disability is a public health and work environment problem that shortens working careers. Transition to disability retirement is based on ill-health, but working conditions are also of relevance. We examined the contributions of work arrangements, physical working conditions and psychosocial working conditions to subsequent disability retirement. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Information on working conditions was obtained from the baseline surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002. These data were linked with register data on disability retirement and their main diagnoses obtained from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Follow up by the end of 2008 yielded 525 disability retirement events. The analysed data included 6525 participants and 525 disability retirement events. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Results Several working conditions showed own associations with disability retirement before adjustment. After adjustment for all working conditions, the primary risk factors for all-cause disability retirement were physical workload among women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.59 and men (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.38, and low job control among women (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.99. In addition, for disability retirement due to musculoskeletal causes, the risk factors were physical workload and low job control. For disability retirement due to mental causes the risk factors were computer work and low job control. Furthermore, occupational class was a risk factor for disability retirement due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusions Among various working conditions, those that are physically demanding and those that imply low job control are potential risk factors for disability retirement. Improving the physical working environment and enhancing control over

  10. Implementing the supportive supervision intervention for registered nurses in a long-term care home: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Robinson, Angela

    2013-11-01

    This pilot study was conducted in response to the call in 2009 by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics to focus on effective leadership structures in nursing homes and to develop leadership capacity. Few researchers have evaluated interventions aimed at enhancing the leadership ability of registered nurses in long-term care. The aim of the pilot study was to test the feasibility of a three-part supportive supervisory intervention to improve supervisory skills of registered nurses in long-term care. A repeated measures group design was used. Quantitative data were collected from healthcare aides, licensed practical nurses (i.e., supervised staff), and registered nurses (i.e., supervisors). Focus groups with care managers and supervisors examined perceptions of the intervention. There were nonsignificant changes in both the registered nurse supervisors' job satisfaction and the supervised staff's perception of their supervisors' support. Supervised staff scores indicated an increase in the use of research utilization but did not reflect an increase in job satisfaction. Focus group discussions revealed that the supervisors and care managers perceived the workshop to be valuable; however, the weekly self-reflection, coaching, and mentoring components of the intervention were rare and inconsistent. While the primary outcomes were not influenced by the Supportive Supervision Intervention, further effort is required to understand how best to enhance the supportive supervisory skills of RNs. Examples of how to improve the possibility of a successful intervention are advanced. Effective supervisory skills among registered nurses are crucial for improving the quality of care in long-term care homes. Registered nurses are receptive to interventions that will enhance their roles as supervisors. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Work Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Wallette, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether low levels of absence increase the probability of permanent employment and reduce that of unemployment for Swedish temporary workers. We investigate two reasons for absence: worker sickness and sickness of a dependent child. Using a competing risk estimation model......, we find that sick leave reduces the probability of permanent employment for women and increases the probability of unemployment for men. Absence due to child sickness increases the risk of unemployment for women. Although the influence of sick leave varies substantially among different temporary jobs...

  12. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Diaz

    Full Text Available As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations.This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique.Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37-0.39 for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57-0.59 for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66-0.68 for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages.Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of multimorbidity patterns for some immigrant groups

  13. Associations between patients' risk attitude and their adherence to statin treatment - a population based questionnaire and register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Palle Mark;

    2016-01-01

    -based study on a sample of 6393 persons of the general. Danish population aged 20-79. Data on risk attitude were based on 4 items uncovering health-related as well as financial dimensions of risk attitude. They were collected through a web-based questionnaire and combined with register data on redeemed statin...

  14. Using Plant Clinic Registers to Assess the Quality of Diagnoses and Advice Given to Farmers: A Case Study from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Boa, Eric; Mafabi, Moses; Mutebi, Emmanuel; Reeder, Robert; Kabeere, Flavia; Karyeija, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study developed a framework for quality assessment of diagnoses and advice given at plant clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Clinic registers from five plant clinics in Uganda (2006-2010) were used to develop quality assessment protocols for diagnoses and advice given by plant doctors. Assessment of quality of diagnoses was based…

  15. A Study of Semiotic Registers in the Development of the Definite Integral of Functions of Two and Three Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Daniel Lee; Martinez-Planell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Tracing the path from a numerical Riemann sum approximating the area under a curve to a definite integral representing the precise area in various texts and online presentations, we found 3 semiotic registers that are used: the geometric register, the numerical register, and the symbolic register. The symbolic register had 3 representations: an…

  16. Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders and the Risk of Subsequent Anorexia Nervosa: A Danish Population Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa.

  17. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Roelen, C.A.M.; Bultmann, U.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of

  18. A Study of Civilian Registered Nurse Recruitment at Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    127 H. A MARKETING MIX FOR CIVILIAN REGISTERED NURSE *RECRUITMENT AT MADIGAN ARMY MEDICAL CENTER ... ... 131 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY...employement should be promoted to this market. RN Recruitment Marketing Mix for Madigan The major finding in the market analysis of civilian RN...should be targeted; all gain their impetus from MAMC nursing management. A sumimary of the marketing mix is tabulated at Appendix H. This brief listing of

  19. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  20. Comparative analysis of premature mortality among urban immigrants in Bremen, Germany: a retrospective register-based linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, Nataliya; Brand, Tilman; Brünings-Kuppe, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Luttmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study was to explore differences in mortality patterns among two large immigrant groups in Germany: one from Turkey and the other from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To this end, we investigated indicators of premature mortality. Design This study was conducted as a retrospective population-based study based on mortality register linkage. Using mortality data for the period 2004–2010, we calculated age-standardised death rates (SDR) and standardised morta...

  1. Assessing vaccination coverage in infants, survey studies versus the Flemish immunisation register: achieving the best of both worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Tessa; Lernout, Tinne; Top, Geert; Paeps, Annick; Roelants, Mathieu; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Damme, Pierre; Theeten, Heidi

    2014-01-09

    Infant immunisation coverage in Flanders, Belgium, is monitored through repeated coverage surveys. With the increased use of Vaccinnet, the web-based ordering system for vaccines in Flanders set up in 2004 and linked to an immunisation register, this database could become an alternative to quickly estimate vaccination coverage. To evaluate its current accuracy, coverage estimates generated from Vaccinnet alone were compared with estimates from the most recent survey (2012) that combined interview data with data from Vaccinnet and medical files. Coverage rates from registrations in Vaccinnet were systematically lower than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey (mean difference 7.7%). This difference increased by dose number for vaccines that require multiple doses. Differences in administration date between the two sources were observed for 3.8-8.2% of registered doses. Underparticipation in Vaccinnet thus significantly impacts on the register-based immunisation coverage estimates, amplified by underregistration of administered doses among vaccinators using Vaccinnet. Therefore, survey studies, despite being labour-intensive and expensive, currently provide more complete and reliable results than register-based estimates alone in Flanders. However, further improvement of Vaccinnet's completeness will likely allow more accurate estimates in the nearby future.

  2. Gastro esophageal reflux disease is associated with absence from work: Results from a prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Leodolter; Marc Nocon; Michael Kulig; Stefan N Willich; Peter Malfertheiner; Joachim Labenz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the association of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with the absence from work and to estimate the extent of loss in gross domestic product due to inability to work.METHODS: Analysis was based on the prospectively gathered data of a large European cohort study involving 6 215 symptomatic GERD patients (ProGERD). Among these patients, 2 871 were initially employed. The calculation of the loss of gross domestic product was based on the assumption that the prevalence of GERD was about 15% in Germany. According to the German Federal Statistical Office, the mean gross wage of employees was 150 ∈/d in 2002.RESULTS: The data of 2 078 employed patients who were prospectively followed up for over 2 years were analyzed. At study entry, the patients reported a mean of 1.8 d per year of inability to work. During the prospective follow-up under routine clinical care, the proportion of patients reporting days with inability to work decreased from 14% to 6% and the mean number of days per year with inability to work decreased to 0.9 d. Assuming a prevalence of troublesome GERD of 15% in the employed German population, the loss of gross domestic product amounted to 668 million ∈/year in Germany.CONCLUSION: GERD causes a relevant impairment on the national economics by absence from work. The presented data demonstrate the importance of GERD,not only for patients and health insurance companies,but also for the community at large.

  3. Subliminal semantic priming in near absence of attention: A cursor motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2015-12-15

    The role of attention in subliminal semantic priming remains controversial: some researchers argue that attention is necessary for subliminal semantic priming, while others suggest that subliminal semantic processing is free from the influence of attention. The present study employs a cursor motion method to measure priming and evaluate the influence of attention. Specifically, by employing a semantic priming task developed by Naccache, Blandin, and Dehaene (2002), we investigate the extent to which top-down attention influences semantic priming. Results indicate that, consistent with the Naccache et al. (2002) results, attention facilitates priming. However, inconsistent with their theory, significant priming is still observed even in near absence of attention. We suggest that top-down attention helps but is not necessary for subliminal semantic processing.

  4. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickne

  5. The First 500 Registrations to the Research Registry(®): Advancing Registration of Under-Registered Study Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz; Fowler, Alexander J; Limb, Christopher; Al Omran, Yasser; Sagoo, Harkiran; Koshy, Kiron; Jafree, Daniyal J; Anwar, Mohammed Omer; McCullogh, Peter; Orgill, Dennis Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki 2013 encourages the registration of all research studies involving human participants. However, emphasis has been placed on prospective clinical trials, and it is estimated that only 10% of observational studies are registered. In response, Research Registry(®) was launched in February 2015; a retrospectively curated registry that is free and easy to use. Research Registry(®) enables prospective or retrospective registration of studies, including those study types that cannot be registered on existing registries. In this study, we describe the first 500 registrations on Research Registry(®). Since the launch of Research Registry(®) in February 2015, data of registrations have been collected, including type of studies registered, country of origin, and data curation activity. Inappropriate registrations, such as duplicates, were identified by the data curation process. These were removed from the database or modified as required. A quality score was assigned for each registration, based on Sir Austin Bradford Hill's criteria on what research studies should convey. Changes in quality scores over time were assessed. A total of 500 studies were registered on Research Registry(®) from February 2015 to October 2015, with a total of 1.7 million patients enrolled. The most common study types were retrospective cohort studies (37.2%), case series (14.8%), and first-in-man case reports (10.4%). Registrations were received from 57 different countries; the most submissions were received from Turkey, followed by China and the United Kingdom. Retrospective data curation identified 80 studies that were initially registered as the incorrect study type, and were subsequently correct. The Kruskal-Wallis test identified a significant improvement in quality scores for registrations from February 2015 to October 2015 (p Research Registry(®) has established itself as a new registry that is free, easy to use, and enables the registration of various

  6. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bültmann Ute

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders (CMDs are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID and recurrence density (RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders: 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women

  7. Relevance of the 1-year dog study in assessing human health risks for registration of pesticides. An update to include pesticides registered in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobel, Werner; Fegert, Ivana; Billington, Richard; Lewis, Richard; Bentley, Karin; Langrand-Lerche, Carole; Botham, Phil; Sato, Masako; Debruyne, Eric; Strupp, Christian; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2014-11-01

    Over 400 active pesticides are registered in Japan (FAMIC 2013). The results of dog toxicity studies (usually, the 1-year study) were used by the Japanese regulatory authorities to establish the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 45 pesticide active ingredients (about 9%). A retrospective review of ADIs established in Japan with dog studies as pivotal data for their derivation was performed: the ADIs were reassessed under the assumption that the 1-year dog study would not be available and an alternate ADI was derived based on the remaining toxicology database. In 35 of the 45 cases (77.8%) the ADI resulting from the absence of the 1-year dog study was no greater than twice the Japanese ADI, a difference considered not to be of biological significance. In 6 cases (13%) the resulting ADI was 2-5 times higher, which is considered of questionable biological relevance. On further evaluation of the database, three of these six cases were assessed as to clarify that there is no clear difference and for the other three additional studies to clarify that uncertain findings would have been required. In 3 of the 45 cases (7%) there may be a real difference within the ADI ratio of 2-5. Only in 1 case (2.2%) ADI was five times higher than that has been set. Accordingly, the absence of a 1-year dog study does not appear to influence the ADI derivation in a relevant manner in more than 98% of cases. For the four compounds with a real difference in ADI, consumer exposure would still be well below the alternative ADI. Therefore, a strong case can be made that the standard mandatory requirement to conduct a 1-year dog study, in addition to the 3-month study, is not justified and of no additional value in protecting human health. In addition, a substantial reduction in test animals could be achieved.

  8. An exploratory study of role transition from student to registered nurse (general, mental health and intellectual disability) in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Deasy, Christine; Doody, Owen; Tuohy, Dympna

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed 3rd International Nurse Education Conference Nursing Education in a Global Community Ireland has seen much change in nurse education resulting in four year degree programmes since 2002. A unique aspect of these programmes was the incorporation of rostered internship. This study explored role transition for a cohort of students at pre and post-registration. The sample consisted of fourth year students registered on BSc nursing programmes (general, mental health and intellec...

  9. Differences in medication knowledge and risk of errors between graduating nursing students and working registered nurses: comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses experience insufficient medication knowledge; particularly in drug dose calculations, but also in drug management and pharmacology. The weak knowledge could be a result of deficiencies in the basic nursing education, or lack of continuing maintenance training during working years. The aim of this study was to compare the medication knowledge, certainty and risk of error between graduating bachelor students in nursing and experienced registered nurses. Methods: Bac...

  10. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations among newborns in Monchegorsk (north-west Russia: a register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Postoev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods. A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results. The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 newborns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions. The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM.

  11. An observational nationwide register based cohort study on lamotrigine versus lithium in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2012-01-01

    It is not clear whether the effectiveness of lamotrigine versus lithium differs for patients with bipolar disorder treated in clinical practice. We compared rates of switch to, or add on of, another psychotropic, and rates of psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with lamotrigine...... or lithium in clinical practice. Using linkage of nationwide Danish registers we identified 730 patients who received lamotrigine and 3518 patients received lithium subsequent to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings during a period from 1995 to 2006. The overall rate of switch...... to or add on of another psychotropic (the opposite drug of interest (lithium or lamotrigine), antidepressants, antipsychotics or other anticonvulsants than lamotrigine) was increased for lamotrigine compared with lithium (HR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.23-3.04), regardless of whether the index episode was depressive...

  12. An observational nationwide register based cohort study on lamotrigine versus lithium in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    It is not clear whether the effectiveness of lamotrigine versus lithium differs for patients with bipolar disorder treated in clinical practice. We compared rates of switch to, or add on of, another psychotropic, and rates of psychiatric hospitalization for patients treated with lamotrigine...... or lithium in clinical practice. Using linkage of nationwide Danish registers we identified 730 patients who received lamotrigine and 3518 patients received lithium subsequent to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings during a period from 1995 to 2006. The overall rate of switch...... to or add on of another psychotropic (the opposite drug of interest (lithium or lamotrigine), antidepressants, antipsychotics or other anticonvulsants than lamotrigine) was increased for lamotrigine compared with lithium (HR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.23-3.04), regardless of whether the index episode was depressive...

  13. Functional study of NIPA2 mutations identified from the patients with childhood absence epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xie

    Full Text Available Recently many genetic mutations that are associated with epilepsy have been identified. The protein NIPA2 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region protein 2 is a highly selective magnesium transporter encoded by the gene NIPA2 in which we have found three mutations (p.I178F, p.N244S and p.N334_E335insD within a population of patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE. In this study, immunofluorescence labeling, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, MTT metabolic rate detection and computational modeling were utilized to elucidate how these mutations result in CAE. We found in cultured neurons that NIPA2 (wild-type proteins were localized to the cell periphery, whereas mutant proteins were not effectively trafficked to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found a decrease in intracellular magnesium concentration in the neurons transfected with mutant NIPA2, but no effect on the survival of neurons. To understand how low intracellular magnesium resulted in hyperexcitability, we built and analyzed a computational model to simulate the effects of mutations. The model suggested that lower intracellular magnesium concentration enhanced synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR currents. This study primarily reveals that a selective magnesium transporter NIPA2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE.

  14. Silent speechreading in the absence of scanner noise: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, M; Amaro, E; Calvert, G A; Campbell, R; David, A S; McGuire, P; Williams, S C; Woll, B; Brammer, M J

    2000-06-05

    In a previous study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate activation in auditory cortex during silent speechreading. Since image acquisition during fMRI generates acoustic noise, this pattern of activation could have reflected an interaction between background scanner noise and the visual lip-read stimuli. In this study we employed an event-related fMRI design which allowed us to measure activation during speechreading in the absence of acoustic scanner noise. In the experimental condition, hearing subjects were required to speechread random numbers from a silent speaker. In the control condition subjects watched a static image of the same speaker with mouth closed and were required to subvocally count an intermittent visual cue. A single volume of images was collected to coincide with the estimated peak of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to these stimuli across multiple baseline and experimental trials. Silent speechreading led to greater activation in lateral temporal cortex relative to the control condition. This indicates that activation of auditory areas during silent speechreading is not a function of acoustic scanner noise and confirms that silent speechreading engages similar regions of auditory cortex as listening to speech.

  15. A Study of DC Surface Plasma Discharge in Absence of Free Airflow: Ionic Wind Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study we are interested with the DC (Direct Current electric corona discharge created between two wire electrodes. We present experimental results related to some electroaerodynamic actuators based on the DC corona discharge at the surface of a dielectric material. We used different geometrical forms of dielectric surface such as a plate, a cylinder and a wing of aircraft of type NACA 0015. We present the current density-electric filed characteristics for different cases in order to determine the discharge regimes. The corona discharge produces non-thermal plasma so that it is called plasma discharge. Plasma discharge creates a tangential ionic wind above the surface at the vicinity of the wall. We have measured the ionic wind induced by the corona discharge in absence of free external airflow, we give the ionic wind velocity profiles for different surface forms and we compare the actuators effect based on the span of the ionic wind velocity values. We notice that the maximum ionic wind velocity is obtained with the NACA profile, which shows the effectiveness of this actuator for the airflow control.

  16. An experimental study of a plasma actuator in absence of free airflow: Ionic wind velocity profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestiri, R.; Hadaji, R.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we are interested in the direct current electrical corona discharge created between two wire electrodes. The experimental results are related to some electroaerodynamic actuators based on the direct current corona discharge at the surface of a dielectric material. Several geometrical forms are selected for the dielectric surface, such as a plate, a cylinder, and a NACA 0015 aircraft wing. The current density-electric field characteristics are presented for different cases in order to determine the discharge regimes. The corona discharge produces nonthermal plasma, so it is called plasma discharge. Plasma discharge creates a tangential ionic wind above the surface at the vicinity of the wall. The ionic wind induced by the corona discharge is measured in absence of free external airflow. The ionic wind velocity profiles and the maximum induced tangential force are given for different surface forms, so it is possible to compare the actuators effect based on the span of the ionic wind velocity and thrust values. The higher ionic wind velocity is obtained with the NACA profile, which shows the effectiveness of this actuator for the airflow control.

  17. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Jensen, Signe Marie; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year...... prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1...... doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds...

  18. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv;

    2011-01-01

    ). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...... factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests......, and followed in 2001-2002 in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the risk estimates of mutually adjusted severe pain in the neck/shoulder, low back, hand/wrist and knees for onset of LTSA, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for at least 3...

  19. General practitioners' psychosocial resources, distress, and sickness absence: a study comparing the UK and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin P

    2014-06-01

    Many countries, including the UK and Finland, face difficulties in recruiting GPs and one reason for these difficulties may be due to negative psychosocial work environments. To compare psychosocial resources (job control and participative safety), distress and sickness absences between GPs from the UK and those from Finland. We also examined differences in how psychosocial resources are associated with distress and sickness absence and how distress is associated with sickness absence for both countries. Two independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in general practice in the UK and Finland. Analyses of covariance were used for continuous outcome variables and logistic regression for dichotomized variable (sickness absence) adjusted for gender, qualification year and response format. UK GPs reported more opportunities to control their work and had higher levels of participative safety but were more distressed than Finnish GPs. Finnish GPs were 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.8-3.1) times more likely to report sickness absence spells than UK GPs. Among Finnish GPs, job control opportunities and high participative safety were associated with lower levels of distress, but not among UK GPs. Among UK GPs, higher distress was associated with 2.1 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.6) times higher likelihood of sickness absence spells, but among Finnish GPs there were no such association. In Finland, primary health care organizations should try to improve participative safety and increase control opportunities of physicians to decrease GP distress, whereas in the UK, other work or private life factors may be more important. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  1. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  2. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yong-Seok; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of job stress on absence from work caused by illnesses and accidents through a prospective research design. A total of 2,349 manual workers were included in this analysis. In the first survey, job stress was determined using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. In the second survey, information on absence due to accidents or illnesses during the past one year was obtained through a questionnaire. The relationship was analyzed using a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. After adjusting for confounding variables for males, absence due to accidents was statistically associated with high job demand, insufficient job control, inadequate social support, and organizational injustice. In addition, high job demands and organizational injustice were related to increased absence due to illnesses in both genders. A lack of reward was associated with increased absence due to illnesses among female workers. We found that job stress was associated with a higher risk of absence caused by accidents or illnesses of manual workers.

  3. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  4. Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal epileptiform discharges in human absence epilepsy: A MEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Y.J.W.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Ossenblok, P.P.W.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although absence epilepsy is considered to be a prototypic type of generalized epilepsy, it is still under debate whether generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) might have a cortical focal origin. Here it is investigated whether focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs),

  5. Prevalence of palmaris longus absence – a study in the Yoruba population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaka, Godwin O; Ejiwunmi, Adedayo B

    2009-01-01

    Background Palmaris longus (PL) has received a growing interest for its role in constructive surgery. Since the agenesis of PL shows a strong racial variation, it is conceivable that its prevalence on the Yoruba ethnic population in Nigeria will further confirm this phenomenon. Methods A total of 600 subjects comprising 335 males and 265 females aged 8-60years were used to assess the prevalence of agenesis of the PL in Yoruba tribe. Results The overall prevalence of absence both unilaterally and bilaterally in the two sexes was 6.7%. In males, unilateral absence was 5.4%. The distribution on the right and left were 2.4% and 3.0% respectively. The bilateral absence was 1.5%. In females, unilateral absence was 6.0%. The distribution on the right and left were 2.6% and 3.4% respectively. Bilaterally, it was 0.4%. In one subject unilaterally, PL was observed to have differentiated from flexor carpi radialis. Conclusion Results of this finding suggested that the prevalence of PL agenesis as reported in standard anatomy texts is significantly different from our observation in this Yoruba population. The differentiation of PL tendon from flexor carpi radialis is indicative that both muscles may develop from the same muscle group as previously suggested. PMID:19568443

  6. Narrative Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    are largely built around the narratives produced by upper caste and upper middle-class migrants and exclude the experiences of Untouchable migrants. This narrative absence becomes a gauge of both the discursive and physical exclusion of ‘Untouchable' refugees from the legitimate community of Partition......The core of symbolic communities, like the community of Partition migrants, is formed through the discursive ownership of historical experiences-for instance, the loss of human lives, personal property and dismemberment of national territory; followed by the restoration of that loss through...... examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...

  7. The Job Demands-Job Control Model and absence behaviour : results of a 3-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.G.W.; Nijhuis, F.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results of earlier studies only marginally supported the relevance of Karasek's Job Demands-Job Control Model for absence behaviour. Since longitudinal studies with respect to these relations were largely lacking, a four-wave panel study was carried out using data from 1755 male employees

  8. Hospital contacts with infection and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study with linkage of Danish national registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Philip R; Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-11-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence unrelated to maternal infection during pregnancy has not been studied to nearly the same extent and the results are far from conclusive. Data were drawn from 2 population-based registers, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. We used a historical population-based cohort design and selected all individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 1996 (n = 843 390). We identified all individuals with a first-time hospital contact with schizophrenia from 1991 through 2010. Out of the 3409 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, a total of 1549 individuals had had a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact. Bacterial infection was the type of infection that was associated with the highest risk of schizophrenia (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.47-1.82). Our study does not exclude that a certain type of infection may have a specific effect; yet, it does suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a wide range of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families.

  9. Infertility among women working in horticulture. A follow-up study in the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow......-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility....

  10. Infertility among women working in horticulture. A follow-up study in the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility.

  11. Do gastrointestinal complaints increase the risk for subsequent medically certified long-term sickness absence? The HUSK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øverland Simon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal complaints are very common in the general population and very often co-occur with common mental disorders. We aimed to study the prospective impact of gastrointestinal complaints on long term sickness absence, and address the contribution from co-occurring common mental disorders and other somatic symptoms. Method Health data on 13 880 40-45 year olds from the Hordaland Health Study (1997-99 were linked to national registries on sickness absence. As part of a wider health screening, gastrointestinal complaints were ascertained. Participant's anxiety and depression, and the presence of other somatic symptoms were evaluated. In Cox regression models, we predicted sickness absences over an average 5.4 years follow-up, with adjustment for confounders, anxiety and depression and other somatic symptoms. Results After adjusting for gender, level of education and smoking, those reporting GI complaints had higher risk for later sickness absence (HR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.51. GI complaints were associated with both anxiety (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 3.31-4.04 and depression (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.89-3.72, and a high level of other somatic symptoms (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 7.69-9.40. The association of GI complaints was still independently associated with future sickness absence (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.16 adjusting for mental illness and other somatic symptoms. Discussion Sickness absence is a complex behavioural outcome, but our results suggest GI complaints contribute by increasing the risk of long term sickness absence independently of comorbid mental illness and presence of other somatic symptoms. Occupational consequences of illness are important, and should also be addressed clinically with patients presenting with GI complaints.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in the association between sickness absence and mortality: The prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Kivimäki, Mika; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine duration of sickness absence as a risk marker for future mortality by socioeconomic position among all private sector employees in Denmark 1998-2004. Design, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study studied all residents in Denmark employed in the private...... grades; and 2.0 (1.7-2.3) in blue collar occupations. CONCLUSION: Administratively collected data on sickness absence compensation for periods of six weeks or more identified "at risk" groups for future excess mortality in male and female private sector employees across occupational grade levels....... sector receiving sickness absence compensation from the municipality in 1998. A total of 236 207 persons (38.2% women, 61.8% men, age range 18-65, mean age 37.8) who were still alive 1 January 2001 were included in the study. Mortality during the period 1 January 2001 through 31 December 2004...

  13. The ovarian hormones and absence epilepsy: a long-term EEG study and pharmacological effects in a genetic absence epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, G; Budziszewska, B; Jaworska-Feil, L; Ellis, J; Coenen, A; Lasoń, W

    2001-09-01

    In the first experiment, the relationship between the phase of the estrous cycle and the number of spontaneously occurring spike-wave discharges was investigated in WAG/Rij rats, a model for generalized absence epilepsy. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was continuously recorded for 96 h in eight rats chronically equipped with cortical EEG electrodes. A circadian pattern emerged for the number of spike-wave discharges: a nadir during the first hours of the light period, and an acrophase during the first hours of the dark period. This daily maximum was increased at proestrus day compared with the other days of the cycle, when the plasma level of progesterone is enhanced specifically at these hours of this day. This suggests that progesterone enhances spike-wave discharges. There was no difference in the first few hours of the light period in the number of spike-wave discharges between proestrus and the three other days, suggesting that estradiol has no effect on spike-wave discharges. In the second study, the effects of the systemic administration of progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol on spike-wave discharges and spontaneous behavior were investigated. It was shown that progesterone (20 and 30 mg/kg) but not estradiol (0.17-1.5 mg/kg) increased the number and total duration of spike-wave discharges. On the other hand, injection of RU 38486 (10 and 30 mg/kg), an antagonist of intracellular progesterone receptors, had no effect on spike-wave discharges and did not block the stimulatory effect of progesterone. The antagonist of 17 beta-estradiol tamoxifen (1 and 3 mg/kg) did not evoke alterations in the number or duration of spike-wave discharges. Our results indicate that progesterone aggravates spike-wave discharges, but is not mediated through intracellular receptors. Since progesterone is rapidly metabolized in the brain to the positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor allopregnanolone, which increases spike-wave discharges in WAG/Rij rats, it is possible that the

  14. Sickness absence poses a threat to the Swedish Welfare State: a cross-sectional study of sickness absence and self-reported illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Sven-Erik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing cost of public social sickness insurance poses a serious economic threat to the Swedish welfare state. In recent years, expenditures for social insurance in general, as well as social sickness insurance in particular, have risen steeply in Sweden. This cross-sectional study analyzed the association between sickness absence (SA and self-reported reduced working capacity due to a longstanding illness (>3 months, as well between SA and a number of other health problems. Methods Self-reported data on longstanding illness and resultant reduced working capacity, socioeconomic factors, working environment, psychosomatic complaints, anxiety, and general health were obtained for 22,281 employed (paid persons aged 25 to 64 years. These data were retrieved from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey for 1995 to 2002. National civic registration numbers, replaced with serial numbers to ensure anonymity, were used to link these data to individual-level SA records from the National Social Insurance Board. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of the main outcome variable for the three levels of the SA variable (0–28, 29–90, >90 days/year. Results There was an obvious increasing gradient in length of SA and increasing odds of reporting reduced working capacity. Odds ratios ranged from 3.5 to 19.0; i.e., those with more than ninety days of SA had 19.0 times higher odds of reporting reduced working capacity than those with 0–28 days of SA a year. This very strong association changed less than 10% after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and working environment characteristics. A total of 48.7% of persons on sick leave ≥ 29 days reported no longstanding illness and reduced working capacity. Of these persons, about 43% reported one or more other health problem. Conclusion We confirmed that longstanding illness that results in self-reported reduced working capacity is an important variable

  15. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus confirms...... such as wage and contracted number of work hours also influence absence duration. Finally, the season of the year seems to influence absence duration....

  16. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job characteristics......This article investigates whether past absence behaviour is a predictor of present absence duration in a large Danish municipality with 17,499 individuals observed from 1996 to 2004. Past absence behaviour is measured in both absence days and absence spells. The article also investigates a number...... of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus confirms...

  17. Emotional support predicts more sickness absence and poorer self assessed work ability: a two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristenson Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While back pain and stressful work environment are shown to be important causes of sickness absence the effect of psychosocial resources on sickness absence, and on self assessed work ability, is less commonly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess these associations in a two-year follow-up study. Methods 341 working people aged 45 to 64, randomly drawn from the population, responded to a questionnaire at baseline and at a two-year follow-up. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association of psychosocial factors (psychosocial instruments on work environment, emotional support and psychological resources and previous back pain (low back and/or neck at baseline with sickness absence (spells and days at follow-up, controlling for effects of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, occupation, disease and previous sickness absence. Logistic regression was used to study the associations of psychosocial factors and previous back pain at baseline with self assessed prognosis of poor work ability six months from follow-up. Finally, a multivariate analysis tested the independent effects of previous back pain and 3 psychosocial factors derived in a factor analysis: 1. work environment; 2. emotional support; 3. psychological resources, on work ability and absence days and spells. Results 80% of the sickness absence spells within the last 12 months before follow-up were short-term (≤ 14 days. In the final model, high emotional support predicted more sickness absence spells (RR 1.36; 1.11-1.67 and days (RR 1.68, 1.22-2.31. Previous back pain (OR 2.56; 1.13-5.81, high emotional support (OR 1.58; 1.02-2.46, and low psychological resources (OR 0.62; 0.44-0.89 were related to poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability at follow up. Conclusions In a general middle aged working population high emotional support was related to more sickness absence and also poorer self assessed prognosis of work ability. Our findings suggest

  18. Simple parametric survival analysis with anonymized register data: A cohort study with truncated and interval censored event and censoring times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from Norwegian register data on time to death or censoring binned into 30 day intervals. All events occurring in the first three months (90 days after diagnosis were removed to achieve comparability with a clinical trial. The aim of the paper is to develop and implement a simple, and yet flexible method for analyzing such interval censored and truncated data. Methods Considering interval censoring a missing data problem, we implement a simple multiple imputation strategy that allows flexible sensitivity analyses with respect to the shape of the censoring distribution. To allow identification of appropriate parametric models, a χ2-goodness-of-fit test--also imputation based--is derived and supplemented with diagnostic plots. Uncertainty estimates for mean survival times are obtained via a simulation strategy. The validity and statistical efficiency of the proposed method for varying interval lengths is investigated in a simulation study and compared with simpler alternatives. Results Mean survival times estimated from the register data ranged from 1.2 (SE = 0.09 to 3.2 (0.31 years depending on period of diagnosis and choice of parametric model. The shape of the censoring distribution within intervals did generally not influence results, whereas the choice of parametric model did, even when different models fit the data equally well. In simulation studies both simple midpoint imputation and multiple imputation yielded nearly unbiased analyses (relative biases of -0.6% to 9.4% and confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage probabilities (93.4% to 95.7% for censoring intervals shorter than six months. For 12 month censoring intervals, multiple imputation provided better protection against bias, and coverage probabilities

  19. Location of recurrent groin hernias at TEP after Lichtenstein repair: a study based on the Swedish Hernia Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringman, S; Holmberg, H; Österberg, J

    2016-06-01

    To investigate which type of hernia that has the highest risk of a recurrence after a primary Lichtenstein repair. Male patients operated on with a Lichtenstein repair for a primary direct or indirect inguinal hernia and with a TEP for a later recurrence, with both operations recorded in the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR), were included in the study. The study period was 1994-2014. Under the study period, 130,037 male patients with a primary indirect or direct inguinal hernia were operated on with a Lichtenstein repair. A second operation in the SHR was registered in 2236 of these patients (reoperation rate 1.7 %). TEP was the chosen operation in 737 in this latter cohort. The most likely location for a recurrence was the same as the primary location. If the recurrences change location from the primary place, we recognized that direct hernias had a RR of 1.51 to having a recurrent indirect hernia compared to having a direct recurrence after an indirect primary hernia repair. Recurrent hernias after Lichtenstein are more common on the same location as the primary one, compared to changing the location.

  20. Medical versus surgical abortion efficacy, complications and leave of absence compared in a partly randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    antibiotic treatment, leave of absence and number of contacts to the health care system were obtained from mailed questionnaires. The number of complications was identical after the two methods, but surgical abortion was associated with a higher success rate [97.7% (708/725) vs. 94.1% (386/410), p ... gemeprost) or a surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration in general anesthesia). One hundred eleven of these women were randomized for abortion method. Surgical interventions and complications leading to readmission within the following 15 weeks were identified through a computer system. Information about......] and also with a higher risk of antibiotic treatment than medical abortion [7.8% (37/467) vs. 3.7% (13/356), p leave of absence was shorter in women choosing a medical (1 day) than a surgical termination (2 days), p

  1. Depressive symptoms and the risk of long-term sickness absence: a prospective study among 4747 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. METHODS: This prospective study is based on 4,747 male and female employees, participating in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study...

  2. Advanced paternal age and stillbirth rate: a nationwide register-based cohort study of 944,031 pregnancies in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Davey Smith, George; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-07

    Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents. The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio for fathers aged more than 40 years when paternal age was modelled using restricted cubic splines. When modelled categorically, the adjusted hazard ratios of stillbirth were as follows: <25, 1.16 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.34); 25-29, 1.03 (95% CI 0.95-1.11); 35-39, 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.26); 40-44, 1.41 (95% CI 1.26-1.59); 45-49, 1.20 (95% CI 0.97-1.49); 50+, 1.58 (95% CI 1.18-2.11), compared with fathers aged 30-34 years. These estimates attenuated slightly when further adjusted for parental education. Our study showed that paternal age was associated with the relative rate of stillbirth in a J-shaped manner with the highest hazard ratios among fathers aged more than 40 years.

  3. Prevalence of palmaris longus absence – a study in the Yoruba population

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin O. Mbaka; Ejiwunmi, Adedayo B

    2009-01-01

    Background Palmaris longus (PL) has received a growing interest for its role in constructive surgery. Since the agenesis of PL shows a strong racial variation, it is conceivable that its prevalence on the Yoruba ethnic population in Nigeria will further confirm this phenomenon. Methods A total of 600 subjects comprising 335 males and 265 females aged 8-60years were used to assess the prevalence of agenesis of the PL in Yoruba tribe. Results The overall prevalence of absence both unilaterally ...

  4. A new method of pseudo absence data generation in landslide susceptibility mapping with a case study of Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping is a typical two-class classification problem where generating pseudo absence (non-slide) data plays an important role.In this paper,a new method,target space exteriorization sampling method (TSES),is presented to generate pseudo absence data based on presence data directly in feature space.TSES exteriorizes a presence sample to become a pseudo absence one by replacing the value of one of its features with a new one outside the value range of this feature of all presence data.This method is compared with two existing methods,buffer controlled sampling (BCS) and iteratively refined sampling (IRS),in a study area of Shenzhen city.The pseudo absence data generated by each of these three methods are organized into 20 subsets with increasing data sizes to study the effects of the proportion of pseudo absence data to presence data.The landslide susceptibility maps of the study area are calculated with all these datasets by general additive model (GAM).It can be concluded that,through a 10-fold validation,TSES and IRS-based models have similar AUC values that are both greater than that of BCS,but TSES outperforms BCS and IRS in prediction efficiency.TSES results also have more reasonable spatial and histogram distributions than BCS and IRS,which can support categorization of an area into more susceptibility ranks,while IRS shows a tendency to separate the whole study area into two susceptibility extremes.It can be also concluded that when using BCS,the pseudo absence data proportion to the presence data would be about 50% to get a considerable result,while for IRS or TSES the minimum proportion is 40%.

  5. Workplace bullying and suicide risk: A register-based study of 78,972 participants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Clausen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    show that workplace bullying has an adverse impact on the mental health of those targeted (Nielsen et al., 2014; Verkuil et al., 2015). However, empirical evidence linking workplace bullying to the risk of attempted suicide and death by suicide is scarce. One cross-sectional study examined...... the association between exposure to bullying behaviors and suicidal potential (attempted suicide and suicidal ideation; Balducci et al., 2009), while two prospective studies investigated the impact of workplace bullying and bullying behaviors on suicidal ideation (Nielsen et al., 2015; Nielsen et al., 2016). We...... aim to bridge this gap with a prospective register-based study investigating the impact of being exposed to workplace bullying on attempted suicide and death by suicide in a Danish large-size sample. The results of this study will be presented at the conference. Methods Sample: The study adopts...

  6. Towards a Better Understanding of Sickness Absence in Adolescence: A Qualitative Study among Dutch Intermediate Vocational Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Feron, Frans J M; van Mook, Marlieke A W; de Rijk, Angelique

    2017-01-01

    An adequate approach to sickness absence can reduce school dropout which is a major problem in Intermediate Vocational Education (IVE). This practice-based study explores the sickness absence reasons and factors influencing reporting the sickness, from a student's perspective. Semistructured interviews were held until saturation. Data were collected and analysed by a multidisciplinary research team including youth health care physicians working with IVE students. The results show that, according to the students, reasons for sickness reporting were health-related or related to problems at home or in school. Students view their sickness absence as necessity, as asking for understanding, or as pardonable. Their views depended on (1) the perception of medical legitimacy, (2) feeling able to take their own responsibility, (3) feeling being taken seriously at school, and (4) the perception that the sickness reporting procedure at school is anonymous and easy. In conclusion, reporting sickness seems more a reaction to a necessity or opportunity than the result of a conscious decision-making process. Personalizing the sickness reporting procedures and demonstrating interest rather than control while discussing the sickness absence with the individual IVE student might very well affect their sickness absence levels.

  7. A third of systematic reviews changed or did not specify the primary outcome: a PROSPERO register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Cogo, Elise; Page, Matthew J; Polisena, Julie; Booth, Alison; Dwan, Kerry; MacDonald, Heather; Clifford, Tammy J; Stewart, Lesley A; Straus, Sharon E; Moher, David

    2016-11-01

    To examine outcome reporting bias of systematic reviews registered in PROSPERO. Retrospective cohort study. The primary outcomes from systematic review publications were compared with those reported in the corresponding PROSPERO records; discrepancies in the primary outcomes were assessed as upgrades, additions, omissions, or downgrades. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the likelihood of having a change in primary outcome when the meta-analysis result was favorable and statistically significant. Ninety-six systematic reviews were published. A discrepancy in the primary outcome occurred in 32% of the included reviews and 39% of the reviews did not explicitly specify a primary outcome(s); 6% of the primary outcomes were omitted. There was no significant increased risk of adding/upgrading (RR, 2.14; 95% CI: 0.53, 8.63) or decreased risk of downgrading (RR, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.27, 2.17) an outcome when the meta-analysis result was favorable and statistically significant. As well, there was no significant increased risk of adding/upgrading (RR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.31, 2.53) or decreased risk of downgrading (RR, 0.56; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) an outcome when the conclusion was positive. We recommend review authors carefully consider primary outcome selection, and journals are encouraged to focus acceptance on registered systematic reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income: a Danish register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-09-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market income progression over 5 years were evaluated using a difference in difference model. With a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.73-2.89), individuals diagnosed with hypothyroidism had a significantly increased risk of disability pension. This remained significant when adjusting for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P market income and an 89% increased risk of receiving a disability pension.

  9. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy: A Register-Based Study of Swedes Aged 65 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. Nationwide register-based study. A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1 to September 30, 2008. Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent with polypharmacy after the age of 75 years. Women had a longer life expectancy, but also lived more years with polypharmacy than men. Older women and men spend a considerable proportion of their lives with polypharmacy. Given the negative health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, efforts should be made to reduce the number of years older adults spend with polypharmacy to minimize the risk of unwanted consequences. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  11. Resuming Work After Cancer : A Prospective Study of Occupational Register Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Schellart, A. J. M.; van der Beek, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Long-term employment rates have been studied in cancer survivors, but little is known about the return to work of cancer patients. This study investigated return to work (RTW) within 2 years after the diagnosis of different types of cancer. Methods This prospective study investigated th

  12. A longitudinal study on the effects of health policy in organizations on job satisfaction, burnout, and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Evers, M.S.; Scheppingen, A.R. van

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the effects of health policy in organizations as perceived by employees on their job satisfaction, burnout, and sickness absence. METHODS: The data were collected with Internet questionnaires in a longitudinal three-wave design among a heterogeneous sample of

  13. Perinatal and maternal complications related to postterm delivery: A national register-based study, 1978-1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes G.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to estimate the risk of fetal and maternal complications associated with postterm delivery in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study that used records from the Danish Medical Birth Registry from 1978 to 1993 was performed. All women with registered...... to analyze data. RESULTS: The risk of perinatal and obstetric complications was high in postterm delivery compared with term delivery (adjusted odds ratios between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death was 1.33 (1.05-1.68). CONCLUSION: Postterm delivery was associated with significantly increased risks...... of perinatal and maternal complications in Denmark in the period from 1978 to 1993....

  14. Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures in patients treated with alendronate: a register-based national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    of bone turnover. Two national observational register-based studies were performed: (1) cross-sectional study (N = 11,944) comparing age distribution, exposure, and trauma mechanisms between different types of proximal femur fractures and (2) matched cohort study in patients with prior nonhip fractures (N......Alendronate (aln) is a potent bisphosphonate with a prolonged duration of action. Recent reports have found long-term aln use to be common in patients with subtrochanteric or proximal diaphyseal femur fracture, raising concerns that these fractures could be a consequence of excessive suppression...... = 5187 + 10,374), testing the hypothesis that the increase in the risk of subsequent atypical femur fractures exceeded the increase in typical hip fractures. We also sought evidence of a dose-response relationship, where high adherence to or long-term use of aln led to more atypical femur fractures. We...

  15. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  16. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  17. Young males have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence of schizophrenia in pe...

  18. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  19. [Kolsky register of births as an instrument of epidemiologic studies of female reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaktstold, A; Talykova, L V; Chashchin, V P; Nieboer, E; Zotov, A M; Nikanov, A N; Romanova, N P; Udland, Iu Io

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluate possible use of Monchegorsk retrospective birth database for demographic and epidemiologic studies of various female reproductive health parameters, newborn health parameters, as well as their connections with occupational and other environmental factors.

  20. Indicators of fetal growth and bipolar disorder: a Danish national register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgendahl, Bettina; Agerbo, Esben; Byrne, Majella

    2006-01-01

    Background. Several studies have found an association between indicators of fetal growth and/or obstetric complications and schizophrenia but only a few studies have investigated the possible association between these factors and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the results of these studies have been......, controlling for potential confounding factors such as parental age at birth, socio-economic indicators and psychiatric history. We identified 196 cases, and each case was time-, age- and sex-matched with 25 normal population-based controls. All cases were between the ages of 12 and 26 years at the time...... with receiving a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Conclusions. None of the indicators of fetal growth under study could be identified as risk factors for bipolar disorder, suggesting that the etiologies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, at least in part, are different...

  1. Trends in suicide risk associated with hospitalized psychiatric illness: a case-control study based on danish longitudinal registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Nordentoft, Merete; Hansen Høyer, Eyd;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In light of the consistent reduction in suicide rate during the past 20 years in Denmark, this study aims to investigate trends in suicide risk associated with hospitalized psychiatric illness and to explore differences in the changes with regard to clinical phases of illness, sex, age...... longitudinal registers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study shows that the reduction in suicide rate is generally faster among individuals with a history of psychiatric admission than among individuals without such a history. However, this substantial reduction...... at the time of suicide or the index date, the reduction in suicide rate is relatively slower. Such trends hold for all diagnostic groups. Further analyses stratified by age indicate that the faster reduction in suicide rate associated with history of hospitalized psychiatric illness is more pronounced among...

  2. What factors contribute to the risk of depression in epilepsy?--Tasmanian Epilepsy Register Mood Study (TERMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Cameron J; Salzberg, Michael R; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2016-03-01

    To model the factors associated with depression in a community sample of people with epilepsy. The factors investigated were derived from proposed risk factors for depression from patients with epilepsy, other chronic illness, and the general population. Multivariate analysis using general linear regression models of factors associated with depression in the Tasmanian Epilepsy Register Mood Study (TERMS), a cross-sectional community sample of 440 patients with epilepsy. A model with acceptable fit was created that explained 66% of the variance of depression. Associated factors included in this model were neuroticism, physical functioning, social support, past history of depression, and stressful life events. In this cross-sectional study designed specifically to investigate depression in epilepsy, we showed that general risk factors for depression in other illness and in the general population are also important in patients with epilepsy, with little support for disease-related risk factors. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W;

    2005-01-01

    , or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort......BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia...

  4. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus Wentzer

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder......, or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia...

  5. Crime in Huntington's disease: a study of registered offences among patients, relatives, and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, P; Fenger, K; Bolwig, T; Sorensen, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Criminal behaviour has been described as a problem in Huntington's disease, but systematic studies including control groups have been missing. Based on information from Danish registries, rates and types of crime committed by patients with Huntington's disease, non-affected relatives, and controls were studied.
METHODS—99 males and 151 females with Huntington's disease were compared with 334 non-affected first degree relatives (134 men and 200 women) and to matche...

  6. Clarithromycin in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage and malformation: a register based nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Trærup Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The antibiotic clarithromycin has been associated with fetal loss in animals and a study has found a doubling in the frequency of miscarriages among women using clarithromycin in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clarithromycin use in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for miscarriages and major malformations. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study including all women in Denmark with a known conception between 1997 and 2007. The Fertility Database was used to identify all women giving birth and the National Hospital Register was used to identify all women with a record of miscarriage or induced abortion. Prescription data was obtained from the National Prescription Register. The primary outcome was the number of miscarriages and offspring with major congenital malformations among users of clarithromycin compared to non-users. RESULTS: We identified 931 504 pregnancies (705 837 live births, 77 553 miscarriages, and 148 114 induced abortions. 401 women redeemed a prescription of clarithromycin in the first trimester of which 40 (10.0% experienced a miscarriage and among the live born nine (3.6% had offspring with malformations. The hazard ratio (HR of having a miscarriage after exposure to clarithromycin was 1.56 (CI95% 1.14-2.13. There was no increased hazard of having a miscarriage when being exposed to penicillin or erythromycin. There was no increased prevalence (OR = 1.03 (CI95% 0.52-2.00 of having offspring with malformations after exposure to clarithromycin. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased hazard of miscarriage but no increased prevalance of having offspring with malformations among women redeeming a prescription of clarithromycin in early pregnancy. This is supported by previous studies in animals and humans. However, further research is required to explore the possible effect of treatment indication on the associations found.

  7. Use of biguanides and the risk of colorectal cancer: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Lotte M; Dittrich, Suzanne T A M; de Vries, Frank; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Vestergaard, Peter; Henry, Ronald M A; Stolk, Leo M L; Neef, Cees; Bazelier, Marloes T

    2013-11-01

    Observational studies have shown conflicting results on the potential protecting effect of biguanide use with the risk of colorectal neoplasms. In addition, the cellular mechanism can either support or oppose biguanides influence on colorectal carcinoma. Our objective was to evaluate the association between biguanide use and colorectal carcinoma. A population-based cohort study using healthcare data from the Danish National database (1996-2007), was conducted. Oral antidiabetic drug users (n = 177,281) were matched 1:3 with a population-based reference group. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of colorectal carcinoma. Stratification was performed to analyse the risk of colorectal cancer in current biguanide users. Two sub-analyses were performed, to investigate the risk of colorectal cancer associated with discontinuous and prolonged use of biguanides. Instead of a protective effect, we found that current biguanide users had a 1.2-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.30) as compared with the non-diabetes reference group. Prolonged use was not inversely associated with colorectal cancer either. When studying colorectal risk with biguanides, the underlying T2DM should be taken into account since a 1.3-1.6-fold increased risk was found in oral antidiabetic drug users compared to controls unexposed to diabetic medication. This study could not detect a protective effect of biguanide use with colorectal cancer. Therefore, this study does not support a further investigation of the effectiveness of biguanides to prevent colorectal carcinoma in clinical studies.

  8. Fracture risk in Danish men with prostate cancer: a nationwide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Nielsen, Morten F; Eskildsen, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of fracture attributable to prostate cancer, and the impact of exposure to prescribed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists and antiandrogens on this risk in a nationwide, population-based case-control study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from the Danish National...

  9. Enhancing Literacy in the Second Grade: Five Related Studies Using the Register Music/Reading Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Cassidy, Jane W.; Flowers, Patricia J.; Register, Dena; Sims, Wendy; Standley, Jayne M.; Menard, Elizabeth; Swedberg, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of these five related studies was to ascertain the effects of a music curriculum designed to enhance reading skills of second-grade students. The dependent variables were subtest scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test administered pre and post the music/reading intervention. Results showed that the total test gain scores of…

  10. Increased utilization of health care services after psychotherapy: a register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with significant reduction of symptoms in patients, and it is generally assumed that treatment improves health and decreases the need for additional health care. The present study investigates the long-term changes in utilization of health care...

  11. Perceptions of Writing Confidence, Critical Thinking, and Writing Competence among Registered Nurse-Learners Studying Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    Historically, nursing education has recognized that writing enhances critical thinking, the basis of the clinical reasoning process. The online learning recently adopted by Nursing involves considerable writing, which may enhance critical thinking more than face-to-face courses. In the study reported here, the critical thinking and writing…

  12. Hospital-diagnosed dementia and suicide: a longitudinal study using prospective, nationwide register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, S.H.; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to examine the risk of suicide in persons diagnosed with dementia during a hospitalization and its relationship to mood disorders. DESIGN: Event-history analysis using time-varying covariates. SETTING: Population-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individual...

  13. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  14. Perceptions of Writing Confidence, Critical Thinking, and Writing Competence among Registered Nurse-Learners Studying Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    Historically, nursing education has recognized that writing enhances critical thinking, the basis of the clinical reasoning process. The online learning recently adopted by Nursing involves considerable writing, which may enhance critical thinking more than face-to-face courses. In the study reported here, the critical thinking and writing…

  15. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  16. Towards non-conventional methods of designing register-based epidemiological studies: An application to pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tong; Brew, Bronwyn; Sjölander, Arvid; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Various epidemiological designs have been applied to investigate the causes and consequences of fetal growth restriction in register-based observational studies. This review seeks to provide an overview of several conventional designs, including cohort, case-control and more recently applied non-conventional designs such as family-based designs. We also discuss some practical points regarding the application and interpretation of family-based designs. Definitions of each design, the study population, the exposure and the outcome measures are briefly summarised. Examples of study designs are taken from the field of low birth-weight research for illustrative purposes. Also examined are relative advantages and disadvantages of each design in terms of assumptions, potential selection and information bias, confounding and generalisability. Kinship data linkage, statistical models and result interpretation are discussed specific to family-based designs. When all information is retrieved from registers, there is no evident preference of the case-control design over the cohort design to estimate odds ratios. All conventional designs included in the review are prone to bias, particularly due to residual confounding. Family-based designs are able to reduce such bias and strengthen causal inference. In the field of low birth-weight research, family-based designs have been able to confirm a negative association not confounded by genetic or shared environmental factors between low birth weight and the risk of asthma. We conclude that there is a broader need for family-based design in observational research as evidenced by the meaningful contributions to the understanding of the potential causal association between low birth weight and subsequent outcomes.

  17. Studies based on the Danish Adoption Register: Schizophrenia, BMI, smoking, and mortality in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The genetic and familial environmental influences making up familial correlations in traits and familial aggregation of diseases may be disentangled by adoption studies. Thus, resemblance between the adoptee and the biological relatives indicates a contribution of the segregating gene....... RESEARCH TOPICS: To illustrate the adoption study approach in research, we present results achieved in schizophrenia, body fatness, smoking, and mortality. Significantly higher prevalence of schizophrenia and related conditions were found in biological relatives to adoptees with schizophrenia than among...... biological relatives to adoptees without schizophrenia. Clear trends in body mass index of biological relatives and the weight of adoptees were found in several settings. A genetic influence on smoking habits were found within a generation. A moderate genetic influence on the mortality rate has been found...

  18. The Flynn Effect in Families: Studies of Register Data on Norwegian Military Conscripts and Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Martin Sundet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper published data and new analyses are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the power of family data (siblings and parents to military conscripts with IQ data in the study of the Flynn effect (FE. In particular, it is shown how studies of the mean intelligence changes in sibships of different sizes and changing proportions of sibship sizes can enhance our understanding how these factors may influence FE. Some new analyses of correlations between intelligence and sibship sizes illustrate how family data can be used to investigate changes in the correlation pattern across generations. It is shown that comparison of the secular trends in the general population and in sibling pairs can be a powerful method in the exploration of the relative influence of between-families and within-families factors in the FE. Surprising connections between the birth order effect on intelligence and the FE are demonstrated.

  19. Timing of Pregnancy After Gastric Bypass—a National Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations suggest postponing pregnancy by at least 1 year after gastric bypass. During the first postoperative year, women are in a catabolic phase with a rapid weight loss which may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. This study tested the hypothesis...... that the risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes is increased in women who conceive during the first year after gastric bypass surgery....

  20. Joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement: a register-linked cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the risk of disability retirement by smoking and physical activity, and particularly whether the risk due to smoking is affected by the level of physical activity. Additionally, the contribution of baseline health, sociodemographic and work-related factors to the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement was considered. Design Cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40–60 years at...

  1. Lone parenting, socioeconomic conditions and severe ill-health : longitudinal register-based studies

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The general aims of this dissertation are to analyse how family situation, and especially lone parenting, influence health and life chances in Sweden and the extent to which possible relations are influenced by socioeconomic circumstances and health selection. In two population-based cohort studies we analysed overall and cause-specific mortality (1991-95), and also severe morbidity (1991-94) from different causes among lone mothers in comparison with mothers with partners. Information on the...

  2. Greenlandic adoptees' psychiatric inpatient contact. A comparative register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 (CI 95% 1.8 - 6.6). The most frequent diagnosis is ‘Inherent or acquired brain suffering'. The findings open up possibilities for new hypotheses as to reasons for adoptees' reverse health outcomes in the Western world. Epidemiological and medical contact recording do not exist outside central hospital...... level in Greenland, therefore, in order to put psychiatric contact patterns into perspective, in depth field studies are required in close collaboration with the local Greenlandic population...

  3. Medical versus surgical abortion efficacy, complications and leave of absence compared in a partly randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    antibiotic treatment, leave of absence and number of contacts to the health care system were obtained from mailed questionnaires. The number of complications was identical after the two methods, but surgical abortion was associated with a higher success rate [97.7% (708/725) vs. 94.1% (386/410), p ...To provide optimal information to women choosing between early medical and surgical abortion, rigorous comparisons of the two methods are warranted. We compared the outcome of 1135 consecutive women with gestational age (GA) ... gemeprost) or a surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration in general anesthesia). One hundred eleven of these women were randomized for abortion method. Surgical interventions and complications leading to readmission within the following 15 weeks were identified through a computer system. Information about...

  4. Acute and transient psychosis in old age and the subsequent risk of dementia: a nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Lauritzen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Using the unique Danish psychiatric and somatic health registers, we investigated the rate of subsequent dementia in patients with late-onset acute and transient psychosis. METHODS: By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nationwide registers of all patients with in- or outpatient hosp...

  5. The familial co-aggregation of ASD and ADHD: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardi, L; Brikell, I; Kuja-Halkola, R; Freitag, C M; Franke, B; Asherson, P; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H

    2017-02-28

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. The presence of a genetic link between ASD and ADHD symptoms is supported by twin studies, but the genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD remains largely unclear. We therefore investigated how ASD and ADHD co-aggregate in individuals and in families to test for the presence of a shared genetic liability and examined potential differences between low- and high-functioning ASD in the link with ADHD. We studied 1 899 654 individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD in individuals and in families. Stratified estimates were obtained for ASD with (low-functioning) and without (high-functioning) intellectual disability. Individuals with ASD were at higher risk of having ADHD compared with individuals who did not have ASD (odds ratio (OR)=22.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.77-22.92). The association was stronger for high-functioning than for low-functioning ASD. Relatives of individuals with ASD were at higher risk of ADHD compared with relatives of individuals without ASD. The association was stronger in monozygotic twins (OR=17.77, 95% CI: 9.80-32.22) than in dizygotic twins (OR=4.33, 95% CI: 3.21-5.85) and full siblings (OR=4.59, 95% CI: 4.39-4.80). Individuals with ASD and their relatives are at increased risk of ADHD. The pattern of association across different types of relatives supports the existence of genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD, suggesting that genomic studies might have underestimated this overlap.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 28 February 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.17.

  6. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults - A Nationwide Register Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Unge med kræft går hyppigere til lægen end deres raske jævnaldrende i tiden før en kræftdiagnose. Et nyt studie viser, at unge med kræft oftere end kontrolgruppen søger deres praktiserende læge allerede 8 måneder før diagnosetidspunktet. Forskerne fandt, at unge med modermærkekræft oftere søgte d...

  7. Social disparities in the prevalence of multimorbidity - A register-based population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Michaela L; Stockmarr, Anders; Høst, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    attainment in a Danish population. A cross-sectional design was used to study the prevalence of multimorbidity, defined as two or more chronic conditions, and of comorbid physical and mental health conditions across age groups and educational attainment levels among 1,397,173 individuals aged 16 years...... European populations. The high prevalence of mental and physical health conditions highlights the need to ensure that healthcare systems deliver care that takes physical and mental comorbidity into account. Further, the higher prevalence of multimorbidity among persons with low educational attainment...

  8. Associations between follow-up screening after gestational diabetes and early detection of diabetes – a register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Rebecca Olesen, Christinna; Nørmark Mortensen, Rikke;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. Early detection can prevent or delay the onset of late complications, for which follow-up screening is important. This study investigated the extent...... of participation in follow-up screening and the possible consequences of nonattendance in the Region of North Jutland, Denmark. Method: In Danish national registers covering the years 1994–2011 we identified 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by first-time gestational diabetes. Control visits...... and treatment after gestational diabetes than women not attending. The results for women attending testing at biochemical departments also showed an increased risk of initiation of treatment. Women attending at least one general practitioners control had a significantly higher risk of early diabetes diagnosis...

  9. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Clemmensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years...... by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder...... with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3...

  10. Reactions of enolisable ketones with dichloroisocyanuric acid in absence and presence of added chloride ions – a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+ in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.12

  11. Heritability of Gestational Weight Gain-A Swedish Register-Based Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per;

    2015-01-01

    on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers' first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... modeling (SEM) to assess the contribution of genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors to the variation in GWG. A bivariate Cholesky decomposition model was used for the subanalysis. We found that genetic factors explained 43% (95% CI: 36-51%) of the variation in GWG in the first pregnancy and 26......% (95% CI: 16-36%) in the second pregnancy. The remaining variance was explained by unique environmental factors. Both overlapping and distinct genetic and unique environmental factors influenced GWG in the first and the second pregnancy. This study showed that GWG has a moderate heritability...

  12. A register-based study of long-term healthcare use before and after psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Stig Bernt;

    2014-01-01

    in utilization of healthcare services. Aim: To investigate long-term changes in utilization of public healthcare services for patients referred to psychotherapeutic treatment. Methods: A pre-post study with 761 consecutive patients and 15,220 matched individuals in a matched population reference group. Data from...... a comprehensive set of healthcare services were collected from central registries for 4 years prior to intake and for 4 years after completion of treatment. Results: Of the 761 patients, 216 did not show up for treatment and 545 completed treatment. Completer patients achieved a substantial reduction in symptoms...... (effect size, ES = 0.99). However, completer patients increased their use of all healthcare services by 296% (ES = 0.58) in the 4th year pre-post comparison, while the reference group increased usage by 99% (ES = 0.23). Completer patients had significantly higher increase in contacts with psychiatric...

  13. Obstetric conditions and risk of first admission with schizophrenia: A Danish national register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Majella; Agerbo, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    .4), gestational age of 37 weeks or below (IRR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2), maternal influenza (IRR 8.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 48.8), preeclampsia (IRR 2.72, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.3), threatened premature delivery (IRR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.1), haemorrhage during delivery (IRR 2.43, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.6), manual extraction of the baby......A range of complications of pregnancy, abnormal fetal growth and development, and complications of delivery have been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies have been able to adjust for a broad range of potential confounding factors. A national population nested case...

  14. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2016-01-01

    of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4......In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i....... The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk...

  15. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms - A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain....... Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered...... persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters...

  16. Effect of co-twin gender on neurodevelopmental symptoms: a twin register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jonna Maria; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. It has been hypothesized that exposure to elevated levels of prenatal testosterone is associated with elevated traits of ASD and ADHD. Assuming that testosterone levels from a dizygotic male twin fetus may lead to enhanced testosterone exposure of its co-twins, we aimed to test the prenatal testosterone hypothesis by comparing same-sex with opposite-sex dizygotic twins with respect to neurodevelopmental symptoms. Neuropsychiatric traits were assessed in a population-based twin cohort from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parental interviews were conducted for 16,312 dizygotic twins, 9 and 12 years old, with the Autism-Tics, ADHD, and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC). Girls with a female co-twin had an increased risk of reaching the cut-off score for ADHD compared with girls with a male co-twin. Both boys and girls with a female co-twin displayed a larger number of traits related to attention deficit and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors than those with a male twin. In girls, this also extended to social interaction and the combined measures for ASD and ADHD, however, with small effect sizes. Our results are reverse to what would have been expected from the prenatal testosterone hypothesis but consistent with a previous study of ASD and ADHD traits in dizygotic twins. The seemingly protective effect for girls of having a twin brother may be an effect of parent report bias, but may also be an unexpected effect of sharing the intrauterine environment with a male co-twin.

  17. HOSPITALIZATIONS DUE TO ADVERSE DRUG EVENTS IN THE ELDERLY – A RETROSPECTIVE REGISTER STUDY

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    Outi Laatikainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug events (ADEs are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital. A total number of 290 admissions were screened for ADEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs and drug-drug interactions (DDIs by a multi-disciplinary research team. Customized Naranjo scale was used as a control method. All admissions were categorized into ‘probable’, ‘possible’, or ‘doubtful’ by both assessment methods. In total, 23.1% of admissions were categorized as ‘probably’ or ‘possibly’ medication-related. Vertigo, falling, and fractures formed the largest group of ADEs. The most common ADEs were related to medicines from N class of the ATC-code system. Age, sex, residence, or specialty did not increase the risk for medication-related admission significantly (min p= 0.077. Polypharmacy was, however, found to increase the risk (OR 3,3; 95% CI, 1.5-6.9 p = 0.01. In conclusion, screening patients for specific demographics or symptoms would not significantly improve the recognition of ADEs. In addition, as ADE detection today is largely based on voluntary reporting systems and retrospective manual tracking of errors, it is evident that more effective methods for ADE detection are needed in the future.

  18. Hospitalizations Due to Adverse Drug Events in the Elderly—A Retrospective Register Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Outi; Sneck, Sami; Bloigu, Risto; Lahtinen, Minna; Lauri, Timo; Turpeinen, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital. A total number of 290 admissions were screened for ADEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by a multi-disciplinary research team. Customized Naranjo scale was used as a control method. All admissions were categorized into “probable,” “possible,” or “doubtful” by both assessment methods. In total, 23.1% of admissions were categorized as “probably” or “possibly” medication-related. Vertigo, falling, and fractures formed the largest group of ADEs. The most common ADEs were related to medicines from N class of the ATC-code system. Age, sex, residence, or specialty did not increase the risk for medication-related admission significantly (min p = 0.077). Polypharmacy was, however, found to increase the risk (OR 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–6.9; p = 0.01). In conclusion, screening patients for specific demographics or symptoms would not significantly improve the recognition of ADEs. In addition, as ADE detection today is largely based on voluntary reporting systems and retrospective manual tracking of errors, it is evident that more effective methods for ADE detection are needed in the future. PMID:27761112

  19. The UK Burden of Injury Study – a protocol. [National Research Register number: M0044160889

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    Sleney Judith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally and nationally large numbers of people are injured each year, yet there is little information on the impact of these injuries on people's lives, on society and on health and social care services. Measurement of the burden of injuries is needed at a global, national and regional level to be able to inform injured people of the likely duration of impairment; to guide policy makers in investing in preventative measures; to facilitate the evaluation and cost effectiveness of interventions and to contribute to international efforts to more accurately assess the global burden of injuries. Methods/Design A prospective, longitudinal multi-centre study of 1333 injured individuals, atttending Emergency Departments or admitted to hospital in four UK areas: Swansea, Surrey, Bristol and Nottingham. Specified quotas of patients with defined injuries covering the whole spectrum will be recruited. Participants (or a proxy will complete a baseline questionnaire regarding their injury and pre-injury quality of life. Follow up occurs at 1, 4, and 12 months post injury or until return to normal function within 12 months, with measures of health service utilisation, impairment, disability, and health related quality of life. National estimates of the burden of injuries will be calculated by extrapolation from the sample population to national and regional computerised hospital in-patient, emergency department and mortality data. Discussion This study will provide more detailed data on the national burden of injuries than has previously been available in any country and will contribute to international collaborative efforts to more accurately assess the global burden of injuries. The results will be used to advise policy makers on prioritisation of preventive measures, support the evaluation of interventions, and provide guidance on the likely impact and degree of impairment and disability following specific injuries.

  20. An association between initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and suicide - a nationwide register-based case-crossover study.

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    Charlotte Björkenstam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI is one of the most common treatments for depression. It is however not clear whether or not there is an increased short-term suicide risk during initiation with SSRI. METHODS: A register-based nationwide case-crossover study including 5,866 suicides, 1,698 women and 4,168 men, from the Death Register 2007-2010 in Sweden. SSRI initiation was defined as a dispensed prescription of SSRI within 28 days prior to the date of suicide with no previous dispensed prescription of SSRI within 4 months prior that prescription. The control period took place one year earlier. Odds ratio (OR was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULT: During the 28 day period prior to suicide 48 women and 138 men were exposed to SSRI initiation (while not being exposed in the control period and 22 women and 43 men were exposed in the control period (while not being exposed in the case period. The OR for suicide after initiation with SSRI was 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-44 for women, and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.1 for men. The highest OR was found 8-11 days after initiation with SSRI 9.7 (95% CI: 3.0-31.7 for women and men combined. CONCLUSION: The main limitation in this study is confounding by indication, but the descriptive question is however not confounded by indication. Together with plausible biological mechanisms and previous clinical and epidemiological observations our findings, linking initiation of SSRI to increased short-term suicide risk, deserve further attention specifically in the clinical setting.

  1. Reproductive Outcomes Following Ectopic Pregnancy: Register-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sohinee; McLernon, David J; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare reproductive outcomes following ectopic pregnancy (EP) versus livebirth, miscarriage, or termination in a first pregnancy. Methods And Findings A retrospective cohort study design was used. Scottish national data on all women whose first pregnancy occurred between 1981 and 2000 were linked to records of a subsequent pregnancy. The exposed cohort comprised women with an EP in their first pregnancy. There were three unexposed cohorts: women with livebirth, miscarriage, and termination of their first pregnancies. Any differences in rates of second pregnancy, livebirth, EP, miscarriage, or terminations and complications of a second ongoing pregnancy and delivery were assessed among the different exposure groups. A total of 2,969 women had an initial EP; 667,299 had a livebirth, 39,705 women miscarried, and 78,697 terminated their first pregnancies. Women with an initial EP had an increased chance of another pregnancy within 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 2.76 [95% CI 2.58–2.95]) or after 6 years (AHR 1.57 [95% CI 1.29–1.91]) compared to women with a livebirth. In comparison with women with an initial miscarriage, women who had an EP had a lower chance of a second pregnancy (AHR 0.53 [95% CI 0.50–0.56]). Compared to women with an initial termination, women with an EP had an increased chance of a second pregnancy (AHR 2.38 [95% CI 2.23–2.55]) within 2 years. Women with an initial EP suffered an increased risk of another EP compared to women with a livebirth (AHR 13.0 [95% CI 11.63–16.86]), miscarriage (AHR 6.07 [95% CI 4.83–7.62]), or termination (AHR 12.84 [95% CI 10.07–16.37]). Perinatal complications in a pregnancy following EP were not significantly higher than those in primigravidae or in women with a previous miscarriage or termination. Conclusion Women with an initial EP have a lower chance of conception than those who miscarry but an increased risk of a repeat EP in comparison with all three comparison groups. A

  2. Process: A Case Study of Development and Re-engineering of an Absence and Leave Management Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Malena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop, re-engineer and improve the case company’s Absence and Leave Management Process by applying business process improvement and business process re-engineering and design methodologies. The data for the theoretical study was collected through relevant literature for the topic. The main focus was business process improvement and business process re-engineering of administrational processes. The empirical study was based on the case company’s existin...

  3. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  4. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: study 1 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley G; Craigie, Mark; Hemsworth, David; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Aoun, Samar; Francis, Karen; Drury, Vicki

    2014-05-01

    To explore compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction with the potential contributing factors of anxiety, depression and stress. To date, no studies have connected the quality of work-life with other contributing and co-existing factors such as depression, anxiety and stress. A self-report exploratory cross sectional survey of 132 nurses working in a tertiary hospital. The reflective assessment risk profile model provides an excellent framework for examining the relationships between the professional quality of work factors and contributing factors within the established risk profiles. The results show a definite pattern of risk progression for the six factors examined for each risk profile. Additionally, burnout and secondary traumatic stress were significantly related to higher anxiety and depression levels. Higher anxiety levels were correlated with nurses who were younger, worked full-time and without a postgraduate qualification. Twenty percent had elevated levels of compassion fatigue: 7.6% having a very distressed profile. At-risk nurses' stress and depression scores were significantly higher than nurses with higher compassion satisfaction scores. The employed nurse workforce would benefit from a psychosocial capacity building intervention that reduces a nurse's risk profile, thus enhancing retention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cesarean delivery rates and obstetric culture - an Italian register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevani, Cristina; Incerti, Maddalena; Del Sorbo, Davide; Pintucci, Armando; Vergani, Patrizia; Merlino, Luca; Locatelli, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Cesarean delivery rates are rising due to multiple factors, including less use of operative vaginal delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, which often reflect local obstetric practices. Objectives of the study were to analyze the relations between cesarean delivery, these practices, and perinatal outcomes. We included all deliveries in the 72 hospitals of Lombardia, a region in northern Italy, during the year 2013. The delivery certificate was used as data source. Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. We included 87 896 deliveries. The number of deliveries per hospital ranged from 140 to 6123. The rate of cesarean delivery was 28.3% (range 9.9-86.4%), operative vaginal delivery 4.7% (range 0.2-10.0%), and vaginal birth after cesarean 17.3% (range 0-79.2%). We found a significant inverse correlation between rates of overall cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery (r = -0.25, p = 0.04). The correlation between rate of overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean was also inverse and significant (r = -0.57, p cesarean delivery rate and the rates of Apgar score at 5 min cesarean delivery, could reduce the rising cesarean delivery rate. This will require a change in obstetric culture, continuing education of healthcare providers, and leadership. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. School grades, parental education and suicide--a national register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Hjern, Anders; Nordström, Peter; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether school performance is a risk factor for suicide death later in life and, if so, to what extent this is explained by intergenerational effects of parental education. This population-based cohort study comprises national birth cohorts between 1972 and 1981 in Sweden. We followed 898,342 students, graduating between 1988 and 1997 from the 9 years of compulsory school, equivalent to junior high school, until 31 December 2006, generating 11,148,758 person-years and 1490 suicides. Final school grades, in six categories, and risk of suicide were analysed with Poisson regression. The incidence rate ratio (RR) for suicide death for students with the lowest grades was 4.57 (95% CI 2.82 to 7.40) for men and 2.67 (1.42 to 5.01) for women compared to those with highest grades after adjustment for a number of sociodemographic and parental morbidity variables, such as year of graduation, parental education, lone parenthood, household receiving social welfare or disability pension, place of schooling, adoption, maternal age and parent's mental illness. Students with grades in the middle categories had RRs in between. These relationships were not modified by parental education. The strong association between low school grades and suicide in youth and young adulthood emphasises the importance of both primary and secondary prevention in schools.

  7. Total ankle replacement: a population-based study of 515 cases from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivu, Helka; Eskelinen, Antti; Ikävalko, Mikko; Paavolainen, Pekka; Remes, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Although total ankle replacement (TAR) is a recognized procedure for treatment of the painful arthritic ankle, the best choice of implant and the long-term results are still unknown. We evaluated the survival of two TAR designs and factors associated with survival using data from the nationwide arthroplasty registry in Finland. Methods 573 primary TARs were performed during the period 1982–2006 because of rheumatic, arthritic, or posttraumatic ankle degeneration. We selected contemporary TAR designs that were each used in more than 40 operations, including the S.T.A.R. (n = 217) and AES (n = 298), to assess their respective survival rates. The mean age of the patients was 55 (17–86) years and 63% of operations were performed in women. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. The effects of age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume were also studied. Results The annual incidence of TAR was 1.5 per 105 inhabitants. The 5-year overall survivorship for the whole TAR cohort was 83% (95% CI: 81–86), which agrees with earlier reports. The most frequent reasons for revision were aseptic loosening of one or both of the prosthesis components (39%) and instability (39%). We found no difference in survival rate between the S.T.A.R. and AES designs. Furthermore, age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume ( 100 replacements in each of 17 hospitals) did not affect the TAR survival. Interpretation Based on our findings, we cannot conclude that any prosthesis was superior to any other. A high number of technical errors in primary TARs suggests that this low-volume field of implant arthroplasty should be centralized to fewer units. PMID:20180720

  8. Weapons used in serious violence against a parent: retrospective comparative register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liettu, Anu; Säävälä, Hannu; Hakko, Helinä; Joukamaa, Matti; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2012-08-01

    Our aim was to compare the weapons used in lethal or potentially lethal violence against parents according to the age (adolescent vs. adult) of the offender and victim (mother vs. father) of the offence. All forensic psychiatric examination statements of male offenders who had offended violently against one of their parents during 1973-2004 in Finland (n=192) were reviewed retrospectively. Data on the weapons used by adolescent and adult offenders in relation to the sex of the victim, mental disorder, criminal responsibility and intelligence were gathered. In the whole sample, sharp-edged weapons were the most commonly used weapons. Firearms were more commonly used in offences against fathers (i.e. patricidal offences) than against mothers (i.e. matricidal offences). Adolescent offenders were more likely to use firearms than adult offenders in violent acts against a parent. Among personality-disordered subjects, patricidal offenders used firearms more commonly than did matricidal offenders. Homicidal matricidal offenders had higher full-scale and verbal IQ scores as compared to homicidal patricidal offenders. The matricidal offenders using firearms were shown to be more intelligent as measured by full-scale and verbal scale IQs than the patricidal offenders using firearms. Consistent with the physical strength hypothesis, firearms are used more often in lethal or potentially lethal violence against parents by adolescents than by adults in Finland. As firearms legislation in Finland is currently under reform the study findings suggest that restriction of gun availability may have an influence on intrafamilial homicides, particularly those committed by adolescents.

  9. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility: a register-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Lieberoth, Sofie; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-04-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage of asthmatics with a time to pregnancy >1 year was 27% versus 21.6% for non-asthmatics (OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1-1.6); p=0.009). The association remained significant after adjustment for age, age at menarche, body mass index and socioeconomic status (OR (95% CI) 1.25 (1.0-1.6); p=0.05), and was more pronounced in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve reproductive processes.

  10. Car travel time and accessibility by bus to general practitioner services: a study using patient registers and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew; Haynes, Robin; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Gale, Susan

    2002-07-01

    Accessibility to general practitioner (GP) surgeries was investigated in a population study of East Anglia (Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk) in the United Kingdom. Information from patient registers was combined with details of general practitioner surgery locations, road network characteristics, bus routes and community transport services, and a geographical information system (GIS) was used to calculate measures of accessibility to surgeries by public and private transport. Outcome measures included car travel times and indicators of the extent to which bus services could be used to visit GP surgeries. These variables were aggregated for wards or parishes and then compared with socio-economic characteristics of the populations living in those areas. The results indicated that only 10% of residents faced a car journey of more than 10 min to a GP. Some 13% of the population could not reach general medical services by daily bus. For 5% of the population, the car journey to the nearest surgery was longer than 10 min and there was no suitable bus service each weekday. In the remoter rural parishes, the lowest levels of personal mobility and the highest health needs indicators were found in the places with no daytime bus service each weekday and no community transport. The overall extent of accessibility problems and the existence of inverse care law effects in some rural localities have implications for the NHS, which aims to provide an equitable service to people wherever they live. The research also demonstrates the potential of patient registers and GIS as research and planning tools, though the practical difficulties of using these data sources and techniques should not be underestimated.

  11. Association Between Improvement in Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Changes in Sickness Absence: Results of the ICARIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Sánchez Chaparro, Miguel Ángel; Brotons, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in cardiovascular risk (CVR) are associated with the length and cost of sickness absence. A prospective cohort of 179 186 participants was evaluated. Each participant's CVR (SCORE) was assessed on 2 consecutive medical examinations, approximately 1 year apart (365 ± 90 days). Cardiovascular risk was categorized as < 4% or ≥ 4%, and participants were divided into 4 groups according to changes in their risk between the 2 assessments. After the second CVR estimate, a 1-year follow-up was carried out to assess sickness absence. Differences between the 4 groups in terms of the total count of sickness absence days during the follow-up period were tested using Poisson regression models. After adjustment for covariates, participants who showed an improvement in CVR had a lower count of sickness absence days compared with both those who showed a worsening in risk and those who remained stable at ≥ 4% (RR, 0.91; 95%CI, 0.84-0.98). In comparison with participants whose CVR did not improve, more of the participants whose risk did improve had quit smoking (+17.2%; P < .001), and had controlled their blood pressure (+26.0%, P < .001), total cholesterol (+9.3%; P < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+14.9%; P < .001), and triglyceride levels (+14.6%; P < .001). Our results suggest that an improvement in CVR profile is accompanied by a decrease in sickness absence during a 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  13. Infant and childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: overview and design of a Finnish Register-Based Study (FinESSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malm Heli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental animal studies and one population-based study have suggested an increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome after prenatal exposure to SSRIs. We describe the methods and design of a population-based study examining the association between prenatal SSRI exposure and neurodevelopment until age 14. Methods and design This is a cohort study of national registers in Finland: the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Congenital Malformations, the Hospital Discharge Register including inpatient and outpatient data, the Drug Reimbursement Register, and the Population Register. The total study population includes 845,345 women and their live-born, singleton offspring aged 14 or younger and born during Jan 1st 1996-Dec 31st 2010. We will compare the prevalence of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs to offspring exposed to prenatal depression and unexposed to SSRIs. Associations between exposure and outcome are assessed by statistical methods including specific modeling to account for correlated outcomes within families and differences in duration of follow-up between the exposure groups. Descriptive results. Of all pregnant women with pregnancy ending in delivery (n = 859,359, 1.9% used SSRIs. The prevalence of diagnosed depression and depression-related psychiatric disorders within one year before or during pregnancy was 1.7%. The cumulative incidence of registered psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders was 6.9% in 2010 among all offspring born during the study period (age range 0–14 years. Discussion The study has the potential for significant public health importance in providing information on prenatal exposure to SSRIs and long-term neurodevelopment.

  14. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-02-01

    One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.

  15. SIGNIFICANT ABSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Orhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Photographing the city pertains to photo-graphing architectural features, historic sites, streets, crowds, signs, the underground, crime, entertainment, recreational facilities, ruins, traces, and space. City, on the other hand, pertains to residential space that is de-stroyed and reconstructed at certain turning points due to economic, cultural, architectural, and demographic reasons.This study will attempt to examine the photographer as the subject as well as the boundaries of her photo-graphic designations in the face of urban renewal through sample projects. Also functioning as a part of the memory industry, which has been formed during the last half-century that simultaneously witnessed memory loss and memory boom, photography, albeit through certain projects, has proven the possibility of a critical gaze at social and individual testimonials. When Eugene Atget's photos of the old Paris which he took between 1898-1924 out of commercial concerns is viewed as a milestone, Antoine D'Agata's Psychogeographie (2005 and other similar projects can be said to not only docu-ment urban change and transformation but also act as intermediaries of defiance against separation from the accustomed living areas.

  16. Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.

  17. Differences between homicide and filicide offenders; results of a nationwide register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eronen Markku

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filicide, the killing of one's child, is an extraordinary form of homicide. It has commonly been associated with suicide and parental psychiatric illness. In the research on filicide, nationwide studies with comparison groups, specific perpetrator subgroups, and assessment of possible risk factors have been called for. The purpose of the current study was to provide all that. Methods In this nationwide register-based case-control study all filicide offenders who were in a forensic psychiatric examination in Finland 1995–2004 were examined and compared with an age- and gender matched control group of homicide offenders. The assessed variables were psychosocial history, index offence, and psychiatric variables as well as psychopathy using the PCL-R. Results Filicide offenders were not significantly more often diagnosed with psychotic disorders than the controls but they had attempted suicide at the crime scene significantly more often. Filicide offenders had alcohol abuse/dependence and antisocial personality less often than the controls. Filicide offenders scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the controls. Within the group of filicide offenders, the psychopathy items with relatively higher scores were lack of remorse or guilt, shallow affect, callous/lack of empathy, poor behavioral controls, and failure to accept responsibility. Conclusion Since filicide offenders did not seem significantly more mentally disordered than the other homicide offenders, psychiatry alone cannot be held responsible for the prevention of filicide. Extensive international studies are needed to replicate our findings and provide more specific knowledge in order to enhance prevention.

  18. Pancreatic cancer risk after loss of a child: a register-based study in Sweden during 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fall, Katja; Ye, Weimin; Fang, Fang

    2013-08-15

    The potential role of psychological stress in pancreatic cancer has rarely been investigated in epidemiologic studies. During 1991-2009, we conducted a nested case-control study based on Swedish national population and health registers to investigate whether severe psychological stress induced by the death of a child was associated with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer. The study included 16,522 cases and 82,107 controls who were matched to the cases on sex and year of birth. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, loss of a child was associated with an odds ratio of 1.09 for pancreatic cancer (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.17). The risk elevation was mainly seen during the first 5 years after the loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.45) and for loss of a child due to suicide (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.46). The association was statistically significant among women but not among men, and it appeared stronger for early-onset pancreatic cancer. Persons with a history of psychiatric illness had the greatest risk increase after child loss (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.76). Although other explanations are possible, our findings provide some evidence that psychological stress may be associated with pancreatic cancer.

  19. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier...... between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have...

  20. Association between multi-dose drug dispensing and quality of drug treatment--a register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sjöberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the elderly in Scandinavia, multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD is a common alternative to ordinary prescriptions (OP. MDD patients receive their drugs in unit bags, one for each dose occasion. The prescribing procedure differs between MDD and OP. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between MDD and quality of drug treatment (QDT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was performed of all inhabitants in Region Västra Götaland alive on December 31st 2007, aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 prescribed drug and ≥2 health care visits for ≥2 diagnoses for obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and/or cardiovascular disease in 2005-2007 (n = 24,146. For each patient, drug treatment on December 31st 2007 was estimated from drugs registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. QDT was evaluated according to established quality indicators (≥10 drugs, Long-acting benzodiazepines, Drugs with anticholinergic action, ≥3 psychotropics, and Drugs combinations that should be avoided. Logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, burden of disease, and residence, was performed to investigate the association between MDD and QDT. Mean age was 77 years, 51% were females, and 20% used MDD. For all quality indicators, the proportion of patients with poor QDT was greater in patients with MDD than in patients with OP (all P<0.0001. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for poor QDT (MDD patients vs. OP patients ranged from 1.47 (1.30-1.65 to 7.08 (6.30-7.96 and from 1.36 (1.18-1.57 to 5.48 (4.76-6.30, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with MDD have poorer QDT than patients with OP. This cannot be explained by differences in age, sex, burden of disease, or residence. These findings must be taken into account when designing alternative prescribing systems. Further research is needed to evaluate causative factors and if the findings also apply to

  1. Pressure ulcer knowledge of registered nurses, assistant nurses and student nurses: a descriptive, comparative multicentre study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunningberg, Lena; Mårtensson, Gunilla; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Florin, Jan; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Bååth, Carina

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs), assistant nurses (ANs) and student nurses (SNs) about preventing pressure ulcers (PUs). PU prevention behaviours in the clinical practice of RNs and ANs were also explored. A descriptive, comparative multicentre study was performed. Hospital wards and universities from four Swedish county councils participated. In total, 415 participants (RN, AN and SN) completed the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool. The mean knowledge score for the sample was 58·9%. The highest scores were found in the themes 'nutrition' (83·1%) and 'risk assessment' (75·7%). The lowest scores were found in the themes 'reduction in the amount of pressure and shear' (47·5%) and 'classification and observation' (55·5%). RNs and SNs had higher scores than ANs on 'aetiology and causes'. SNs had higher scores than RNs and ANs on 'nutrition'. It has been concluded that there is a knowledge deficit in PU prevention among nursing staff in Sweden. A major educational campaign needs to be undertaken both in hospital settings and in nursing education.

  2. The Risk of Offspring Developing Substance Use Disorders when Exposed to One versus Two Parents with Alcohol Use Disorder: A Register-based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Brink, M; Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few population-based studies have investigated associations between having one or two parents with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the risk of substance use disorders (SUD) in the offspring. Moreover, these studies have solely focused on AUD in the offspring and not SUD in general....... The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of SUD in offspring when exposed to one versus two parents with AUD. Methods: A population-based, prospective cohort study with 398,881 offspring’s born in Denmark within 1983-1989 was followed until 2011. Register-data was obtained from the following data......-bases: the Civil Registration System, the Psychiatric Central Research Register, the National Patient Registry, the National Prescription Registry, the Fertility Database, and the Cause of Death Register. Adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) were calculated using multivariate Cox-regression models. Results: In all, 10...

  3. Involvement and structure: a qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Maria; Westerlund, Hugo; Backhans, Mona; Melinder, Karin

    2011-05-16

    Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated

  4. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes, Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes, Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees, and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace, which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991, which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were

  5. Staff and service users' views on a 'Consent for Contact' research register within psychosis services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Constantina; Robotham, Dan; Drake, Gareth; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2014-12-24

    Recruitment to mental health research can be challenging. 'Consent for Contact' (C4C) is a novel framework which may expedite recruitment and contribute to equitable access to research. This paper discusses stakeholder perspectives on using a C4C model in services for people with psychosis. This is a cross sectional study investigating the views of service users and staff using qualitative methods. Eight focus groups were recruited: five with service users (n = 26) and three with clinicians (n = 17). Purposive sampling was applied in order to reflect the local population in terms of ethnicity, experience of psychiatric services and attitudes towards research. Staff and service users alike associated the principle of 'consent for contact' with greater service user autonomy and favourable conditions for research recruitment. Fears around coercion and inappropriate uses of clinical records were common and most marked in service users identifying as having a negative view to research participation. Staff working in inpatient services reported that consenting for future contact might contribute to paranoid ideation. All groups agreed that implementation should highlight safeguards and the opt-in nature of the register. Staff and service users responded positively to C4C. Clinicians explaining C4C to service users should allay anxieties around coercion, degree of commitment, and use of records. For some service users, researcher access to records is likely to be the most challenging aspect of the consultation.

  6. Auditor’s Competences: an empirical study on the perception of auditees of companies registered on the CVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Haendchen Dutra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed examining the perception of auditee in relation to the competences of the independent auditors listed in the literature. To achieve this objective, the first step was developing a structure with forty competencies of the auditor, grouped into: intellectual skills, personal skills, interpersonal and communication skills, organizational and business management skills. A questionnaire was constructed based on the competences contained on the elaborate structure and sent to employees of publicly traded companies registered on the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM. The results revealed that the perception of auditee in relation to the auditor's competences, considering the average was above 3 (scale 1-5, ranging from 3.03 for “lateral thinking” and 3.98 “loyalty” and “ethical behavior”. Moreover, the perception of the auditee who had contact with auditors of higher levels (Partner and Manager was higher and statistically significant, considering the mean, than perception of those who had contact with auditors at lower levels (Trainee/Assistant, Semi-Senior and Senior/Supervisor. Finally, for the most of competences investigated were not significant differences of perception between auditees who had contact with Big Four auditors only, and those who had contact with non-Big Four auditors.

  7. Does Moral Distress Differ Between California Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in Independent Versus Medically Supervised Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchel, Michael; Boytim, Michael; Gorman, Nicholas; Weismuller, Penny

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to determine if moral distress levels differed between certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) working in medically supervised versus independent practice in California. A 63-question survey was administered to 1,190 California CRNAs. Moral distress was measured by the included Ethics Stress Scale. The response rate was 14.7%, yielding demographic and Ethics Stress scores for 175 respondents. Sixty-five participants answered an open-ended question about moral distress yielding qualitative data. Medically supervised CRNAs had a lower mean moral distress scores (176.8) versus independent practice CRNAs (187.8) (p = .002). Lower scores on the ESS indicate higher moral distress. Qualitative data demonstrated that CRNAs experienced moral distress in the following situations: when pressured to give anesthesia to unoptimized patients, when differences of opinion regarding anesthetic plans occurred, in dealing with end-of-life issues, when working with incompetent providers, and during interprofessional struggles between CRNAs and anesthesiologists. In order to reduce moral distress among CRNAs, implications for practice include increased administrative support, increased communication and reciprocated collegial respect between anesthesiologists and CRNAs, and CRNA representation on ethics committees.

  8. Long-term seizure outcome in patients with juvenile absence epilepsy; a retrospective study in a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhofer, Pavlína; Brázdil, Milan; Ošlejšková, Hana; Kuba, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The study aim was to evaluate pharmacotherapy effects and long-term seizure outcomes in patients with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) during a five-year follow-up period. The secondary aim was to identify factors from patient history and determine their influence on seizure control. We retrospectively studied 46 patients with JAE in the period between 2006 and 2011. The age at seizure onset, onset seizure type, family history of epilepsy, status epilepticus in history, medication history, and the rate of seizure control were studied. There were 30 females (65.2%) and 16 males (34.8%) in the study. The mean age at seizure onset was 12.9±5.6 years (ranged from 3 to 28 years). In 30 patients (65.2%), seizure onset was with absences, in 15 patients (32.6%) with generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS), and in 1 patient (2.2%) with absence status. In 43 patients (93.5%), GTCS occurred in the course of the disease. Family history for epilepsy was positive in 10 patients (21.7%). In the five-year follow-up period, seizure freedom (Group 1) was achieved in 7 patients (15.2%). In total, 22 patients (47.8%) were classified into the groups involving very poor seizure control and antiepileptic drug resistance (Groups 5 and 6). The mean number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used in the course of the disease in appropriate therapeutic doses was 3.8±2.3 (1-10 AEDs). The study results show that almost half of JAE patients have poor seizure control with a high rate of pharmacoresistance. The outcome of JAE can be very uncertain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  10. Bleeding complications related to warfarin treatment: a descriptive register study from the anticoagulation clinic at Helsingborg Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navgren, Monica; Forsblad, Johan; Wieloch, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    The most common indication for treatment with warfarin is the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is an important tool to evaluate the quality of anticoagulation treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of treatment and the incidence of bleeding complications in patients on warfarin treatment treated by the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg. This is the first study that has specifically focused on the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications in a real-world population. A total of 4,400 patients with a total of 8,394 patient years were registered, in the database Journalia AVK, during the time period November 1, 2007 to November 1, 2010. The mean age was 72 years. TTR was 73.3 % for the whole population. 421 patients suffered from haemorrhagic events. The frequency of major and fatal bleedings and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) were 1.6, 0.2 and 0.5% per patient-year, respectively. A correlation between age and severe bleeding (major, fatal and ICH) (p = 0.003) was seen, but no correlation between gender and severe bleeding (p = 0.27). In 60 out of 455 bleeding events the complication had been reported to the anticoagulation clinic. At the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg the quality of warfarin treatment is good compared to previous results described in the literature, with regards to bleeding complications and efficacy. However, in our study, we confirm that the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications related to warfarin is inadequate, and that review of patient records is needed to assure proper follow-up.

  11. Specialist prescribing of psychotropic drugs to older persons in Sweden - a register-based study of 188 024 older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinsson Gunilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The situation for older persons with mental disorders other than dementia disorders has scarcely been studied. The older population is increasing worldwide and along with this increase the prevalence of mental disorders will also rise. The treatment of older persons with mental disorders entails complex challenges, with drugs constituting the major medical treatment. Knowledge of geriatric psychiatry is essential for providing older persons with appropriate treatment and care. This study aimed to evaluate the prescription of drugs for mental disorders to older persons (≥65 in Sweden, focused on the medical specialties of the prescribing physicians. Methods Data concerning drug treatment for older persons from 2006 to 2008 was gathered from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Mental disorders, defined as affective, psychotic and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F20-42 were evaluated in order to identify associated drugs. Included was a total of 188 024 older individuals, who collectively filled 2 013 079 prescriptions for the treatment of mental disorders. Descriptive analyses were performed, including frequency distribution and 95% CI. The competence of the prescribers was analyzed by subdividing them into five groups: geriatricians, psychiatrists, general practitioners (GPs, other specialists, and physicians without specialist education. Results GPs represented the main prescribers, whereas geriatricians and psychiatrists rarely prescribed drugs to older persons. Benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were the most commonly prescribed drugs. Women were prescribed drugs from geriatricians and psychiatrists to a greater extent than men. Conclusions This study examined the prescription of psychotropic drugs to older persons. Physicians specialized in older persons’ disorders and mental health were rarely the prescribers of these drugs. Contrary to clinical guidelines, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were

  12. Life values as predictors of pain, disability and sick leave among Swedish registered nurses: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denison Eva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies on high-risk populations, such as subgroups of health care staff, are limited, especially prospective studies among staff not on sick-leave. This paper is a report of a longitudinal study conducted to describe and compare the importance and consistency of life domains among registered nurses (RNs working in a Swedish hospital and evaluate a model based on the consistency of valued life domains for prediction of pain, disability and sick leave. Method Importance and consistency ratings of life values, in 9 domains, were collected during 2003 and 2006 from 196 RNs using the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ. Logistic regression analyses were used for prediction of pain, disability and sick leave at the three-year follow-up. The predictors family relations, marriage couples/intimate relations, parenting, friends/social life, work, education, leisure time, psychological well-being, and physical self-care were used at baseline. Results RNs rated life values regarding parenting as most important and with the highest consistency both at baseline and at follow-up. No significant differences were found between RNs' ratings of importance and consistency over the three-year period, except for friends/social relations that revealed a significant decrease in importance at follow-up. The explanatory models for pain, disability and sick leave significantly predicted pain and disability at follow-up. The odds of having pain were significantly increased by one consistency rating (psychological well-being, while the odds were significantly decreased by physical self-care. In the model predicting disability, consistency in psychological well-being and education significantly increased the odds of being disabled, while consistency in physical self-care significantly decreased the odds. Conclusion The results suggest that there might be a link between intra-individual factors reflecting different aspects of appraised life

  13. Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, A.

    2010-06-17

    There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.

  14. Can work ability explain the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löve Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the reasons for the social gradient in sickness absence might provide an opportunity to reduce the general rates of sickness absence. The complete explanation for this social gradient still remains unclear and there is a need for studies using randomized working population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if self-reported work ability could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. Methods The two study samples consisted of a randomized working population (n = 2,763 and a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees (n = 3,044, 19-64 years old. Both samples were drawn from the same randomized general population. Socioeconomic status was measured with occupational position and physical and mental work ability was measured with two items extracted from the work ability index. Results There was an association between lower socioeconomic status and belonging to the sick-listed sample among both women and men. In men the crude Odds ratios increased for each downwards step in socioeconomic status, OR 1.32 (95% CI 0.98-1.78, OR 1.53 (1.05-2.24, OR 2.80 (2.11-3.72, and OR 2.98 (2.27-3.90. Among women this gradient was not as pronounced. Physical work ability constituted the strongest explanatory factor explaining the total association between socioeconomic status and being sick-listed in women. However, among men, the association between skilled non-manual, OR 2.07 (1.54-2.78, and non-skilled manual, OR 2.03 (1.53-2.71 positions in relation to being sick-listed remained. The explanatory effect of mental work ability was small. Surprisingly, even in the sick-listed sample most respondents had high mental and physical work ability. Conclusions These results suggest that physical work ability may be an important key in explaining the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Hence, it is possible

  15. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  16. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  17. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden--epidemiological studies of register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-06-27

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15-1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01-2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02-3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  18. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara Hollander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40 when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24 and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50 than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98. Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the

  19. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden - epidemiological studies of register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15-1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01-2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02-3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  20. Sickness absence in musculoskeletal disorders - patients' experiences of interactions with the Social Insurance Agency and health care. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has represented a growing public health problem in many Western countries over the last decade. In Sweden disorders of the musculoskeletal system cause approximately one third of all sick leave. The Social Insurance Agency (SIA and the health care system are important actors in handling the sickness absence process. The objective was to study how patients with personal experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders perceived their contact with these actors and what they considered as obstructing or facilitating factors for recovery and return to work in this situation. Methods In-depth interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with fifteen informants (aged 33-63, 11 women, all with experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders and purposefully recruited to represent various backgrounds as regards diagnosis, length of sick leave and return to work. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results The informants' perceived the interaction with the SIA and health care as ranging from coherent to fragmented. Being on sick leave was described as going through a process of adjustment in both private and working life. This process of adjustment was interactive and included not only the possibilities to adjust work demands and living conditions but also personal and emotional adjustment. The informants' experiences of fragmented interaction reflected a sense that their entire situation was not being taken into account. Coherent interaction was described as facilitating recovery and return to work, while fragmented interaction was described as obstructing this. The complex division of responsibilities within the Swedish rehabilitation system may hamper sickness absentees' possibilities of taking responsibility for their own rehabilitation. Conclusions This study shows that people on sick leave considered the interaction

  1. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia.

  2. Labor market position after a rejection of a disability pension application: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija; Liukko, Jyri

    2017-08-17

    To study labor market positions of rejected disability pension applicants and to examine which characteristics predict ending up in these positions after the rejection. Nationwide Finnish register data was used to describe employment, unemployment and disability pension trajectories of rejected applicants (n = 5740) from four years before to four years after the rejection. Demographic, occupational and health-related determinants of labor market position after the rejection were examined among those employed and not employed at the time of the rejection. The proportion of the employed steeply decreased and that of unemployed increased before the rejection of a disability pension application. Four years after the rejection, 30% of the rejected applicants were employed, 24% were unemployed and 30% received disability pension. Employment at the time of the rejection, younger age, shorter unemployment history, public sector employment and milder work disability increased future employment. Manual work, public sector employment and previous long-term unemployment predicted future unemployment. Apart from higher age, associations with receiving disability pension were relatively weak. For many rejected disability pension applicants return to work is challenging. Special efforts should be targeted to support the remaining work ability and to promote employment opportunities of the rejected applicants. Implications for Rehabilitation Employment, unemployment and receiving disability pension were equally common labor market positions four years after the rejection. Rejected DP applicants with unemployment history need special efforts to increase their employability. As a disability pension application, even if rejected, clearly indicates some degree of work ability problems, rehabilitation should be targeted at this time point to support employment.

  3. Advanced maternal age increases the risk of very preterm birth, irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, U; Cnattingius, S; Vixner, L; Norman, M

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether advanced maternal age is associated with preterm birth, irrespective of parity. Population-based registry study. Swedish Medical Birth Register. First, second, and third live singleton births to women aged 20 years or older in Sweden, from 1990 to 2011 (n = 2 009 068). Logistic regression analysis was used in each parity group to estimate risks of very and moderately preterm births to women at 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or older, using 25-29 years as the reference group. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for year of birth, education, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, and history of preterm birth. Age-related risks of spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births were also investigated. Very preterm (22-31 weeks of gestation) and moderately preterm (32-36 weeks) births. Risks of very preterm birth increased with maternal age, irrespective of parity: adjusted ORs in first, second, and third births ranged from 1.18 to 1.28 at 30-34 years, from 1.59 to 1.70 at 35-39 years, and from 1.97 to 2.40 at ≥40 years. In moderately preterm births, age-related associations were weaker, but were statistically significant from 35-39 years in all parity groups. Advanced maternal age increased the risks of both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births. Advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, irrespective of parity, especially very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older, expecting their first, second, or third births, should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth, irrespective of parity. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Comorbidities, treatment patterns and cost-of-illness of acromegaly in Sweden: a register-linkage population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesén, Eva; Granfeldt, Daniel; Houchard, Aude; Dinet, Jérôme; Berthon, Anthony; Olsson, Daniel S; Björholt, Ingela; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a complex endocrine disease with multiple comorbidities. Treatment to obtain biochemical remission includes surgery, medical therapy and radiation. We aimed to describe comorbidities, treatment patterns and cost-of-illness in patients with acromegaly in Sweden. A nationwide population-based study. Patients with acromegaly were identified and followed in national registers in Sweden. Longitudinal treatment patterns were assessed in patients diagnosed between July 2005 and December 2013. The cost-of-illness during 2013 was estimated from a societal perspective among patients diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Among 358 patients with acromegaly (48% men, mean age at diagnosis 50.0 (s.d. 15.3) years) at least one comorbidity was reported in 81% (n = 290). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (40%, n = 142), neoplasms outside the pituitary (30%, n = 109), hypopituitarism (22%, n = 80) and diabetes mellitus (17%, n = 61). Acromegaly treatment was initiated on average 3.7 (s.d. 6.9) months after diagnosis. Among the 301 treated patients, the most common first-line treatments were surgery (60%, n = 180), somatostatin analogues (21%, n = 64) and dopamine agonists (14%, n = 41). After primary surgery, 24% (n = 44) received somatostatin analogues. The annual per-patient cost was €12 000; this was €8700 and €16 000 if diagnosed before or after July 2005, respectively. The cost-of-illness for acromegaly and its comorbidities was 77% from direct costs and 23% from production loss. The prevalence of comorbidity is high in patients with acromegaly. The most common first-line treatment in acromegalic patients was surgery followed by somatostatin analogues. The annual per-patient cost of acromegaly and its comorbidities was €12 000. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  6. Ambiguous absence, ambiguous presence: a qualitative study of military reserve families in wartime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Anthony J; Willerton, Elaine; Clymer, Shelley R; MacDermid, Shelley M; Weiss, Howard M

    2008-04-01

    The "Global War on Terrorism" has resulted in reservists being deployed at an ever-increasing rate. However, because reservists and their families are unaccustomed to deployments, many families may experience boundary ambiguity, a state in which family members are uncertain in their perception about who is in or out of the family and who is performing which roles and tasks within the family. This qualitative description study examined boundary ambiguity in military reserve families over time. A sample of 34 reservists, spouses, and parents was interviewed 7 times within the 1st year of the reservists' return from Iraq. During deployment, all family members experienced boundary ambiguity. Gathering information and attending a family support group provided some relief for families. After the reservists returned, couples as well as those who had experienced additional life events or losses experienced the highest levels of boundary ambiguity. However, this boundary ambiguity dissipated over time, as families tended to restabilize once the reservists had returned to work and a routine had been established.

  7. A study on socio-demographic profile and feasibility of DOTS provider registered under RNTCP in Varanasi district Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Afzalul Haque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is a major chronic disorder affecting the larger population more than any other disease in the country. DOTS was introduced in India in 1993 as part of the Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP following a review of India’s National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP a year earlier (1 .Patient satisfaction is an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. There is need to assess the health care provider regarding the consumer satisfaction as often as possible, this paper summarizes our experience about role of DOTS provider in the management of TB patient in rural population of Varanasi districts Utter Pradesh. Objective: (1 To assess the perception of registered tuberculosis patients regarding DOTS provider for the treatment of tuberculosis. (2 To assess the accessibility, acceptability & availability of community DOTS provider. Design: A longitudinal study. Setting: Three microscopic centre of Cholapur Tuberculosis unit of Varanasi districts. Methods: Registered patients were interviewed twice: once in the beginning and another at the completion of the treatment or after the permanent discontinuation of the treatment. Patients were interviewed for their socio-demographic profiles, opinion about DOTS and its providers. Side effects experienced and action taken etc. Data was collected on a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire. DOTS providers were interviewed and treatment cards analyzed for any interruption of treatment and action taken. Data was collected from 1st June 2004 to 31th June 2005 till the completion of the regimen. Results: Majority of DOTS providers were young males (82.7% of 26 years to 40 years, while the representation of females was only 5 (17.3%. Almost more than 80% of the patients started their treatment within 1-10 days. For majority of cases (83% the distance of DOTS provider from patient’s house was within 1 km. Mean time spent to go to DOTS provider was 27

  8. MENJEJAKI AKSES TERHADAP KEADILAN DALAM KONFLIK AGRARIA: STUDI PADA WARGA MORO-MORO REGISTER 45 MESUJI LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oki Hajiansyah Wahab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Agrarian conflictare inextricably linked to issues of injustice. There is a view that in equality in the agrarian conflicts can and should be resolved through legal measures, which were touted asthe establishmentand enforcement measures. By elaborating the idea of ​​access to justice within the framework of ROLAX and ROLGOM, as well as approach esthatare reviewed by the Theory access Ribot and Peluso, this paper seeks to study how access to justice can be achieve din agrarian conflicts. Of elaboration that access to justice can be the key to recovery in equalityin agrarian conflicts not only depend on the outcome of judicial decision simposing procedural-formal. The approach used is expected to read the constellation of the struggle for justice more broadly than just law enforcement measures and the establishment of formal, ie starting from the flow of benefits as well as the power relations that underliean access, to the quality of the legal system and achieving justice process based on the rule of law. With the scope of the analytical framework and approach, this paper focuses on the theoretical and conceptual depth. However this paperal so gives an over view and attempta simple analysis of the struggle of the Moro-moro citizens Register 45 Mesuji Lampung as acasestudy of the acquisition of access to justicein agrarian conflicts. Abstrak. Ada pandangan bahwa ketidakadilan dalam konflik agraria dapat diselesaikan melalui langkah yuridis sebagai langkah pembentukan dan penegakan hukum. Dengan mengelaborasi gagasan akses terhadap keadilan dalam kerangka Rolax dan Rolgom, serta pendekatan Teori Akses yang ditelaah oleh Ribot dan Peluso, tulisan ini berupaya untuk mempelajari bagaimana akses terhadap keadilan dapat dicapai dalam konflik agraria. Pendekatan yang digunakan diharapkan mampu membaca konstelasi perjuangan akan keadilan secara lebih

  9. Hand sanitisers for reducing illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand: a cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poore Marion R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand has relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared with other OECD countries, with infectious disease being more prevalent in children compared with others in the population. Consequences of infectious disease in children may have significant economic and social impact beyond the direct effects of the disease on the health of the child; including absence from school, transmission of infectious disease to other pupils, staff, and family members, and time off work for parents/guardians. Reduction of the transmission of infectious disease between children at schools could be an effective way of reducing the community incidence of infectious disease. Alcohol based no-rinse hand sanitisers provide an alternative hand cleaning technology, for which there is some evidence that they may be effective in achieving this. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of hand sanitisers, and importantly, the potential wider economic implications of this intervention have not been established. Aims The primary objective of this trial is to establish if the provision of hand sanitisers in primary schools in the South Island of New Zealand, in addition to an education session on hand hygiene, reduces the incidence rate of absence episodes due to illness in children. In addition, the trial will establish the cost-effectiveness and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the intervention in this setting. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be undertaken to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hand sanitisers. Sixty-eight primary schools will be recruited from three regions in the South Island of New Zealand. The schools will be randomised, within region, to receive hand sanitisers and an education session on hand hygiene, or an education session on hand hygiene alone. Fifty pupils from each school in years 1 to 6 (generally aged from 5 to 11 years

  10. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  11. The Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....

  12. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  13. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden--a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Norredam, Marie; Hjern, Anders

    2014-12-20

    Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees according to duration of residence during the first 10 years in Sweden. Cross-sectional register study of a national cohort of 43 403 refugees and their families (23-35 years old) from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan and a comparison population of 1.1 million Swedish-born residents. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between duration of residence in Sweden and the dispensing of at least one psychotropic medication during 2009 in four categories (any drug, neuroleptics, antidepressants and anxiolytics/hypnotics), adjusting for age, gender and domicile. Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar to the Swedish-born, with no consistent trend by duration of residence. Women from the Horn of Africa and Iraq/Iran consumed less psychotropic drugs compared with men from these regions of origin, relative to the Swedish-born (p refugee study groups, while the ORs for dispensed antidepressants differed fourfold between the group with the lowest (Horn of Africa) and the highest (Afghanistan). The rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs in the newly settled refugee populations in this study were low, with an

  14. Reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women treated with an oral bisphosphonate-Danish National Register Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, M; Abrahamsen, B; Eiken, Pia Agnete;

    2012-01-01

    In this Danish national register-based cohort study, we examined the effects of alendronate on the development of colon cancers and survival. The incidence of colon cancer and mortality rate, once colon cancer had been diagnosed, were lower in patients treated with alendronate, posing the questio...

  15. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…

  16. Practice Leadership at the Front Line in Supporting People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of Registered Managers of Community-Based, Staffed Group Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: The front-line management role in services for people with intellectual disabilities remains rather under-researched. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of registered managers in services for adults with intellectual disability who exhibit challenging behaviour. Method: Interviews, primarily focussed upon staff…

  17. Transitions between sickness absence, work, unemployment, and disability in Denmark 2004-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob; Bjørner, Jakob; Burr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Studies of labor market outcomes like sickness absence are usually restricted to a single outcome. This paper investigates the use of multi-state models for studying multiple transitions between sick-listing, work, unemployment, and disability pension by analyzing longitudinal register data. Every...

  18. Implementing a nationwide criteria-based emergency medical dispatch system: a register-based follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikkel S; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Sørensen, Jan Nørtved; Jepsen, Søren Bruun; Hansen, Jesper Bjerring; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2013-07-09

    A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks. This was a register-based follow-up study of all 1-1-2 calls in a 6-month period that were triaged according to the Danish Index - the new criteria-based dispatch protocol. Danish Index data were linked with hospital and vital status data from national registries. Confidence intervals (95%) for proportions with binomial data were computed using exact methods. To test for trend the Wald test was used. Information on level of emergency according to the Danish Index rating was available for 67,135 patients who received ambulance service. Emergency level A (urgent cases) accounted for 51.4% (n = 34,489) of patients, emergency level B for 46.3% (n = 31,116), emergency level C for 2.1% (n = 1,391) and emergency level D for 0.2% (n = 139). For emergency level A, the median time from call receipt to ambulance dispatch was 2 min 1 s, and the median time to arrival was 6 min 11 s. Data concerning admission and case fatality was available for 55,270 patients. The hospital admission risk for emergency level A patients was 64.4% (95% CI = 63.8-64.9). There was a significant trend (p < 0.001) towards lower admission risks for patients with lower levels of emergency. The case fatality risk for emergency level A patients on the same day as the 1-1-2 call was 4.4% (95% CI = 4.1-4.6). The relative case-fatality risk among emergency level A patients compared to emergency level B-D patients was 14.3 (95% CI: 11.5-18.0). The majority of patients were assessed as Danish Index emergency level A or B. Case fatality and hospital admission risks were substantially higher for emergency level A patients than for emergency level B-D patients. Thus, the newly implemented Danish criteria

  19. Association Between Spousal Suicide and Mental, Physical, and Social Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal and Nationwide Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M; Wilcox, Holly C; Forman, Julie L; Krogh, Jesper; Shear, M Katherine; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-05-01

    Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc herniation); causes of mortality (all-cause, natural, unintentional, suicide, and homicide); social health outcomes; and health care use. The total study population included 3 491 939 men, 4814 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide, and 3 514 959 women, 10 793 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide. Spouses bereaved by a partner's suicide had higher risks of developing mental disorders within 5 years of the loss (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0; women: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8) than the general population. Elevated risks for developing physical disorders, such as cirrhosis and sleep disorders, were also noted as well as the use of more municipal support, sick leave benefits, and disability pension funds than the general population. Compared with spouses bereaved by other manners of death, those bereaved by

  20. Psychiatric diagnoses, medication and risk for disability pension in multiple sclerosis patients; a population-based register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Brenner

    Full Text Available Psychiatric comorbidity is common among multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The majority of MS patients of working ages are on disability pension. The aims of this study were to chart the prevalences of psychiatric diagnoses and medications among MS patients of working ages, and to investigate their association with the risk for future disability pension.This nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study includes 10,750 MS patients and 5,553,141 non-MS individuals who in 2005 were aged 17-64 years. Psychiatric diagnoses and medications were identified using nationwide registers. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated adjusting for socio-demographics. Furthermore, a survival analysis with five-year follow-up was performed among the 4,571 MS patients not on disability pension in 2005, with psychiatric diagnoses and medication as risk factors, and disability pension as the outcome.Among MS patients, 35% had been prescribed psychiatric medication compared to 10% of non-MS individuals, adjusted OR 3.72 (95% CI 3.57 to 3.88. Ten percent of MS patients had received a psychiatric diagnosis, compared to 5.7% of non-MS individuals, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.94. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, were the most commonly prescribed drugs (17% among MS patients, while depression (4.8% was the most common psychiatric diagnosis. In the survival analysis, MS patients with any psychiatric diagnosis had a hazard ratio (HR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.18 for disability pension compared to other MS patients. MS patients with any psychiatric drug prescription had a HR for disability pension of 2.09 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.33.Psychiatric diagnoses and medications are common among MS patients and adversely affect risk for disability pension. This highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and management of psychiatric comorbidity, in a clinical as well as in a societal perspective.

  1. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Birgitte Wisbech Carstensen

    Full Text Available 10-22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision.719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 3.8 (2.1;7.1 and future neck pain (OR (95%CI = 3.3 (1.8;6.3, controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2 = 36.7, p < 0.001 and unemployment (χ2(2 = 12.5, p = 0.002 pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI = 3.1 (2.3;4.4 compared with controls.Sick leave before the collision strongly predicted prolonged recovery

  2. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Taloyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. METHODS: Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12, also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06. Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. CONCLUSION: The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  3. Morbidity trends of elderly people registered in Croatian family practice: a longitudinal study based on routinely collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljubašić, Maja; Keglević, Mladenka Vrcić

    2014-12-01

    The research aim was to determine the overall morbidity trends in Croatian elderly population. The morbidity data recorded in family practice (FP) were extracted from Croatian Health Service Yearbooks for the years 1995-2012. The percentage of diagnoses in elderly people registered in FM was always higher then their shares in overall population, and with increased trend by 121%. The most frequently registered diagnostic groups were cardiovascular and neoplasms, followed by the groups of endocrine, urogenital and musculoskeletal diseases. The less frequently registered were the groups of infectious disease, injuries and ear diseases. However, the situation is somewhat different when looking at the amount of the increase. The Z codes increased the most, followed by endocrine diseases and neoplasms. Again, the less pronounced increase was observed in the groups of respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal, infectious diseases and injuries. The growing number of the older people and changing morbidity patterns will obviously influence both the entire society and the health care system. A new clinical and cost effective models of practice would be needed as well as the different models of personnel training.

  4. Non-adherence to drug therapy and drug acquisition costs in a national population - a patient-based register study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients' non-adherence to drug therapy is a major problem for society as it is associated with reduced health outcomes. Generally, approximately only 50% of patients with chronic disease in developed countries adhere to prescribed therapy, and the most common non-adherence refers to chronic under-use, i.e. patients use less medication than prescribed or prematurely stop the therapy. Patients' non-adherence leads to high additional costs for society in terms of poor health. Non-adherence is also related to the unnecessary sale of drugs. The aim of the present study was to estimate the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy in a national population. Methods We constructed a model of the drug acquisition cost related to non-adherence to drug therapy based on patient register data of dispensed out-patient prescriptions in the entire Swedish population during a 12-month period. In the model, the total drug acquisition cost was successively adjusted for the assumed different rates of primary non-adherence (prescriptions not being filled by the patient), and secondary non-adherence (medication not being taken as prescribed) according to the patient's age, therapies, and the number of dispensed drugs per patient. Results With an assumption of a general primary non-adherence rate of 3%, and a general secondary non-adherence rate of 50%, for all types of drugs, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 11.2 billion (€ 1.2 billion), or 48.5% of total drug acquisition costs in Sweden 2006. With the assumption of varying primary non-adherence rates for different age groups and different secondary non-adherence rates for varying types of drug therapies, the acquisition cost related to non-adherence totalled SEK 9.3 billion (€ 1.0 billion), or 40.2% of the total drug acquisition costs. When the assumption of varying primary and secondary non-adherence rates for a different number of dispensed drugs per patient was added to

  5. Chemical modification of chitosan in the absence of solvent for diclofenac sodium removal: pH and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Kerlaine Alexandre Araujo; Osorio, Luizangela Reis; Silva, Marcos Pereira; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI/CCN), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Lab. Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avancados; Sousa, Kaline Soares [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB/CCEN), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Dept. de Quimica

    2014-08-15

    Chitosan was modified with acetylacetone and ethylenediamine in the absence of solvent. The new biopolymer obtained from the modification was characterized by elemental analysis and NMR 13C and applied in the removal of diclofenac sodium aqueous solution varying the pH and time. Through elemental analysis was possible to verify a decreasing in C/N relation after reaction with acetylacetone and an increasing after modification with ethylenediamine. From NMR analysis was verified the appearance of peaks around 160-210 ppm in both materials due to free carbonyl groups in the first step of the modification, besides the formation of imine bonds. The adsorption tests showed that the highest value occurred at pH 4 and from the results of the kinetic study was found that maximum adsorption occurred within 45 minutes and experimental data adjusted better to linear adjustment, following pseudo second-order model. The results show a material efficient in the removal of emerging pollutants. (author)

  6. Ultrastructural study of the neovagina following the utilization of human amniotic membrane for treatment of congenital absence of the vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bleggi-Torres

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an ultrastructural study of the utilization of human amniotic membrane in the treatment of congenital absence of the vagina in 10 patients. All patients were surgically treated with application of an amniotic membrane graft using the modified McIndoe and Bannister technique. Sixty days after surgery, samples of the vaginal neo-epithelium were collected for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ultrastructural findings consisted of a lining of mature squamous epithelium indicating the occurrence of metaplasia of the amniotic epithelium into the vaginal epithelium. The cells were arranged in layers as in the normal vaginal epithelium, i.e., superficial, intermediate and deep layers. There were desmosomes and cytoplasmic intermediate cytokeratin filaments, as well as some remnant features of the previous amniotic epithelium. These findings suggest that human amniotic membrane is able to complete metaplasia into squamous cells but the mechanism of this cellular transformation is unknown

  7. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Mageroy, N.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Pallesen, S.; Bjorvatn, B.; Moen, B. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in

  8. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence : Results from a Norwegian cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Magerøy, B.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Pallesen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare r

  9. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  10. Cesarean section and rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy: a Danish register-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad M O'Neill

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996, with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28 was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31 and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35, although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15 and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21, yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85. Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment

  11. Nursing: Registered Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a diploma from an approved nursing program. Registered nurses also must be licensed. Education In all nursing education programs, students take courses in anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, nutrition, psychology, and other social and ...

  12. IT Risk register

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part of the thesis analyzes several selected methodologies and best-practices related to information technology risks management, with focus on documents and guidance developed by ISACA. It builds a set of ideas and basic requirements for effective model of an IT risk register. Strong emphasis is placed on mapping CobiT 4.1 based Risk IT to COBIT 5. The practical part describes implementation of an exploratory web-based IT risk register in Python programming language utilizing...

  13. Sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses and risk of disability pension: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Friberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing difficulties are a large public health problem. Knowledge is scarce regarding risk of disability pension among people who have been sickness absent due to these difficulties. METHODS: A cohort including all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden in 2005, aged 20-64, and not on disability or old-age pension, was followed through 2009. Incidence rate ratios (RR of disability pension with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: In multivariable models, individuals who had a sick-leave spell due to otoaudiological diagnoses in 2005 had a 1.52-fold (95% CI: 1.43-1.62 increased risk of being granted a disability pension compared to individuals on sick leave due to other diagnoses. Hearing and tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses were associated with risk of disability pension: RR 3.38, 95% CI: 3.04-3.75, and 3.30, 95% CI: 2.95-3.68, respectively. No association was observed between sick leave due to vertigo diagnoses and disability pension whereas otological diagnoses and no sick leave were inversely associated with risk of disability pension compared to non-otoaudiological sick-leave diagnoses. Sick leave due to otoaudiological diagnoses was positively associated with risk of disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses and sick leave due to a tinnitus diagnosis was also associated with risk of disability pension due to mental diagnoses. The risk of disability pension among individuals with hearing or tinnitus sick-leave diagnoses was highest in the age group 35-44. Moreover, men had a slightly higher risk. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study suggests an increased risk of disability pension among those with sickness absence due to otoaudiological diagnoses, particularly hearing and tinnitus diagnoses, compared to those with sickness absence due to non-otoaudiological diagnoses.

  14. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection.

  15. Fractures in Individuals With and Without a History of Infantile Autism. A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Discharge Diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2012-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average...... observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4 years), and mean age at follow-up was 42.7 years (range 27.3-57.3 years). Of the 118 individuals with IA, 14 (11.9%) were registered with at least one fracture diagnosis against 83 (24.7%) in the comparison group (p = 0.004; OR = 0.41; 95%CI 0.......22-0.76), but the nature of their fractures seems somewhat different. Epilepsy was a risk factor, but only in the comparison group. Our results lend no support to the notion that fracture is a common comorbid condition in a population of people diagnosed with IA as children....

  16. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity-a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise

    2016-01-01

    to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08)). In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when...... adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year...

  17. Is the work ability index useful to evaluate absence days in ankylosing spondylitis patients? A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katharina; Niedermann, Karin; Tschopp, Alois; Klipstein, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background The work incapacity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) ranges between 3% and 50% in Europe. In many countries, work incapacity is difficult to quantify. The work ability index (WAI) is applied to measure the work ability in workers, but it is not well investigated in patients. Aims To investigate the work incapacity in terms of absence days in patients with AS and to evaluate whether the WAI reflects the absence from work. Hypothesis Absence days can be estimated based on the WAI and other variables. Design Cross-sectional design. Setting In a secondary care centre in Switzerland, the WAI and a questionnaire about work absence were administered in AS patients prior to cardiovascular training. The number of absence days was collected retrospectively. The absence days were estimated using a two-part regression model. Participants 92 AS patients (58 men (63%)). Inclusion criteria: AS diagnosis, ability to cycle, age between 18 and 65 years. Exclusion criteria: severe heart disease. Primary and secondary outcome measures Absence days. Results Of the 92 patients, 14 received a disability pension and 78 were in the working process. The median absence days per year of the 78 patients due to AS alone and including other reasons was 0 days (IQR 0–12.3) and 2.5 days (IQR 0–19), respectively. The WAI score (regression coefficient=−4.66 (p<0.001, CI −6.1 to −3.2), ‘getting a disability pension’ (regression coefficient=−106.8 (p<0.001, 95% CI −141.6 to −72.0) and other not significant variables explained 70% of the variance in absence days (p<0.001), and therefore may estimate the number of absence days. Conclusions Absences in our sample of AS patients were equal to pan-European countries. In groups of AS patients, the WAI and other variables are valid to estimate absence days with the help of a two-part regression model. PMID:23524041

  18. Association Between Prepartum Maternal Iron Deficiency and Offspring Risk of Schizophrenia: Population-Based Cohort Study With Linkage of Danish National Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... a 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.15) increased risk of schizophrenia. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown and independent replication is needed, our findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency increases offspring risk of schizophrenia....... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...

  19. Association Between Prepartum Maternal Iron Deficiency and Offspring Risk of Schizophrenia: Population-Based Cohort Study With Linkage of Danish National Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...... a diagnosis of anemia at any time during the pregnancy. Cohort members were followed from their 10th birthday until onset of schizophrenia, death, or December 31, 2008, whichever came first. Adjusted for relevant confounders, cohort members whose mothers had received a diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy had...

  20. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR...

  1. Increasing incidence of statin treatmentamong the elderly and those withoutprevious cardiovascular conditions. A nationwide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    for the increasing Danish statin utilization during 1996-2005, applying treatment incidence as a measure of changing prescribing behaviour Methods: Applying three nationwide registers, we followed Danish inhabitants with respect to demographics, dispensed prescriptions of cardiovascular drugs and antidiabetics along...... with discharge diagnoses and surgical procedures performed during 1977-2005. The disease status for all cohort members was assigned by means of disease markers for seven cardiovascular conditions, corresponding to a hierarchy of broad indications for statin therapy. Using the indication hierarchy, we computed...... treatment incidence of statins each year stratifying by indication, age and gender. We estimated the overall and age/indication specific increases in incidence as incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), using Poisson regression analyses. Results: Treatment incidence increased from 4...

  2. Delusional disorder in old age and the risk of developing dementia: a nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana G; Lauritzen, Lise

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether very late first-contact delusional disorder carries a risk for later development of dementia. METHODS: By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nationwide registers of all out- and in-patients with hospital contact in Denmark, we included all 60+ patients...... with first ever from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2001 with the index main diagnosis: delusional disorder. First contact osteoarthritis patients as well as the general population were used as controls. A total of 1,437 patients with persistent delusional disorder and 7,302 patients with osteoarthritis were......-contact delusional disorder had an 8.14 (95% CI, 6.51; 10.19) times increased rate of subsequently developing dementia compared with very late first contact osteoarthritis patients. Compared with the general population the rate ratio was 5.49 (95% CI, 4.81; 6.26). CONCLUSION: Very late first-contact delusional...

  3. Study on the Legal Issues Related to Micro-blog Registered%微博抢注的相关法律问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏依

    2016-01-01

    Micro-blog as a new thing in the network, whether it is from the number of participants or from the perspective of information transmission, it plays an important role. Due to the characteristics of micro-blog registered user name can not be repeated, micro-blog names behavior also appear constantly. Some people even get commercial interests from micro-blog re-gistered in. However, micro-blog registered this behavior may reputation right of natural persons, enterprise trademark in-fringement. The author from registered micro Po the act itself of comprehensive study of the registered micro Po related legal relationship and social harm of, and compares the registered micro Po is the class of problems for the provisions of, and our country for domain name registration related legal doctrine, for our country solve micro blog grab note this problem means that can be used for reference.%微博作为网络的新生事物,无论是从参与人数或是从信息传递的角度看来,都起着重要的作用。由于微博注册用户名不能重复的特点,微博名称抢注的行为也不断出现。甚至有些人从微博抢注中获得了商业利益。但是,微博抢注这一行为可能会对自然人的名誉权,企业的商标权等造成侵害。笔者从微博抢注这一行为本身出发,综合研究了微博抢注有关的法律关系及社会危害性,并比较考察国外对于类微博抢注问题的规定,以及我国对于域名抢注相关的法律学说,为我国解决微博抢注这一问题提供了可借鉴的手段。

  4. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... Medical Birth Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to identify all individuals born between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1990 and diagnosed prior to 29 August 2003 with affective disorder alone (ICD-10 F3; 4297 females, 1861 males), schizophrenia alone (ICD-10 F2; 1364 females, 2292...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  5. Study of the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and microbial protein contribution to the chyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, A; Abecia, L; Holtrop, G; Guada, J A; Castrillo, C; de la Fuente, G; Balcells, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis under different diets. Of 20 twin paired lambs, 1 lamb of each pair was isolated from the ewe within 24 h after birth and reared in a protozoa-free environment (n = 10), whereas their respective twin-siblings remained with the ewe (faunated, n = 10). When lambs reached 6 mo of age, 5 animals of each group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental diets consisting of either alfalfa hay as the sole diet, or 50:50 mixed with ground barley grain according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After 15 d of adaptation to the diet, the animals were euthanized and total rumen and abomasal contents were sampled to estimate rumen microbial synthesis using C(31) alkane as flow marker. Different ((15)N and purine bases) and a novel (recombinant DNA sequences) microbial markers, combined with several microbial reference extracts (rumen protozoa, liquid and solid associated bacteria) were evaluated. Absence of rumen protozoa modified the rumen fermentation pattern and decreased total tract OM and NDF digestibility in 2.0 and 5.1 percentage points, respectively. The effect of defaunation on microbial N flow was weak, however, and was dependent on the microbial marker and microbial reference extract considered. Faunated lambs fed with mixed diet showed the greatest rumen protozoal concentration and the least efficient microbial protein synthesis (29% less than the other treatments), whereas protozoa-free lambs fed with mixed diet presented the smallest ammonia concentration and 34% greater efficiency of N utilization than the other treatments. Although (15)N gave the most precise estimates of microbial synthesis, the use of recombinant DNA sequences represents an alternative that allows separate quantification of the bacteria and protozoa contributions. This marker showed that presence of protozoa decrease the

  6. Predictors of suicidal behaviour in 36,304 individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders -- a Swedish register linkage cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2013-01-01

    factors for severe medical outcomes, like suicidal behavior, is lacking to date. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of suicide attempt and suicide among sickness absentees with SRMD. METHODS: A cohort of 36,304 non-retired individuals, aged 16-64 years on 31.12.2004, with at least one...... individuals attempted suicide and 34 committed suicide. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors increased the risk of suicide attempt: = 1 sickness absence spell, long duration of the first spell of sickness absence due to SRMD (> 180...

  7. A General Review of Register Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    <正>Register theory is important in the study of linguistic.It is developed by Halliday who defined it as a variety of language according to use.According to Halliday,language is strained by three variables:field,tenor and mode,which are the three variables of register.Nowadays,more and more researchers are focusing on the application of register theory on specific English

  8. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Nahum

    Full Text Available Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13 and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  9. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Louis; Gabriel, Damien; Schnider, Armin

    2011-01-27

    Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13) and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  10. Processor register error correction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  11. Multilevel analysis of workplace and individual risk factors for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if psychosocial and physical work-environment factors predict long-term sickness absence (>8 weeks) at both the individual and the workplace level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces....... Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel logistic regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors of long-term sickness absence over 5 years based on data from a national absence register. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by physical work......-environment factors at the individual level and psychosocial work environment factors at the workplace level. Interaction between the individual physical and workplace-level psychosocial risk factors was found. CONCLUSION: Workplace-based absence reduction interventions can be enhanced by concurrently addressing...

  12. Register file soft error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  13. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling to ad...... of missing information on immigrants, the level is still low in an international context....

  14. Hello! Are You Registered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…

  15. The Danish heart register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology. Content: All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source...

  16. Hello! Are You Registered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…

  17. Sugammadex facilitates early recovery after surgery even in the absence of neuromuscular monitoring in patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery: a single-center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui-Seok; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Il Ok

    2016-08-02

    In many countries, routine clinical anaesthesia does not always involve neuromuscular monitoring. In these clinical settings, the efficacy and safety of sugammadex use has not yet been confirmed. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in the absence of neuromuscular monitoring. One hundred and forty patients who underwent laryngeal microsurgery with the use of rocuronium as a neuromuscular blocking agent, without the use of a neuromuscular monitoring device, were retrospectively investigated. The patients were randomly chosen among all the patients who met the inclusion criteria at a tertiary university hospital between July 2013 and February 2015 and were allocated to group S (sugammadex group) or group P (pyridostigmine group) according to the neuromuscular reversal agent administered. Five patients were excluded from analysis and 135 patients completed the study. Primary outcome was extubation time. Secondary outcomes were anaesthesia time, the correlation between anaesthesia time and extubation time, the total amount of rocuronium, and postoperative adverse events in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU). Extubation time was significantly shorter in group S (6.3 ± 3.9 min) than in group P (9.0 ± 5.4 min). Anaesthesia time was also significantly shorter in group S (30.7 ± 10.3 min) than in group P (35.8 ± 12.6 min). In the patients with an anaesthesia time of 30 min or less, there was a positive correlation between anaesthesia time and extubation time in group P (r = 0.453), but there was no significant relationship in group S. The total amount of rocuronium used was higher in group S (0.62 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) than in group P (0.38 ± 0.14 mg kg(-1)). Postoperative adverse events in the PACU were comparable between the groups, except for tachycardia events: the incidence of tachycardia was significantly lower in group S (8.0 %) than in group P (17.3 %). Sugammadex could shorten anaesthesia and extubation

  18. Delusional disorder in old age and the risk of developing dementia: a nationwide register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørner, Alex; Lopez, Ana G; Lauritzen, Lise; Andersen, Per K; Kessing, Lars V

    2008-09-01

    To examine whether very late first-contact delusional disorder carries a risk for later development of dementia. By linkage of the psychiatric and the somatic nationwide registers of all out- and in-patients with hospital contact in Denmark, we included all 60+ patients with first ever from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2001 with the index main diagnosis: delusional disorder. First contact osteoarthritis patients as well as the general population were used as controls. A total of 1,437 patients with persistent delusional disorder and 7,302 patients with osteoarthritis were included. Median follow-up time until first diagnosis of dementia at discharge was 1.87 and 4.40 years, respectively. The probability of getting a dementia diagnosis was estimated using Poisson regression models with dementia as the outcome of interest. Patients with very late first-contact delusional disorder had an 8.14 (95% CI, 6.51; 10.19) times increased rate of subsequently developing dementia compared with very late first contact osteoarthritis patients. Compared with the general population the rate ratio was 5.49 (95% CI, 4.81; 6.26). Very late first-contact delusional disorder increases the risk of subsequently getting a diagnosis of dementia 5-8 times compared with osteoarthritis patients and the general population.

  19. Work disability before and after a major cardiovascular event: a ten-year study using nationwide medical and insurance registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Lallukka, Tea; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Friberg, Emilie; Kivimäki, Mika; Lundström, Erik; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-04-25

    We examined the trajectories of work disability before and after IHD and stroke events. New IHD (n = 13521) and stroke (n = 7162) cases in 2006-2008 were retrieved from nationwide Swedish hospital records and their annual work disability days five years before and after the date of diagnosis were retrieved from a nationwide disability register. There was no pre-event differences in disability days between the IHD and stroke cases and five years prior to the event, they were close to those observed in the general population. In the first post-event year, the adjusted mean days increased to 83.9 (95% CI 80.6-86.5) in IHD; to 179.5 (95% CI 172.4-186.8) in stroke, a six-fold increase in IHD and 14-fold in stroke. Work disability leveled off among the IHD cases but not among those who had stroke. The highest disability levels for the fifth post-event year after a stroke event was associated with pre-existing diabetes (146.9), mental disorder (141.2), non-employment (137.0), and immigrant status (117.9). In a working-age population, the increase in work disability after a cardiovascular event decreases close to the pre-event level in IHD but remains particularly high after stroke; among patients with comorbid depression or diabetes, immigrants, and those not in employment.

  20. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Real

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis.Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008-2012.Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables. Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to 'improvement' and with working in the transport sector and public administration.Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders.

  1. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... weeks. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected from 1996 until 2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...

  2. High birth weight and perinatal mortality among siblings: A register based study in Norway, 1967-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Corbett, Karina; Irgens, Lorentz M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality according to birth weight has an inverse J-pattern. Our aim was to estimate the influence of familial factors on this pattern, applying a cohort sibling design. We focused on excess mortality among macrosomic infants (>2 SD above the mean) and hypothesized that the birth weight-mortality association could be explained by confounding shared family factors. We also estimated how the participant’s deviation from mean sibling birth weight influenced the association. Methods and findings We included 1 925 929 singletons, born term or post-term to mothers with more than one delivery 1967–2011 registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We examined z-score birth weight and perinatal mortality in random-effects and sibling fixed-effects logistic regression models including measured confounders (e.g. maternal diabetes) as well as unmeasured shared family confounders (through fixed effects models). Birth weight-specific mortality showed an inverse J-pattern, being lowest (2.0 per 1000) at reference weight (z-score +1 to +2) and increasing for higher weights. Mortality in the highest weight category was 15-fold higher than reference. This pattern changed little in multivariable models. Deviance from mean sibling birth weight modified the mortality pattern across the birth weight spectrum: small and medium-sized infants had increased mortality when being smaller than their siblings, and large-sized infants had an increased risk when outweighing their siblings. Maternal diabetes and birth weight acted in a synergistic fashion with mortality among macrosomic infants in diabetic pregnancies in excess of what would be expected for additive effects. Conclusions The inverse J-pattern between birth weight and mortality is not explained by measured confounders or unmeasured shared family factors. Infants are at particularly high mortality risk when their birth weight deviates substantially from their siblings. Sensitivity analysis suggests

  3. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Study of impact of the AP1000{sup Registered-Sign} reactor vessel upper internals design on fuel performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yiban; Conner, Michael; Yuan Kun; Dzodzo, Milorad B.; Karoutas, Zeses; Beltz, Steven A.; Ray, Sumit; Bissett, Teresa A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Chieng, Ching-Chang, E-mail: cchieng@ess.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Kao, Min-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Yun [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    One aspect of the AP1000{sup Registered-Sign} reactor design is the reduction in the number of major components and simplification in manufacturing. One design change relative to current Westinghouse reactors of similar size is the reduction in the number of reactor vessel outlet nozzles/hot legs leaving the upper plenum from three to two. With regard to fuel performance, this design difference creates a different flow field in the AP1000 reactor vessel upper plenum (the region above the core). The flow exiting core and entering the upper plenum must turn 90 Degree-Sign , flow laterally through the upper plenum around support structures, and exit through one of the two outlet nozzles. While the flow in the top of the core is mostly axial, there is some lateral flow component as the core flow reacts to the flow field and pressure distribution in the upper plenum. The pressure distribution in the upper plenum varies laterally depending upon various factors including the proximity to the outlet nozzles. To determine how the lateral flow in the top of the AP1000 core compares to current Westinghouse reactors, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the flow in the upper portion of the AP1000 reactor vessel including the top region of the core, the upper plenum, the reactor vessel outlet nozzles, and a portion of the hot legs was created. Due to geometric symmetry, the computational domain was reduced to a quarter (from the top view) that includes Vulgar-Fraction-One-Quarter of the top of the core, Vulgar-Fraction-One-Quarter of the upper plenum, and Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half of an outlet nozzle. Results from this model include predicted velocity fields and pressure distributions throughout the model domain. The flow patterns inside and around guide tubes clearly demonstrate the influence of lateral flow due to the presence of the outlet nozzles. From these results, comparisons of AP1000 flow versus current Westinghouse plants were performed. Field performance

  5. Development and validation of a web-based survey on the use of personal communication devices by hospital registered nurses: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Deborah L; Levasseur, Sandra A; Li, Dongmei

    2013-11-26

    The use of personal communication devices (such as basic cell phones, enhanced cell phones or smartphones, and tablet computers) in hospital units has risen dramatically in recent years. The use of these devices for personal and professional activities can be beneficial, but also has the potential to negatively affect patient care, as clinicians may become distracted by these devices. No validated questionnaire examining the impact of the use of these devices on patient care exists; thus, we aim to develop and validate an online questionnaire for surveying the views of registered nurses with experience of working in hospitals regarding the impact of the use of personal communication devices on hospital units. A 50-item, four-domain questionnaire on the views of registered nursing staff regarding the impact of personal communication devices on hospital units was developed based on a literature review and interviews with such nurses. A repeated measures pilot study was conducted to examine the psychometrics of a survey questionnaire and the feasibility of conducting a larger study. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire included examining internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability in a sample of 50 registered nurses. The response rate for the repeated measures was 30%. Cronbach coefficient alpha was used to examine the internal consistency and reliability, and in three of the four question groups (utilization, impact, and opinions), the correlation was observed to be very high. This suggests that the questions were measuring a single underlying theme. The Cronbach alpha value for the questions in the performance group, describing the use of personal communication devices while working, was lower than those for the other question groups. These values may be an indication that the assumptions underlying the Cronbach alpha calculation may have been violated for this group of questions. A Spearman rho correlation was used to determine the test

  6. Does sickness absence due to psychiatric disorder predict cause-specific mortality? A 16-year follow-up of the GAZEL occupational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-09-15

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990-1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993-2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence-suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers' health.

  7. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  8. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    performance. It is helpful to describe these findings using theoretical frameworks from sociology and psychology: specifically, spill-over theory and symbolic capital theory. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated how different forms of absence become dynamically interrelated through ongoing negotiations...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING OVERNIGHTS REGISTERED IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ROMANIA, DURING JUNE-SEPTEMBER 2009/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borma Afrodita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Second year PhD student at the University of Oradea, under the guidance of Prof. Alina Badulescu, within the Doctoral Research Project entitled Doctoral studies and phd candidates for a competitive research in a knowledge-based society, (01.10.2009-01.10.2012, I chose the presentation of this theme because after studying a number of statistics presented by Eurostat (Statistics in Focus 53/2010, 6/2011, 19/2011 etc. we could not ignore the alarming situation regarding the number of overnights registered throughout Romania, in comparison with the other Member States of the European Union. By chosing the following research theme: Tourism and development in the euroregional context I felt the need to find out more answers regarding the afore mentioned problem. In consequence I started to consult the statistics recorded in our country concerning the number of overnight stays registered in Romania during the period June-August 2009/2010, in order to check whether an error has sneaked in. The research methodology employed consisted in the use of the insse.ro site, in order to gather representative data for the period June-September 2009/2010, regarding the number of nights spent by foreign and Romanian tourists in Romania. For this study to be even more representative I have established Romania's main touristic areas preferred by Romanian and foreign tourists. Following the data collected, unfortunately, it has been confirmed the situation presented by Eurostat in the table at the beginning of paper on the number of overnight stays registered in Romania. According to the data presented in this table, Romania ranks last in the EU, registering in 2010 a rate of only 15% of total nights spent by non-residents in our country. I also tried to find answer to the following questions: Which are Romanians favorite touristic areas? In which tourist area of Romania has been recorded the highest number of overnight stays of foreign tourists? Why the number of

  10. Return to work among sickness-absent Danish employees: prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study/National Register on Social Transfer Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants within socio-demography, health behaviour, employer characteristics, and psychosocial and physical work environment for return to work. In 2000, a total of 5357 employees were interviewed regarding age, gender, family status, education, health behaviour, e...... for promoting return to work through interventions targeting emotional job demands, job insecurity and decreasing the risks associated with sedentary work.......This study investigates the determinants within socio-demography, health behaviour, employer characteristics, and psychosocial and physical work environment for return to work. In 2000, a total of 5357 employees were interviewed regarding age, gender, family status, education, health behaviour...... return to work. A total of 930 (17.4%) employees experienced sickness absence in the 18 months after baseline. During the 12-month follow-up, 856 (92.0%) returned to work, the mean absence period being 6.6 weeks. Prolonged time to first return to work was associated with female gender, increased age...

  11. Migration of Spanish nurses 2009-2014. Underemployment and surplus production of Spanish nurses and mobility among Spanish registered nurses: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Nelson, Sioban

    2016-11-01

    After the financial crisis of 2008, increasing numbers of nurses from Spain are going abroad to work. To examine the health and workforce policy trends in Spain between 2009 and 2014 and to analyze their correlation with the migration of nurses. Single embedded case study. We examined data published by: Health Statistics, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996 to 2013); Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2006 to 2013); Ministry of Employment and Social Security (2009 to 2014); Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality (1997 to 2014); and National Institute of Statistics (1976 to 2014). In addition to reviewing the scholarly literature on the topic in Spanish and English, we also examined Spanish mobility laws and European directives. We used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development definition of "professionally active nurses" which defines practising nurses and other nurses as those for whom their education is a prerequisite for employment as a nurse. Moreover, we used the term "nursing graduate" as defined by Spanish Ministry of Education to describe those who have obtained a recognized qualification in nursing in a given year, the term "registered nurses" is defined by Spanish law as nurses registered in the Nurses Associations and "unemployed nurses" are those without work and registered as seeking employment. A transformation of the Spanish health system has reduced the number of employed nurses per capita since 2010. Moreover, reductions in public spending, labour market reforms and widespread unemployment have affected nurses in two ways: first by increasing the number of applicants per vacancy between 2009 and 2013, and second, by an increase in casual positions. However, despite the poor job market and decreasing job security, the number of registered nurses and nursing graduates in Spain per year has continued to grow, increasing the pressure on the labour market. Spain is transforming from a stable

  12. The language of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2008-06-01

    This paper will focus on the concept of 'absence', which describes a continuum of non-responsiveness and misattunement of the environment in the stage of absolute dependence; it refers to concepts like lack, failure, non-recognition, impingement, neglect, tantalizing, ranging to mental, physical and sexual abuse. An extreme external absence causes shock and fear. The automatic survival response is an inner absence, an intrapsychic absence, a dissociation of parts of the self. The external and the inner absence are the negative image of each other. The concept of absence points to the synchronicity of outer and inner reality and portrays the non-responded-to needs of the self. This point of view of the development of psychopathology of the self on the basis of massive dissociation is inherently an intersubjective-field-theory. As the inner absence is created as a reaction to an absence of the other, in analysis - the analyst has an active role in reviving it. This paper will explore the language of absence, that is, the derivatives and consequences of these situations in the inner realm, and in the relations with the analyst. It is the author's contention that understanding and speaking this language has important clinical and technical implications. Understanding the language of absence enables the analyst to recognize its intersubjective and its intrapsychic presence, to provide an environment that allows for its revival, and to facilitate and regulate the annihilation anxiety that awakens when dissociated self-states are experienced. When the absence is present, i.e. when the traumatic experience and the dissociated reactions to it are experienced in an attuned relationship, it is rendered with meaning, symbolization, and validation, and enables the survival mode of dissociation to be relinquished.

  13. Political Discourse Translation from a Register Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽梅

    2014-01-01

    Recently, register theory has been largely adopted in translation studies. It can better avoid subjective factors in transla-tion in perspective of register. It can also evaluate“faithfulness”of translated text in a rigorous way. In the paper, register theory is introduced to political discourse translation. In Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, he defines“register”as the context of sit-uation. And there are three variables of register, respectively, field, tenor and mode. Field means what is taking place in the dis-course. By tenor, it refers to who is taking part in the discourse, i.e. participant. As for mode of discourse, it means what the lan-guage will do for the participants in the context of situation. The paper aims to discuss the guiding role that register theory has to political discourse translation practice through field, tenor and mode.

  14. Spectral study of the complexation of Nd(III) with glutathione reduced (GSH) in the presence and absence of Zn(II) in aquated organic solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Th David Singh; Ch Sumitra; N Rajmuhon Singh; M Indira Devi

    2004-11-01

    Studies on the difference in energy parameters and comparative absorption spectrophotometry involving 4-4 transitions on Nd(III) and glutathione reduced (GSH) in the absence and presence of Zn(II) have been carried out in aquated organic solvents (50 : 50) like methanol, dioxane, acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. Variations in the spectral energy parameters - Slater-Condon () factor, Lande spin-orbit coupling constant (4), nephelauxetic ratio (), bonding parameter (1/2) and percent covalency () - are calculated and correlated with binding of Nd(III) with GSH in presence and absence of Zn(II).

  15. Register / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Näitused: Eesti Kujundusgraafikute Liidu aastanäitus "Register 2007" Kunstihoone galeriis, Signe Kivi "Võimuvaibad ja vaimukleidid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, "Kehaturg / Sex market" (Dagmar Kase, Eveli Variku tööd) Tallinna Kunstihoones, Andrei Maksimjuki "Surematu klassika" Ühispanga galeriis, Katrin Veegeni "Varsti" A-galeriis, Eda Lõhmuse "Ülespoole" ja Rein Kelpmani "Grosso modo" ArtDepoo Galeriis, Jaan Elkeni "Valge valgus" Galeriis 008, Paul Rodgersi "Transplants" Hobusepea galeriis, Masayo Ave "Haptic Interface Design" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis ja workshop Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  16. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2011-01-01

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  17. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  18. Register / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Näitused: Eesti Kujundusgraafikute Liidu aastanäitus "Register 2007" Kunstihoone galeriis, Signe Kivi "Võimuvaibad ja vaimukleidid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, "Kehaturg / Sex market" (Dagmar Kase, Eveli Variku tööd) Tallinna Kunstihoones, Andrei Maksimjuki "Surematu klassika" Ühispanga galeriis, Katrin Veegeni "Varsti" A-galeriis, Eda Lõhmuse "Ülespoole" ja Rein Kelpmani "Grosso modo" ArtDepoo Galeriis, Jaan Elkeni "Valge valgus" Galeriis 008, Paul Rodgersi "Transplants" Hobusepea galeriis, Masayo Ave "Haptic Interface Design" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis ja workshop Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  19. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  20. Predictors of suicidal behaviour in 36,304 individuals sickness absent due to stress-related mental disorders -- a Swedish register linkage cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Perski, Aleksander; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2013-01-01

    factors for severe medical outcomes, like suicidal behavior, is lacking to date. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of suicide attempt and suicide among sickness absentees with SRMD. METHODS: A cohort of 36,304 non-retired individuals, aged 16-64 years on 31.12.2004, with at least one...... regardless of diagnosis were predictive of suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors related to socio-demographics, sickness absence and health-care consumption were identified as risk factors for suicidal behavior. Consideration of these risk factors is of both clinical and public health importance.......BACKGROUND: Stress-related mental disorders (SRMD), which correspond to the diagnostic code F43 in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10, rank among the leading causes of sickness absence in several European countries. Despite the size of this health problem, research on risk...

  1. Leisure-time physical activity and direct cost of short-term sickness absence among Finnish municipal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Anu; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni

    2017-03-04

    We aimed to examine the direct costs of short-term (1-14 days) sickness absence and the effect of employees' physical activity on the costs. The Finnish Helsinki Health Study survey (2007) was used in the analysis (n = 3,935). Physical activity was classified into inactive, moderately active, and vigorously active. Sickness absence (3 years follow-up) and salary data were derived from the employer's registers. On average, an employee was absent 6 days a year due to short-term sickness absence, with a production loss of 2,350 EUR during the 3 years. The vigorously active had less sickness absence than those less active. The direct cost of sickness absence of a vigorously active employee was 404 EUR less than that of an inactive employee. Promoting physical activity among employees may decrease direct cost of short-term sickness absence.

  2. NMR studies demonstrate a unique AAB composition and chain register for a heterotrimeric type IV collagen model peptide containing a natural interruption site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-10-02

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role.

  3. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manonmani, V; Wallace, S J

    1994-04-01

    The cases are described of eight children, five of them girls, who had epilepsy with myoclonic absences. The mean age of onset was 4.9 years. Brief episodes of loss of awareness with bilateral clonic jerking of the upper limbs were associated with rhythmic 3 cycles/second spike-wave discharges on electroencephalogram. Generalised tonic-clonic or astatic seizures, or both, also occurred in seven patients. All now have learning difficulties, and seven have behavioural problems. Conventional treatment for absences was effective in only two children. Of six patients treated with lamotrigine, five have improved substantially, but only one is in sustained complete remission. One recently diagnosed patient continues to have frequent myoclonic absences. As the response to treatment and long term outcome are much poorer, it is important to differentiate myoclonic absences from typical childhood absence epilepsy.

  4. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  5. Prolonged fatigue is associated with sickness absence in men but not in women : prospective study with 1-year follow-up of white-collar employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged fatigue adversely affects an individual's performance and functioning. The present study investigated the prospective associations between prolonged fatigue and sickness absence (SA) during 1-year follow-up. At baseline, a convenience sample of white-collar employees received the 20-item C

  6. A multi-wave study of organizational justice at work and long-term sickness absence among employees with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental health problems are strong predictors of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). In this study, we investigated whether organizational justice at work - fairness in resolving conflicts and distributing work - prevents risk of LTSA among employees with depressive symptoms. METHODS: I...

  7. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  8. Nonresponse and recall errors in a study of absence because of illness : An analysis of their effects on distributions and relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H.; Verhage, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Using administrative data as validating standard, we studied the combined effects of two sources of survey error - nonresponse and recall errors - on distributional and substantive bias in a mail survey of absence because of illness among the employees of a Dutch road building company (response rate

  9. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  10. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  11. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets.

  12. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy: A Register-Based Study of Swedes Aged 65 Years and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastesson, Jonas W.; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. Design Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. Setting Nationwide register-based study. Participants A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1 to September 30, 2008. Measurements Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. Results At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent with polypharmacy after the age of 75 years. Women had a longer life expectancy, but also lived more years with polypharmacy than men. Discussion Older women and men spend a considerable proportion of their lives with polypharmacy. Conclusion Given the negative health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, efforts should be made to reduce the number of years older adults spend with polypharmacy to minimize the risk of unwanted consequences. PMID:26341036

  13. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  14. Fractures in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders--a nationwide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, Charlotte; Støving, René K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study fracture risk in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). METHOD: Cohort study including all Danes diagnosed with AN (n = 2,149), BN (n = 1,294), or EDNOS (n = 942) between 1977 and 1998. Each patient...

  15. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-03-01

    This is the first of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The article reports and critically discusses the findings in the context of the policy and service delivery discourses of person-centredness, inclusion, choice and independence. Arguably, RNIDs are the profession who most frequently encounter people with an intellectual disability and communication impairment. The results suggest that the communication studied is both complicated and multifaceted. An overarching category of 'familiarity/knowing the person' encompasses discrete but related themes and subthemes that explain the process: the RNID knowing the service-user; the RNID/service-user relationship; and the value of experience. People with an intellectual disability, their families and disability services are facing a time of great change, and RNIDs will have a crucial role in supporting this transition.

  16. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. While Part 1 outlined the study background, context and methodology along with the overarching, multi-dimensional category of 'familiarity/knowing the person', the current article critically discusses the themes and subthemes encapsulated in this category. Each theme is considered in the light of current policies, strategies and philosophies shaping the provision of services to people with an intellectual disability in Ireland. The results suggest that the RNID is ideally located and key to supporting the implementation of these policies and strategies due to their highly developed and proficient skill set as well as experience of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally.

  17. Are There Inequities in Treatment of End-Stage Renal Disease in Sweden? A Longitudinal Register-Based Study on Socioeconomic Status-Related Access to Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status-related factors have been associated with access to kidney transplantation, yet few studies have investigated both individual income and education as determinates of access to kidney transplantation. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effects of both individual income and education on access to kidney transplantation, controlling for both medical and non-medical factors. We linked the Swedish Renal Register to national registers for a sample of adult patients who started Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in Sweden between 1 January 1995, and 31 December 2013. Using uni- and multivariate logistic models, we studied the association between pre-RRT income and education and likelihood of receiving kidney transplantation. For non-pre-emptive transplantation patients, we also used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the association between treatment and socioeconomic factors. Among the 16,215 patients in the sample, 27% had received kidney transplantation by the end of 2013. After adjusting for covariates, the highest income group had more than three times the chance of accessing kidney transplantation compared with patients in the lowest income group (odds ratio (OR): 3.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73–3.80). Patients with college education had more than three times higher chance of access to kidney transplantation compared with patients with mandatory education (OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 2.77–3.66). Neither living in the county of the transplantation center nor gender was shown to have any effect on the likelihood of receiving kidney transplantation. For non-pre-emptive transplantation patients, the results from Cox models were similar with what we got from logistic models. Sensitive analyses showed that results were not sensitive to different conditions. Overall, socioeconomic status-related inequities exist in access to kidney transplantation in Sweden. Additional studies are needed to explore the possible

  18. Increased risk for mental illness, injuries, and violence in children born to mothers with intellectual disability: A register study in Sweden during 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Maria; Höglund, Berit; Larsson, Margareta; Lundgren, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mothers with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher prevalence of mental health illness, lower socio-economic status, and a higher risk of alcohol and drug use compared to mothers without ID. The children of mothers with ID are over-represented in child protection and legal proceedings but are generally a less studied group than the mothers. The aim of this study was to investigate if children born to mothers with ID had an increased risk of being diagnosed with mental illness, injuries, and violence compared with children of mothers without ID. The study comprised a population-based cohort of children born in Sweden between 1999 and 2005. Data were collected from the Medical Birth Register and linked with two other national registers; ICD-10 codes were used for medical diagnoses, including ID. The children were followed from birth to seven years of age. In total, 478,577 children were included, of whom 2749 were born to mothers with ID. Children of mothers with ID were at a greater risk of having mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-2.35) and ID (OR=4.14; CI=2.95-5.82) in early childhood. They had an increased risk for injuries due to falls (OR=1.15; Cl 1.04-1.27). The largest risk related to trauma was violence and child abuse (OR=3.11; CI=1.89-5.12). In conclusion, children of mothers with ID had an increased risk for injuries, violence, and child abuse. We therefore suggest that parents with ID should receive evidence based support so that their children receive the best care and protection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Compensating for non-response in a study estimating the incidence of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence by a two-phased design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    , municipality, and social transfer income variables were used for the adjustment of weights in weighted analyses and in the imputation models. RESULTS: The frequencies were: any mental disorder 46%-49%, depression 31%-36%, anxiety 13%-15%, and somatoform disorder 8%-9%. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of whether......AIMS: The study compensates for the non-response that was observed in a previous study that estimated the frequencies of mental disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) (more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence). In this study, the frequency of any mental disorder was estimated...... at 48% by a two-phase design and weighted logistic regression. The total non-response rate was 53.6%. This motivated the present study to compensate for non-response by applying adjustment of the weights and by multiple imputation of missing data in the estimation of the frequencies of mental disorders...

  20. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. STUDY POPULATION......: The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular...

  1. The identification of trends in the utilisation of mental health services by elderly : a Dutch case register study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, YJ; Sytema, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives In view of the rapid ageing of the population any changes in the use of mental health services by the elderly became increasingly important for policy development. This study aimed at the supply of information about trends in the numbers of elderly clients, the services they used and the

  2. Continuity of care and readmission in two service systems : a comparative Victorian and Groningen case-register study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, S; Burgess, P

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We compared service consumption, continuity of care and risk of readmission in a record linkage follow-up study of cohorts of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders in Victoria (Australia) and in Groningen (The Netherlands). These areas are interesting to compare because mental

  3. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013: A nationwide, register-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-10-01

    Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children and adolescents have not been studied in detail. To describe the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health in adolescents and to investigate the trends in these associations between 1995 and 2013. Nationwide repeated cross-sectional studies (using individual-level data) were conducted on 15-year-olds in Denmark from 1995, 2003, and 2013 (N=154,750). Dental data were obtained from the national dental register of the Danish Health Authority (Sundhedsstyrelsens Centrale Odontologiske Register [SCOR]) and data on social variables from administrative registers at Statistics Denmark. SEP measures included previous year's parental education (highest attained educational level by either of the parents), income (equivalized household disposable income), and occupational social class (highest recorded occupational class between the parents). Covariates were immigration status, country of origin, number of children and persons in the family, and household type. The outcome was dental caries experience, represented by the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between DMFS count and each of the explanatory variables separately while accounting for cluster-correlated family data. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regressions of DMFS on SEP indicators-using the zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution as the outcome distribution-were estimated while successively adjusting for the potential effects of the included covariates. Caries prevalence declined from 71% in 1995 to 63% in 2003 and 45% in 2013. Separate assessment of each covariate showed statistically significant graded

  4. Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maja Baeksgaard; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Becker, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: We investigated the association between weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension. DESIGN: Prospective register-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 17 690 men and women, aged 18-60 years from.......16 (95% CI 1.02-1.33, P = 0.03), 1.02 (95% CI 0.85-1.23, P = 0.84), and 1.23 (95 % CI 1.04-1.46, P = 0.02). Male abstainers had increased HR for subsequently receiving disability pension. Female abstainers had increased HR of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension compared to women...... of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely to become unemployed subsequently....

  5. Young people’s risk of suicide attempts in relation to parental death: A population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte

    2011-01-01

    confounding variables including age and gender were controlled for by conditional logistic regression analyses. Results:  The findings indicated that young people who had lost one biological parent showed a significantly increased risk of attempting suicide (relative risk = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.......49–1.96). Losing the remaining parent nearly doubled the risk (relative risk = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.48–5.06). Conclusion:  Experiencing the death of one or both biological parents increased the risk of suicide attempts in young people. Relative risk was moderated by high income of the father.......Background:  The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10–22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods:  The study used a nested case...

  6. Experimental facility for the study of acoustic emission registered in the primary circuit components of WWER power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Hovakimyan, T. H.; Yeghoyan, E. A.; Hovhannisyan, H. T.; Mayilyan, D. G.; Petrosyan, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the creation of a facility for the experimental study of a phenomenon of background acoustic emission (AE), which is detected in the main circulation loop (MCL) of WWER power units. The analysis of the operating principle and the design of a primary feed-and-blow down system (FB) deaerator of NPP as the most likely source of continuous acoustic emission is carried out. The experimental facility for the systematic study of a phenomenon of continuous AE is developed. A physical model of a thermal deaerator is designed and constructed. A thermal monitoring system is introduced. An automatic system providing acoustic signal registration in a low frequency (0.03-30 kHz) and high frequency (30-300 kHz) bands and study of its spectral characteristics is designed. Special software for recording and processing of digitized electrical sensor signals is developed. A separate and independent principle of study of the most probable processes responsible for the generation of acoustic emission signals in the deaerator is applied. Trial series of experiments and prechecks of acoustic signals in different modes of the deaerator model are conducted. Compliance of basic technological parameters with operating range of the real deaerator was provided. It is shown that the acoustic signal time-intensity curve has several typical regions. The pilot research showed an impact of various processes that come about during the operation of the deaerator physical model on the intensity of the AE signal. The experimental results suggest that the main sources of generation of the AE signals are the processes of steam condensation, turbulent flow of gas-vapor medium, and water boiling.

  7. Generic switching and non-persistence among medicine users: a combined population-based questionnaire and register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jette Rathe

    Full Text Available Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching.The study was an observational cohort study. By use of a prescription database, we identified patients who had redeemed prescriptions on generically substitutable drugs, and a questionnaire was mailed to them. We analyzed predictors of discontinuation in relation to generic switch and patients' attitudes towards generic medicines and concerns about their medicine.Patients who experience their first-time switch of a specific drug were at higher risk of non-persistence, Hazard Ratio 2.98, 95% CI (1.81;4.89 versus those who have never switched, and 35.7% became non-persistent during the first year of follow-up. Generic switching did not influence persistence considerably in those having previous experience with generic switching of the specific drug. Stratified analyses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics underpin the results, showing higher risk of non-persistence for first-time switchers for both drug categories.In conclusion, patients who are first-time switchers of a specific drug were at higher risk of non-persistence compared to never switchers and those having experienced previous generic switching.

  8. Register study of migrants’ hospitalization in Norway: world region origin, reason for migration, and length of stay

    OpenAIRE

    Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of migrants and refugees increase in many populations. Health planners have to consider how migration will influence demand for health care. This study explores how migrants’ geographical origin, reason for migration, and duration of residence are associated with admission rates to somatic hospitals in Norway. Methods Sociodemographic information on all individuals residing in Norway at the start of 2008 was linked to data on all admissions to somatic hospitals durin...

  9. Characteristics of patients frequently subjected to pharmacological and mechanical restraint--a register study in three Norwegian acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2014-01-30

    This retrospective study from three catchment-area-based acute psychiatric wards showed that of all the pharmacologically and mechanically restrained patients (n=373) 34 (9.1%) had been frequently restrained (6 or more times). These patients accounted for 39.2% of all restraint episodes during the two-year study period. Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds for being frequently restrained were 91% lower among patients above 50 years compared to those aged 18-29 years; a threefold increase (OR=3.1) for those admitted 3 times or more compared to patients with only one stay; and, finally, a threefold increase (OR=3.1) if the length of stay was 16 days or more compared to those admitted for 0-4 days. Among frequently restrained patients, males (n=15) had significantly longer stays than women (n=19), and 8 of the females had a diagnosis of personality disorder, compared to none among males. Our study showed that being frequently restrained was associated with long inpatient stay, many admissions and young age. Teasing out patient characteristics associated with the risk of being frequently restraint may contribute to reduce use of restraint by developing alternative interventions for these patients.

  10. Cancer among patients with diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipids: a population-based register study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Bo; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Lithman, Thor; Noreen, Dennis; Olsson, Håkan

    2012-05-01

    To study how the incidence of cancer is related to diabetes, obesity or abnormal blood lipids. Diagnosis of diabetes, obesity or abnormal blood lipids was studied 0-10 years prior to the diagnosis of cancer in 19,756 cases of cancer and in 147,324 controls matched regarding age, sex and domicile. Diabetes was significantly more common prior to diagnosis in patients with liver, pancreatic, colon and urinary tract/bladder cancer and in patients with breast cancer diagnosed with diabetes 0-4 years prior to the cancer diagnosis. A lower risk of diabetes was seen in patients with prostate carcinoma among individuals with diabetes diagnosed 5-10 years prior to the cancer diagnosis. The findings remained after adjusting for obesity and high blood lipids. Obesity was significantly more common in patients with endometrial, colon and kidney cancer and with breast cancer above the age of 60 years in those where obesity was diagnosed close to the diagnosis of cancer. High blood lipids were significantly more common in patients with ovarian cancer and less common in patients with breast cancer. The study confirms some previous findings concerning comorbidity and cancer and highlights some new ones.

  11. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  12. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods P

  13. Validity of stroke diagnoses in a National Register of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Boysen, Gudrun; Janjua, Huma;

    2007-01-01

    Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses...

  14. Do hairdressers in Denmark have their hand eczema reported as an occupational disease? Results from a register-based questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysdal, Susan H; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2012-01-01

    Background. Occupational hand eczema is common in hairdressers, owing to wet work and chemicals. Objectives. To estimate whether hairdressers in Denmark have their hand eczema reported as an occupational disease and to clarify the reasons for not reporting. Methods. A register-based study...... was performed, comprising trained hairdressers (n = 7840), using a self-administered postal questionnaire including questions on hand eczema and it being reported as an occupational disease. A response rate of 67.9% (n = 5324) was obtained. Results. Overall, 2186 respondents ever had hand eczema; 71.3% were......-reported as an occupational disease; the perception of hand eczema among hairdressers and the lack of reporting from doctors are the main reasons for this....

  15. A Register-Based Study of Occupational Functioning in Non-Psychotic Patients Before and After Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    . Patients who completed treatment (completer patients) had, on average, 15.7 days on sick leave two years before treatment and 23.1 days on sick leave two years after treatment, while the control group had 5.4 and 7.5 days, respectively. Regarding disability pension, completer patients had 7.6 days before...... higher number of days on sick leave (pp=0.010) compared to the control group, while the change in days with unemployment was insignificant (p=0.501). Conclusion: Occupational outcome of psychotherapy may be less advantageous than shown in previous studies. Differences can...... perhaps be explained by the length and symmetry of the observation period before and after intervention. Other possible reasons for the outcome are: disorder chronicity; a labor market that excludes individuals with mental disorders; and that psychotherapy does not address occupational functioning....

  16. Prelabor Cesarean Section and Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes A Nationwide Register-based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksson, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unfavorable conditions associated with cesarean section may influence the risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring, but results from studies are conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the association between prelabor cesarean section and risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A Danish...... contributed 20,436,684 person-years, during which 4,400 were diagnosed with childhood type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: The hazard ratio for childhood type 1 diabetes was increased in children delivered by prelabor cesarean section compared with vaginal delivery when adjusted for year of birth, parity, sex, parental...... age, and education and paternal type 1 diabetes status at childbirth (HR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3), but not after additional adjustment for maternal type 1 diabetes status at childbirth (HR 1.1; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.2). Delivery by intrapartum cesarean section was not associated with childhood type 1...

  17. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group). The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (< 5th percentile), very SGA (VSGA< 3rd percentile). We compared these outcome measures in teenagers\\' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. RESULTS: The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45]) and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7]) and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.

  18. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Philip N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA. Methods All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group. The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (th percentile, very SGA (VSGArd percentile. We compared these outcome measures in teenagers' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. Results The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45] and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69] time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7] and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46] time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]. Conclusions Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.

  19. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Ali S; Baker, Philip N; Kenny, Louise C

    2010-07-09

    Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA). All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group). The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (teenagers' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45]) and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7]) and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]). Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.

  20. REGISTER PELAKU INDUSTRI BATIK DI KOTA PEKALONGAN: KAJIAN SOSIOLINGUISTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrinar Pramitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Register merupakan pemakaian bahasa dalam setiap bidang kehidupan yang tiap-tiap bidang kehidupanmempunyai bahasa khusus yang tidak dimengerti oleh kelompok lain. Pekalongan dikenal sebagai kota dansebagian besar pekerjaan masyarakat di Kota Pekalongan adalah sebagai perajin batik, maka dalam tuturanmereka sehari-hari juga banyak menggunakan kosakata khas bidang industri batik. Sumber data dalampenelitian ini adalah penggalan percakapan masyarakat perajin batik di Kota Pekalongan yang di dugamengandung register. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode simak yang dalam pelaksanaanya diwujudkanmelalui teknik dasar dan teknik lanjutan. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah ada dua bentuk registerindustri batik yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini yaitu register berdasarkan satuan lingual bahasanya danberdasarkan jenis kata. Berdasarkan satuan lingual bahasa ditemukan dua bentuk register yaitu registerberbentuk kata tunggal dan register berbentuk kata kompleks. Register berbentuk kata kompleks mencakup 1register berbentuk frasa, 2 register berbentuk kata majemuk, 3 register bentuk reduplikasi, dan 4 registerbentuk berafiks. Register a use of language in every area of life, the life of each field specific language that is notunderstood by other groups. Pekalongan City is known as the city that have potential in the batikindustry, because most of the people work in the City Pekalongan batik is as crafters, then in theireveryday speech too much use of vocabulary typical batik industry. Data sources in the form ofpublic speech in Pekalongan batik artisans containing registers. Refer to the method of datacollection that the implementation is realized through basic techniques and advanced techniques.The results of this study was two are three forms of batik industry registers were found in thisstudy is based on the unit registers lingual languag and based on grammatical categories. Basedon unit lingual language, found two registers form the single

  1. Duration of residence and psychotropic drug use in recently settled refugees in Sweden - a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Hjern, Anders

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently settled refugee populations have consistently been reported to have high rates of mental health problems, particularly Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among young adult refugees....... RESULTS: Rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees were low, compared to the Swedish-born, with an increase with duration of residence. For refugee men and women from Iraq/Iran who had resided for 0-3 years the adjusted ORs compared to Swedish natives, were 0.83 (95% CI 0.......77-0.90) and 0.48 (0.44-0.53) respectively; for men and women from the Horn of Africa the ORs were 0.50 (0.42-0.61) and 0.36 (0.30-0.41) respectively. After 7-10 years of residence, the ORs in these refugee groups approached the Swedish comparison population. Refugees from Afghanistan presented ORs similar...

  2. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  3. Termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly after 23 weeks of gestation: a European register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, E; Khoshnood, B; Loane, M; Boyd, Pa; Dolk, H

    2010-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) after 23 weeks of gestation in European countries, and describe the spectrum of anomalies for which late TOPFA is recorded. Population-based study. Twelve European countries. Nineteen registries of congenital anomaly in 12 European countries between 2000 and 2005. The number of total births covered was 2 695 832. TOPFAs in singleton pregnancies from the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies and Twins (EUROCAT) database. The prevalence of TOPFA and type of anomaly. There were 10 233 TOPFAs, 678 (6.6%) of which were performed at 24 weeks or more. The rate of TOPFA before 24 weeks was 3.4 per 1000 births, at 24-25 weeks 0.14 per 1000 births and at 26 weeks or more 0.11 per 1000 births. There was significant variation in the prevalence of TOPFA at >or=24 weeks between countries (P anomaly, with 4% of all TOPFAs for chromosomal anomalies and 9% of all TOPFAs for nonchromosomal anomalies resulting in late TOPFA (P anomalies, but longer (>or=5 weeks) for diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocoele, arthrogryposis multiplex and Turner's syndrome. Late TOPFA is rare in Europe, and varies in prevalence between countries. Compared with earlier TOPFA, late TOPFA is more often performed for a nonchromosomal isolated major structural anomaly and less often for a fetus with a chromosomal syndrome or multiple anomalies.

  4. Validity of stroke diagnoses in a National Register of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Boysen, Gudrun; Janjua, Huma;

    2007-01-01

    Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses in the Dan......Many registers containing routine medical information have been developed for research and surveillance purposes. In epidemiological research assessment of endpoints is often conducted via registers. In the present study we validated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnoses...

  5. Raised compartment pressures are frequently observed with tibial shaft fractures despite the absence of compartment syndrome: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kelvin Lor Kah; Sing, Nicholas Yeoh Ching; Wong, Khai Phang; Huat, Andy Wee Teck

    2017-01-01

    To measure the intracompartmental pressures surrounding tibial fractures not exhibiting any clinical evidence of compartment syndrome. Our hypothesis was that pressures often exceed the recommended threshold of fasciotomy despite the absence of compartment syndrome, and hence diagnosis based on pressure measurements alone is unreliable. Thirteen consecutive patients with closed tibial shaft fractures without clinical suspicion of compartment syndrome, and who were planned for intramedullary nailing, were prospectively enrolled. Compartment pressures ( P) in all four compartments of the affected leg were measured at the start of surgery and immediately after tibial reaming, and differential pressures (delta P) were calculated based on the diastolic blood pressure prior to induction of anaesthesia. No patients required reoperation in the post-operative period, as a result of an undiagnosed compartment syndrome. Using commonly quoted threshold pressure criteria, 62% (using P > 30 mmHg) and 23% of patients (using delta P compartment syndrome. We conclude that raised compartment pressures are frequently seen in patients with tibial shaft fractures; but in most cases, it does not equate to the presence of compartment syndrome. Diagnosis of compartment syndrome based on intracompartmental pressure measurements alone may result in unnecessary fasciotomies in a sizeable number of patients. Compartment syndrome remains a clinical diagnosis, and one which always needs to be considered when managing tibial fractures.

  6. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...... and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new, reliable behavioral variable—sickness absence....../healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers, and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation...

  7. Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured? A cross-sectional study comparing measures based on register data with individual survey-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Öhman, Ann; Ng, Nawi; Lindholm, Lars

    2012-09-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between gender equality at work and self-rated health. 2861 employees in 21 companies were invited to participate in a survey. The mean response rate was 49.2%. The questionnaire contained 65 questions, mainly on gender equality and health. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between (i) self-rated health and a register-based company gender equality index (OGGI), and (ii) self-rated health and self-rated gender equality at work. Even though no association was found between the OGGI and health, women who rated their company as "completely equal" or "quite equal" had higher odds of reporting "good health" compared to women who perceived their company as "not equal" (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 - 5.5 and OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.6-4.6). Although not statistically significant, we observed the same trends in men. The results were adjusted for age, highest education level, income, full or part-time employment, and type of company based on the OGGI. No association was found between gender equality in companies, measured by register-based index (OGGI), and health. However, perceived gender equality at work positively affected women's self-rated health but not men's. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the results are fully credible given the contemporary health patterns and positions in the labour market of women and men or whether the results are driven by selection patterns.

  8. Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured? a cross-sectional study comparing measures based on register data with individual survey-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sörlin Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between gender equality at work and self-rated health. Methods 2861 employees in 21 companies were invited to participate in a survey. The mean response rate was 49.2%. The questionnaire contained 65 questions, mainly on gender equality and health. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between (i self-rated health and a register-based company gender equality index (OGGI, and (ii self-rated health and self-rated gender equality at work. Results Even though no association was found between the OGGI and health, women who rated their company as “completely equal” or “quite equal” had higher odds of reporting “good health” compared to women who perceived their company as “not equal” (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 – 5.5 and OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.6-4.6. Although not statistically significant, we observed the same trends in men. The results were adjusted for age, highest education level, income, full or part-time employment, and type of company based on the OGGI. Conclusions No association was found between gender equality in companies, measured by register-based index (OGGI, and health. However, perceived gender equality at work positively affected women’s self-rated health but not men’s. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the results are fully credible given the contemporary health patterns and positions in the labour market of women and men or whether the results are driven by selection patterns.

  9. A Scandinavian experience of register collaboration: the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelin, Leif I; Robertsson, Otto; Fenstad, Anne M; Overgaard, Søren; Garellick, Göran; Furnes, Ove

    2011-12-21

    The Nordic (Scandinavian) countries have had working arthroplasty registers for several years. However, the small numbers of inhabitants and the conformity within each country with respect to preferred prosthesis brands and techniques have limited register research. A collaboration called NARA (Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association) was started in 2007, resulting in a common database for Denmark, Norway, and Sweden with regard to hip replacements in 2008 and primary knee replacements in 2009. Finland joined the project in 2010. A code set was defined for the parameters that all registers had in common, and data were re-coded, within each national register, according to the common definitions. After de-identification of the patients, the anonymous data were merged into a common database. The first study based on this common database included 280,201 hip arthroplasties and the second, 151,814 knee arthroplasties. Kaplan-Meier and Cox multiple regression analyses, with adjustment for age, sex, and diagnosis, were used to calculate prosthesis survival, with any revision as the end point. In later studies, specific reasons for revision were also used as end points. We found differences among the countries concerning patient demographics, preferred surgical approaches, fixation methods, and prosthesis brands. Prosthesis survival was best in Sweden, where cement implant fixation was used more commonly than it was in the other countries. As the comparison of national results was one of the main initial aims of this collaboration, only parameters and data that all three registers could deliver were included in the database. Compared with each separate register, this combined register resulted in reduced numbers of parameters and details. In future collaborations of registers with a focus on comparing the performances of prostheses and articulations, we should probably include only the data needed specifically for the predetermined purposes, from registers that can

  10. Congenital Absence of the Pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David; Asher, Craig R

    Congenital absence of the pericardium (CAP) is one of the rarest cardiac congenital anomalies. It can occur as a complete absence of the entire pericardium, absence of the right or left portion of the pericardium or a partial, foramen-like defect of the right or left pericardium. While the majority of cases are clinically silent, multiple reports associate CAP with symptomatic presentation. The most feared complication of CAP is sudden death due to cardiac strangulation across a partial defect of the left pericardium. Given its rare occurrence, most clinicians and imaging specialists will have little experience with this condition and may fail to recognize it on thoracic or cardiac studies. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight the common clinical and multimodality imaging features associated with this anomaly and suggest a management algorithm. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of a surface confined redox reaction: The reduction of azobenzene on mercury in the absence of diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Francisco, E-mail: dapena@us.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, c/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez no 2, 41012 Seville (Spain); Rueda, Manuela; Hidalgo, Jose; Martinez, Elisa; Navarro, Inmaculada [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, c/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez no 2, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2011-09-30

    The kinetics of azobenzene reduction on mercury electrodes in the absence of diffussional mass transport is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in acetic acid/acetate buffered solutions at different pH values. Cyclic voltammetry experiments confirm the absence of diffusion effects and provide the values of the surface equilibrium potential. The analysis of the impedance frequency spectrums at every potential within the faradaic region conforms well the model and provides the global rate constant of the process, k{sub f}. The potential dependence of k{sub f} suggests the existence of an EE mechanism, with two electron transfers controlling the overall rate. The kinetic parameters of every step are obtained and their pH dependences clarify the role played by the protonation steps.

  12. Cost of initial management of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes: A register-based study from North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of information on the actual costs incurred by the family as a result of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crash from our part of India. This study was conducted with the objective to ascertain the costs of initial management of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted as a register-based descriptive study in a tertiary care teaching hospital in a rural area (with a predominantly mountainous terrain of North-West India. All patients with nonfatal musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes, presenting between 2014 and 2015 and agreeing to participate in the study were included in the study. Results: Of 313 cases, 116 were managed conservatively, whereas in 189 cases, operative intervention was required. In 8 cases, both the modalities of management were required. The average cost of management was Rs. 20,386 in operative group. The average cost in the conservative group was Rs. 3726. Average cost calculated for patients in whom both modality of treatment was required was Rs. 24,000. It was observed that the indirect cost of management was proportionately higher in conservative group. Conclusions: The initial cost of management for patients managed conservatively is less than those managed by operative intervention. Importantly, however, the indirect cost of management is a major contributor to the total cost of management.

  13. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

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    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  14. A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and quantitative demands. RESULTS: High age, poor health and ergonomic exposures were associated with low workability and mediated by workability to sickness absence for both genders. Low social class and low quantitative demands were associated with low workability and mediated to sickness absence among men......OBJECTIVES: The study tested the hypothesis that a one-item workability measure represented an assessment of the fit between resources (the individuals' physical and mental health and functioning) and workplace demands and that this resource/demand fit was a mediator in the prediction of sickness...... absence. We also estimated the relative importance of health and work environment for workability and sickness absence. METHODS: Baseline data were collected within a Danish work and health survey (3,214 men and 3,529 women) and followed up in a register of sickness absence. Probit regression analysis...

  15. Absences of Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.B. Benammar

    1994-01-01

    Humans always search for a sense of community, in order to transcent their individuality and project themselves as part of a group. This human craving is actually a desire for an absence of community; an "empty place to bury our ineradicable solitude", a form of universal community which is yet to c

  16. Congenital Absence of Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Sharma, Saleem Mir, Vikrant Sharma, Irshad Dar, Rafee

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We repol1 a case who presented at the age of 3 years withabsence of tibia right side with associated anomolies and was managed by reconstruction of the kneeand ankle joints b transfer of fibula

  17. Experiences of registered nurses transitioning from employment in acute care to primary health care-quantitative findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Christine; Halcomb, Elizabeth; Brown, Angela; Peters, Kath

    2017-06-15

    To describe the experiences of registered nurses who transition from acute to primary health care (PHC) employment. Internationally the provision of health care in PHC settings is increasing. Nurses are moving from acute care employment to meet the growing demand for a PHC workforce. However, little is known about the transition experiences of these nurses. A sequential mixed-methods study comprising a survey, and semi-structured interviews. This study reports on survey findings relating to the transition experience. Convenience and snowballing techniques were used to recruit 111 registered nurses who had transitioned from Australian acute settings to PHC employment within the last 5 years. An online survey gathered data relating to personal and professional demographics, type of PHC setting and transition experiences. Most respondents (n = 90, 81.1%) reported receiving some orientation, although the length and content varied considerably. Those working in metropolitan locations were more likely to report concerns associated with their orientation, with respondents from rural or remote locations more likely to have access to a preceptor than city/metropolitan respondents. Just under half of respondents found prioritising workload (n = 47; 42.7%) or organisational knowledge (n = 45; 40.9%) difficult or very difficult, and 47.7% (n = 53) felt isolated or unsupported. 49.5% (n = 55) reported being overwhelmed with the new role either sometimes or regularly. Barriers to transitioning successfully included limited employer support to attend professional development activities. Availability of specific support measures may assist in the transition process. Findings from our study should be considered by employers when recruiting nurses new to PHC, and when designing orientation and ongoing education programmes. This study highlights the challenges faced by nurses who transition from acute care into PHC employment. Understanding the barriers and facilitators to

  18. Absence, Deviance and Unattainable Ideals--Discourses on Vegetarianism in the Swedish School Subject Home and Consumer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Ingela; Lindblom, Cecilia; Åbacka, Gun; Bengs, Carita; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe Discourses on vegetarian food in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Design: The study involved the observation of naturally occurring classroom talk, with audio recording and in some cases video-taping. Setting: The study was conducted during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in five…

  19. Customer Perception of a Supermarket Nutrition Centre Staffed by a Registered Dietitian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, KATE; Taper, JANETTE; Quintal, DEBORAH

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' attitudes toward a supermarket nutrition centre staffed full time by a registered dietitian. A questionnaire was administered over three consecutive days in that store and in a control store that was similar to the experimental site in every way, except for the absence of a nutrition centre. Participants were chosen randomly at timed intervals in specific areas of the store. Of 428 customers approached, 232 agreed to participate in the survey. At the experimental site, 75% of the participants were extremely satisfied with the registered dietitian's services and 69% ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in any store as extremely important, compared to 31% at the control site (p < 0.05). In ranking the importance of 13 required and optional services offered by the supermarkets, 15% of participants at the experimental site ranked having a registered dietitian on staff in the top five, compared with 4% at the control site (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that participants at the experimental site view the nutrition centre as a valuable service. There may therefore be an expanded role for registered dietitians in the supermarket setting.

  20. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in a Danish 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Cohort Compared to the Total Danish Population--A Nationwide Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Hoeffding, Louise K; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mortensen, Preben B; Werge, Thomas; Trabjerg, Betina

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We, therefore, conducted the first large-scale population based study on the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia in persons identified with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all Danish citizens born during 1955-2004 and the cohort was followed from January 1, 1994 until December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, and parental mental health history. A total of 156 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were identified, out of which 6 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders following identification with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Identified carriers of 22q11.2 deletion had an 8.13(95% CI: 3.65-18.09) fold increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Carriers of a 22q11.2 deletion who had been clinically identified had a highly increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Absence epilepsy models in rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguibar, José R; Cortés, M del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Animal models are a useful tool because it is possible to perform neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological studies throughout their development. The most common models for experimental studies of absence seizures are the GAERS (Genetic Absence Epilepsy rat from Strasbourg) and the WAG/Rij (Wistar Absence Glaxo from Rijswik) rats. In WAG/RU rats it has been demonstrated that the perioral region in the somatosensorial cortex shows a zone with hyperexcitability which is the origin of spike wave discharges (SWD). In fact, this cortical area shows modifications in sodium channels which increase the excitability of cortical neurons; for this reason, local application of phenytoin or lidocaine, which block sodium channels, reduce SWD. Ethosuximide decreases and pentylenetetrazol increases SWD in GAERS and WAG/Rij rats. At the Institute of Physiology in the Benemérita Autonomous University of Puebla we have obtained a myelin mutant rat called "taiep", which is the acronym of tremor, ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy, and paralysis. This model shows a SWD with higher frequency during awaking periods; the SWD increases with systemic administration of pentylenetetrazol and decreases with ethosuximide. All these findings in animal models are susceptible to be tested in human beings through magneto- and electro-encephalographic recording techniques to discern the source of this type of epilepsy. Thus, in biomedical research, animal models are useful tools to discern the neural and network alterations responsible for the absence seizures, and allow to design of more specific therapeutic options with fewer side effects.

  2. Epidemiology of absence epilepsy. III. Clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, I; Hagberg, G

    1991-11-01

    Absence epilepsy was studied in a Swedish population, aged 0-15 years, in 1978-1982. Cases were selected by electroencephalographic criteria. In the 134 children with 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges, 97 (72.4%) had absences alone or in combination with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal): 56 had absences alone, 31 absences followed by grand mal, and 10 started with initial grand mal. Two distinct groups could be discerned: 1) childhood absence epilepsy: onset before the age of 12, with a quick response to therapy, little or no risk of grand mal, and a high remission rate; 2) juvenile absence epilepsy: onset at the age of 12 or later, a very high risk of grand mal, and usually a good response to therapy, but a high risk of relapses at withdrawal. This classification of absence epilepsy into subgroups may be useful for prognostic guidelines.

  3. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  4. Work-Home Interference, Perceived Total Workload, and the Risk of Future Sickness Absence Due to Stress-Related Mental Diagnoses Among Women and Men: a Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Mather, Lisa; Bergström, Gunnar; Lindfors, Petra; Blom, Victoria

    2017-06-21

    Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, have not accounted for familial factors (genetics and shared everyday environment), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study whether work-home interference and perceived total workload predict SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors. This study included 11,916 twins, 19-47 years (49% women). Data on work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, perceived total workload, and relevant confounders were derived from a 2005 survey, and national register data on SA spells until 2013 were obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Discordant twin pair design was applied to adjust for familial factors. Each one unit increase in work-to-home and home-to-work conflicts, and perceived total workload was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses and to SA due to other mental diagnoses among women, when adjusting for sociodemographic factors (ORs 1.15-1.31). Including health or familial factors, no associations remained. For men, each one unit increase in work-to-home conflicts was associated with higher odds for SA due to stress-related diagnoses (ORs 1.23-1.35), independently of confounders. Work-to-home conflict was independently associated with future SA due to stress-related diagnoses among men only. Health- and work-related factors seem to be important confounders when researching work-home interference, perceived total workload, and SA. Not including such confounders involves risking drawing incorrect conclusions. Further studies are needed to confirm sex differences and whether genetic factors are important for the associations studied.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL STROKE OR TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK, INCLUDED INTO THE LIS-2 REGISTER (LYUBERTSY STUDY OF MORTALITY IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide final data on the three-year period of the inclusion of patients; to give most accurate "portrait" of patients hospitalized with a brain stroke within the framework of the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after stroke.Material and methods. All patients (n=960 admitted to the Lyubertsy district hospital №2 with stroke for the period from 01.2009 to 12.2011 were included into the study.Results. Men accounted for 37.5%, women - 62.5%, mean age was 71.1±9.8 years. The history of hypertension was present in 833 patients (86.8%, atrial fibrillation in 252 (26.8% patients, 199 (20.7% patients had previously undergone stroke. In-hospital mortality was 21.6% (207 patients had died; mean age 72.9±9.8 years. Low frequency of the antihypertensive therapy (34.5%, lipid-lowering therapy (0.7%, antiplatelet agents (5.7%, anticoagulation therapy prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation was detected.Conclusion. Insufficient assignment of drugs with a proven effect on the prognosis in patients with risk factors prior to the development of the reference stroke draws attention. High incidence of recurrent strokes indicates an underactive secondary prevention.

  6. The validation of the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Causes of Death Register data on stroke diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Salomaa, Veikko; Torppa, Jorma; Sivenius, Juhani; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo

    2007-06-01

    Administrative registers, like hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers are used for the monitoring of disease incidences and in the follow-up studies. Obtaining reliable results requires that the diagnoses in these registers are correct and the coverage of the registers is high. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Finnish hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers stroke diagnoses against the population-based FINSTROKE register. All first stroke events from the hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers from the areas covered by the FINSTROKE register were obtained for years 1993-1998 and linked to the FINSTROKE register. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were calculated. A total of 3633 stroke events, 767 fatal and 2866 non-fatal strokes, were included in the registers. The sensitivity for all first stroke events was 85%, for fatal strokes 86% and for non-fatal strokes 85%. The positive predictive values for all first strokes was 86%, for fatal strokes 92% and for non-fatal strokes 85%. The sensitivity as well as the positive predictive values for subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracerebral haemorrhage was higher than for cerebral infarctions. There were no marked differences in the sensitivity or positive predictive values between men and women. The sensitivity and the positive predictive values of the Finnish hospital discharge registers and causes of death registers are fairly good. Finnish administrative registers can be used for the monitoring of stroke incidence, but the number of cerebral infarctions should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Written by OCLC Research Program Officer Karen Smith-Yoshimura and the 13 members of the Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group comprised of specialists from the US, UK, and the Netherlands, this report summarizes their research into approaches to providing authoritative researcher identifiers. Registering researchers in some type…

  8. The Danish National Patient Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Sandegaard, Jakob Lynge; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) was established in 1977, and it is considered to be the finest of its kind internationally.......The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) was established in 1977, and it is considered to be the finest of its kind internationally....

  9. Current and emerging treatments for absence seizures in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrielynck P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pascal VrielynckWilliam Lennox Neurological Center, Reference Centre for Refractory Epilepsy, Catholic University of Louvain, BelgiumAbstract: In this report, we review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of the different absence seizure types as recently recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy: typical absences, atypical absences, myoclonic absences, and eyelid myoclonia with absences. Overall, valproate and ethosuximide remain the principal anti-absence drugs. Typical absence seizures exhibit a specific electroclinical semiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacological response profile. A large-scale comparative study has recently confirmed the key role of ethosuximide in the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy, more than 50 years after its introduction. No new antiepileptic drug has proven major efficacy against typical absences. Of the medications under development, brivaracetam might be an efficacious anti-absence drug. Some experimental drugs also show efficacy in animal models of typical absence seizures. The treatment of other absence seizure types is not supported with a high level of evidence. Rufinamide appears to be the most promising new antiepileptic drug for atypical absences and possibly for myoclonic absences. The efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation should be further evaluated for atypical absences. Levetiracetam appears to display a particular efficacy in eyelid myoclonia with absences. Finally, it is important to remember that the majority of antiepileptic drugs, whether they be old or new, may aggravate typical and atypical absence seizures.Keywords: antiepileptic drug, typical absence, atypical absence, myoclonic absence, eyelid myoclonia with absence

  10. Disability Pension at the Time of Coronary Revascularisation Is Associated with Higher Five-Year Mortality; A Swedish Nationwide, Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Zetterström

    Full Text Available Although coronary revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI are common procedures, little is known regarding disability pension (DP at the time of coronary revascularisation and its association with mortality. The aim was to investigate the five-year mortality following a first coronary revascularisation among women and men on DP, compared with those not on DP at the time of intervention, accounting for socio-demographic and medical factors.A nationwide prospective population-based cohort study was conducted, using national registers including 70,040 patients (80% men, aged 30-64 years, with a first CABG (n = 24,987; 36% or PCI (n = 45,053; 64% during 1994-2006 in Sweden, who were alive 30 days after the intervention. The main outcome was all-cause and cause-specific mortality within five years or through 31 December 2006, following CABG and PCI, and the exposure was DP at the time of a first coronary revascularisation. Information on DP, patient characteristics, date and cause of death was obtained from nationwide registers. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI for the outcome were estimated, using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. All analyses were stratified by type of intervention and gender.Four percent died following coronary revascularisation. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death (54%, followed by neoplasms (25%. Regardless of type of intervention, gender and after multivariable adjustments, patients on DP had a higher HR for five-year mortality compared with those not on DP at time of revascularisation (CABG: women HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.89, men HR 2.09; 1.84-2.38, PCI: women HR 2.25; 1.78-2.83, men HR 1.95; 1.72-2.21. Young women on DP at the time of PCI had a substantially higher HR (HR 4.10; 95% CI: 2.25-7.48.Patients on DP at the time of first coronary revascularisation had a higher five-year risk of mortality compared with

  11. Efficacy of Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E for reduction of oral mucositis after radiotherapy. Results of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind phase III multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W.; Herrmann, T. [Univ. of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E (proteolytic enzymes) for amelioration of early side effects of radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors, particularly oral mucositis. Patients and Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, triple-blind phase III study with parallel groups. 69 patients with carcinomas of the oropharynx or the oral cavity were enrolled between 1996 and 2000 in five centers; 54 of these were recruited in Dresden. Of the 69 patients, 61 (Dresden: 46) were available for analysis. The proteolytic enzymes tested (Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E) comprised papain 100 mg, trypsin 40 mg, and chymotrypsin 40 mg. Results: Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E was well tolerated. For the maximum mucositis scores, no statistically significant differences were found between the placebo and the verum group. The average mucositis score over weeks 1-6 revealed a significant difference in favor of the placebo arm, based on an earlier onset of mucositis in the Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E group. Conclusion: The present study failed to demonstrate any effect of treatment with Wobe-Mugos {sup registered} E on radiotherapy side effects in patients treated for head-and-neck tumors. In particular, there was no beneficial effect on radiation-induced early oral mucositis. (orig.)

  12. Qualitative Inquiry into Challenges Experienced by Registered General Nurses in the Emergency Department: A Study of Selected Hospitals in the Volta Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Registered General Nurses (RGNs) play crucial roles in emergency departments (EDs). EDs in Ghana are primarily staffed by RGNs who have had no additional formal education in emergency care. Additionally, basic, master's, or doctoral level nursing education programs provide limited content on the complexities of emergency nursing. Nurses in EDs are affected by many challenges such as growing patient population, financial pressures, physical violence, verbal abuse, operational inefficiencies, overcrowding, and work overload. There is a paucity of research on challenges experienced by RGNs in EDs in the Volta Region of Ghana. In this qualitative study, twenty RGNs in EDs from three selected hospitals in the Volta Region of Ghana were interviewed. All recorded interviews were transcribed, reviewed several times by researchers and supervisors, and analyzed using content analysis. Five thematic categories were identified. These thematic categories of challenges were lack of preparation for ED role, verbal abuse from patients relatives, lack of resources in ED, stressful and time consuming nature of ED, and overcrowding in ED. Formal education of RGNs in the advanced role of emergency care, adequate supply of resources, increased hospital management support, and motivations for RGNs working in ED are necessary to improve the practice of emergency care. PMID:27885343

  13. The effect of hospitalization with medical illnesses on the suicide risk in the oldest old: a population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Vach, Werner; Jeune, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of hospitalization with medical illnesses on the suicide risk in the oldest old (> or = 80) with that in the old (65-79) and middle-aged (52-64) using nationwide data. DESIGN: Event-history analysis using time-varying covariates based on prospective individual-le...... precedes suicide in the oldest old, hospitalization may play an important role in identification of suicidal ideation in older people.......OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of hospitalization with medical illnesses on the suicide risk in the oldest old (> or = 80) with that in the old (65-79) and middle-aged (52-64) using nationwide data. DESIGN: Event-history analysis using time-varying covariates based on prospective individual......-level register data. SETTING: Population-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All persons aged 52 and older living in Denmark during 1996 to 1998 (N=1,684,205). MEASUREMENTS: The studied event is completed suicide. The following time-varying variables are included in the analysis: current age, hospitalization...

  14. Burnout Subtypes and Absence of Self-Compassion in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Zubiaga, Fernando; Cereceda, Maria; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Trenc, Patricia; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    ...: 'frenetic', 'underchallenged' and 'worn-out'. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and reliability of the burnout subtype model in Spanish primary healthcare professionals, and to assess the explanatory power of the self-compassion...

  15. Effort-reward imbalance is associated with the frequency of sickness absence among female hospital nurses : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Background: Most research on sickness absence among nurses has focused on long-term work disability. Absence from work due to short-term sickness, however, is more common and frequent short absences result in understaffing and increased workload of nursing teams. Objectives: To investigate health

  16. Effort-reward imbalance is associated with the frequency of sickness absence among female hospital nurses : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most research on sickness absence among nurses has focused on long-term work disability. Absence from work due to short-term sickness, however, is more common and frequent short absences result in understaffing and increased workload of nursing teams. Objectives: To investigate health an

  17. Effort-reward imbalance is associated with the frequency of sickness absence among female hospital nurses : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most research on sickness absence among nurses has focused on long-term work disability. Absence from work due to short-term sickness, however, is more common and frequent short absences result in understaffing and increased workload of nursing teams. Objectives: To investigate health an

  18. Catalog of 199 register-based definitions of chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Michael F; Johnsen, Søren P; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    definitions were proposed based on record linkage between multiple registers, including registers of prescribed drugs and use of general practitioners' services. CONCLUSIONS THIS STUDY PROVIDED A CATALOG OF REGISTER-BASED DEFINITIONS FOR CHRONIC CONDITIONS FOR USE IN HEALTHCARE PLANNING AND RESEARCH, WHICH IS......INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant...

  19. The impact of maternal obesity, age, pre-eclampsia and insulin dependent diabetes on severe maternal morbidity by mode of delivery-a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Ekblad, Ulla; Gissler, Mika; Alanen, Anna

    2015-02-01

    To determine the rate of severe maternal morbidity related to delivery by delivery mode and to assess if the impact of studied risk factors varies by delivery mode. A register-based study including all women having singleton delivery in Finland in 2007-2011, n = 292,253, data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Registry and Hospital Discharge Registry. Diagnoses and interventions indicating a severe maternal complication were searched and the mode of delivery was assessed by data linkage. The impact of obesity, maternal age 35 years or more, pre-eclampsia and insulin dependent diabetes on severe maternal morbidity (all severe complications, severe infections and severe) was studied in each mode of delivery and calculated as Odds ratios. The overall incidence of severe complications was 12.8/1,000 deliveries. The total complication rate was lowest in vaginal deliveries (VD) in all risk groups. Obesity increased the risk for all severe complications and severe infections in the total population, but not significantly in specific delivery modes. Age increased the risk of hemorrhage in VD. Pre-eclampsia increased the risk for hemorrhage in all deliveries except elective CS. In women with pre-eclampsia, overall morbidity was similar in VD, attempted VD and elective CS. The presence of any studied risk factor increased the risk for complications within the risk groups by the high proportion of emergency CS performed. An attempt of VD is the safest way to deliver even for high-risk women with the exception of women with pre-eclampsia, who had a similar risk in an attempt of VD and elective CS.

  20. Health care cost consequences of using robot technology for hysterectomy: a register-based study of consecutive patients during 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hyldgård, Vibe Bolvig; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Søgaard, Rikke

    2017-07-10

    The objective of this study is to examine the costs attributable to robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy from a broad healthcare sector perspective in a register-based longitudinal study. The population in this study were 7670 consecutive women undergoing hysterectomy between January 2006 and August 2013 in public hospitals in Denmark. The interventions in the study were total and radical hysterectomy performed robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), or open abdominal hysterectomy (OAH). Service use in the healthcare sector was evaluated 1 year before to 1 year after the surgery. Tariffs of the activity-based remuneration system and the diagnosis-related grouping case-mix system were used for valuation of primary and secondary care, respectively. Costs attributable to RALH were estimated using a difference-in-difference analytical approach and adjusted using multivariate linear regression. The main outcome measure was costs attributable to OAH, TLH, and RALH. For benign conditions RALH generated cost savings of € 2460 (95% CI 845; 4075) per patient compared to OAH and non-significant cost savings of € 1045 (95% CI -200; 2291) when compared with TLH. In cancer patients RALH generated cost savings of 3445 (95% CI 415; 6474) per patient when compared to OAH and increased costs of € 3345 (95% CI 2348; 4342) when compared to TLH. In cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy, RALH generated non-significant extra costs compared to OAH. Cost consequences were primarily due to differences in the use of inpatient service. There is a cost argument for using robot technology in patients with benign disease. In patients with malignant disease, the cost argument is dependent on comparator.

  1. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  2. Nickel removal from nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine using supercritical water in absence of catalyst: a basic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2011-03-15

    Reactions of nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (Ni-TPP) were studied in supercritical water in the presence of toluene without the addition of any catalyst, H(2) or H(2)S that is called a green process. The objective of this study was to remove nickel from Ni-TPP, the most common metal compound present in heavy crude, in high extent at low reaction time. All experiments were carried out in an 8.8 mL batch reactor fabricated from hastelloy C-276. The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to remove nickel from Ni-TPP was studied at temperatures of 450-490 °C and water partial pressures of 25-35 MPa. Water partial pressure had no effect on overall conversion at temperatures of 450 °C and a reaction time of 60 min. The overall Ni-TPP conversion was 89.80%, a figure above that of previous catalytic studies. The percentage of nickel removal was estimated as a function of reaction time and temperature. It were temperature 490 °C and pressure 25 MPa at reaction time 90 min where 65.68% nickel were removed by the action of SCW and toluene, as a co-solvent. It was determined that Ni-TPP undergoes a series of reactions, ending in demetallation and ring fragmentation. The obtained results suggest that supercritical water has a capability to remove nickel from Ni-TPP.

  3. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  4. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. Methods In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. Results A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Conclusions Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence. PMID:27213963

  5. Demographic Characteristics of Voluntary Donors Registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank of China: A Retrospective Study From 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhang, Y N; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Li, A P; Liang, Q F; Pan, Z Q

    2017-10-01

    Lack of willingness to pledge eyes among the general population is the main cause for the shortage of cornea tissue in China. A few studies have implied that general-population adults with specific demographics showed more willingness to donate their eyes. In this study, we analyzed the demographic characteristics of 918 voluntary donors registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank in the past 10 years for possible predictors that might help us to identify potential donors in Beijing and increase the donation rate. All copies of voluntary eye donation application forms filled by the registrants from 2007 to 2016 were collected. Basic demographics listed in the application form were extracted for analysis. Demographics were described as proportions and compared by means of a χ(2) test. Besides that, donor counts and proportions of combining 2 demographics from the 4 main demographics were described and compared. Voluntary donors greater than 50 years of age (n = 477, 53.0%) predominated the proportions. Regarding education level and occupation, donors with tertiary education (n = 484, 57.4%) were more numerous than donors with primary and secondary education (n = 355, 42.1%); office clerks, workers, and government officers were more willing to pledge eyes than were donors engaged in other occupations. In addition, donors of the Han race (n = 856, 94.9%) made up the majority and mainly were distributed in 5 central administrative districts of Beijing (n = 629, 77.5%). The present study suggests that older women (>50 years of age), living in a central district, with higher education level and engaged in white-collar work, were possible predictors for potential donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A large-scale study of anxiety and depression in people with Multiple Sclerosis: a survey via the web portal of the UK MS Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerina H Jones

    Full Text Available Studies have found that people with Multiple Sclerosis experience relatively high rates of anxiety and depression. Although methodologically robust, many of these studies had access to only modest sample sizes (N4000 to: describe the depression and anxiety profiles of people with MS; to determine if anxiety and depression are related to age or disease duration; and to assess whether the levels of anxiety and depression differ between genders and types of MS.From its launch in May 2011 to the end of December 2011, 7786 adults with MS enrolled to take part in the UK MS Register via the web portal. The responses to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were collated with basic demographic and descriptive MS data provided at registration and the resulting dataset was analysed in SPSS (v.16.The mean HADS score among the 4178 respondents was 15.7 (SE 0.117, SD 7.55 with a median of 15.0 (IQR 11. Anxiety and depression rates were notably high, with over half (54.1% scoring ≥ 8 for anxiety and 46.9% scoring ≥ 8 for depression. Women with relapsing-remitting MS were more anxious than men with this type (p<0.001, and than women with other types of MS (p = 0.017. Within each gender, men and women with secondary progressive MS were more depressed than men or women with other types of MS (p<0.001, p<0.001.This largest known study of its kind has shown that anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in people with MS, indicating that their mental health needs could be better addressed. These findings support service planning and further research to provide the best care for people with MS to help alleviate these debilitating conditions.

  7. Absence of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Is a Reproducible Predictive Factor for Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis: A Multicenter Database Study by the Brazilian Melanoma Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedreira Duprat

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to confirm the function of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs in sentinel lymph node (SLN metastasis.This retrospective study included 633 patients with invasive melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in 7 referral centers certified by the Brazilian Melanoma Group. Independent risk factors of sentinel node metastasis (SNL were identified by multiple logistic regression.SLN metastasis was detected in 101 of 633 cases (16.1% and in 93 of 428 patients (21.7% when melanomas ≤ 1mm were excluded. By multiple logistic regression, the absence of TILs was as an independent risk factor of SLN metastasis (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.0, in addition to Breslow index (greater than 2.00 mm, lymph vascular invasion, and presence of mitosis.SLNB can identify patients who might benefit from immunotherapy, and the determination of predictors of SLNB positivity can help select the proper population for this type of therapy. The absence of TILs is a reproducible parameter that can predict SLNB positivity in melanoma patients, since this study was made with several centers with different dermatopathologists.

  8. Register-based research on twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Holm, Niels V

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry (DTR) has for more than 50 years been based on surveys and clinical investigations and over the two last decades also on register linkage. Currently these two approaches are merged within Statistics Denmark. Research topics: Here we report on three major...... groups of register-based research in the DTR that used the uniqueness of twinning. First, we focus on the ''long-term prognosis'' of being a twin compared with being a singleton and show that Danish twins have health trajectories in adulthood similar to singletons, which is a result of interest for twins...... and their families as well as a test of the fetal origins hypothesis that states that fetal growth restriction has long-term health consequences. Secondly, we summarise some of the most important register-based ''classical twin studies'', e.g. heritability studies on lifespan and exceptional longevity. Finally, we...

  9. Burnout Subtypes and Absence of Self-Compassion in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Zubiaga, Fernando; Cereceda, Maria; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Trenc, Patricia; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Primary healthcare professionals report high levels of distress and burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to differentiate three clinical subtypes: 'frenetic', 'underchallenged' and 'worn-out'. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and reliability of the burnout subtype model in Spanish primary healthcare professionals, and to assess the explanatory power of the self-compassion construct as a possible protective factor. The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of n = 440 Spanish primary healthcare professionals (214 general practitioners, 184 nurses, 42 medical residents) completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36), the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The factor structure of the BCSQ-36 was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations. Internal consistency (R) was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variables. The relationships between the BCSQ-36 and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman's r and multiple linear regression models. The structure of the BCSQ-36 fit the data well, with adequate CFA indices for all the burnout subtypes. Reliability was adequate for all the scales and sub-scales (R≥0.75). Self-judgement was the self-compassion factor that explained the frenetic subtype (Beta = 0.36; pSpanish primary healthcare professionals. The negative self-compassion dimensions seem to play a relevant role in explaining the burnout profiles in this population, and they should be considered when designing specific treatments and interventions tailored to the specific vulnerability of each subtype.

  10. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kumagai

    Full Text Available Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose, luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose, placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg nor supratherapeutic (20 mg doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects.

  11. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment: A register-based cohort study of subsequent benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. A total of 1063 patients treated with chlordiazepoxide and 1365 patients treated with phenobarbital were included. After one year, the outcome rates per 100 person-years in the phenobarbital versus the chlordiazepoxide cohort were 9.20 vs. 5.13 for use of benzodiazepine, 37.9 vs. 37.9 for alcohol recidivism and 29 vs. 59 for mortality. Comparing phenobarbital to chlordiazepoxide treated, the HR of subsequent use of benzodiazepines was 1.56 (95%CI 1.05-2.30). Similarly, the HR for alcohol recidivism was 0.99 (95%CI 0.84-1.16). Lastly, the HR for 30-days and 1 year mortality was 0.25 (95%CI 0.08-0.78) and 0.51 (95%CI 0.31-0.86). There was no decreased risk of subsequent benzodiazepine use or alcohol recidivism in patients treated with phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital treatment was associated with decreased mortality, which might be confounded by somatic comorbidity among patients receiving chlordiazepoxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between patients' adherence and GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence--a survey and register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfoed, Benedicte L; Paulsen, Maja S; Christensen, Palle M; Halvorsen, Peder A; Jarbøl, Dorte E; Larsen, Mogens L; Munch, Maria R; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that doctors' personal lifestyle, risk taking personality and beliefs about risk reducing therapies may affect their clinical decision-making. Whether such factors are further associated with patients' adherence with medication is largely unknown. To estimate associations between GPs' attitudes towards risk, statin therapy and management of non-adherence and their patients' adherence, and to identify subgroups of GPs with poor patient adherence. All Danish GPs were invited to participate in an online survey. We asked whether they regarded statin treatment as important, how they managed non-adherence and whether non-adherence annoyed them. The Jackson Personality Inventory-revised was used to measure risk attitude. The GPs' responses were linked to register data on their patients' redeemed statin prescriptions. Mixed effect logistic regression was used to estimate associations between patient adherence and GPs' attitudes. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered in a 1-year period using an 80% cut-off. We received responses from 1398 GPs (42.2%) who initiated statin therapy in 12 192 patients during the study period. In total 6590 (54.1%) of these patients were adherent. Patients who had GPs rarely assessing their treatment adherence were less likely to be adherent than those who had GPs assessing their patients' treatment adherence now and then, odds ratio (OR) 0.86 [confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.96]. No other associations were found between patients' adherence and GPs' attitudes. Our findings suggest that GPs' attitudes to risk, statin therapy or management of non-adherence are not significantly associated with their patients' adherence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Burnout Subtypes and Absence of Self-Compassion in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Zubiaga, Fernando; Cereceda, Maria; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Trenc, Patricia; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare professionals report high levels of distress and burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to differentiate three clinical subtypes: ‘frenetic’, ‘underchallenged’ and ‘worn-out’. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and reliability of the burnout subtype model in Spanish primary healthcare professionals, and to assess the explanatory power of the self-compassion construct as a possible protective factor. Method The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of n = 440 Spanish primary healthcare professionals (214 general practitioners, 184 nurses, 42 medical residents) completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36), the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The factor structure of the BCSQ-36 was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations. Internal consistency (R) was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variables. The relationships between the BCSQ-36 and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman’s r and multiple linear regression models. Results The structure of the BCSQ-36 fit the data well, with adequate CFA indices for all the burnout subtypes. Reliability was adequate for all the scales and sub-scales (R≥0.75). Self-judgement was the self-compassion factor that explained the frenetic subtype (Beta = 0.36; p<0.001); isolation explained the underchallenged (Beta = 0.16; p = 0.010); and over-identification the worn-out (Beta = 0.25; p = 0.001). Other significant associations were observed between the different burnout subtypes and the dimensions of the MBI-GS, UWES and PANAS. Conclusions The typological definition of burnout through the BCSQ-36 showed good structure and appropriate internal consistence

  14. Burnout Subtypes and Absence of Self-Compassion in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Montero-Marin

    Full Text Available Primary healthcare professionals report high levels of distress and burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to differentiate three clinical subtypes: 'frenetic', 'underchallenged' and 'worn-out'. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and reliability of the burnout subtype model in Spanish primary healthcare professionals, and to assess the explanatory power of the self-compassion construct as a possible protective factor.The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of n = 440 Spanish primary healthcare professionals (214 general practitioners, 184 nurses, 42 medical residents completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36, the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS, the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. The factor structure of the BCSQ-36 was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA by the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations. Internal consistency (R was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variables. The relationships between the BCSQ-36 and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman's r and multiple linear regression models.The structure of the BCSQ-36 fit the data well, with adequate CFA indices for all the burnout subtypes. Reliability was adequate for all the scales and sub-scales (R≥0.75. Self-judgement was the self-compassion factor that explained the frenetic subtype (Beta = 0.36; p<0.001; isolation explained the underchallenged (Beta = 0.16; p = 0.010; and over-identification the worn-out (Beta = 0.25; p = 0.001. Other significant associations were observed between the different burnout subtypes and the dimensions of the MBI-GS, UWES and PANAS.The typological definition of burnout through the BCSQ-36 showed good structure and appropriate internal consistence in Spanish primary healthcare professionals

  15. DFT study of ethyl xanthate interaction with sphalerite (1 1 0) surface in the absence and presence of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization , Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wen, Shuming, E-mail: shmwen@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization , Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Deng, Jiushuai [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization , Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Chen, Xiumin [National Engineering Laboratory of Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Feng, Qicheng [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization , Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Interaction among sphalerite surface, copper and ethyl xanthate (EX) was simulated. • Results show that four stable interaction models exist among them. • The four models can result in the activation flotation of sphalerite. - Abstract: The interaction among sphalerite (1 1 0) surface, copper and ethyl xanthate (EX) was simulated using the density functional theory (DFT). The results of DFT indicate that four types of stable interaction models exist among sphalerite surface, copper and EX, i.e., EX interacts with the Cu substituted for Zn, Cu adsorbed on the top site of S, Cu adsorbed on the bridge site of S and Cu(OH){sub 2} adsorbed on the sphalerite surface. The four interaction models can result in the activation flotation of sphalerite. Density of states (DOS) analysis shows that the energy level discrepancy of the Zn 3d orbital in ZnS and the bonding S 3p orbital in EX results in the weak adsorption of EX on un-activated sphalerite surface. However, after copper activation, the Cu 3d orbital peak and bonding S 3p orbital peak are just maximally overlapped nearby the Fermi level. This study provides an insight into the nature that sphalerite responds not well to EX and also a comprehensive understanding on the possible interaction cases existing among sphalerite surface, copper and EX.

  16. DFT study of ethyl xanthate interaction with sphalerite (1 1 0) surface in the absence and presence of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wen, Shuming; Deng, Jiushuai; Chen, Xiumin; Feng, Qicheng

    2014-08-01

    The interaction among sphalerite (1 1 0) surface, copper and ethyl xanthate (EX) was simulated using the density functional theory (DFT). The results of DFT indicate that four types of stable interaction models exist among sphalerite surface, copper and EX, i.e., EX interacts with the Cu substituted for Zn, Cu adsorbed on the top site of S, Cu adsorbed on the bridge site of S and Cu(OH)2 adsorbed on the sphalerite surface. The four interaction models can result in the activation flotation of sphalerite. Density of states (DOS) analysis shows that the energy level discrepancy of the Zn 3d orbital in ZnS and the bonding S 3p orbital in EX results in the weak adsorption of EX on un-activated sphalerite surface. However, after copper activation, the Cu 3d orbital peak and bonding S 3p orbital peak are just maximally overlapped nearby the Fermi level. This study provides an insight into the nature that sphalerite responds not well to EX and also a comprehensive understanding on the possible interaction cases existing among sphalerite surface, copper and EX.

  17. The Norwegian immunisation register--SYSVAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogstad, L; Ung, G; Hagerup-Jenssen, M; Cappelen, I; Haugen, I L; Feiring, B

    2012-04-19

    The Norwegian immunisation register, SYSVAK, is a national electronic immunisation register. It became nationwide in 1995. The major aim was to register all vaccinations in the Childhood Immunisation Programme to ensure that all children are offered adequate vaccination according to schedule in the programme, and to secure high vaccination coverage. Notification to SYSVAK is mandatory, based on personal identification numbers. This allows follow up of individual vaccination schedules and linkage of SYSVAK data to other national health registers for information on outcome diagnoses, such as the surveillance system for communicable diseases. Information from SYSVAK is used to determine vaccine coverage in a timely manner. Coverage can be broken down to regional/local levels and used for active surveillance of vaccination coverage and decisions about interventions. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, an adaptation of SYSVAK enabled daily surveillance of vaccination coverage on national and regional levels. Currently, data from SYSVAK are used, among others, in studies on adverse events related to pandemic vaccination. Future challenges include maximising usage of collected data in surveillance and research, and continued improvement of data quality. Immunisation registers are rich sources for high quality surveillance of vaccination coverage, effectiveness, vaccine failure and adverse events, and gold mines for research.

  18. [Therapeutic benefit of a registered psychoeducation program on treatment adherence, objective and subjective quality of life: French pilot study for schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvanaud, F; Kebir, O; Vlasie, M; Doste, V; Amado, I; Krebs, M-O

    2017-05-01

    In schizophrenic disorders, supportive psychosocial therapies have been used as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy to help alleviate residual symptoms and to improve social functioning and quality of life. Among these therapies, psychoeducational therapies showed a significant efficacy on improving drug adherence and on reducing relapses. However, according to the French Health Agency, fewer than 10% of psychiatric structures in France offer registered psychoeducation programs. Caregiver apprehension of patients' depressive reactions to the awareness of the disease could underlie the underuse of psychoeducation therapies. Indeed, the psychoeducation programs' impact on objective and subjective quality of life is discussed among the literature. In this context, we conducted a retrospective, monocentric, open-labelled and non-controlled pilot study to measure the impact of a registered psychoeducation program on objective and subjective quality of life of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Secondary objectives included measures of the effects on drug observance and awareness of the disease. We included stabilized patients over the age of eighteen suffering from schizophrenia. Referent psychiatrics were asked to inform the patient of the diagnosis and to prescribe psychoeducation therapy. From 2011 to 2014, we offered three ambulatory programs, each program including fifteen two-hour group sessions. The groups were opened for three to six patients and managed by two caregivers. Themes discussed during the sessions included: schizophrenic disease, treatments, relationships to family, diet, social issues, toxics, relaxation. Objective and subjective quality of life were evaluated one month before and one month after the program using respectively the global assessment functioning (GAF) and the subjective quality of life (SQoL) scales. The Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the French IQ8 scale evaluated respectively drug adherence and awareness of the disease. All

  19. Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each…

  20. Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each…

  1. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  2. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, M.; Conlon, M.; Cristan, A.L.; Dawson, L.; Dunham, J.; Hickey, T.; Hook, D.; Horstmann, W.; MacEwan, A.; Schreur, P.; Smart, L.; Smith-Yoshimura, K.; Wacker, M.; Woutersen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Registering researchers in some type of authority file or identifier system has become more compelling as both institutions and researchers recognize the need to compile their scholarly output. The report presents functional requirements and recommendations for six stakeholders: researchers, funders

  3. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic

    2016-01-01

    through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. CONCLUSION: The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data....... All Danish orthopedic departments - both public and private - report to the register, and registration is compulsory. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative...... complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995...

  4. A Case Study of Connecticut Community Colleges Nursing Programs to Describe Gerontological Content Inclusion in Associate Degree Registered Nursing Programs Using an Educational Curriculum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The population of adults over age 65 must have competently prepared registered nurses to meet their current and future health care needs. There is a societal component in nursing to ensure that all nurses have the content, skills, and strategies, which includes a focus on basic gerontology preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive…

  5. A Case Study of Connecticut Community Colleges Nursing Programs to Describe Gerontological Content Inclusion in Associate Degree Registered Nursing Programs Using an Educational Curriculum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The population of adults over age 65 must have competently prepared registered nurses to meet their current and future health care needs. There is a societal component in nursing to ensure that all nurses have the content, skills, and strategies, which includes a focus on basic gerontology preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive…

  6. EQ-5D utility, response and drug survival in rheumatoid arthritis patients on biologic monotherapy: A prospective observational study of patients registered in the south Swedish SSATG registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Turesson, Carl; Kapetanovic, Meliha; Englund, Martin; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Christensen, Robin; Bliddal, Henning; Geborek, Pierre; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Biologic agents have dramatically changed treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date only scarce head-to-head data exist especially when the biological therapies are given as monotherapy without concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs). Thus the objective of the current study is to evaluate treatment response of all available biological therapies with special focus on utility (EQ-5D-3L) and drug survival of biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) prescribed as monotherapy in RA patients in southern Sweden. Materials and methods All RA patients registered in a regional database as initiating bDMARD as monotherapy, i.e. without concomitant conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs), from 1st of January 2006 through 31st of December 2012, were included. Patients were followed from initiation of the first dose of bDMARD monotherapy treatment until withdrawal from treatment, loss of follow-up or 31st of December 2012. Descriptive statistics for utility (EQ-5D-3L), effectiveness, and drug survival of bDMARD monotherapy were calculated. Results During the study period, a total of 554 patients were registered in SSATG as initiating bDMARD monotherapy. Most of the patients were women (81%), with a mean age of 57 years. The average disease duration was more than 12 years, and on average the patients had previously been treated with approximately four different csDMARDs. Fifty-five percent of the patients were initiating their first bDMARD, 26% their second, and 19% their third or more. At baseline the average EQ-5D-3L was 0.34. Most patients had moderate to high disease activity, with a mean DAS28 of 5.0, and were substantially disabled, with an average HAQ score of 1.4. At 6 months´ follow-up, the EQ-5D-3L in patients still on the biologic drug had increased by mean 0.23 (SD 0.4) with no differences between type of bDMARD (p = 0.49). The mean change in EQ-5D-3L ranged from 0.11 (rituximab and infliximab) to 0.42 (tocilizumab). Although the changes were numerically

  7. Early adversity and risk for moderate to severe unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence and adulthood: A register-based study of 978,647 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Signe Kirk; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Ubbesen, Mads Bonde; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Musliner, Katherine Louise

    2017-05-01

    Early adversity is a known risk factor for unipolar depression. We examined the impact of 9 types of early adversity on risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence or adulthood, and evaluated whether these effects were moderated by gender and adversity timing. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study using Danish national registers. The sample included all individuals born in Denmark between 1980 and 1998 (N=978,647). Exposure to early adversity was assessed from ages 0-15. Types of adversity included parental illness, incarceration, death, disability, and psychiatric diagnosis; family disruption; out-of-home care; and childhood abuse. Individuals were followed from age 15 until first in- or outpatient depression diagnosis (ICD-10 codes F32, F33) in a psychiatric hospital, death, emigration, or December 31st, 2013, whichever came first. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regressions. All adversities were significantly associated with increased risk for moderate to severe adolescent/adult depression (HR range: 1.30-2.72), although the effects were attenuated after mutual adjustment (adjusted HR range: 1.06-1.70). None of the effects were moderated by gender. The effect of family disruption was strongest between ages 0-4 (HR=1.66, 95% CI=1.61-1.71), while the effect of out-of-home care was strongest between ages 10-14 (HR=2.45, 95% CI=2.28-2.64). Untreated and primary-care treated depression were not measured. Our results support past findings that multiple types of early adversity increase risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence and adulthood. Certain adversities may be more harmful if they occur during specific developmental time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do antidepressants increase the risk of mania and bipolar disorder in people with depression? A retrospective electronic case register cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Peter; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between antidepressant therapy and the later onset of mania/bipolar disorder. Design Retrospective cohort study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 21 012 adults presenting to SLaM between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2013 with unipolar depression. Exposure Prior antidepressant therapy recorded in electronic health records. Main outcome measure Time to subsequent diagnosis of mania or bipolar disorder from date of diagnosis of unipolar depression, censored at 31 March 2014. Methods Multivariable Cox regression analysis with age and gender as covariates. Results The overall incidence rate of mania/bipolar disorder was 10.9 per 1000 person-years. The peak incidence of mania/bipolar disorder incidence was seen in patients aged between 26 and 35 years (12.3 per 1000 person-years). Prior antidepressant treatment was associated with an increased incidence of mania/bipolar disorder ranging from 13.1 to 19.1 per 1000 person-years. Multivariable analysis indicated a significant association with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.52) and venlafaxine (1.35, 1.07 to 1.70). Conclusions In people with unipolar depression, antidepressant treatment is associated with an increased risk of subsequent mania/bipolar disorder. These findings highlight the importance of considering risk factors for mania when treating people with depression. PMID:26667012

  9. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people - A Danish observational register-based historical cohort study, using propensity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first prescription. The hazard ratio for suicide attempts after redeeming a prescription was estimated to 5.23, 95% CI 4.82-5.68. We conclude that the risk of suicide attempt is higher for young people in the first months after redeeming their first prescription for SSRIs, compared to non-users. For SSRI users with lower propensity score (fewer risk factors for SSRIs) the risk of suicide attempt is estimated to be highest. Although the design may miss some explicit reason for prescription of SSRIs and SSRIs might be a marker for those in high risk rather than a causal risk factor, we would recommend systematic risk assessment in the period after redeeming the first prescription.

  10. Recurring alcohol-related care between 1998 and 2007 among people treated for an alcohol-related disorder in 1997: A register study in Stockholm County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåreholt Ingemar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inpatient care for alcohol intoxication is increasing in Sweden, especially among young women. Since it is well known that alcohol disorder is a chronic relapsing illness, this study examines the extent to which people return for more care. Method All inpatients with alcohol-related diagnoses in Stockholm County during 1997 were followed prospectively to 2007 through registers. The proportion reappearing for the same diagnosis, other alcohol-related inpatient, or outpatient care each year after baseline, as well as the number of years the inpatients reappeared were calculated (n = 2735. Three diagnoses were examined separately; alcohol dependence, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol intoxication. Results Three out of five inpatients with an alcohol diagnoses reappeared for more alcohol-related inpatient care during the following decade. The proportion returning was largest the year after baseline and then decreased curvilinearly over time. The inclusion of outpatient care increased proportions, but did not change patterns. Of those with an alcohol dependence diagnosis at baseline 42 percent returned for more alcohol-related inpatient care the first, 28 percent the fifth, and 25 percent the tenth year. Corresponding proportions for harmful use and intoxication were smaller. One in five among those with an alcohol dependence returned for more than five of the ten years. Ordered logistic regressions confirmed that besides diagnosis, age and gender were independently related to the number of years returning to care. Conclusions While middle-aged males with alcohol dependence were in a revolving door, young female inpatients with intoxication diagnosis returned to a comparably lower degree.

  11. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard B; Smith, Catherine H; Yiu, Zenas Z N; Ashcroft, Darren M; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Burden, A David; Lunt, Mark; McElhone, Kathleen; Ormerod, Anthony D; Owen, Caroline M; Reynolds, Nick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-11-01

    Drug survival reflects a drug's effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. We assessed the drug survival of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a prospective national pharmacovigilance cohort (British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR)). The survival rates of the first course of biologics for 3,523 biologic-naive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were compared using survival analysis techniques and predictors of discontinuation analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Data for patients on adalimumab (n=1,879), etanercept (n=1,098), infliximab (n=96), and ustekinumab (n=450) were available. The overall survival rate in the first year was 77%, falling to 53% in the third year. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.37), being a current smoker (HR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38), and a higher baseline dermatology life quality index (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) were predictors of discontinuation. Presence of psoriatic arthritis (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) was a predictor for drug survival. As compared with adalimumab, patients on etanercept (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.45-1.84) or infliximab (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09) were more likely to discontinue therapy, whereas patients on ustekinumab were more likely to persist (HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37-0.62). After accounting for relevant covariates, ustekinumab had the highest first-course drug survival. The results of this study will aid clinical decision making when choosing biologic therapy for psoriasis patients.

  12. Global Register Allocation for SIMD Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BenjaminHAO; DavidPEARSON; 等

    1996-01-01

    It is relatively clear how to map regular,repetitive or grid oriented computations onto SIMD architectures.It is not so clear,however,how to do this for irregular computations even though there may be significant amounts of intrinsic parallelism in branch free code.We study compilation techniques for this type of code when targeted to SIMD computers and illustrate their use on a simple model architecture.In this paper,we present one of the compilation techniques,global register allocation,we have developed for SIMD computers,and demonstrate that it can effectively allocate registers for parallelizing irregular computations in branch free code.This technique is an extension and a modification of the register allocation via graph coloring approach used by sequential compilers.Our performance results validate our method.

  13. Sickness absence among female employees with migraine and co-existing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, K; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Kivimäki, M

    2008-11-01

    This prospective cohort study examined the risk of sickness absence among 27,127 female public-sector employees by status of migraine and co-existing conditions. A baseline survey was used to assess chronic disorders and demographic factors. Information on sickness absence in the 3 years following the survey was obtained from employers' registers. Migraine was related to 5.4 extra sickness absence days per person-year, with the corresponding figures being 14.6 and 6.1 for depression and respiratory disorders, respectively. After adjusting for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and presence of depression or respiratory disorders, employees with migraine had a 1.21 (95% confidence interval 1.18, 1.24) times higher risk of self-certified sickness absence episodes ( 3 days) was 1.15 (1.12, 1.19). Among employees with depression or respiratory disorders, secondary migraine was associated with an increased risk of sickness absence episode of 1.15 to 1.23. These findings suggest that migraine is associated with increased risk of recorded sickness absence independent of depression and respiratory disorders.

  14. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time. A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks. 147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9% became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence. The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00. Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence. We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes.

  15. Demographic and occupational predictors of stress and fatigue in French intensive-care registered nurses and nurses' aides: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Hocine, Mounia; Salomon, Jérôme; Dab, William; Temime, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) working in intensive-care units (ICUs) are exposed to high physical and mental demands potentially affecting their health or having repercussions on patient care. Although several studies have explored the links between some aspects of working conditions in hospitals and HCW health, the complex dynamics at play are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the impact of a wide array of demographic, employment and organizational factors related to fatigue and stress of French ICU HCWs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ICUs of Paris-area hospitals between January 18, 2013 and April 2, 2013. All types of adult ICUs were included (medical, surgical and polyvalent). Included in the study were HCWs with patient contact (doctors, residents, registered nurses, nurse's aides and physical therapists). Participation was proposed to all eligible HCWs present during on-site visits. Temporary staff not typically assigned to the given ICU was excluded. Data were collected using an individual questionnaire administered in interviews during day and night shifts (N=682). Stress and fatigue outcomes included the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10), the Nottingham Health Profile sleep and energy level rubrics and the current fatigue state at the interview. Multivariate analysis was restricted to nurse and nurse's aide data (n=536). Doctors and residents reported fewer sleep difficulties but were more likely to report a tired current state. Female gender was associated with higher stress levels and greater fatigue for all outcomes, while greater social support of supervisor or colleagues decreased stress and fatigue. At the organizational level, longer shifts (12 h vs. 8 h) were associated with tired current state and greater sleep difficulties. Personnel on rotating shifts had lower stress and a better current state, while those on night shifts had greater sleep and energy level difficulties. Even when controlling for demographic factors

  16. Does community care decrease length of stay and risk of rehospitalization in new patients with schizophrenia disorders? A comparative case register study in Groningen, The Netherlands; Victoria, Australia; and South-Verona, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, S; Burgess, P; Tansella, M

    2002-01-01

    This was a long-term followup study of defined cohorts of new patients who met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and related disorders. Three mental health service systems with psychiatric case registers were compared. In two areas (Victoria, Australia, and South-Verona, Italy), a comprehensive syst

  17. Breast cancer and early retirement: Associations with disease characteristics, treatment, comorbidity, social position and participation in a six-day rehabilitation course in a register-based study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjae, Lars Henrik; Deltour, Isabelle; Suppli, Nis Palm

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this register-based study was to identify factors related to disease, treatment, sociodemographics and comorbidity associated with taking early retirement among women treated for breast cancer, and to evaluate the risk for taking early retirement among breast cancer survivors who...

  18. Register mark measurement errors in high-precision roll-to-roll continuous systems: The effect of register mark geometry on measurement error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsu; Isto, Pekka; Jeong, Hakyung; Park, Janghoon; Lee, Dongjin; Shin, Kee-Hyun

    2016-10-01

    It is important to achieve high-precision register control in roll-to-roll continuous printing systems. Thus far, many studies on the dynamics of registers and tension and on register control techniques have identified register control as a problem of controlling and minimizing the disturbance of strain of the substrate. However, register control using printed register marks is necessary, and printing defects in creating these marks cause measurement errors. This study demonstrates by experimental verification that the measurement error is generated by the widening and agglomeration of the register mark. Furthermore, the error is shown to differ with the size and shape of the mark under identical printing conditions. The results illustrate the importance of improving the printing quality of the register mark, selecting the desired geometry for register marks with regard to printability, and utilizing an edge-detection algorithm in the control program for high-precision register control.

  19. Histological type and grade of breast cancer tumors by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a register-based study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuch Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have indicated that reproductive factors affect the risk of histological types of breast cancer differently. The long-term protective effect of a childbirth is preceded by a short-term adverse effect. Few studies have examined whether tumors diagnosed shortly after birth have specific histological characteristics. Methods In the present register-based study, comprising information for 22,867 Norwegian breast cancer cases (20-74 years, we examined whether histological type (9 categories and grade of tumor (2 combined categories differed by parity or age at first birth. Associations with time since birth were evaluated among 9709 women diagnosed before age 50 years. Chi-square tests were applied for comparing proportions, whereas odds ratios (each histological type vs. ductal, or grade 3-4 vs. grade 1-2 were estimated in polytomous and binary logistic regression analyses. Results Ductal tumors, the most common histological type, accounted for 81.4% of all cases, followed by lobular tumors (6.3% and unspecified carcinomas (5.5%. Other subtypes accounted for 0.4%-1.5% of the cases each. For all histological types, the proportions differed significantly by age at diagnoses. The proportion of mucinous and tubular tumors decreased with increasing parity, whereas Paget disease and medullary tumors were most common in women of high parity. An increasing trend with increasing age at first birth was most pronounced for lobular tumors and unspecified carcinomas; an association in the opposite direction was seen in relation to medullary and tubular tumors. In age-adjusted analyses, only the proportions of unspecified carcinomas and lobular tumors decreased significantly with increasing time since first and last birth. However, ductal tumors, and malignant sarcomas, mainly phyllodes tumors, seemed to occur at higher frequency in women diagnosed Conclusion Our results support previous observations that reproductive factors

  20. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour in individuals on disability pension due to common mental disorders - a nationwide register-based prospective cohort study in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMD have become one of the leading causes for disability pension (DP. Studies on predictors of adverse health outcome following DP are sparse. This study aimed to examine the association of different socio-demographic factors and health care consumption with subsequent suicidal behaviour among individuals on DP due to CMD. METHOD: This is a population-based prospective cohort study based on register data. All individuals aged 18-64 years, living in Sweden on 31-Dec-2004 who in 2005 were on DP due to CMD (N = 46 745 were followed regarding suicide attempt and suicide (2006-10. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for suicidal behaviour were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During the five-year follow-up, 1 046 (2.2% and 210 (0.4% individuals attempted and committed suicide, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that young age (18-24 years and low education predicted suicide attempt, while living alone was associated with both higher suicide attempt and suicide (range of HRs 1.23 to 1.68. Combined prescription of antidepressants with anxiolytics during 2005 and inpatient care due to mental diagnoses or suicide attempt (2001-05 were strongly associated with suicide attempt and suicide (range of HRs 1.3 to 4.9, while inpatient care due to somatic diagnoses and specialized outpatient care due to mental diagnoses during 2001-05 only predicted suicide attempt (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7; HR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7. CONCLUSIONS: Along with socio-demographic factors, it is very important to consider type of previous healthcare use and medication history when designing further research or intervention aiming at individuals on DP due to CMD. Further research is warranted to investigate both characteristics of disability pension due to CMD, like duration, diagnoses and grade as well as mechanisms to subsequent suicidal behavior, taking potential gender differences into