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Sample records for abrasive wear resistance

  1. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  3. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  4. Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Iron- and WC-based Hardfaced Coatings Evaluated with Scratch Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive wear is one of the most common types of wear, which makesabrasive wear resistance very important in many industries. Thehard facing is considered as useful and economical way to improve theperformance of components submitted to severe abrasive wear conditions, with wide range of applicable filler materials. The abrasive wear resistance of the three different hardfaced coatings (two iron‐based and one WC‐based, which were intended to be used for reparation of the impact plates of the ventilation mill, was investigated and compared. Abrasive wear tests were carried‐out by using the scratch tester under the dry conditions. Three normal loads of 10, 50 and 100 N and the constant sliding speed of 4 mm/s were used. Scratch test was chosen as a relatively easy and quick test method. Wear mechanism analysis showed significant influence of the hardfaced coatings structure, which, along with hardness, has determined coatings abrasive wear resistance.

  5. Abrasive wear of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E.; Wilson, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the wear behavior of a variety of advanced materials. Among the many materials under evaluation are intermetallic alloys based on the compounds: Fe 3 Al, Ti 3 Al, TiAl, Al 3 Ti, NiAl and MoSi 2 . The high hardness, high modulus, low density, and superior environmental stability of these compounds make them attractive for wear materials. This paper reports on the abrasive wear of alloys and composites based on the above compounds. The abrasive wear behavior of these alloys and composites are compared to other engineering materials used in wear applications

  6. Strength and gas-abrasive wear-resistance of zirconium carbide based cerments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, G.V.; Dan'kin, A.A.; Markov, A.A.; Bogomol, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    Results relating to a study of cermet strength and wear resistance by means of a gas-abrasive flow are presented. It has been found that with a higher amount of the metallic binder (over 25 at.%) in zirconium carbide-based cermets the bending and compression strength and also hardness and wear resistance within the systems ZrC-Nb, ZrC-Mo, ZrC-W become lower. The interrelation of the cermet wear resistance of the various systems and their bending and compression strengths, which, in turn, depend on the electronic structure is shown

  7. Influence of Heat Treatment on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Silumin Matrix Composite Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted at examining the effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear resistance of metal composite castings. Metal matrix composites were made by infiltrating preforms created from unordered short fibers (graphite or silumin with liquid aluminium alloy AlSi12(b. Thus prepared composites were subject to solution heat treatment at a temperature of 520°C for four hours, then aging at a temperature of 220°C for four hours. Abrasion resistance of the material was tested before and after thermal treatment.

  8. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  9. Nitriding the influence of plasma in resistance to wear micro abrasive tool steel AISI D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, Vagner Joao; Gobb, Silvio Jose; Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira da

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the influence of time of treatment in the formation of nitride layer of AISI D2 tool steel and the resistance to micro-abrasive wear from the technique of nitriding in plasma. The samples were nitrides at 400 ° C with a pressure of 4.5 mbar (450 Pa) and using a gas mixture of 80% vol.H2 and 20% vol.N2. The times of treatment were: 30, 60, 120, 180 and 360 minutes. The properties of the layers in the samples obtained nitrides were assessed by surface microhardness, profiles of microhardness, metallography analysis, X-ray diffraction and test for resistance to micro-abrasive wear. The best results for nitriding to 400 deg C, was obtained with the time of treatment of 360 minutes. In this case the increase in surface hardness was 94.6% and resistance to micro-abrasive wear of 15%. This increase in hardness may be associated with high concentration of nitrogen in the crystalline network of iron-α and additional training of nitrides. Low temperature of nitriding reduces between grain fragility to reduce the likelihood of precipitation of nitrides in a continuous manner in the austenite grain boundaries and the absence of previous ε'+ γ phases. (author)

  10. A method for increase abrasive wear resistance parts by obtaining on methods casting on gasifying models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedukhin, V. V.; Anikeev, A. N.; Chumanov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Method optimizes hardening working layer parts’, working in high-abrasive conditions looks in this work: bland refractory particles WC and TiC in respect of 70/30 wt. % prepared by beforehand is applied on polystyrene model in casting’ mould. After metal poured in mould, withstand for crystallization, and then a study is carried out. Study macro- and microstructure received samples allows to say that thickness and structure received hardened layer depends on duration interactions blend harder carbides and liquid metal. Different character interactions various dispersed particles and matrix metal observed under the same conditions. Tests abrasive wear resistance received materials of method calculating residual masses was conducted in laboratory’ conditions. Results research wear resistance showed about that method obtaining harder coating of blend carbide tungsten and carbide titanium by means of drawing on surface foam polystyrene model before moulding, allows receive details with surface has wear resistance in 2.5 times higher, than details of analogy steel uncoated. Wherein energy costs necessary for transformation units mass’ substances in powder at obtained harder layer in 2.06 times higher, than materials uncoated.

  11. The use of ion implantation for the improvement of abrasive wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, B.G.; Dearnaley, G.

    1979-01-01

    At the conclusion of the 1977 IPAT conference a practical problem was described which called for an economically feasible method of improving the resistance of tool steel, chromium and other alloys to abrasive wear sustained during the injection moulding of phenolic resin. This paper will describe subsequent work to investigate ion implantation as a possible means of treating steel taps, injection nozzles, feed wear pads, cavity moulds etc. Various problems were encountered and it will be described how most of these have now been overcome. Under favourable conditions factors of 4, and sometimes up to 10 times the normal life can be achieved. An attempt will be made to estimate some of the economic benefits of the process. (author)

  12. Abrasive wear resistance and microstructure of Ni-Cr-B-Si hardfacing alloys with additions of Al, Nb, Mo, Fe, Mn and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.; Fischer, A.; Theisen, W.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new Ni-base hardfacing alloys for filler wire welding or metal spraying should result in materials with a good resistance against high temperature corrosion and abrasive wear. The first step is to design microstructures, which obtain a satisfactory abrasive wear behaviour at room temperature. Thus, different alloys are melted and scrutinized as to their microstructure and their abrasive wear resistance in laboratory. Compared to commercial Ni-base hardfacing alloys they show a higher volume fraction of coarse hard phases due to the additional, initial solidification of Nb-carbides and Cr-, and Mo-borides. Thus, the abrasive wear resistance is improved. For hard abrasive particles, such as corundum, the Ni-base alloys are more wear resistant than harder Fe-base alloys investigate earlier. This is due to the tougher Ni metal matrix that results in microcracking not to be the most significantly acting wear mechanism

  13. Wear resistance and structural changes in nitrogen-containing high-chromium martensitic steels under conditions of abrasive wear and sliding friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.V.; Korshunov, L.G.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.; Chernenko, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Martensitic nitrogen-containing steels Kh17N2A0.14, Kh13A0.14, Kh14G4A0.22 as well as steel 20Kh13 were studied for their wear resistance under conditions of friction and abrasion. Metallography, X ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural changes taking place in a thin surface layer on wearing. It is shown that an increase of nitrogen content of 0.14 to 0.22% promotes an enhancement of steel resistance to abrasive and adhesive wear, especially after tempering in the range of 500-550 deg C. Typically, the nitrogen-containing steels exhibit lower resistance to various types of wear in comparison with the steels with high-carbon martensite due to their lower deformability under conditions of friction loading

  14. Abrasive wear resistance optimization of three different carbide coatings by the Taguchi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guer, Ali Kaya [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials; Kaya, Sinan [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Technology

    2017-06-01

    In this study, FeCrC, SiC and B{sub 4}C powders were alloyed on the surface of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel by plasma arc welding. The mass losses of the abrasive wear of the AISI 430 substrate were examined under the loads of 6, 10 and 16 N and in the distances of 10, 20 and 30 m by using Taguchi design method. The results of abrasive wear test were optimized by the minimum optimal control characteristics of the Taguchi procedure and the results were analyzed by using graphical methods. The Taguchi procedure is an important approach to achieve high quality without increasing the cost during the optimization of process parameters. The orthogonal planes of maximum effects of the controllable process parameters and minimum effects of uncontrollable process parameters were employed in the Taguchi method.

  15. Researches concerning the ultasonic energy influence on the resistence to the abrasive wear of loaded welded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Amza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches presented in the paper refer to the effect of ultrasounds propagation in the liquid metal bath on the process of transferring the additive material through the electric arch and on the crystallization process, and all these effects are analyzed for loaded welded parts solicited at the abrasive wear. All these influences are conferred to these two basic phenomena due to the ultrasounds propagation in liquid environments, namely, ultra-acoustic cavitation and acceleration of the diffusion process. The results concerns the resistance to the wear obtained for the loaded parts through manual welding with electric arch and classically covered electrode and ultrasonically activated.

  16. Abrasion Wear Resistance, Hardness and Microstructure of Hard Linings Deposited by Means of a Submerged Arc. Dureza, microestructura y resistencia al desgaste por abrasion de recargues duros depositados con arco sumergido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, R; Alcoforado, J M; Castillo, J A; Sauer, A

    1989-01-01

    Consumable materials for submerged arc welding of the types alloyed flux-neutral electrode and neutral flux-alloyed electrode were used to form, through multipass welding, a light alloy hard lining of the C-Mn type on ASTM A36 Type structural steel. Emphasis was put on microstructural characterization of the linings surveyed under electron scanning microscopy, and tests were performed to study their hardness and abrasion wear resistance at low pressures. As a result of these tests, a great influence of welding parameters on hardness and abrasion resistance properties of the combination active flux-neutral electrode was noticed. As the results showed no relationship between the hardness and the abrasion wear resistance of the linings surveyed, an attempt was made to relate the resulting microstructure with their abrasion wear resistance. (Author)

  17. Abrasive wear of ceramic wear protection at ambient and high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, M.; Adam, K.; Tumma, M.; Alessio, K. O.

    2017-05-01

    Ceramic wear protection is often applied in abrasive conditions due to their excellent wear resistance. This is especially necessary in heavy industries conveying large amounts of raw materials, e.g. in steel industry. Some plants also require material transport at high temperatures and velocities, making the need of temperature stable and abrasion resistant wear protection necessary. Various types and wear behaviour of ceramic protection are known. Hence, the goal of this study is to identify the best suitable ceramic materials for abrasive conditions in harsh environments at temperatures up to 950°C and severe thermal gradients. Chamottes, known for their excellent thermal shock resistance are compared to high abrasion resistant ceramic wear tiles and a cost efficient cement-bounded hard compound. Testing was done under high-stress three-body abrasion regime with a modified ASTM G65 apparatus enabling for investigations up to ~950°C. Thereto heated abrasive is introduced into the wear track and also preheated ceramic samples were used and compared to ambient temperature experiments. Results indicate a significant temperature influence on chamottes and the hard compound. While the chamottes benefit from temperature increase, the cement-bounded hard compound showed its limitation at abrasive temperatures of 950°C. The high abrasion resistant wear tiles represented the materials with the best wear resistance and less temperature influence in the investigated range.

  18. The Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Segmented Linear Polyurethane Elastomers Based on a Variety of Polyols as Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kwiatkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented results make an original contribution to the development of knowledge on the prediction and/or modeling of the abrasive wear properties of polyurethanes. A series of segmented linear polyurethane elastomers (PUR—In which the hard segments consist of 4,4′-methylene bis(phenylisocyanate and 1,4-butanodiol, whilst polyether, polycarbonate, or polyester polyols constitute the soft segments—Were synthesized and characterized. The hardness and wear performance as functions of the variable chemical composition of polyurethane elastomers were evaluated in order to define the relationship between studied factors. The microstructure was characterized in detail, including analysis of the hydrogen bonding by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and the phase structure by X-ray scattering (WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods. The presented studies provide the key features of the polymer composition affecting the abrasive resistance as well as attempts to explain the origin of the differences in the polyurethane elastomers’ performance.

  19. Development of the white cast iron with niobium alloy, heat treating, to wear of the abrasive resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Alessandro Fraga

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the heat treatment and abrasion tests results of a white cast iron with niobium alloy. The hardening heat treatment were made 950, 1000, 1050 e 110 deg C temperatures cooled by forced air. The tempering treatment were made at 450, 500 e 550 deg C temperatures. The heat treating alloy were compared, in the abrasive tests, with commercial alloys used as hardfacing by welding process in wear pieces. The abrasion tests was realized in pin on disk test. Additional tests were carried out for microstructural characterization to identify the different phases presents in the alloys. In a general way, the alloy studies showed the best wear rate for the heat treatments that results in higher hardness. It performance was superior than that of the commercial alloys. (author)

  20. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible?

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    Ronaldo Câmara Cozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose an initial discussion on the characterization of a third abrasive wear mode. The results obtained in a previous work [1] under different test conditions revealed the occurrence of the superposition of the “rolling” and “grooving” abrasive wear modes. This phenomenon was denoted “micro-rolling abrasion” due to the observation that “rolling abrasion” was found to act on “grooving abrasion”.

  1. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  2. Influence of the metallic matrix ratio on the wear resistance (dry and slurry abrasion) of plasma sprayed cermet (chromia / stainless steel) coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Ctibor, Pavel; Medarhri, Z.; Touimi, S.; Fauchais, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 5 (2006), s. 2006-2011 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spraying * composite coating * tribology * hardness * wear * abrasion * chromia/stainless steel Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2006

  3. Abrasive Wear Resistance, Mechanical Behaviour, Water Transport Phenomena and Biocorrosion of Epoxy/Femora Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Olajide

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, some biological wastes have proven to be reliable candidates in promoting the economic viability of developing polymeric composites. However, the field-proven reliability prediction of such materials during service life requires extensive characterization. In this research, the influence of 75 µm bovine femur ash subjected to two-step calcination process on spectroscopic, wear, mechanical, water absorbent and biocorrosive properties of epoxy/femur waste biocomposites was investigated. The test materials were developed via open mould casting and subjected to preferred characterizations apropos of the abovementioned properties. Elemental constituents of the biocomposites and the ash were determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The investigated properties were studied dependent on predetermined volume fractions of the ash in epoxy matrix. Observations from the experimental results revealed that properties’ enhancement was not specific to either low or high volume fraction of the ash in epoxy. Different properties were enhanced at different volume fractions of the ash. Nonetheless, one biocomposite approaching intermediate volume faction of the ash used, exhibited optimum combination of the investigated properties. This is a clear indication that bovine femur waste can be successfully exploited for engineering applications, especially in the areas of materials development.

  4. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  5. Anisotropy abrasive wear behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parallel orientation (APO) and normal orientation (NO) by using a two body abrasion wear tester. Three different types of abrasives wear behaviour have been observed in the composite in three orientations and follow the following trends: WNO ...

  6. Effects of Load and Speed on Wear Rate of Abrasive Wear for 2014 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabas, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the normal load and sliding speed on wear rate of two-body abrasive wear for 2014 Al Alloy were investigated in detail. In order to understand the variation in wear behaviour with load and speed, wear tests were carried out at a sliding distance of 11 m, a speed of 0.36 m/s, a duration of 30 s and loads in the range 3-11 N using 220 grit abrasive paper, and at a speed range 0.09-0.90 m/s, a load of 5 N and an average sliding distance of 11 m using abrasive papers of 150 grit size under dry friction conditions. Before the wear tests, solution treatment of the 2014 Al alloy was carried out at temperatures of 505 and 520 °C for 1 h in a muffle furnace and then quenched in cold water at 15 °C. Later, the ageing treatment was carried out at 185 °C for 8 h in the furnace. Generally, wear rate due to time increased linearly and linear wear resistance decreased with increasing loads. However, the wear rate was directly proportional to the load up to a critical load of 7 N. After this load, the slope of the curves decreased because the excessive deformation of the worn surface and the instability of the abrasive grains began to increase. When the load on an abrasive grain reaches a critical value, the groove width is about 0.17 of the abrasive grain diameter, and the abrasive grains begin to fail. The wear rate due to time increased slightly as the sliding speed increased in the range 0.09-0.90 m/s. The reason for this is that changes arising from strain rate and friction heating are expected with increasing sliding speeds.

  7. Usage of abrasion-resistant materials in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Votava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil-processing machines are subject to an extensive abrasive wear. This paper analyses technical materials and their fitness to exchangeable parts of plough bottoms, such as edge-tools and whole plough cutting edges. There were tested abrasion-resistant steels with different microstructures: austenite, martensite-bainite, and carbide. Steel with the pearlite-ferrite structure was used as an etalon. Abrasion resistance tests were processed in compliance with the norm CSN 01 5084, which is a test of abrasion wear on abrasive cloth.

  8. Solidification structure and abrasion resistance of high chromium white irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Laird, G.

    1997-06-01

    Superior abrasive wear resistance, combined with relatively low production costs, makes high Cr white cast irons (WCIs) particularly attractive for applications in the grinding, milling, and pumping apparatus used to process hard materials. Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic cast iron compositions, containing either 15 or 26 wt pct chromium, were studied with respect to the macrostructural transitions of the castings, solidification paths, and resulting microstructures when poured with varying superheats. Completely equiaxed macrostructures were produced in thick section castings with slightly hypereutectic compositions. High-stress abrasive wear tests were then performed on the various alloys to examine the influence of both macrostructure and microstructure on wear resistance. Results indicated that the alloys with a primarily austenitic matrix had a higher abrasion resistance than similar alloys with a pearlitic/bainitic matrix. Improvement in abrasion resistance was partially attributed to the ability of the austenite to transform to martensite at the wear surface during the abrasion process.

  9. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The three-body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. For this, the three-body abrasion test is done on dry abrasion test rig (TR-50)and analysed using Taguchi's experimental design scheme and analysis of variance. The results obtained from these ...

  10. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  11. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  12. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    directional fabric reinforcement offers a unique solution for ... showed good performance to the three-body abrasive wear. .... plied by the Pioneer Chemical Company, Delhi, India. ..... Theoretical and measured densities of composites, along.

  13. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 2. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of rock aggregates ... It was seen that correlation coefficients were increased for the rock classes. In addition ...

  14. Two-body, dry abrasive wear of Fe/Cr/C experimental alloys - relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, C.K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of abrasive wear resistance of Fe/Cr/Mn based alloys has been carried out using a two body pin-on-disc wear machine. Abrasives used were silicon carbide, alumina and quartz. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear resistance and to investigate the relationships between microstructure, mechanical properties, and abrasive wear resistance for these experimental alloys. Several commercial alloys were also tested to provide a basis for comparison. The goal of this study was to develop information so as to improve wear resistance of these experimental alloys by means of thermal treatments. Grain-refinement by double heat treatment was carried out in this research

  15. An experimental modeling and acoustic emission monitoring of abrasive wear in a steel/diabase pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganov, M. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Podgornyh, O. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Filippova, E. O.

    2016-11-01

    The earthmoving of permafrost soil is a critical task for excavation of minerals and construction on new territories. Failure by abrasive wear is the main reason for excavation parts of earthmoving and soil cutting machines. Therefore investigation of this type of wear is a challenge for developing efficient and wear resistant working parts. This paper is focused on conducting tribological experiments with sliding the steel samples over the surface of diabase stone sample where abrasive wear conditions of soil cutting are modeled experimentally. The worn surfaces of all samples have been examined and transfer of metal and stone particles revealed. The acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. he acoustic emission (AE) signals have been recorded and related to the results of worn surface analysis. As shown the wear intensity correlates to that of acoustic emission. Both acoustic emission signal median frequency and energy are found to be sensitive to the wear mode.

  16. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Rajashekaraiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, silicon carbide (SiC, and alumina (Al2O3 were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to L27 orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region, the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed.

  17. The model of the dependence of the abrasive wear value on the maximal linear wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Вишневський

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The relation of the contact area of the rubber roll with a sample and the maximal linear wear value is found. The mathematical model of the dependence of the wear volume weight value on the maximal dimple depth is presented with the friction on abrasive particles fixed nonrigidly. The relation of volume weight wear with the rubber roll contact surface area with a sample with the friction on abrasive particles fixed nonrigidly is established.

  18. Experimental Rock-on-Rock Abrasive Wear Under Aqueous Conditions: its Role in Subglacial Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, E. H.; Lee, A. G.

    2003-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the rate of abrasive wear of rock on rock for a range of rock types as a function of normal stress and shear displacement. Unlike abrasive wear in fault zones, where wear products accumulate as a thickening gouge zone, in our experiments wear particles were removed by flowing water. The experiments are thus directly pertinent to one of the most important processes in subglacial erosion, and to some extent in river incision. Wear was produced between rotating discs machined from rock samples and measured from the progressive approach of the disc axes towards each other under various levels of normal load. Shear displacements of several km were produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the worn rock surfaces, and particle size distributions in wear products were characterized using a laser particle size analyzer. Rock types studied were sandstones of various porosities and cement characteristics, schists and a granite. In all cases abrasion rate decreased logarithmically with displacement by up to 2 orders of magnitude until a steady state was approached, but only after at least 1 km displacement. The more porous, less-well cemented rocks wore fastest. Amount of abrasion could be characterized quantitatively using an exponentially decaying plus a steady-state term. Wear rate increased non-linearly with normal contact stress, apparently to an asymptote defined by the unconfined compressive strength. Microstructural study showed that the well-cemented and/or lowest porosity rocks wore by progressive abrasion of grains without plucking, whereas whole grains were plucked out of weakly-cemented and/or more porous rocks. This difference in behavior was reflected in wear-product particle size distributions. Where whole-grain plucking was possible, wear products were dominated by particles of the original grain size rather than finer rock flour. Comparison of our results to glacier basal abrasive wear estimated

  19. Effect of heat treatment on strength and abrasive wear behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Aluminum 6061 has been used as matrix material owing to its ... Mechanical properties such as microhardness, tensile strength, and abrasive wear tests have been ... heat treatment conditions, adopted Al6061–SiCp composites exhibited better microhardness and tensile ... corrosion resistance (Ramesh et al 2005).

  20. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  1. Controlled wear of vitrified abrasive materials for precision grinding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2Machining Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of ... ods are applied to analyse the cutting mechanism in grinding. .... (d) Chemical reaction between abrasive and workpiece material at elevated temperatures ... most common method used for measuring wear flat area employs an optical, or an electron.

  2. Prediction Of Abrasive And Diffusive Tool Wear Mechanisms In Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, S.; Umbrello, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tool wear prediction is regarded as very important task in order to maximize tool performance, minimize cutting costs and improve the quality of workpiece in cutting. In this research work, an experimental campaign was carried out at the varying of cutting conditions with the aim to measure both crater and flank tool wear, during machining of an AISI 1045 with an uncoated carbide tool P40. Parallel a FEM-based analysis was developed in order to study the tool wear mechanisms, taking also into account the influence of the cutting conditions and the temperature reached on the tool surfaces. The results show that, when the temperature of the tool rake surface is lower than the activation temperature of the diffusive phenomenon, the wear rate can be estimated applying an abrasive model. In contrast, in the tool area where the temperature is higher than the diffusive activation temperature, the wear rate can be evaluated applying a diffusive model. Finally, for a temperature ranges within the above cited values an adopted abrasive-diffusive wear model furnished the possibility to correctly evaluate the tool wear phenomena.

  3. Tribological properties of multifunctional coatings with Shape Memory Effect in abrasive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.

    2018-01-01

    The article gives research results of the abrasive wear process on samples made of Steel 1045, U10 and with applied composite surface layer "Nickel-Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect (SME) based on TiNi". For the tests we have chosen TiNiZr, which is in the martensite state and TiNiHfCu, which is in the austenitic state at the test temperature. The formation of the surface layer was carried out by high-speed oxygen-fuel deposition in a protective atmosphere of argon. In the wear test, Al2O3 corundum powder was used as an abrasive. It is shown that the wear rate of samples with a composite surface layer of multicomponent materials with SME is significantly reduced in comparison with the base, which is explained by reversible phase transformations of the surface layer with SME. After carrying out the additional surface plastic deformation (SPD), the resistance of the laminated composition to abrasion wear has greatly enhanced, due to the reinforcing effect of the SPD. It is recommended for products working in conditions of abrasive wear and high temperatures to use the complex formation technology of the surface composition "steel-nickel-material with high-temperature SME", including preparation of the substrate surface and the deposited material, high-speed spraying in the protective atmosphere of argon, followed by SPD.

  4. Influence of the microstructure of WC-Co cemented carbides on the fracture toughness and abrasive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zum Gahr, K.H.; Fischer, A.

    1981-01-01

    Fracture toughness and abrasive wear resistance of WC-Co cemented carbides were investigated by using the indentation cracking test (Palmqvist test) and the pin-on-disk method respectively. Size distribution of tungsten carbides and means free path between them were found to be important microstructural parameters related to the mechanical behavior. Results showed that selection of cemented carbides for heavy wear loading is complicated by contradictory influence of microstructural parameters on fracture toughness and abrasion resistance. Knowledge of the relation between microstructure and resistance to fracture or wear is necessary for optimum use of cemented carbides. (orig.) [de

  5. Three-body abrasive wear behaviour of metastable spheroidal carbide cast irons with different chromium contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremenko, Vasily; Pastukhova, Tatiana; Chabak, Yuliia; Efremenko, Alexey [Pryazovskyi State Technical Univ., Mariupol (Ukraine); Shimizu, Kazumichi; Kusumoto, Kenta [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Brykov, Michail [Zaporozhye National Technical Univ., Zaporozhye (Ukraine)

    2018-02-15

    The effect of heat treatment and chromium contents (up to 9.1 wt.%) on the wear resistance of spheroidal carbide cast iron (9.5 wt.% V) was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry and three-body abrasive testing. It was found that quenching from 760 C and 920 C improved the alloys' wear resistance compared to the as-cast state due to the formation of metastable austenite transforming into martensite under abrasion. The wear characteristics of alloys studied are 1.6 - 2.3 times higher than that of reference cast iron (12 wt.% V) having stable austenitic matrix. Chromium addition decreases surface damage due to the formation of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides, while it reduces wear resistance owing to austenite stabilization to abrasion-induced martensite transformation. The superposition of these factors results in decreasing the alloys' wear behaviour with chromium content increase.

  6. Solutionizing temperature and abrasive wear behaviour of cast Al-Si-Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Anesh; Dwivedi, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the influence of solutionizing temperature during artificial age hardening treatment (T 6 ) of cast Al-(8, 12, 16%)Si-0.3%Mg on abrasive wear behaviour has been reported. Alloys were prepared by controlled melting and casting. Cast alloys were given artificial age hardening treatment having a sequence of solutionizing, quenching and artificial aging. All the alloys were solutionized at 450 deg. C, 480 deg. C, 510 deg. C, and 550 deg. C for 8 h followed by water quenching (30 deg. C) and aging hardening at 170 deg. C for 12 h. Abrasive wear tests were conducted against 320 grade SiC polishing papers at 5 N and 10 N normal loads. It was observed that the silicon content and solution temperature affected the wear resistance significantly. Increase in solution temperature improved the wear resistance. Hypereutectic alloy showed better wear resistance than the eutectic and hypoeutectic alloys under identical conditions. Optical microstructure study of alloys revealed that the increase in solutionizing temperature improved distribution of silicon grains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of wear surface was carried out to analyze the wear mechanism

  7. Wear behavior of carbon fiber/aluminium-composites during abrasive loading; Verschleissverhalten von Kohlenstoffaser/Aluminium-Verbunden unter abrasiver Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Dorner, A. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbundwerkstoffe

    1998-07-01

    Abrasive wear resistance of aluminium is significantly improved by the reinforcement with a high volume percentage of carbon fibres. The wear of unreinforced aluminium after scratching by a diamond indenter can be described as pure microgrooving without any micro-chipping. After integration of 70 vol.-% carbon fibers the damage mechanism is considerably altered and a great amount of micro-chipping occurs. The abrasive wear is strongly influenced by the fiber orientation. The best wear resistance is observed when the fibers are orientated perpendicular to the wear surface. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verstaerkung von Aluminium mit einem hohen Volumengehalt endloser Kohlenstoffasern verbessert erkennbar dessen Resistenz gegenueber Abrasionsverschleiss. Der Verschleiss von unverstaerktem Aluminium infolge des Ritzens mit einem Diamantindenter erfolgt in Form von reinem Mikrofurchen ohne Spanbildung. Aufgrund der Integration von 70 Vol.-% Kohlenstoffasern wird eine erhebliche Zunahme des Schaedigungsmechanismus Mikrospanen festgestellt. Die Faserorientierung hat merklichen Einfluss auf die Sensibilitaet gegenueber Abrasion. Orientierung der anisotropen Kohlenstoffasern senkrecht zur Verschleissoberflaeche bedingt den geringsten Abrasionsverschleiss. (orig.)

  8. Abrasive wear of enamel by bioactive glass-based toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asad; Mneimne, Mohammed; Zou, Li Fong; Hill, Robert G; Gillam, David G

    2014-10-01

    To determine the abrasivity of a 45S5 bioactive glass based toothpaste on enamel as a function of the particle size and shape of the glass. 45S5 glass was synthesized ground and sieved to give various particle sized fractions toothpastes and their tooth brush abrasivity measured according to BS EN ISO11609 methodology. Enamel loss increased with increasing particle size. The percussion milled powder exhibited particles that had sharp edges and the pastes were significantly more abrasive than the pastes made with round ball milled powders. One interesting observation made during the present study was that there was preferential wear of the enamel at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), particularly with the coarse particle sized pastes.

  9. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  10. Wear Resistance of Piston Sleeve Made of Layered Material Structure: MMC A356R, Anti-Abrasion Layer and FGM Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernik Szymon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the numerical analysis of the one of main part of car engine – piston sleeve. The first example is for piston sleeve made of metal matrix composite (MMC A356R. The second improved material structure is layered. Both of them are comparison to the classical structure of piston sleeve made of Cr-Ni stainless steel. The layered material structure contains the anti-abrasion layer at the inner surface of piston sleeve, where the contact and friction is highest, FGM (functionally graded material interface and the layer of virgin material on the outer surface made of A356R. The complex thermo-elastic model with Archard's condition as a wear law is proposed. The piston sleeve is modelling as a thin walled cylindrical axisymmetric shell. The coupled between the formulation of thermo-elasticity of cylindrical axisymmetric shell and the Archard’s law with functionally changes of local hardness is proposed.

  11. Comparison study on resistance to wear and abrasion of high-temperature sliding strike of laser and plasma spray layer on the stainless steel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shihong; Zheng Qiguang; Fu Geyan; Wang Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of coatings, which are formed with laser cladding and plasma spray welding on 1Cr18Ni9Ti base metal of nuclear valve seats, on wear resistance is studied. A 5-kW transverse-flowing CO 2 laser is used for cladding Co base alloy powder pre-placed on the substrate. Comparing with the plasma spray coatings, the laser-cladding layer have lower rate of spoiled products and higher rate of finished products. Their microstructure is extremely fine. They have close texture and small-size grain. Their dilution diluted by the compositions of their base metal and hot-effect on base metal are less. The hardness, toughness, and strength of the laser-cladding layers are higher. The grain size is 11-12th grade in the laser-cladding layer and 9-10th in the plasma spray layer. The width of combination zone between laser-cladding layer and substrate is 10-45 μm but that between plasma spray layer and substrate is 120-160 μm. The wear test shows that the laser layers have higher property of anti-friction, anti-scour, and high-temperature sliding strike. The wear resistance of laser-cladding layer is about one time higher than that of plasma spray welding layer

  12. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kandeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  13. Abrasive Wear of Four Direct Restorative Materials by Standard and Whitening Dentifrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Weader, E., Liscombe, C., & Holt, J.S. (2005). The measurement of enamel and dentine abrasion by tooth - whitening products using an in situ model...ABRASION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE Hard tissue abrasion is a familiar consequence of toothbrushing. Enamel , dentin, and cementum differ in their...LESIONS Cervical enamel wear is common; however, relatively few epidemiologic studies have distinguished between cervical enamel wear and tooth wear in

  14. Resistance to abrasion of extrinsic porcelain esthetic characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Woo J; Browning, William; Looney, Stephen; Mackert, J Rodway; Windhorn, Richard J; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    A novel esthetic porcelain characterization technique involves mixing an appropriate amount of ceramic colorants with clear, low-fusing porcelain (LFP), applying the mixture on the external surfaces, and firing the combined components onto the surface of restorations in a porcelain oven. This method may provide better esthetic qualities and toothbrush abrasion resistance compared to the conventional techniques of applying color-corrective porcelain colorants alone, or applying a clear glaze layer over the colorants. However, there is no scientific literature to support this claim. This research evaluated toothbrush abrasion resistance of a novel porcelain esthetic characterization technique by subjecting specimens to various durations of simulated toothbrush abrasion. The results were compared to those obtained using the conventional characterization techniques of colorant application only or colorant followed by placement of a clear over-glaze. Four experimental groups, all of which were a leucite reinforced ceramic of E TC1 (Vita A1) shade, were prepared and fired in a porcelain oven according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group S (stain only) was characterized by application of surface colorants to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group GS (glaze over stain) was characterized by application of a layer of glaze over the existing colorant layer as used for Group S. Group SL (stain+LFP) was characterized by application of a mixture of colorants and clear low-fusing add-on porcelain to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group C (Control) was used as a control without any surface characterization. The 4 groups were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing using a 1:1 water-to-toothpaste solution for a simulated duration of 32 years of clinical use. The amount of wear was measured at time intervals simulating every 4 years of toothbrushing. These parameters were evaluated longitudinally for all groups as well as compared at similar time points among

  15. Aging temperature and abrasive wear behaviour of cast Al-(4%, 12%, 20%)Si-0.3% Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.B.; Kumar, Sandeep; Dwivedi, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, influence of aging temperature during artificial age hardening treatment (T 6 ) of cast Al-(4, 12, 20%)Si-0.3% Mg on abrasive wear behaviour has been reported. Alloys were prepared by controlled melting and casting. Cast alloys were given age hardening treatment having sequence of solutionizing, quenching and artificial aging. All the alloys were solutionized at 510 deg. C for 8 h followed by water quenching (30 deg. C) and aging hardening at 150, 170, 190, 210 and 230 deg. C for 12 h. Abrasive wear tests were conducted against of 320 grade SiC abrasive medium at 5 and 10 N normal loads. It was observed that the silicon content and aging temperature significantly affect the wear resistance. Increase in aging temperature improves the wear resistance. Hypereutectic alloy showed better wear resistance than the eutectic alloy under identical conditions. Optical microstructure study of alloys under investigation has shown that cast dendritic structure is destroyed besides the spheroidization of eutectic silicon crystals after the heat treatment. The extent of change in structure depends on aging temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of wear surface was carried to analyze the wear mechanism

  16. An investigation of two-body abrasive wear of laser processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports two body abrasive wear studies of alloy and composite deposits produced with a 2 kW continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser. Stellite alloy 6, Alloy 4815, Stainless steel and SiC powders were used to produce alloy and composite deposits on an En 3b mild steel substrate. The cladding material was injected into the laser produced melt pool by means of a pneumatic powder delivery system. In the present studies instead of using the conventional pin-on-disc method of wear measurement, a more realistic and practical wear testing procedure was adopted. The wear testing machine used was capable of measuring wear of three comparatively larger (30 x 30 x 10 mm) clad samples by abrading simultaneously against a revolving alumina disc. A comparative study of microstructure, hardness and wear of alloy and composite clads was made. The clad deposits were found sound and continuous. The hardness and wear resistance of the composites were markedly higher than that of the alloy clads. (author) 9 figs

  17. Development of the white cast iron with niobium alloy, heat treating, to wear of the abrasive resistance; Desenvolvimento de uma liga de ferro fundido branco alto cromo com niobio, tratada termicamente, para resistencia ao desgaste abrasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Alessandro Fraga

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the heat treatment and abrasion tests results of a white cast iron with niobium alloy. The hardening heat treatment were made 950, 1000, 1050 e 110 deg C temperatures cooled by forced air. The tempering treatment were made at 450, 500 e 550 deg C temperatures. The heat treating alloy were compared, in the abrasive tests, with commercial alloys used as hardfacing by welding process in wear pieces. The abrasion tests was realized in pin on disk test. Additional tests were carried out for microstructural characterization to identify the different phases presents in the alloys. In a general way, the alloy studies showed the best wear rate for the heat treatments that results in higher hardness. It performance was superior than that of the commercial alloys. (author)

  18. Analysis of abrasive wear behavior of PTFE composite using Taguchi’s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are widely used for structural, aerospace, and automobile sectors due to their good combination of high specific strength and specific modulus. These two main characteristics make these materials attractive, compared to conventional materials like metal or alloy ones. Some of their typical benefits include easy processing, corrosion resistance, low friction, and damping of noise and vibrations. Wear behavior of Polytetrafluoroethylenes (PTFE and its composites including glass-filled composites and carbon-filled composites are investigated using a pin-on-disc configuration. A plan of experiments in terms of Taguchi technique is carried out to acquire data in controlled way. An orthogonal array (L9 and the analysis of variance are employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear of these composites. Volume loss increased with abrasive size, load, and distance. Furthermore, specific wear rate decreased with increasing grit size, load, sliding distance, whereas, slightly with compressive strength. Optimal process parameters, which minimize the volume loss, were the factor combinations of L1, G3, D1, and C3. Confirmation experiments were conducted to verify the optimal testing parameters. It was found that in terms of volume loss, there was a good agreement between the estimated and the experimental value of S/N ratio with an error of 1.604%. Moreover, abrasive size, load, and sliding distance exerted a great effect on the specific wear rate, at 51.14, 27.77, and 14.70%, respectively.

  19. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    increasing expansion of highway and other construction works and decreasing natural aggregate resources in the world, the demand for crushed stone aggregates has in- creased from day-to-day. One of the important properties of rock aggregates is abrasion resistance. The abrasion resistance of aggregates is generally ...

  20. Wear of dentine in vitro by toothpaste abrasives and detergents alone and combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C; Addy, M

    2005-12-01

    To measure in vitro the abrasion of dentine by toothpaste detergents and abrasives alone and combined. Detergents used were tego betain, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), adinol and pluronic diluted to 1% w/v. Abrasives were three artificial silicas, tixosil 73 and 123 and Zeodent 113, and calcium carbonate used at 2.5% w/v. Flat human dentine specimens were brushed with aqueous detergent solutions or abrasive slurries, detergent abrasive slurries and water for 20,000 brush strokes. Dentine loss was measured by non-contacting profilometry at 10,000 and 20,000 strokes. Silica particle size distribution was measured by laser deflection. Loss of dentine occurred with all detergents, abrasives and detergent abrasion combinations, but was not linear with number of brush strokes. Water appeared to remove the smear layer only, but all detergents exceeded the predicted smear layer thickness. The silica abrasives differed in abrasion properties despite similar particle size distribution. Different detergents modulated the abrasives actions in mainly positive or mainly negative directions. Detergents appear able to attack the dentine surface to produce wear. Abrasives vary considerably in wear produced under similar conditions. Detergents modulate the effect of abrasives in a way that may reflect the rheological properties of the mixture.

  1. FE simulation of the indentation deformation of SiC modified vinylester composites in respect to their abrasive wear performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The abrasive sliding friction and wear behaviours of silicon carbide (SiC filled vinylester (VE composites were investigated. The average grain size of the incorporated SiC particles was varied, holding the volume content of them in every case at 16 vol%. Mechanical properties (hardness, compression modulus, yield stress of the filled and neat VE were determined. The tribological properties were investigated in block (composite – on – ring (steel test configuration. The steel counter bodies were covered with abrasive papers of different graining. Coefficient of friction (COF and specific wear rate of the VE + SiC composites were determined. It was observed that the wear resistance increases with increasing average filler grain size and with decreasing abrasiveness of the counter surface. The COF of the VE + SiC composites is independent of the size of the incorporated particles, but it is strongly influenced by the abrasiveness of the counter body. The worn surfaces of the VE + SiC systems were analysed in scanning electron microscope (SEM to deduce the typical wear mechanisms. The size effect of the SiC filler particles onto the abrasive wear characteristics was investigated by assuming that the roughness peaks of the abrasive paper and the indenter of the microhardness test cause similar micro scaled contact deformations in the composites. Therefore FE method was used to simulate the micro scaled deformation process in the VE + SiC systems during microindentation tests. The FE results provided valuable information on how to explain the size effect of the incorporated SiC filler.

  2. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhagen, K R; Hove, L H; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether application of fluoride agents on enamel results in lasting resistance to erosive/abrasive wear. We investigated if one daily mouth rinse with sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF(2)) or titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) solutions protected enamel against erosive/abrasive wear in situ (a paired, randomised and blind study). Sixteen molars were cut into 4 specimens, each with one amalgam filling (measurement reference surface). Two teeth (2 × 4 specimens) were mounted bilaterally (buccal aspects) on acrylic mandibular appliances and worn for 9 days by 8 volunteers. Every morning, the specimens were brushed manually with water (30 s) extra-orally. Then fluoride solutions (0.4% SnF(2) pH 2.5; 0.15% TiF(4) pH 2.1; 0.2% NaF pH 6.5, all 0.05 M F) were applied (2 min). Three of the specimens from each tooth got different treatment, and the fourth served as control. At midday, the specimens were etched for 2 min in 300 ml fresh 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and rinsed in tap water. This etch procedure was repeated in the afternoon. Topographic measurements were performed by a white-light interferometer. Mean surface loss (±SD) for 16 teeth after 9 days was: SnF(2) 1.8 ± 1.9 µm, TiF(4) 3.1 ± 4.8 µm, NaF 26.3 ± 4.7 µm, control 32.3 ± 4.4 µm. Daily rinse with SnF(2), TiF(4) and NaF resulted in 94, 90 and 18% reduction in enamel erosive/abrasive wear, respectively, compared with control (p < 0.05). The superior protective effect of daily rinse with either stannous or titanium tetrafluoride solutions on erosive/abrasive enamel wear is promising. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Abrasive wear mechanisms and surface layer structure of refractory materials after mechanical working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milman, Y.V.; Lotsko, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of abrasive wear and surface layer structure formation after different kinds of mechanical working are considered in terms of fracture and plastic deformation mechanisms for various refractory materials. The principles for classification of abrasive wear mechanisms are proposed, the four types of wear mechanisms are distinguished for various combinations of fractures and plastic deformation types. The concept of characteristic deformation temperature t * (knee temperature) is used. Detailed examples are given of investigating the surface layer structures in grinded crystals of sapphire and molybdenum. The amorphisation tendency of the thinnest surface layer while mechanical polishing is discussed separately. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. Abrasive wear of BA1055 bronze with additives of Si, Cr, Mo and/or W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium bronzes belong to the high-grade constructional materials applied on the put under strongly load pieces of machines, aboutgood sliding, resistant properties on corrosion both in the cast state how and after the thermal processing. It moves to them Cr and Si in the aim of the improvement of their usable proprieties. The additions Mo and/or W were not applied so far. It was worked out therefore the new kind of bronzes casting including these elements. Make additions to the Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronze of Si, Cr, Mo and/or W in the rise of these properties makes possible. The investigations of the surface distribution of the concentration of elements in the microstructure of the studied bronze on X-ray microanalyzer were conducted. It results from conducted investigations, that in the aluminium bronze BA1055 after makes additions Si, Cr, Mo and/or W the phases of the type κFe, κNi crystallize, probably as complex silicides. Elements such as: Fe and Si dissolve first of all in phases κ, in smaller stage in the matrix of the bronze; Mn, Ni and W they dissolve in matrix and phases κ. It dissolves Cr and Mo in the larger stage in phases κ than in the matrix. The sizes of the abrasive wear were compared in the state cast multicomponentnew casting Cu-Al-Fe-Ni bronzes with the additives Cr, Mo or W with the wear of the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5Si. The investigations of thewear were conducted on the standard device. It results from conducted investigations, that make additions to bronze BA1055 of the additives of Si, Cr, Mo, and/or W it influences the rise of the hardness (HB of the bronze in the cast state, in the result of the enlarged quantity separates of hard phases κ, and in the consequence the decrease of the abrasive wear. The addition of molybdenum made possible obtainment of the microhardness of the phase α and γ 2 on the comparable level. From the microstructure of the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5MoSi is characterizes the smallest abrasive wear among

  5. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33480 Tarsus, Turkey. MS received 18 October 2005; revised 22 March 2006. Abstract. In this study, abrasive ... process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied ...

  6. development and performance evaluation of an abrasive wear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    advanced countries are not available in Ghana. This makes ... experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with the soils from the five sites as ... Design of the wear equipment ..... tion of Wear Characteristics of Drill Cultures.

  7. Abrasion Resistance of as-Cast High-Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokusová Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High chromium cast irons are widely used as abrasion resistant materials. Their properties and wear resistance depend on carbides and on the nature of the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents test results of irons which contain (in wt.% 18-22 Cr and 2-5 C, and is alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve the toughness. Tests showed as-cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved hardness 36-53 HRC but their relative abrasion-resistance was higher than the tool steel STN 19436 heat treated on hardness 60 HRC.

  8. Modelling and analysis of abrasive wear performance of composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that fibre length plays a major role in wear phenomenon. The length of the fibre has been optimized using a popular evolutionary technique known as particle swarm optimization (PSO) and neural network. The study recommends that fibre length should be 7-8 mm for minimum wear of the composites.

  9. Mechanical and abrasive wear characterization of bidirectional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha,; Gupta, Kuldeep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated. ► Three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed. ► Results are validated against existing microscopic models of Lancaster and Wang. ► Tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases. ► Chopped glass fiber composites are found better in abrasive wear situations. -- Abstract: Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated in five different (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) wt% in an epoxy resin matrix. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. Abrasive wear characteristics of these composites are successfully analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner-Lancaster and Wang. It is observed that quite good linear relationships is held between specific wear rate and reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites which is an indicative that the experimental results are in fair agreement with these existing models. Out of all composites fabricated it is found that tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases because of interface strength enhancement. Chopped glass fiber reinforced composites are observed to perform better than bi-directional glass fiber reinforced composites under abrasive wear situations. The morphology of worn composite specimens has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand about dominant wear mechanisms.

  10. Erosion wear of boron carbide ceramic nozzles by abrasive air-jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    Boron carbide nozzles were produced by hot pressing. The erosion wear of this nozzle caused by abrasive particle impact was investigated by abrasive air-jets. Silica, silicon carbide and alumina powders with different hardness were used as the erodent abrasive particles. Results showed that the hardness of the erodent particles played an important role with respect to the erosion wear of the boron carbide nozzles. As the hardness of the erodent particles increases, there is a dramatic increase in erosion rate of the nozzles. The nozzle entrance area suffered from severe abrasive impact under large impact angles, and generated maximum tensile stresses. The wear mechanisms of boron carbide nozzle at this area appeared to be entirely brittle in nature with the evidence of large scale-chipping, and exhibited a brittle fracture induced removal process. While at the nozzle center wall section, most of the particles traveled parallel to the nozzle wall, and showed minimum tensile stresses. The wear mode in this area of the nozzle changed from impact to sliding erosion, and the wear mechanisms appeared to be the lateral cracking owing to a surface fatigue fracture mechanism

  11. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  12. Study of abrasive wear process of lining of grinding chamber of vortex-acoustic disperser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelygin, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of the process of gas-abrasive wear of the lining of a vortex-acoustic disperser made it possible to establish the conditions and patterns of their occurrence and also to develop proposals for its reduction.

  13. Predicting the Abrasion Resistance of Tool Steels by Means of Neurofuzzy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Lisjak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work considers use neurofuzzy set theory for estimate abrasion wear resistance of steels based on chemical composition, heat treatment (austenitising temperature, quenchant and tempering temperature, hardness after hardening and different tempering temperature and volume loss of materials according to ASTM G 65-94. Testing of volume loss for the following group of materials as fuzzy data set was taken: carbon tool steels, cold work tool steels, hot work tools steels, high-speed steels. Modelled adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is compared to statistical model of multivariable non-linear regression (MNLR. From the results it could be concluded that it is possible well estimate abrasion wear resistance for steel whose volume loss is unknown and thus eliminate unnecessary testing.

  14. Fissure sealants: in vitro evaluation of abrasion wear and superficial roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro wear and superficial roughness of four materials (Delton Dyract Flow, Dentsply; Filtek Flow, Vitremer, 3M ESPE used as fissure sealant in 32 extracted human molars divided in four groups (n = 8 after abrasion with toothbrush/dentifrice. Impressions of each occlusal surface were made to analyze wear and circular specimens were prepared to analyze the roughness. Teeth and specimens were mounted in a toothbrushing machine. The replicas were observed using a SEM to determine the superficial wear. Wear: there were no statistically significant differences either between Delton and Filtek Flow or between Dyract Flow and Vitremer. Roughness: there were no statistical differences between Filtek Flow and Dyract Flow, Dyract Flow and Vitremer, Vitremer and Delton., Considering the clinical practice, if caries activity is present the use of Vitremer is suggested not only for its well known fluoride release, but it presented good roughness results.

  15. Abrasive wear of WC-NiMoCrFeCo thermally sprayed coatings in dependence on different types of abrasive sands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, M.; Zahálka, F.; Houdková, Š.; Ctibor, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 75-85 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : WC-Hastelloy * abrasive wear * Al2O3 sand * SiO2 sand * braun size * abrasive efficiency Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2010 http://kovmat.sav.sk/abstract.php?rr=48&cc=1&ss=73

  16. A Study on Abrasive Wear Behavior of Spacer Grid Materials for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. M.; Kim, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K.; Jeon, K. L. [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Spacer grid is one of the key components of a light water reactor (LWR) fuel assembly. The most important function of it is to hold the fuel rods to maintain the distance between the fuel rods inside a fuel assembly. At the reactor core in operating power plants, a fretting damage has been frequently reported between a nuclear fuel rod and its supporting spring/dimple of the fuel assemblies. This is due to a flow induced vibration (FIV), Which results from the primary coolant that rapidly passes around the fuel rod to remove the excess heat generated by the nuclear reaction. Fretting damage is generally caused by fretting wear, which includes various wear mechanisms such as an oxidative, adhesive, abrasive wear, etc., or fretting fatigue, which includes a surface or bulk fatigue. The purpose of the present work are to investigate the variation of the materials with increasing number of cycles and sliding velocity under abrasive wear test and to examine the wear mechanism at each test condition

  17. Minimal alterations on the enamel surface by micro-abrasion: in vitro roughness and wear assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Charantola Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro changes on the enamel surface after a micro-abrasion treatment promoted by different products. Material and Methods: Fifty (50 fragments of bovine enamel (15 mm × 5 mm were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10 according to the product utilized: G1 (control= silicone polisher (TDV, G2= 37% phosphoric acid (3M/ESPE + pumice stone (SS White, G3= Micropol (DMC Equipment, G4= Opalustre (Ultradent and G5= Whiteness RM (FGM Dental Products. Roughness and wear were the responsible variables used to analyze these surfaces in four stages: baseline, 60 s and 120 s after the micro-abrasion and after polishing, using a Hommel Tester T1000 device. After the tests, a normal distribution of data was verified, with repeated ANOVA analyses (p≤0.05 which were used to compare each product in different stages. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied for individual comparisons between the products in each stage (p≤0.05. Results: Means and standard deviations of roughness and wear (µm after all the promoted stages were: G1=7.26(1.81/13.16(2.67, G2=2.02(0.62/37.44(3.33, G3=1.81(0.91/34.93(6.92, G4=1.92(0.29/38.42(0.65 and G5=1.98(0.53/33.45(2.66. At 60 seconds, all products tended to produce less surface roughness with a variable gradual decrease over time. After polishing, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, except for G1. Independent of the product utilized, the enamel wear occurred after the micro-abrasion. Conclusions: In this in vitro study, enamel micro-abrasion presented itself as a conservative approach, regardless of the type of the paste compound utilized. These products promoted minor roughness alterations and minimal wear. The use of phosphoric acid and pumice stone showed similar results to commercial products for the micro-abrasion with regard to the surface roughness and wear.

  18. Study on Abrasive Wear of Brake Pad in the Large-megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Based on Deform Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfang; Hao, Qiang; Sha, Zhihua; Yin, Jian; Ma, Fujian; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    For the friction and wear issues of brake pads in the large-megawatt wind turbine brake during braking, this paper established the micro finite element model of abrasive wear by using Deform-2D software. Based on abrasive wear theory and considered the variation of the velocity and load in the micro friction and wear process, the Archard wear calculation model is developed. The influence rules of relative sliding velocity and friction coefficient in the brake pad and disc is analysed. The simulation results showed that as the relative sliding velocity increases, the wear will be more serious, while the larger friction coefficient lowered the contact pressure which released the wear of the brake pad.

  19. The effect of fiber treatment on abrasive wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Muhammad Firdaus Abdul; Bakar, Mimi Azlina Abu; Kasolang, Salmiah; Ahmad, Mohamad Ali

    2017-12-01

    Oil palm industries generate at least 30 million tons of lignocellulosic biomass annually in the form of oil palm trunks (OPT), empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm fronds (OPF) and palm pressed fibres (PPF). The palm fiber is one of the natural fibers used as reinforcement in composite materials in order to decrease environmental issues and promotes utilization of renewable resources. This paper presents a study on the effect of alkaline treatment on wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite. Abrasive wear testing was deployed to investigate the wear profile of the composite surfaces. Testing was carried out which focused on the effect of alkaline treatment to the palm fiber under different amounts of fiber loading i.e. 1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt% and 7 wt%. The palm fibers were soaked into 6 % of alkaline solution or natrium hydroxide (NaOH) for 12 hours. The fiber was treated in order to remove amorphous materials such as hemicelluloses, lignins and pectins of the fiber. The wear test samples were fabricated using hand lay-up technique and cured at room temperature for 24 hours. Surface roughness of the composite material was also measured using the surface measuring instrument. Dry sliding wear test was performed at room temperature at a constant velocity of 1.4 m/s with a constant load of 10 N by using the Abrasion Test Machine. Result shows that 5 wt% and 7 wt% treated palm fiber loadings have better specific wear rate compared to lower fiber loadings. The finding of this study contributes towards material development and utilization in promoting `waste into wealth' which is in line with national aspiration.

  20. Corrosion and wear resistant metallic layers produced by electrochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion and wear-corrosion properties of novel nickel alloy coatings with promising production characteristics have been compared with conventional bulk materials and hard platings. Corrosion properties in neutral and acidic environments have been investigated with electrochemical methods....... Determination of polarisation resistance during 100 hours followed by stepwise anodic polarisation seems to be a promising technique to obtain steady state data on slowly corroding coatings with transient kinetics. A slurry test enables determination of simultaneous corrosion and abrasive wear. Comparison...... of AISI 316, hard chromium and hardened Ni-P shows that there is no universal correlation between surface hardness and wear-corrosion loss. The possible relation between questionable passivity of Ni-P coatings and their high wear-corrosion loss rate compared to hard chromium is discussed....

  1. Abrasive wear response of TIG-melted TiC composite coating: Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Bello, K. A.; Adebisi, A. A.; Dube, A.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Taguchi design of experiment approach has been applied to assess wear behaviour of TiC composite coatings deposited on AISI 4340 steel substrates by novel powder preplacement and TIG torch melting processes. To study the abrasive wear behaviour of these coatings against alumina ball at 600° C, a Taguchi’s orthogonal array is used to acquire the wear test data for determining optimal parameters that lead to the minimization of wear rate. Composite coatings are developed based on Taguchi’s L-16 orthogonal array experiment with three process parameters (welding current, welding speed, welding voltage and shielding gas flow rate) at four levels. In this technique, mean response and signal-to-noise ratio are used to evaluate the influence of the TIG process parameters on the wear rate performance of the composite coated surfaces. The results reveal that welding voltage is the most significant control parameter for minimizing wear rate while the current presents the least contribution to the wear rate reduction. The study also shows the best optimal condition has been arrived at A3 (90 A), B4 (2.5 mm/s), C3 (30 V) and D3 (20 L/min), which gives minimum wear rate in TiC embedded coatings. Finally, a confirmatory experiment has been conducted to verify the optimized result and shows that the error between the predicted values and the experimental observation at the optimal condition lies within the limit of 4.7 %. Thus, the validity of the optimum condition for the coatings is established.

  2. Effect of nitrogen alloying on the microstructure and abrasive wear of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Simmons, J.W.; Rawers, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Alloying stainless steels with nitrogen has distinct advantages. Nitrogen is a strong austenite stabilizer and a potent solid-solution strengthener, and nitrogen has greater solubility than carbon iron. This study investigates the relationship among nitrogen concentration, precipitate microstructure, and abrasive wear using two high-nitrogen stainless steel alloys: Fe-19Cr-5Mn-5Ni-3Mo (SS1) and Fe-16Cr-7Mn-5Ni(SS2). Alloy SS1 contained 0.7 wt% N and was solution annealed at 1,150 C, thereby dissolving the nitrogen interstitially in the austenite. Subsequent aging, or cold work and aging, at 900 C led to the grain-boundary, cellular, and transgranular precipitation of Cr 2 N. Alloy SS2 was remelted in a high-pressure (200 MPa) N 2 atmosphere, leading to a spatial gradient of nitrogen in the alloy in the form of interstitial nitrogen and Cr 2 N and CrN precipitates. Nitrogen contents varied from a low of approximately 0.7 wt% at the bottom of the billet to a high of 3.6 wt% at the top. Nitrogen in excess of approximately 0.7 wt% formed increasingly coarser and more numerous Cr 2 N and CrN precipitates. The precipitate morphology created in alloy SS1 due to aging, or cold work and aging, had little effect on the abrasive wear of the alloy. However, a decrease in the abrasive wear rate in alloy SS2 was observed to correspond to the increase in number and size of the Cr 2 N and CrN precipitates

  3. Abrasion Resistance of Nano Silica Modified Roller Compacted Rubbercrete: Cantabro Loss Method and Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Musa; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Shafiq, Nasir

    2018-04-01

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) when used for pavement is subjected to skidding/rubbing by wheels of moving vehicles, this causes pavement surface to wear out and abrade. Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement. In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete (RCR). RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Box-Behnken design method was used to develop the mixtures combinations using 10%, 20%, and 30% crumb rubber with 0%, 1%, and 2% nano silica. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology (RSM) has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.44%. The combination of 10.76% crumb rubber and 1.59% nano silica yielded the best combinations of RCR in terms of abrasion resistance of RCR.

  4. Thermally-treated Pt-coated silicon AFM tips for wear resistance in ferroelectric data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Palacio, Manuel; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2008-01-01

    In ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a noble metal coating is placed in contact with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. The understanding and improvement of probe tip wear, particularly at high velocities, is needed for high data rate recording. A commercial Pt-coated silicon AFM probe was thermally treated in order to form platinum silicide at the near-surface. Nanoindentation, nanoscratch and wear experiments were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and wear performance at high velocities. The thermally treated tip exhibited lower wear than the untreated tip. The tip wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive wear with some evidence of impact wear. The enhancement in mechanical properties and wear resistance in the thermally treated film is attributed to silicide formation in the near-surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements confirm the formation of platinum silicide. This study advances the understanding of thin film nanoscale surface interactions

  5. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the

  6. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  7. Study of Stainless Steel Resistance in Conditions of Tribocorrosion Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rozing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed was the influence of tribocorrosion wear due to effects of fatty acids present in the processed medium. The analysis was conducted on samples made of two austenitic and two martensitic stainless steels. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in their induction hardened state. Conducted were laboratory tests of corrosion resistance of samples, analysis of the microstructure and hardness. To see how the applied processes for modifying the surface of stainless steels behave in realistic conditions, it was conducted the examination of samples/parts of a sunflower cake chain conveyer. Based on the comparison of results obtained in the laboratory and in real conditions, it was estimated that steels AISI 420 and AISI 431 with induction hardened surfaces have a satisfactory resistance to abrasive-adhesive wear in the presence of fatty acids.

  8. Investigations on mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of glass/carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresha, B.; Kumar, Kunigal N. Shiva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research article is to study the mechanical and two-body abrasive wear behaviour of glass/carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites. The measured wear volume loss increases with increase in abrading distance/abrasive particle size. However, the specific wear rate decreases with increase in abrading distance and decrease in abrasive particle size. The results showed that the highest specific wear rate is for glass fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite with a value of 10.89 x 10 -11 m 3 /Nm and the lowest wear rate is for carbon fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite with a value of 4.02 x 10 -11 m 3 /Nm. Mechanical properties were evaluated and obtained values are compared with the wear behaviour. The worn surface features have been examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photomicrographs of the worn surfaces revealed higher percentage of broken glass fiber as compared to carbon fiber. Also better interfacial adhesion between carbon and vinyl ester in carbon reinforced vinyl ester composite was observed.

  9. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  10. Microstructure and abrasive wear properties of M(Cr,Fe7C3 carbides reinforced high-chromium carbon coating produced by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner BUYTOZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, high-chromium ferrochromium carbon hypereutectic alloy powder was coated on AISI 4340 steel by the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW process. The coating layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Depending on the gas tungsten arc welding pa-rameters, either hypoeutectic or hypereutectic microstructures were produced. Wear tests of the coatings were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus as function of contact load. Wear rates of the all coating layers were decreased as a function of the loading. The improvement of abrasive wear resistance of the coating layer could be attributed to the high hardness of the hypereutectic M7C3 carbides in the microstruc-ture. As a result, the microstructure of surface layers, hardness and abrasive wear behaviours showed different characteristics due to the gas tungsten arc welding parameters.

  11. Photochemical surface modification of PP for abrasion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahners, Thomas; Haessler, Ruediger; Gao Shanglin; Maeder, Edith; Wego, Andreas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a photo-chemical approach to increase the surface hardness of polypropylene (PP) has been studied. Using a 222 nm excimer lamp, fibers and film were irradiated in the presence of multi-functional substances diallylphthalate (DAP), tetraallyloxyethane (TAE), and pentaerithritoltriacylate (PETA) and characterized with regard to the resulting effect on abrasion resistance. AFM-based methods were employed to analyze thermo-mechanical surface properties. Nanoindentation and microthermal analyses of the outermost surface layers of UV treated fibers gave clear indications of an effective cross-linking of reactive substances present during irradiation. One may assume that the reactive media polymerize on top of the surface of the PP substrate and form a thin-layer. The abrasion resistance of the PP fibers was tested by applying stress through a rotating and axially oscillating roller of defined roughness and measuring the mass loss as a function of time. The abrasion resistance was found to be remarkably improved compared to the untreated fiber. Best effects were achieved using PETA as reactive substance. The experiments clearly showed the influence of processing conditions, namely with regard to homogeneous coverage of the substrate surface with the reactive medium.

  12. Abrasion-resistant concrete mix designs for precast bridge deck panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The report documents laboratory investigations undertaken to develop high performance concrete (HPC) for precast and pre-stressed bridge deck components that would reduce the life-cycle cost of bridges by improving the studded tire wear (abrasion) re...

  13. Effect of Phenomena Accompanying Wear in Dry Corundum Abrasive on the Properties and Microstructure of Austempered Ductile Iron with Different Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myszka D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this article is a fragment in the series of published works trying to determine the applicability of new materials for parts of the mining machinery. Tests were performed on two groups of austempered ductile iron - one of which contained 1.5% Ni and 0.5% Mo, while the other contained 1.9% Ni and 0.9% Cu. Each group has been heat treated according to the three different heat treatment variants and then the material was subjected to detailed testing of mechanical properties and abrasion wear resistance, measuring also hardness and magnetic properties, and conducting microstructural examinations. The results indicated that each of the tested materials was senstive to the surface hardening effect, which resulted in high wear resistance. It has been found that high temperature of austempering, i.e. 370°C, favours high wear resistance of ductile iron containing nickel and molybdenum. Low temperature of austempering, i.e. 270°C, develops high wear resistance in ductile iron containing nickel and copper. Both these materials offer completely different mechanical properties and as such can be used for different and specific applications.

  14. Wear resistance of TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champagne, B.; Dallaire, S.

    1985-01-01

    A material which consists of TiB/sub 2/ dispersed in an iron matrix was synthesized by the exothermic reaction of ferrotitanium and boron. The as-reacted products were hot isostatically pressed to produce TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermets. The influence of HIP variables on the density and total fractional porosity of specimens is presented. Density above 95% is obtained by HIPping at temperatures below 1300 0 C. Increasing the temperature and the time of HIPping enhance the mechanical properties and wear resistance of TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermets by reducing their residual porosity. Relations obtained by regression analysis showed that the porosity strongly affects the properties of parts. Regression analysis point out that the wear loss of a 5% porosity TiB/sub 2/-Fe cermet is 270% higher than a dense HIPped cermet. Low stress and high stress abrasion resistance tests utilizing various abrasive media were carried out on dense HIPped cermets and results were compared with those obtained from WC-Co cermets and 1020 steel

  15. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  16. Microstructure and wear resistance of spray-formed supermartensitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zepon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 90's the oil industry has been encouraging the development of corrosion and wear resistant alloys for onshore and offshore pipeline applications. In this context supermartensitic stainless steel was introduced to replace the more expensive duplex stainless steel for tubing applications. Despite the outstanding corrosion resistance of stainless steels, their wear resistance is of concern. Some authors reported obtaining material processed by spray forming, such as ferritic stainless steel, superduplex stainless steel modified with boron, and iron-based amorphous alloys, which presented high wear resistance while maintaining the corrosion performance1,2. The addition of boron to iron-based alloys promotes the formation of hard boride particles (M2B type which improve their wear resistances3-9. This work aimed to study the microstructure and wear resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel modified with 0.3 wt. (% and 0.7 wt. (% processed by spray forming (SF-SMSS 0.3%B and SF-SMSS 0.7%B, respectively. These boron contents were selected in order to improve the wear resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel through the formation of uniformly distributed borides maintaining the characteristics of the corrosion resistant matrix. SF-SMSS 0.7%B presents an abrasive wear resistance considerably higher than spray-formed supermartensitic stainless steel without boron addition (SF-SMSS.

  17. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  18. Effect of Volume Fraction of Particle on Wear Resistance of Al2O3/Steel Composites at Elevated Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Chong-gao; WANG En-ze; GAO Yi-min; XING Jian-dong

    2005-01-01

    Based on previous work,abrasive wear resistance of Al2 O3/steel composites with different Al2 O3 parti cle volume fraction (VOF) at 900 C was investigated.The experimental results showed that a suitable particle VOF is important to protect the metal matrix from wear at elevated temperature.Both too high and too low particle VOF lead to a poor abrasive wear because a bulk matrix is easily worn off by grits when it exceeds the suitable VOF and also because when VOF is low,the Al2O3 particles are easily dug out by grits during wearing as well.When the particle VOF is 39%,the wear resistance of tested composites is excellent.

  19. Effect of distribution of striated laser hardening tracks on dry sliding wear resistance of biomimetic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Some biological surfaces were proved to have excellent anti-wear performance. Being inspired, Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to create striated biomimetic laser hardening tracks on medium carbon steel samples. Dry sliding wear tests biomimetic samples were performed to investigate specific influence of distribution of laser hardening tracks on sliding wear resistance of biomimetic samples. After comparing wear weight loss of biomimetic samples, quenched sample and untreated sample, it can be suggested that the sample covered with dense laser tracks (3.5 mm spacing) has lower wear weight loss than the one covered with sparse laser tracks (4.5 mm spacing); samples distributed with only dense laser tracks or sparse laser tracks (even distribution) were proved to have better wear resistance than samples distributed with both dense and sparse tracks (uneven distribution). Wear mechanisms indicate that laser track and exposed substrate of biomimetic sample can be regarded as hard zone and soft zone respectively. Inconsecutive striated hard regions, on the one hand, can disperse load into small branches, on the other hand, will hinder sliding abrasives during wear. Soft regions with small range are beneficial in consuming mechanical energy and storing lubricative oxides, however, soft zone with large width (>0.5 mm) will be harmful to abrasion resistance of biomimetic sample because damages and material loss are more obvious on surface of soft phase. As for the reason why samples with even distributed bionic laser tracks have better wear resistance, it can be explained by the fact that even distributed laser hardening tracks can inhibit severe worn of local regions, thus sliding process can be more stable and wear extent can be alleviated as well.

  20. Biocompatible wear-resistant thick ceramic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to immunologically active elements like chromium, cobalt or nickel and debris particle due to wear are serious problems for patients with metallic implants. We tested the approach of using a hard and thick ceramic coating as a wear-resistant protection of titanium implants, avoiding those sensitisation and foreign body problems. We showed that the process parameters strongly influence the coating porosity and, as a consequence, also its hardness.

  1. Development of abrasion resistant glass-ceramics from industrial waste products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Roode, M.

    1983-05-26

    Slag-ceramics were produced from glass compositions using pelletized slag as the major ingredient. The abrasion resistance, fracture toughness and microstructure of the prepared glass and glass-ceramics were evaluated. Glas-ceramics with good abrasion resistance were obtained when iron oxide in conjunction with carbon was used as a nucleating agent. 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racek, O

    2008-03-26

    Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.

  3. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Milan Mutavdžić; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Milan Djordjević

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by ...

  4. Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating.

  5. Overview of PVD wear resistant coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The combined functionality of wear-resistant and low-friction multilayer coatings has widened application possibilities for a new generation of coated tools. For the first time tool wear mechanisms are comprehensively addressed both at the cutting edge and contact areas away from the edge where chip evacuation is facilitated. Since its recent market introduction a combined TiA1N and WC/C PVD coating has been proven to increase cutting performance in various metal cutting operations, notably drilling and tapping of steels and aluminum alloys. Significant improvements have been obtained under dry as well as with coolant conditions. The results of laboratory metal cutting tests and field trials to date will be described. Correlations between chip formation / wear mechanisms and coating properties are given to explain the effectiveness of this coating. (author)

  6. Microstructure, Wear Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of WC-FeCrAl and WC-WB-Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on investigating the quality of two grades of thermally sprayed coatings deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF technology. One grade contains WC hard particles in an environmentally progressive Ni- and Co-free FeCrAl matrix, while the second coating contains WC and WB hard particles in a cobalt matrix. The aim of the experimental work was to determine the effect of thermal cyclic loading on the coatings’ resistance to adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear. Abrasive wear was evaluated using abrasive cloth of two grit sizes, and erosive wear was evaluated by a dry-pot wear test in a pin mill at two sample angles. Adhesion wear resistance of the coatings was determined by a sliding wear test under dry friction conditions and in a 1 mol water solution of NaCl. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests. Metallographic cross-sections were used for measurement of the microhardness and thickness and for line energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The tests proved the excellent resistance of both coatings against adhesive, abrasive, and erosive wear, as well as the ability of the WC-WB-Co coating to withstand alternating temperatures of up to 600 °C. The “green carbide” coating (WC-FeCrAl can be recommended as an environmentally friendly replacement for Ni- and Co-containing coatings, but its operating temperature is strictly limited to 500 °C in air.

  7. Study on wear resistance of vanadium alloying compacted/vermicular graphite cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoon Woo

    1987-01-01

    Wear resistance of the Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast irons was studied by changing the vanadium content in the cast irons. The results obtained in this work are summarized as follows. 1. When the same amount of vanadium was added to the flake graphite cast iron, spheroidal graphitecast iron and Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron wear resistance decreased in following sequence, that is, flake graphite cast iron> spheroidal graphite cast iron>Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron. 2. Addition of vanadium to the Compacted/Vermicular cast iron leaded to a remarkable increase in hardness because it made the amount of pearlite in matrix increase. 3. Addition of vanadium to the compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron significantly enhanced wear resistance and the maximum resistance was achieved at about 0.36% vanadium. 4. The maximum amount of wear apppeared at sliding speed of about 1.4m/sec and wear mode was considered to be oxidation abrasion from the observation of wear tracks. (Author)

  8. Protective Effect of Adhesive Systems associated with Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser on Enamel Erosive/Abrasive Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crastechini, Erica; Borges, Alessandra B; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas; Torres, Carlos Rg

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of self-etching adhesive systems associated or not associated with the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on the protection against enamel erosive/abrasive wear. Bovine enamel specimens were demineralized with 0.3% citric acid (5 minutes). The samples were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 20): SB - Single Bond Universal (3M/ESPE); SB+L - Single Bond Universal + laser (80 mJ/10 Hz); FB - Futurabond U (Voco); FB+L -Futurabond U + laser; GEN - G-aenial bond (GC); GEN+L -G-aenial bond + laser; L - laser irradiation; and C - no treatment. The laser was applied before light curing. The samples were subjected to erosive/abrasive challenges (0.3% citric acid - 2 minutes and tooth brushing four times daily for 5 days). Enamel surface loss was recovered profilometrically by comparison of baseline and final profiles. The adhesive layer thickness, retention percentage of the protective layer, and microhardness of cured adhesive were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%). There were significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.0001). Mean values ± SD and results of the Tukey's test were: Surface wear: GEN - 4.88 (±1.09)a, L - 5.04 ± 0.99)a, FB - 5.32 (±0.93)ab, GEN + L - 5.46 (±1.27)abc, SB + L - 5.78 (±1.12)abc, FB + L - 6.23 (±1.25)bc, SB - 6.35 (±1.11)c, and C - 6.46 (±0.61)c; layer thickness: GEN - 15.2 (±8.63)c, FB - 5.06 (±1.96)a, GEN + L - 13.96 (±7.07)bc, SB + L - 4.24 (±2.68)a, FB + L - 9.03 (±13.02)abc, and SB - 7.49 (±2.80)ab; retention: GEN - 68.89 (±20.62)c, FB - 54.53 (±24.80)abc, GEN + L - 59.90 (±19.79)abc, SB + L - 63.37 (±19.30)bc, FB + L - 42.23 (±17.68) a, and SB - 47.78 (±18.29)ab; microhardness: GEN - 9.27 (±1.75)c; FB - 6.99 (±0.89)b; GEN + L - 6.22 (±0.87)ab; SB + L - 15.48 (±2.51)d; FB + L - 10.67 (±1.58)c; SB - 5.00 (±1.60)a. The application of Futurabond U and G-aenial bond on enamel surface, as well as the Nd

  9. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  10. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be

  11. HYDRO-ABRASIVE RESISTANCE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH ADDED FLY ASH

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić, Nenad; Grdić, Zoran; Topličić-Ćurčić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    The durability of hydraulic engineering structures mostly depends on the resistance of their concrete surfaces to mechanical abrasion. In this paper, we study the hydro-abrasive resistance and mechanical properties of concrete in which cement is partially replaced with fly ash in various proportions. To evaluate these concretes, we measured their compressive strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity, ultrasound velocity through concrete, and sclerometer rebound. The hydro-abra...

  12. Wear Resistant Thermal Sprayed Composite Coatings Based on Iron Self-Fluxing Alloy and Recycled Cermet Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki SARJAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray and WC-Co based coatings are widely used in areas subjected to abrasive wear. Commercial  cermet thermal spray powders for HVOF are relatively expensive. Therefore applying these powders in cost-sensitive areas like mining and agriculture are hindered. Nowadays, the use of cheap iron based self-fluxing alloy powders for thermal spray is limited. The aim of this research was to study properties of composite powders based on self-fluxing alloys and recycled cermets and to examine the properties of thermally sprayed (HVOF coatings from composite powders based on iron self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders (Cr3C2-Ni and WC-Co. To estimate the properties of  recycled cermet powders, the sieving analysis, laser granulometry and morphology were conducted. For deposition of coatings High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spray was used. The structure and composition of powders and coatings were estimated by SEM and XRD methods. Abrasive wear performance of coatings was determined and compared with wear resistance of coatings from commercial powders. The wear resistance of thermal sprayed coatings from self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders at abrasion is comparable with wear resistance of coatings from commercial expensive spray powders and may be an alternative in tribological applications in cost-sensitive areas.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1338

  13. EFECTO DEL CONTENIDO DE CARBONO SOBRE LA RESISTENCIA AL DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZACIÓN CATÓDICA MAGNETRÓN EFEITO DO CONTEÚDO DE CARBONO SOBRE A RESISTÊNCIA AO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE RECOBRIMENTOS DE CrC DEPOSITADOS POR PULVERIZAÇÃO CATÓDICA MAGNETRÃO EFFECT OF THE CARBON CONTENT IN ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF CrC COATINGS DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2012-12-01

    diamante. O volume das impressões de abrasão mediu-se com as imagens obtidas no microscópio interferométrico e ademais se corroborou com o cálculo do volume geométrico baseado em seções medidas com o perfilômetro. O comportamento ao desgaste abrasivo mostrou uma marcada dependência com o conteúdo de carbono. O desgaste abrasivo mais baixo obtevese para os recobrimentos com o mais alto conteúdo de carbono.Chromium carbide coatings on steel are a good candidate for applications on forming and molding dies. The high mechanical strength, chemical resistance and high temperature stability of Cr3C2 phase can be compatible with the severe abrasive wear and corrosion found in those manufacture operations. In this work chromium carbide coatings deposited by means of RF magnetron sputtering showed carbon contents between 25 % and 58 % by EDS analysis. Hardness values of these coatings were between 15 and 24 GPa, being the hardest values in the samples with carbon content in the 39-53 % range. The abrasive wear behavior of the coatings was evaluated by using a dimple grinder with diamond powder. The volume of the abrasion craters was measured from the images obtained with the interferometric microscope, and further corroborated by geometrical volume calculation based in profilometer sections that were measured. Abrasive wear behavior showed a marked dependence with carbon content. The lowest abrasive wear was obtained for the coatings with the highest carbon content.

  14. Development of in-situ ZrC reinforced iron based composites for wear resistance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, T.K.; Das, K.

    2002-01-01

    A common objective behind the processing of iron-based composites is to improve the wear resistance of steels by incorporating some reinforcing phases, e.g., carbides and oxides. In the present investigation, iron-based zirconium carbide reinforced composite is produced by the aluminothermic reduction of zircon sand (ZrSiO 4 ) and blue dust (Fe 2 O 3 ) in the presence of carbon. Aluminothermic reduction of blue dust and zircon sand, being highly exothermic in nature, essentially leads to a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of the Fe-ZrC composite. The as-cast composite is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties of the composite and the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure are evaluated. The composite possess sufficient hardness and promising abrasive wear resistance property. The abrasive wear resistance property of the Fe-ZrC composite is compared with that of a M2 grade tool material and it is found to be better than the tool material. The composite also possess good high temperature stability. (author)

  15. Effects of Rare Earth Metal Addition on Wear Resistance of Chromium-Molybdenum Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinska J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM. The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa. The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.

  16. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Arsić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by high hardness and wear resistance. In experiments, the sliding speed and the normal loading were varied and the wear scar was monitored, based on which the volume of the worn material was calculated analytically. The contact duration time was monitored over the sliding path of 300 mm. The most intensive wear was established for the loading force of 100 N and the sliding speed of 1 m.s-1, though the significant wear was also noticed in conditions of the small loading and speed of 0.25 m.s-1, which was even greater that at larger speeds.

  17. Abrasive Wear of AlSi12-Al2O3 Composite Materials Manufactured by Pressure Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremzer M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate tribological properties of EN AC-AlSi12 alloy composite materials matrix manufactured by pressure infiltration of Al2O3 porous preforms. In the paper, a technique of manufacturing composite materials was described in detail as well as wear resistance made on pin on disc was tested. Metallographic observations of wear traces of tested materials using stereoscopic and confocal microscopy were made. Studies allow concluding that obtained composite materials have much better wear resistance than the matrix alloy AlSi12. It was further proved that the developed technology of their preparation consisting of pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms can find a practical application.

  18. Single layer and multilayer wear resistant coatings of (Ti,Al)N: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PalDey, S.; Deevi, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of (Ti,Al)N based coatings obtained by various physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques and compare their properties. PVD techniques based on sputtering and cathodic arc methods are widely used to deposit wear resistant (Ti,Al)N coatings. These techniques were further modified to improve the metal ionization rate and to eliminate macrodroplets from plasma streams. We summarize manufacture of target/cathode, substrate materials for deposition of coatings, deposition parameters, and the effect of deposition parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al)N coatings. It is shown that (Ti,Al)N coatings by PVD enhance the wear, thermal, and oxidation resistance of a wide variety of tool materials. We discuss the wear resistant properties of (Ti,Al)N for various machining applications as compared with coatings such as TiN, Ti(C,N) and (Ti,Zr)N. High hardness (∼28-32 GPa), relatively low residual stress (∼5 GPa), superior oxidation resistance, high hot hardness, and low thermal conductivity make (Ti,Al)N coatings most desirable in dry machining and machining of abrasive alloys at high speeds. Multicomponent coatings based on different metallic and nonmetallic elements combine the benefit of individual components leading to a further refinement of coating properties. Alloying additions such as Cr and Y drastically improve the oxidation resistance, Zr and V improve the wear resistance, whereas, Si increases the hardness and resistance to chemical reactivity of the film. Addition of boron improves the abrasive wear behavior of Ti-Al based coatings due to the formation of TiB 2 and BN phases depending on the deposition conditions. Hafnium based nitrides and carbides have potential for resistance to flank and crater wear. The presence of a large number of interfaces between individual layers of a multilayered structure results in a drastic increase in hardness and strength. (Ti,Al)N multilayer super lattice coatings with lattice

  19. Wear Resistance Increase by Friction Stir Processing for Partial Magnesium Replacement in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balos, Sebastian; Labus Zlatanovic, Danka; Janjatovic, Petar; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Rajnovic, Dragan; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of friction stir processing (FSP) was evaluated as a way of increasing mechanical properties and a way of replacing the magnesium content in aluminium alloys. FSP was done on AA5754 H111 aluminium alloy, containing 3 % Mg, by using various types of tools and different welding speeds, rotational speeds and tilt angles. Wear test was done against SiC abrasive papers. SiC was used to simulate extreme abrasive wear conditions. The wear test was done on untreated AA5754 specimens, processed AA5754 specimens and untreated AA5083 H111 specimens, the latter containing 4.5 % Mg. AA5083 was chosen as an alternative to AA5754, but with a significantly higher Mg content. Base material microhardness was 60 HV1 and 80 HV1 for AA5754 and AA5083 alloys respectively. To find the effect of FSP on AA5754 alloy, microstructures were studied, mainly grain size in the stir zone. It was found, that an elevated processing and rotational speed, without tilt angle and the tool without a reservoir resulted in an increase in hardness of the AA5754 to 70 HV1, but with the occurrence of tunneling defect and the wear rate of 79.3 mg. Lower FSP parameters and a tilted tool with a reservoir resulted in microhardness of 68 HV1 and wear rate of 68.2 mg without tunneling. These wear values are lower than those obtained with unmodified Al-alloys: AA5754 97.2 mg and AA5083 86.3 mg. An increased wear resistance can be attributed to the combined effect of grain boundary strengthening mechanism and solid solution strengthening, versus only the latter in untreated alloys.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on strength and abrasive wear behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present investigation Al6061–SiCp composites was fabricated by liquid metallurgy route with percentages of SiCp varying from 4 wt% to 10 wt% in steps of 2 ... However, under identical heat treatment conditions, adopted Al6061–SiCp composites exhibited better microhardness and tensile strength reduced wear loss ...

  1. Abrasion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Waste-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Roller-compacted Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizel, S. A.; Timur, O.; Ozturk, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    The potential use of waste glass fibers in roller-compacted concrete (RCC) was investigated with the aim to improve its performance and reduce environmental effects. The research was focused on the abrasion resistance and compressive and flexural strengths of the reinforced concrete relative to those of reference mixes without fibers. The freeze-thaw resistance of RCC mixes was also examined. It was found that the use of waste glass fibers at a rate of 2 % increased the abrasion resistance of the RCC mixes considerably.

  2. Effect of pressing temperature on the wear resistance of a Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somunkiran, Ilyas [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Balin, Ahmet [Siirt Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Vocational High School

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy was produced at different pressing temperatures by using hot pressing technique and abrasive wear behaviors of the produced specimens were examined. Produced specimens were exposed to abrasive wear experiment using block on disc wear test device by applying a load of 50 N with 100-mesh SiC abrasive paper. Each specimen was investigated at 25, 50, 75 and 100 m. At the end of the experiment, abrasive wear results of the specimens were determined by calculating their mass losses. Microstructural properties of the specimens which were produced at different pressing temperatures were investigated by optical and SEM examinations and their wear resistances were examined by abrasive wear experiments. Consequently, it was observed that in Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing technique; as sintering temperature increased, size of neck formations between the powder grains increased, porosity decreased and abrasive wear resistance increased. [German] In diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde eine Co-basierte Cr-Mo-Legierung mittels Heisspressens hergestellt und der Abrasivverschleisswiderstand dieser Proben untersucht. Die hergestellten Proben wurden dem Abrasivverschleissversuch durch einen Block-Scheibe-Versuchsaufbau unterzogen, wobei eine Kraft von 50 N mit einem SiC-Papier (100 mesh) verwendet wurde. Jede Probe wurde ueber eine Distanz von 25, 50, 75 und 100 m untersucht. Am Ende der jeweiligen Experimente wurden die Abrasivverschleissergebnisse ermittelt, indem die Massenverluste berechnet wurden. Die mikrostrukturellen Eigenschaften der Proben, die bei verschiedenen Presstemperaturen hergestellt wurden, wurden mittels optischer und Rasterelektronenmikroskopie bestimmt und ihr Verschleisswiderstand anhand der Verschleissversuche ermittelt. Schliesslich wurde beobachtet, dass bei steigender Sintertemperatur der heissgespressten Co-basierten Cr-Mo-Pulverlegierung die Groesse der Einschnuerungen zwischen den

  3. Abrasive wear behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg/palm kernel shell ash particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambo Anthony VICTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic approach to develop a wear model of Al-Cu-Mg/Palm kernel shell ash particulate composites (PKSAp produced by double stir-casting method. Four factors, five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the number of experiments. The factors considered were sliding velocity, sliding distance, normal load and mass fraction of PKSA reinforcement in the matrix. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to develop the mathematical model. The developed regression model was validated by statistical software MINITAB and statistical tool such as analysis of variance (ANOVA. It was found that the developed regression model could be effectively used to predict the wear rate at 95% confidence level. The regression model indicated that the wear rate of cast Al-Cu-Mg/PKSAp composite decreased with an increase in the mass fraction of PKSA and increased with an increase of the sliding velocity, sliding distance and normal load acting on the composite specimen.

  4. A new approach for assessing the wear resistance of soft ductile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Banna, M.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are the most versatile and attractive metallic materials which have been used for many decades in many engineering applications specially in the automobile and airspace industries due to their high strength-to- weight ratio, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, corrosion and wear resistances. Wear is the loss of material from a surface caused by interaction with another material. The main mechanisms of interaction are applied loads and relative motion, which can cause adhesion or/and abrasion, all of which leads to material loss. Therefore, most of the suggested methods, theoretical and empirical, for estimating the wear resistance of material is based on the mass loss, irrespective of the material or type of existing wear. Experimental observations reveal that in some situations, especially for soft and ductile materials, the tested specimen showed little or no mass loss while its dimensions and shape have suffered from plastic deformation which causes more damage than mass loss. Similar phenomenon was observed during electric spot welding of aluminum and zinc coated steels at the area beneath the electrode where plastic deformation takes place, causing increase in area which reduces the current density, will be also discussed in the paper. The amount of the plastic deformation, even when mentioned in some publications, was neglected in assessing wear resistance. In this paper, a model based on the plastic deformation at the worn end together with the mass loss is forwarded and discussed. The model was tested qualitatively using commercially pure aluminum of 99.97% purity in the as supplied condition and in grain refined conditions by some rare earth materials e.g. titanium and titanium plus boron, which are normally used in industry for improving its hardness and mechanical behavior. The wear tests were carried out under different loads and speeds (the main parameters in assessing wear resistance) and the data was used for

  5. Influence of deep cryogenic treatment on structure and wear resistance of materials of hydraulic breaker chisels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolobov, V. I.; BinhLe, Thanh

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that shallow cryogenic treatment at -75°C (SCT) of the materials of hydraulic breaker chisels - P20, 1080 and D2 steels leads to a decrease (44 ÷ 82%) in the amount of retained austenite and an increase (26 ÷ 99%) in the amount of carbides in the structure of hardened steel, which is accompanied by an increase in its hardness (1.4 ÷ 2.1%) and abrasive wear resistance (10 ÷ 31%) with a simultaneous decrease in impact toughness (19 ÷ 24%). Deep cryogenic treatment at -196°C (DCT) and subsequent low-temperature tempering of D2 steel leads to a significant increase in its wear resistance (98%) and impact toughness (32%).

  6. Cerium Addition Improved the Dry Sliding Wear Resistance of Surface Welding AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of cerium (Ce addition on the friction and wear properties of surface welding AZ91 magnesium alloys were evaluated by pin-on-disk dry sliding friction and wear tests at normal temperature. The results show that both the friction coefficient and wear rate of surfacing magnesium alloys decreased with the decrease in load and increase in sliding speed. The surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate. The alloy without Ce had the worst wear resistance, mainly because it contained a lot of irregularly shaped and coarse β-Mg17Al12 phases. During friction, the β phase readily caused stress concentration and thus formed cracks at the interface between β phase and α-Mg matrix. The addition of Ce reduced the size and amount of Mg17Al12, while generating Al4Ce phase with a higher thermal stability. The Al-Ce phase could hinder the grain-boundary sliding and migration and reduced the degree of plastic deformation of subsurface metal. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the surfacing AZ91 alloy with 1.5% Ce had a total of four types of wear mechanism: abrasion, oxidation, and severe plastic deformation were the primary mechanisms; delamination was the secondary mechanism.

  7. Influence of the modes of laser cladding on bond strength and wear resistance of coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, V. P.; Tatarkin, D. Yu; Chriptovish, E. V.; Fichkov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of metallographic studies and laboratory comparative tests on the adhesion strength of the coating to the substrate and abrasion on the scheme Brinell-Haworth cladding powder coatings on Nickel-based and samples of steel 40X. Strength of adhesion of the first coating layer with a hardness of HRC 38-42 was 400-480 MPa. It is shown that when the hardness of the deposited layer HRC 58-61 wear resistance of the coatings is higher than 40X steel in the normalized and improved in 10 and 4.6 times, respectively.

  8. Influence of silicon content and heat treatment on wear resistance of white chromium cast irons under high speed solidification conditions; Influencia del contenido de silicio y el tratamiento termico en la resistencia al desgaste de fundiciones blancas al cromo en condiciones de rapida solidificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyo, L.; Varela, A.; Verhaege, M.; Garcia, A.; Mier, J.; Moors, M.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of silicon content and heat treatment on microstructure, abrasive and dry friction wear resistance of a 3 % C, 12 % Cr cast iron, under fast solidification conditions is studied. The fast solidification condition diminishes the carbide volume and the silicon content increases their dispersion and finesses. All matrixes obtained were perlitics, whit different finesses. No intermediate transformation products were noticed. Hardness had little variation. Austenization treatment show little effectivity, with tendency to increase wear in reference to as cast and maintenance treatments. Behavior under dry friction and abrasive wear were similar under test conditions applied whit more influence of carbide morphology in the abrasive wear conditions. (Author) 32 refs.

  9. Wear Resistance of TiC Reinforced Cast Steel Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobula S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel.

  10. The Effect of Microstructure on the Abrasion Resistance of Low Alloyed Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis attempts to develop advanced high abrasion resistant steels with low hardness in combination with good toughness, processability and low alloying additions. For this purpose, a novel multi-pass dual-indenter (MPDI) scratch test approach has been developed to approach the real continuous

  11. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  12. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, R; Cioffi, M O H; Voorwald, H J C

    2017-01-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment. (paper)

  13. Metallurgical/Alloy Optimization of High Strength and Wear Resistant Structural Quench and Tempered Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalheim, Douglas G.; Peimao, Fu; Linhao, Gu; Yongqing, Zhang

    Structural steels with yield strength requirements greater or equal to 690 MPa can be produced through controlled recrystallization hot rolling coupled with precipitation strengthening or purposeful heat treatment through quench and tempering (Q&T). High strength structural steel and wear/abrasion resistant requirements greater or equal to 360 Brinell hardness (BHN) are produced by the development of microstructures of tempered lower bainite and/or martensite through the Q&T process. While these Q&T microstructures can produce very high strengths and hardness levels making them ideal for 690 MPa plus yield strength or wear/abrasion resistant applications, they lack toughness/ductility and hence are very brittle and prone to cracking. While tempering the microstructures helps in improving the toughness/ductility and reducing the brittleness, strength and hardness can be sacrificed. In addition, these steels typically consist of alloy designs containing boron with carbon equivalents (CE) greater than 0.50 to achieve the desired microstructures. The higher CE has a negative influence on weldability.

  14. Maintenance and preservation of concrete structures. Report 3: Abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory test program on abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete, including the development of a new underwater abrasion-erosion test method. This program was designed to evaluate the relative abrasion-erosion resistance of various materials considered for use in the repair of erosion-damaged concrete structures. The test program encompassed three concrete types (conventional concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete, and polymer concrete); seven aggregate types (limestone, chert, trap rock, quartzite, granite, siliceous gravel, and slag); three principal water-cement rations (0.72, 0.54, and 0.40); and six types of surface treatment (vacuum, polyurethane coating, acrylic mortar coating, epoxy mortar coating, furan resin mortar coating, and iron aggregate topping). A total of 114 specimens made from 41 batches of concrete was tested. Based on the test data obtained, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of various parameters on the abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete was presented. Materials suitable for use in the repair of erosion-damaged concrete structures were recommended. Additional work to correlate the reported findings with field performance was formulated.

  15. Changing in tool steels wear resistance under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginskaya, A.E.; Manin, V.N.; Makedonskij, A.V.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Pakchanin, L.M.; Petrenko, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    The tool steels and alloys wear resistance under dry friction after electron irradiation has been studied. Electron irradiation of a wide variety of steels is shown to increase wear resistance. In this case phase composition and lattice parameters changes are observed both in matrix and carbides. The conclusion is drawn that an appreciable increase of steel wear resistance under electron irradiation can be explained both by carbide phase volume gain and changes in it's composition and the formation of carbide phase submicroscopic heterogeneities and, possibly, complexes of defects

  16. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, T; Papini, M

    2012-01-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask–target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times. (paper)

  17. Effect of Cobalt on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Ni-Based Alloy Coating Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based alloy powders with different contents of cobalt (Co have been deposited on a 42CrMo steel substrate surface using a fiber laser. The effects of Co content on the microstructure, composition, hardness, and wear properties of the claddings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, a hardness tester, and a wear tester. The results show that the phases in the cladding layers are mainly γ, M7(C, B3, M23(C, B6, and M2B. With the increase in Co content, the amounts of M7(C, B3, M23(C, B6, and M2B gradually decrease, and the width of the eutectic structure in the cladding layer also gradually decreases. The microhardness decreases but the wear resistance of the cladding layer gradually improves with the increase of Co content. The wear resistance of the NiCo30 cladding layer is 3.6 times that of the NiCo00 cladding layer. With the increase of Co content, the wear mechanism of the cladding layer is changed from abrasive wear to adhesive wear.

  18. Preparation and Properties of Superamphiphobic Wear-resistance PPS-based Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Huai-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superamphiphobic wear-resistance PPS-based coatings were prepared by a simple spraying method with a pore-forming reagent of NH4HCO3 and nano-filler of carbon nanotubes (CNTs.The surface morphology and the hydrophobicity,oleophobicity of the coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and contact angle meter.The wear-resistance of the coating was verified by sanding method with given load.The results indicate that a rough surface is obtained after pore-forming,and the porous structures in combination with the CNTs construct the special micro/nano-scale network structures.When the mass fraction of NH4HCO3 is 5%,the contact angles of the coating for water,glycerine and ethylene glycol are 162°,158° and 152°,showing superamphiphobic property.After polished 10000 times by abrasive paper,the coating shows slight friction marks and remains high hydrophobicity,exhibiting excellent wear-resistance.

  19. Laser cladding of copper with molybdenum for wear resistance enhancement in electrical contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.W.; Man, H.C.; Cheng, F.T.; Yue, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser cladding of Mo on Cu has been attempted with the aim of enhancing the wear resistance and hence increasing the service life of electrical contacts made of Cu. In order to overcome the difficulties arising from the large difference in thermal properties and the low mutual solubility between Cu and Mo, Ni was introduced as an intermediate layer between Mo and Cu. The Ni and Mo layers were laser clad one after the other to form a sandwich layer of Mo/Ni/Cu. Excellent bonding between the clad layer and the Cu substrate was ensured by strong metallurgical bonding. The hardness of the surface of the clad layer is seven times higher than that of the Cu substrate. Pin-on-disc wear tests consistently showed that the abrasive wear resistance of the clad layer was also improved by a factor of seven as compared with untreated Cu substrate. The specific electrical contact resistance of the clad surface was about 5.6 x 10 -7 Ω cm 2

  20. Research into properties of wear resistant ceramic metal plasma coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancivsky, V. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu; Zverev, E. A.; Vakhrushev, N. V.; Parts, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    The study considers one of the promising ways to improve the quality of wear resistant plasma ceramic coatings by implementing various powder mixtures. The authors present the study results of the nickel-ceramic and cobalt-ceramic coating properties and describe the specific character of the investigated coatings composition. The paper presents the results of the coating microhardness, chemical and adhesive strength studies. The authors conducted wear resistance tests of composite coatings in comparison with the plasma coatings of initial powder components.

  1. Prediction of wear rates in comminution equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas Roald Dörig; Fundal, Erling; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    -resistant high chromium white cast iron (21988/JN/HBW555XCr21), a heat-treated wear resistant steel (Hardox 400) and a plain carbon construction steel (S235). Quartz, which accounts for the largest wear loss in the cement industry, was chosen as abrasive. Other process parameters such as velocity (1–7 m...

  2. Abrasion-Resistant Aluminized-Coated Aramid Fabrics for Manufacture of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    and radiacion are also produced at the cathode surface and may profoundly influence the quality of the substrate coating. These include secondary...14,265-378 (1979). Assink, R.A. Abrasion resistant polymer reflectors for solar applications. Solar Energy Mater vol. 3:263-75, (1980). Audet, N.F. Visor... solar reflectors. Solar Energy Mater vol. 3: No.1-2,277-83,(1981). *Gubareff, G.G., J.E. Janssen, and R.H. Torborg. Thermal radiation properties survey

  3. Wear Resistance Analysis of A359/SiC/20p Advanced Composite Joints Welded by Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cuevas Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Advancement in automotive part development demands new cost-effective materials with higher mechanical properties and improved wear resistance as compared to existing materials. For instance, Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC shows improved mechanical properties as wear and abrasion resistance, high strength, chemical and dimensional stability. Automotive industry has focused in AMC for a variety of applications in automotive parts in order to improve the fuel economy, minimize vehicle emissions, improve design options, and increase the performance. Wear resistance is one of the most important factors in useful life of the automotive components, overall in those components submitted to mechanical systems like automotive brakes and suspensions. Friction Stir Welding (FSW rises as the most capable process to joining AMC, principally for the capacity to weld without compromising their ceramic reinforcement. The aim of this study is focused on the analysis of wear characteristics of the friction-stir welded joint of aluminum matrix reinforced with 20 percent in weight silicon carbide composite (A359/SiC/20p. The experimental procedure consisted in cut samples into small plates and perform three welds on these with a FSW machine using a tool with 20 mm shoulder diameter and 8 mm pin diameter. The wear features of the three welded joints and parent metal were analyzed at constant load applying 5 N and a rotational speed of 100 rpm employing a Pin-on - Disk wear testing apparatus, using a sapphire steel ball with 6 mm diameter. The experimental results indicate that the three welded joints had low friction coefficient compared with the parent metal. The results determine that the FSW process parameters affect the wear resistance of the welded joints owing to different microstructural modifications during welding that causes a low wear resistance on the welded zone.

  4. Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

    2010-10-01

    Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

  5. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report D : creep, shrinkage, and abrasion resistance of HVFA concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect on shrinkage, creep, : and abrasion resistance of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete. The HVFA concrete : test program consisted of comparing the shrinkage, creep, and abrasion performance...

  6. Comparison of the structure and wear resistance of Al2O3 -13 wt%TiO2 coatings made by GSP and WSP plasma process with two different powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Ctibor, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 18 (2008), s. 4362-4368 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * titania * plasma spraying * wear resistance * slurry abrasion Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2008

  7. Wear Resistance and Mechanical Behaviour of Epoxy/Mollusk Shell Biocomposites developed for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Oladele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin is one of the strongest commercially exploitable thermosetting polymers in the polymer family; however its expensive nature in comparison with other thermosetting polymers such as vinylester and polyester limits its applications as a structural material. Inexpensive fillers on the other hand, especially those derived from agro-industrial wastes are very important in reducing the overall cost of polymer composites and furthermore influential in enhancing some of their engineering properties. In the present study, the wear resistance and mechanical behaviour of epoxy polymer matrix filled with <75 and 75 μm calcined particles of African land snail shells have been comparatively investigated. The wear resistance and the mechanical behaviour of the composites were studied via Taber Abraser and INSTRON universal testing machine. Also, the elemental constituents of the calcined snail shell and the epoxy biocomposites were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. From the experimental results, it was observed that, at the highest filler loading, smaller particle size presented a biocomposite with significant enhancement in wear and mechanical properties. However, it was also observed that increase in particle size showed no significant enhancement in the mechanical properties of the biocomposites.

  8. Recycled Aluminium Cans/Eggshell Composites: Evaluation of Mechanical and Wear Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Agunsoye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites have been produced from recycled aluminium cans and 150µm sized eggshell particles using a stir cast process. The mechanical properties of the control and aluminium can/eggshell composites produced have been investigated. The microstructures of the aluminium can/eggshell composites were examined with the aids of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM after the sample surfaces have been carefully prepared and etched with aqueous solution of 0.5 cm3 nitric acid. Micrographs revealed that there was a homogenous distribution of eggshell particles within the aluminium can matrix. An indication of effective stirring action during the melting process. The wear resistance was also investigated under different applied loads (6 to 14 N on an abrasive surface emery paper of grade 220. The results revealed an increase in Young’s modulus of elasticity and yield stress from 1,206.45 and 50.23 Mpa respectively of the cast aluminium can with 0 % eggshell particle to the maximum of 3,258.87and 73.2 MPa of aluminium can/12 % eggshell composites. The hardness values increased from 66.23 to 75.13 VN. There was a gradual increase in wear rate of the tested samples as the applied load increased. However, the wear resistance of the aluminium can/6 % eggshell and aluminium can/12 % eggshell composites increased significantly. Hence, recycling of aluminium cans and eggshells can be harnessed into development of useful engineering metal matrix composite materials.

  9. Ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for wear resistance in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The implantation of electrically accelerated ions of chosen elements into the surface of material provides a method for improving surface properties such as wear resistance. High concentrations of nitrogen implanted into metals create obstacles to dislocation movement, and certain combinations of metallic and non-metallic species will also strengthen the surface. The process is best applied to situations involving mild abrasive wear and operating temperatures that are not too high. Some dramatic increases in life have been reported under such favourable conditions. A more recent development has been the combination of a thin coating with reactive ion bombardment designed to enhance adhesion by ion mixing at the interface and so provide hardness by the formation of finely dispersed nitrides, including cubic boron nitride. These coatings often possess vivid and decorative colours as an added benefit. Developments in the equipment for industrial ion implantation now offer more attractive costs per unit area and a potentially greater throughput of work. A versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments is now emerging, involving the use of intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (author)

  10. Investigating Corrosion, Wear Resistance and Friction of AA5454-O Series after its Severe Deformation by Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan SEZEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AA5454-O is an easily wrought, or in other words, a ductile aluminium alloy, however, its mechanical properties are inferior as compared to those of other alloys. The change taking place in corrosion resistance of AA5454-O alloy as a result of its severe plastic deformation (SPD by rolling has been investigated in this study. It has been observed that significant changes occurred in abrasion wear and corrosion resistances of AA5454-O alloy, which was severely deformed up to 80 % by rolling process. Corrosion resistance of the alloy that was severely deformed by rolling has increased. The effect of deformation rate on corrosion has been investigated by applying potentiodynamic test whereas on the other hand such change has been evidenced also through corrosion test. It has been observed that friction coefficient of severely deformed AA5454-O alloy varied by around 10 %, and that, associated with such change, its wear resistance also increased considerably. It has been determined that, as a result of severe deformation by rolling, hardness values rose in areas where the alloy was in contact with rolling surface. In this study, wear resistance of severely deformed alloy has been investigated as well. It has been observed that deformation value contributed positively to the increase in wear resistance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14650

  11. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  12. Fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance by a simple lamination templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2011-09-01

    Fabricating robust superhydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications is challenging as the fine-scale surface features, necessary to achieve superhydrophobicity, are susceptible to mechanical damage. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive lamination templating method to create superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance and water pressure stability. To fabricate the surfaces, polyethylene films were laminated against woven wire mesh templates. After cooling, the mesh was peeled from the polymer creating a 3D array of ordered polymer microposts on the polymer surface. The resulting texture is monolithic with the polymer film and requires no chemical modification to exhibit superhydrophobicity. By controlling lamination parameters and mesh dimensions, polyethylene surfaces were fabricated that exhibit static contact angles of 160° and slip angles of 5°. Chemical and mechanical stability was evaluated using an array of manual tests as well as a standard reciprocating abraser test. Surfaces remained superhydrophobic after more than 5500 abrasion cycles at a pressure of 32.0 kPa. In addition, the surface remains dry after immersing into water for 5 h at 55 kPa. This method is environmental friendly, as it employs no solvents or harsh chemicals and may provide an economically viable path to manufacture large areas of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces from inexpensive polymers and reusable templates.

  13. Electrodeposition of diamond-like carbon films on titanium alloy using organic liquids: Corrosion and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcade, Tiago; Shmitzhaus, Tobias Eduardo; Gomes dos Reis, Otávio; Vargas, André Luis Marin; Hübler, Roberto; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes; Fraga Malfatti, Célia de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrodeposition may be conducted at room temperature. ► The DLC films have good resistance to corrosion in saline environments. ► The films have lower coefficient of friction than the uncoated substrate. ► The abrasive wear protection is evident in coated systems. - Abstract: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied as coatings for corrosion protection and wear resistance because they have excellent chemical inertness in traditional corrosive environments, besides presenting a significant reduction in coefficient of friction. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films obtained by electrochemical deposition techniques have attracted a lot of interest, regarding their potential in relation to the vapor phase deposition techniques. The electrochemical deposition techniques are carried out at room temperature and do not need vacuum system, making easier this way the technological transfer. At high electric fields, the organic molecules polarize and react on the electrode surface, forming carbon films. The aim of this work was to obtain DLC films onto Ti6Al4V substrate using as electrolyte: acetonitrile (ACN) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and wear tests. The results show that these films can improve, significantly, the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys and their wear resistance.

  14. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  15. Sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Borrero-López, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C is investigated, and the wear mode/mechanisms identified, under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil. It is found that the wear is mild in the three cases, with specific wear rates (SWRs) of 10−16–10−17 m3/N m. Nonetheless......, the wear resistance of the B4C ceramic is one order of magnitude greater under oil lubrication (1016 N m/m3) than under water lubrication (1015 N m/m3), and twice as great for the specific case of paraffin oil than diesel fuel, attributable to the lubricant’s viscosity. It is also found that the wear mode...... is always abrasion, and that the wear mechanisms are plastic deformation and localized fracture with grain pullout. However, in agreement with the macro-wear data, the severity of the wear damage is lower under lubrication with paraffin oil, followed by diesel fuel, and lastly water. Finally...

  16. Durability analysis of gneiss using wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ernandes Dias Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted in gneiss in Santo Antonio de Pádua, RJ, BR, including durability analysis of the rock using slake durability test. Rocks in the region of Pádua are mostly used for ornamental purposes. A lab equipment was developed to evaluate the influence of rotation in the test, allowing for the speed variation of 7 RPM to 238 RPM. This study could be implemented in a wide variety of rock materials, targeting them according to their lifetime in the project. With variation of the wear levels, increasing weight loss was observed until the inertia moment in which the sample holds to the machine wall. The results indicate an increase in linear mass loss. These procedures allow a more precise analysis of durability than can be applied in different different regions of the world.

  17. Sputter deposition of wear-resistant coatings within the system Zr-B-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterer, C; Uebleis, A; Ebner, R [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung, Montanuniv., Leoben (Austria)

    1991-07-07

    Wear-resistant coatings of zirconium boride and zirconium boron nitride were deposited on steel and molybdenum substrates employing non-reactive as well as reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering using zirconium diboride targets. The characterization of the coatings was done by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results are discussed in connection with measured mechanical coating properties such as microhardness and adhesion. The optical properties of the coatings were determined using a CIE-L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} colorimeter and specialized corrosion and abrasion tests. Non-reactive sputtering using ZrB{sub 2} targets results in the formation of coatings with a columnar structure and predominantly (001)-orientated ZrB{sub 2} crystals. Coatings deposited at low nitrogen flow rates exhibit very fine-grained or even fracture amorphous structures with a hexagonal Zr-B-N phase derived from the ZrB{sub 2} lattice. A further increase of the nitrogen flow leads to an amorphous film growth. The maximum Vickers microhardness of the coatings was found to be approximately 2300 HV 0.02. Zr-B and Zr-B-N coatings offer a wide range of interesting colours as well as good corrosion and wear resistance. (orig.).

  18. Hard metal - a wear resistant material. Hartmetall - ein verschleissbestaendiger Werkstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaska, J.; Dreyer, K. (Krupp Widia GmbH, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The article provides a survey of the various types of alloys of presently used carbides, their production processes and properties. Cermets (alloys with a high content of titanium carbide) are in the foreground here. With an eye on the future, advancements of further improved carbide materials are described, which feature at the same time a high resistance to wear and tenacity. (orig.).

  19. Thermophysical properties of selected wear-resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwick, D.G.; Johnson, R.N.

    1980-06-01

    Thermophysical properties of 13 selected wear-resistant materials, including specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion (instantaneous, mean, and linear) are provided. The Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS) at Purdue University supplied properties data

  20. Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William PRINCE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.

  1. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl 2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant

  2. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.

  3. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  4. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10 16 ionscm -2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  5. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  6. Comparação dos valores de desgaste abrasivo e de microdureza de 13 resinas compostas usadas em odontologia através do método do disco retificado Comparing abrasive wear and microhardness of 13 dental composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. Bianchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente tem-se buscado simplificar a tarefa de caracterização da vida útil de restaurações dentárias realizadas por resinas compostas através de métodos laboratoriais, que são mais rápidos e não sofrem influência de variáveis pessoais inerentes às análises clínicas. Com este propósito, este trabalho apresenta uma nova metodologia de ensaio laboratorial para a avaliação do desgaste abrasivo de resinas compostas através do método do disco retificado. Realizaram-se ensaios de resistência ao desgaste abrasivo com 13 resinas compostas odontológicas e buscou-se analisar o comportamento da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo em relação à microdureza dessas resinas. Com a análise dos resultados concluiu-se que o método de discos retificados é eficiente para a obtenção da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo. Notou-se também ser extremamente pequeno o nível de correlação entre microdureza e desgaste abrasivo o que indica que cada resina composta tem características próprias e que o desgaste é dependente também de outros fatores.It is now commonplace to search for methods to assess the useful lifetime of dental restorations made of resins, which are quicker and less subjective than clinical analyses. With this purpose, this work presents a new methodology based on the grinding disk for evaluating the abrasive wear of composed resins. Resistance tests to the abrasive wear were made with 13 composed resins used as dental material, and a comparison was done with the hardness of those resins. From the data analysis, we concluded that the method of rectified disks is efficient for obtaining the resistance to the abrasive wear. Furthermore, the correlation between hardness and abrasive wear was very small, which indicates that each composed resin has its own characteristics and that the wear also depends on other factors.

  7. Determination of a Wear Initiation Cycle by using a Contact Resistance Measurement in Nuclear Fuel Fretting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fretting, the improving of the contact condition with a modified spring shape is a useful method for increasing the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod. This is because the fretting wear resistance between the fuel rod and grid spring is mainly affected by the grid spring shape rather than the environment, the contact modes, etc. In addition, the wear resistance is affected by the wear debris behavior between contact surfaces. So, it is expected that the wear initiation of each spring shape should be determined in order to evaluate a wear resistance. However, it is almost impossible to measure the wear behavior in contact surfaces on a real time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. Besides, the results of the worn surface observation after the fretting wear tests are restricted to archive the information on the wear debris behavior and the formation mechanism of the wear scar. In order to evaluate the wear behavior during the fretting wear tests, it is proposed that the contact resistance measurement is a useful method for examining the wear initiation cycle and modes. Generally, fretting wear damages are rapidly progressed by a localized plastic deformation between the contact surfaces, crack initiation and fracture of the deformed surface with a strain hardening difference between a surface and a subsurface and finally a detachment of wear debris. After this, wear debris is easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. At this time, a small amount of electric current applied between the contact surfaces will be influenced by the wear debris, which could be an obstacle to an electric current flow. So, it is possible to archive the information on the wear behavior by measuring the contact resistance. In order to determine the wear initiation cycle during the fretting wear tests, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed by applying a constant electric current in room temperature air

  8. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  9. Wear resistance of polypropylene-SiC composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenojar, J.; Enciso, B.; Martínez, MA; Velasco, F.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the wear resistance of thermoplastic composites with a high amount of ceramic is evaluated. Composites made of polypropylene (PP) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder at 50 wt% were used with the final objective of manufacturing ablative materials. This is the first part of a project studying the wear resistance and the mechanical properties of those composites, to be used in applications like habitat industry. In theory, the exposure to high temperature of ablative materials involves the elimination of thermal energy by the sacrifice of surface polymer. In our case, PP will act as a heat sink, up to the reaction temperature (melting or sublimation), where endothermic chemical decomposition into charred material and gaseous products occurs. As the surface is eroded, it is formed a SiC like-foam with improved insulation performance. Composites were produced by extrusion and hot compression. The wear characterization was performed by pin-on-disk test. Wear test was carried out under standard ASTM G99. The parameters were 120 rpm speed, 15 N load, a alumina ball with 6 mm as pin and 1000 m sliding distance. The tracks were also observed by opto-digital microscope.

  10. Wear resistance of polypropylene-SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abenojar, J; Enciso, B; Martínez, MA; Velasco, F

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the wear resistance of thermoplastic composites with a high amount of ceramic is evaluated. Composites made of polypropylene (PP) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder at 50 wt% were used with the final objective of manufacturing ablative materials. This is the first part of a project studying the wear resistance and the mechanical properties of those composites, to be used in applications like habitat industry. In theory, the exposure to high temperature of ablative materials involves the elimination of thermal energy by the sacrifice of surface polymer. In our case, PP will act as a heat sink, up to the reaction temperature (melting or sublimation), where endothermic chemical decomposition into charred material and gaseous products occurs. As the surface is eroded, it is formed a SiC like-foam with improved insulation performance. Composites were produced by extrusion and hot compression. The wear characterization was performed by pin-on-disk test. Wear test was carried out under standard ASTM G99. The parameters were 120 rpm speed, 15 N load, a alumina ball with 6 mm as pin and 1000 m sliding distance. The tracks were also observed by opto-digital microscope. (paper)

  11. Facile and scalable preparation of highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Ming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Wu, Yiqiang, E-mail: wuyq0506@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Luo, Sha [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Qing, Yan, E-mail: qingyan0429@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Wood and Bamboo Resources, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Chen, Haibo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly wear-resistance superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was fabricated using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface on wood substrates was efficiently fabricated using nanoparticles modified by VTES. • The superhydrophobic surface exhibited a CA of 154° and a SAclose to 0°. • The superhydrophobic surface showed a durable and robust wear-resistance performance. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient, facile method has been developed for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates using silica nanoparticles modified by VTES. The as-prepared superhydrophobic wood surface had a water contact angle of 154° and water slide angle close to 0°. Simultaneously, this superhydrophobic wood showed highly durable and robust wear resistance when having undergone a long period of sandpaper abrasion or being scratched by a knife. Even under extreme conditions of boiling water, the superhydrophobicity of the as-prepared wood composite was preserved. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that a typical and tough hierarchical micro/nanostructure was created on the wood substrate and vinyltriethoxysilane contributed to preventing the agglomeration of silica nanoparticles and serving as low-surface-free-energy substances. This superhydrophobic wood was easy to fabricate, mechanically resistant and exhibited long-term stability. Therefore, it is considered to be of significant importance in the industrial production of functional wood, especially for outdoor applications.

  12. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  13. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  14. Wear-resistant ball bearings for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boving, H.; Hintermann, H. E.; Hanni, W.; Bondivenne, E.; Boeto, M.; Conde, E.

    1977-01-01

    Ball bearings consisting of steel parts of which the rings are coated with hard, wear resistant, chemical vapor deposited TiC are described. Experiments conducted in ultrahigh vacuum, using cages of various materials with self-lubricating properties, show that such bearings are suitable for space applications. The results of laboratory tests on the ESA Meteosat Radiometer Focalizing mechanism, which contains six coated bearings, are summarized.

  15. Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser to improve the abrasion wear resistance. Aluminium surfaces reinforced with metal matrix composites and intermetallic phases were achieved. The phases present depended...

  16. Final Technical Report: Development of an Abrasion-Resistant Antisoiling Coating for Front-Surface Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Randy C. [Sundog Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States)

    2017-07-18

    A high-performance reflective film has been successfully developed for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) solar concentrators. Anti-soiling properties and abrasion resistance have been incorporated into the reflector to reduce reflector cleaning costs and to enhance durability. This approach has also resulted in higher reflectance and improved specularity. From the outset of this project we focused on the use of established high-volume roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to achieve low manufacturing costs on a per ubit area basis. Roll-to-roll manufacturng equipment has a high capital cost so there is an entire industry devoted to roll-to-roll “toll” manufacturing, where the equipment is operated “around the clock” to produce a multitude of products for a large variety of uses. Using this approach, the reflective film can be manufactured by toll coaters/converters on an as-needed basis.

  17. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  18. A wear-resistant zirconia ceramic for low friction application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.; Ran, S.; Wiratha, K.W.; Blank, D.H.A.; Pasaribu, H.R.; Sloetjes, J.W.; Schipper, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    A high wear-resistant ceramic/ceramic couple is described associated with low friction. By adding a small amount CuO to yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) the (dry) coefficient of friction against alumina is only 0.2 during a sliding distance of 3-5 km after which the coefficient drastically increases and a transition from mild to sever wear occurs. Pure Y-TZP exhibits a coefficient of friction of 0.7 under the same experimental conditions but wear remains mild during the test (upto 10 km of sliding distance). These small amounts of CuO also strongly influence the densification behaviour. Sintering of this system occurs in several steps where among other things dissolution of CuO in the Y-TZP matrix as well as liquid phase sintering takes place. Non-uniform shrinkage of the CuO-doped system resulting in relative large microcracks in the ceramic can explain its sudden drastic increase in coefficient of friction and wear rate after 3-5 km of operation. (orig.)

  19. Porosity and wear resistance of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi

    2017-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed coatings offer practical and economical solutions for corrosion and wear protection of components or tools. To improve the coating properties, heat treatment such as preheat is applied. The selection of coating and substrate materials is a key factor in improving the quality of the coating morphology after the heat treatment. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of preheat temperatures, i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, on porosity and wear resistance of tungsten carbide (WC) coating sprayed by flame thermal coating. The powders and coatings morphology were analyzed by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDS), whereas the phase identification was performed by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD). In order to evaluate the quality of the flame spray obtained coatings, the porosity, micro-hardness and wear rate of the specimens was determined. The results showed that WC coating gives a higher surface hardness from 1391 HVN up to 1541 HVN compared to that of the non-coating. Moreover, the wear rate increased from 0.072 mm3/min. to 0.082 mm3/min. when preheat temperature was increased. Preheat on H13 steel substrate can reduce the percentage of porosity level from 10.24 % to 3.94% on the thermal spray coatings.

  20. Wear-resistant powder materials with intermetallic hardening. I. Nonporous materials for antifriction purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, G.K.; Akopov, N.L.; Karapetyan, F.K.; Manukyan, N.N.

    1987-09-01

    This article investigates the wear resistance, microhardness, microstructure, and crystal-phase behavior of a molybdenum alloy solid lubricant under cyclic wear and sliding friction tests against steel 45. Calculated and experimental results are given.

  1. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M, E-mail: mgajek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramic, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-10-29

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6{approx}8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm{sup 2} (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5{approx}6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  2. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  3. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M

    2011-01-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , V 2 O 5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6∼8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm 2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5∼6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  4. Wear Resistance Properties Reinforcement Using Nano-Al/Cu Composite Coating in Sliding Bearing Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Jianmei; Sheng, Chenxing; Liu, Wanli

    2018-03-01

    Sliding bearing maintenance is crucial for reducing the cost and extending the service life. An efficient and practical solution is to coat a restorative agent onto the worn/damaged bearings. Traditional pure-copper (Cu) coating results in a soft surface and poor abrasion resistance. To address this issue, this paper presents a nano-composite repairing coating method. A series of nano-Al/Cu coatings were prepared on the surface of 45 steel by composite electro-brush plating (EBP). Their micro-hardness was examined by a MHV-2000 Vickers hardness tester, and tribological properties by a UMT-2M Micro-friction tester, 3D profiler and SEM. Then, the influence of processing parameters such as nano-particle concentration and coating thickness on the micro-hardness of nano-Al/Cu coating was analyzed. The experimental analysis results demonstrate that, when the nano-Al particle concentration in electrolyte was 10 g/L, the micro-hardness of the composite coating was 1.1 times as much as that of pure-Cu coating. When the Al nano-particle concentration in electrolyte was 20 g/L, the micro-hardness of the composite coating reached its maximum value (i.e., 231.6 HV). Compared with the pure-Cu coating, the hardness and wear resistance of the nano-composite coating were increased, and the friction coefficient and wear volume were decreased, because of the grain strengthening and dispersion strengthening. The development in this work may provide a feasible and effective nano-composite EBP method for sliding bearing repair.

  5. Wear- and heat resistance of vacuum-arc TiN and TiAlN based coatings with Si and Y additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, I.I.; Belous, V.A.; Grigor'ev, A.N.; Ermolenko, I.G.; Zadneprovskij, Yu.A.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Lomino, N.S.; Marinin, V.G.; Tolmacheva, G.N.; Sobol', O.V.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown, that insertion of silicon additives into TiN coatings and of yttrium into TiAlN coatings in explored limits (to a few wht. %) leads to increasing of resistance against abrasive friction wear. At the same time silicon or yttrium presence in the coatings leads to loos of their columnar structure and demonstrate decrease in the cavitation resistance. It is supposed, that such distinction in behaviour of the given working performances is a consequence of that mechanisms of the coating surface fracture at action of cavitation and abrasive friction are different. All explored coatings of (Ti-Si)N composition are not oxidised up to 600 o C, and of (Ti-Al-Y)N coatings - up to 800 o C.

  6. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sudhakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  7. Abrasion Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Silica Fume Concrete According to Los Angeles and Water Abrasion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ching CHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study mainly investigated the influence of different tests on the abrasion resistance of concrete mixed with steel fibers and silica fume. The abrasion resistance was assessed at 28, 56 and 91 days on concretes with water-binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 where in some mixes silica fume was substituted by 5 % of cement by weight. Steel fibers of 0.5 % and 1.0 % of concrete volume were also added into the test concrete by replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The results showed that concrete with higher compressive strength in Los Angeles abrasion tests also had better abrasion resistance. The inclusion of steel fibers into test concrete with a water-binder ratio of 0.35 resulted in a significant increase in compressive strength. This concrete also displayed better abrasion resistance and splitting tensile strength than reference concrete; in the test sample with a water-binder ratio of 0.55, the added steel fibers was unable to effectively produce cementation with the concrete. The inclusion of silica fume improved the abrasion resistance of concretes. In water abrasion testing, the abrasion resistance of concrete containing steel fiber was worse than that of concrete without steel fibers. In the water abrasion testing, the surface of steel fiber reinforced concrete was eroded by water and steel balls, and the impact caused the steel fibers to separate from the concrete and led to higher wear loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6460

  8. Laser cladding of wear resistant metal matrix composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, A.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    A number of coatings with wear-resistant properties as well as with a low friction coefficient are produced by laser cladding. The structure of these coatings is determined by required performance and realized as metal matrix composite (MMC), where solid lubricant serves as a ductile matrix (e.g. CuSn), reinforced by appropriate ceramic phase (e.g. WC/Co). One of the engineered coating with functionally graded material (FGM) structure has a dry friction coefficient 0.12. Coatings were produced by coaxial injection of powder blend into the zone of laser beam action. Metallographic and tribological examinations were carried out confirming the advanced performance of engineered coatings

  9. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike L. Fulcher; Kenneth L. Knittel

    2004-06-08

    The work performed on this program was to develop wear resistant, tough FM composite materials with efforts focused on WC-Co based FM systems. The materials were developed for use in mining industry wear applications. Components of interest were drill bit inserts for drilling blast holes. Other component applications investigated included wear plates for a variety of equipment such as pit shovels, wear surfaces for conveyors, milling media for ball milling operations, hydrocyclone cones, grader blades and dozer teeth. Cross-cutting technologies investigated included hot metal extrusion dies, drill bits for circuit board fabrication, cutting tools for cast iron and aluminum machining. An important part of the work was identification of the standard materials used in drilling applications. A materials trade study to determine those metals and ceramics used for mining applications provided guidance for the most important materials to be investigated. WC-Co and diamond combinations were shown to have the most desirable properties. Other considerations such as fabrication technique and the ability to consolidate shifted the focus away from diamond materials and toward WC-Co. Cooperating partners such as Kennametal and Kyocera assisted with supplies, evaluations of material systems, fabricated parts and suggestions for cross-cutting technology applications for FM architectures. Kennametal provided the raw materials (WC-Co and Al-TiCN powders) for the extent of the material evaluations. Kyocera shared their research into various FM systems and provided laboratory testing of fabricated materials. Field testing provided by partners Superior Rock Bit and Brady Mining and Construction provided insight into the performance of the fabricated materials under actual operational conditions. Additional field testing of cross-cutting technology, the extrusion of hot metals, at Extruded Metals showed the potential for additional market development.

  10. Metal nitride coatings by physical vapor deposition (PVD) for a wear resistant aluminum extrusion die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Young; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the friction and wear behaviors of CrN, TiN, CrAlN, and TiAIN coated onto SKD61 for application to Al 7000 series extrusion dies. On the wear test, the experimental parameters are the load and the counter material's temperature. The results showed that the friction coefficient increased with load but decreased with the counter material's temperature, and the friction coefficients of CrN and CrAIN were lower than the friction coefficients of TiAIN and TIN, especially at a higher temperature. The wear track with different coatings identified different wear behaviors; the wear behavior of CrAIN was found to be abrasive, but the wear behavior of TiN, CrN, and TiAIN was adhesive. Therefore, CrAIN showed the least wear loss with a lower friction coefficient and less adhesion with counter materials at the highest range of wear load and temperature. This resulted in the easy formation of aluminum oxide in the wear track and less Al adhesion; moreover during the hard second phase, AIN dispersed in the film during deposition.

  11. Wear and impact resistance of HVOF sprayedceramic matrix composites coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawara, B.; Martides, E.; Priyono, B.; Ardy, H.; Rikardo, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ceramic coating has the mechanical properties of high hardness and it is well known for application on wear resistance, but on the other hand the resistance to impact load is low. Therefore its use is limited to applications that have no impact loading. The aim of this research was to obtain ceramic-metallic composite coating which has improved impact resistance compared to conventional ceramic coating. The high impact resistance of ceramic-metallic composite coating is obtained from dispersed metallic alloy phase in ceramic matrix. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) powder with chrome carbide (Cr3C2) base and ceramic-metal NiAl-Al2O3 with various particle sizes as reinforced particle was deposited on mild steel substrate with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating. Repeated impact test showed that reinforced metallic phase size influenced impact resistance of CMC coating. The ability of CMC coating to absorb impact energy has improved eight times and ten times compared with original Cr3C2 and hard chrome plating respectively. On the other hand the high temperature corrosion resistance of CMC coating showed up to 31 cycles of heating at 800°C and water quenching cooling.

  12. Polishability and wear resistance of splint material for oral appliances produced with conventional, subtractive, and additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Fabian; Kustermann, Achim; Kuscu, Ebru; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Spintzyk, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Occlusal splints to treat bruxism are commonly made from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in a manual workflow (powder-liquid technique). Today digitalization allows a machine-based manufacturing in subtractive (milling) and additive (printing) means using industrial-made PMMA or comparable resins. An in-vitro study should assess the surface finish and screen the wear resistance of conventional and industrial materials. Therefore, a total of 30 specimens made from conventionally PMMA (group C; powder-liquid, Palapress), polycarbonate ingots (group S; innoBlanc splint plus), and light-curing resin (group A; VarseoWax splint) were polished to examine the surface roughness (Ra) by profilometry and further analyzed by SEM. The specimens were loaded with a steatite ball moving 5000 times along 1cm with 5N of surface pressure under constant wetting (artificial saliva). The total height of profile (Pt) was calculated by further profilometry of the specimens. All specimen showed initially comparable Ra values ranging between 0.06 and 0.05µm (SD = 0.01) after polishing. SEM investigations revealed no visual cues for scratches or irregularities in any group. After abrasion test, the comparison of the wear depths, revealed mean Pt values of 111.4µm (SD = 18.5) in C, 85.7µm (SD = 21.5) in S, and 99.1µm (SD = 21.5) in A, whereas the mean of S was statistically different from C (p = 0.025). No signs of abrasion were found on the steatite balls. All materials showed comparable polished surfaces and a similar scale of wear. It remains questionable if the detected statistical differences are of clinical relevance, but indicates the need for tests of novel materials, especially in additive manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wear resistance and fracture mechanics of WC-Co composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaytbay, Saleh; El-Hadek, Medhat

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing of WC-Co composites using the electroless precipitation method at different sintering temperatures of 1 100, 1 250, 1 350 and 1 500 C was successfully achieved. The chemical composition of the investigated materials was 90 wt.% WC with 10 wt.% Co, and 80 wt.% WC with 20 wt.% Co. The specific density, densification, and Vickers microhardness measurements were found to increase with increased sintering temperature for both the WC-Co compositions. The composites of tungsten carbide with 10 wt.% Co had a higher specific density and Vickers microhardness measurements than those for the composites of tungsten carbide with 20 wt.% Co. Composites with WC-10 wt.% Co had better wear resistance. The stress-strain and transverse rupture strength increased monotonically with the increase in sintering temperatures, agreeing with the material hardness and wear resistance behavior. Fractographical scanning electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surface demonstrated a rough characteristic conical shape failure in the direction of the maximum shear stress. A proposed mechanism for the formation of the conical fracture surface under compression testing is presented. (orig.)

  14. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    The level of nuclear plant radiation exposure due to activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. Laboratory pin-on-disc and rolling contact wear tests were used to evaluate the wear performance of several coatings. Based on the results of these tests, multilayer Cr-nitride coatings and ion nitriding are the most promising approaches

  15. Anti-abrasive nanocoatings current and future applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fabrication methods for anti-abrasive nanocoatings. The connections among fabrication parameters, the characteristics of nanocoatings and the resulting properties (i.e. nanohardness, toughness, wear rate, load-bearing ability, friction coefficient, and scratch resistance) are discussed. Size-affected mechanical properties of nanocoatings are examined, including their uses. Anti-abrasive nanocoatings, including metallic-, ceramic-, and polymeric-based layers, as well as different kinds of nanostructures, such as multi-layered nanocomposites and thin films, are reviewed. * Provides a comprehensive overview of the fabrication methods for anti-abrasive nanocoatings* Discusses the connections among fabrication parameters, the characteristics of nanocoatings and the resulting properties* Reviews advantages and drawbacks of fabrication methods for anti-abrasive nanocoatings and clarifies the place of these nanocoatings in the world of nanotechnology

  16. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark J. Rigali; Kenneth L. Knittel; Mike L. Fulcher

    2002-01-01

    During this reporting period, work continued on development of formulations using the materials identified as contenders for the fibrous monolith wear resistant components. The FM structures fabricated were: diamond/WC-Co, B(sub 4)C/WC-Co, TiB(sub 2)/WC-Co, WC-Co/Co, WC-Co/WC-Co. Results of our consolidation densification studies on these systems lead to the down-selection of WC-Co/WC-Co, WC-Co/Co and diamond/WC-Co for further development for mining applications including drill bit inserts, roof bit inserts, radial tools conical tools and wear plates (WC-Co based system only) for earth moving equipment. Prototype component fabrication focused on the fabrication of WC-Co/WC-Co FM conical tools, diamond/WC-Co coated drill bit insert prototypes. Fabrication of WC-Co/WC-Co FM insert prototypes for a grader blade is also underway. ACR plans to initiate field-testing of the drill bit insert prototypes and the grader blade insert this summer (2002). The first WC-Co/WC-Co FM conical tool prototypes were sent to Kennametal for evaluation towards the end of the current reporting period

  17. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  18. A new methodology for predictive tool wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Sik

    turned with various cutting conditions and the results were compared with the proposed analytical wear models. The crater surfaces after machining have been carefully studied to shed light on the physics behind the crater wear. In addition, the abrasive wear mechanism plays a major role in the development of crater wear. Laser shock processing (LSP) has been applied to locally relieve the deleterious tensile residual stresses on the crater surface of a coated tool, thus to improve the hardness of the coating. This thesis shows that LSP has indeed improve wear resistance of CVD coated alumina tool inserts, which has residual stress due to high processing temperature. LSP utilizes a very short laser pulse with high energy density, which induces high-pressure stress wave propagation. The residual stresses are relieved by incident shock waves on the coating surface. Residual stress levels of LSP CVD alumina-coated carbide insert were evaluated by the X-ray diffractometer. Based on these results, LSP parameters such as number of laser pulses and laser energy density can be controlled to reduce residual stress. Crater wear shows that the wear resistance increase with LSP treated tool inserts. Because the hardness data are used to predict the wear, the improvement in hardness and wear resistance shows that the mechanism of crater wear also involves abrasive wear.

  19. Study on abrasion resisting material for apron of dam; Dam apron bu no taimamo sozai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, H.; Hiraki, M.; Miyamoto, T. [Hokuriku Electric Power Co. Inc., Toyama (Japan)

    1995-01-25

    A `laminated rubber tile` and a `shock absorbing holed-in anchor` were devised in connection with the apron of a dam for a hydroelectric power plant. As the result of a survey on the hydroelectric power plants, ten plus places were observed where a general kind of concrete was severely worn in the company territory; but, there were substantial number of rubber materials that had still been sound for over ten years after the installation. In spite of the soundness of the rubber tiles, however, it was observed that their anchor supports had been cut and separated. An abrasion comparison test of concrete and rubber materials revealed that the rubber materials were considerably superior in abrasion resistance. Various rubber tiles were tested for abrasion resistance, tear strength, tensile strength, impact strength, etc.; and methods for fixing rubber tiles were also tested such as a holed-in anchor, chemical anchor and adhesives. As a result, a laminated rubber tile was designed with its upper layer constituted of a rubber sold on the market and its lower layer of a fiber reinforced rubber also on the market, and so was a shock absorbing type holed-in anchor. 1 ref., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. High Temperature Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Performance of Laser Cladding WC/Ni Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of agglomerate and angular WC/Ni matrix composite coatings were deposited by laser cladding. The high temperature wear resistance of these composite coatings was tested with a ring-on-disc MMG-10 apparatus. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for elemental composition. The results show that the high temperature wear resistance of the laser clad WC/Ni-based composite coatings is improved significantly with WC mass fraction increasing. The 60% agglomerate WC/Ni composite coating has optimal high temperature wear resistance. High temperature wear mechanism of 60% WC/Ni composite coating is from abrasive wear of low temperature into composite function of the oxidation wear and abrasive wear.

  1. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  2. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastics to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test—cumulative wear method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of plastics to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank plastics according to their sliding wear characteristics against metals or other solids. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. In addition, the test can be run with different gaseous atmospheres and elevated temperatures, as desired, to simulate service conditions. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for the block and ring. Materials of higher wear resistance will have lower volume loss. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with it...

  3. Resistance to wear and microstructure of martensitic welds deposits for recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualco, Agustin; Svoboda, Hernan G; Surian, Estela S; Vedia, Luis A

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the welding metal for a martensitic steel (alloyed to Cr, Mn, Mo, V and W), deposited with a tubular metal-cored wire with gaseous protection of 82%Ar-18%Co 2 on a low carbon steel using the semi-automatic welding process. Transverse pieces were cut from the welded coupon for microstructural characterization, measurement of hardness profiles, determination of the chemical composition and wear trials. The microstructural characterization was done using optic and scanning electronic microscopes, X-rays diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Vicker microhardness (1 kg.) was measured. The wear trials (metal-metal) were performed in an Amsler machine under pure flow conditions. Different loads were used and the reference material was a SAE 1020 steel. The temperatures for each case were measured and the weight loss curves were defined as a function of the distance run and of the load. After testing the wear surfaces and the debris were measured. The microstructure of the welded deposit mostly consists of martensite and some retained austenite, with a pattern of dendritic segregation, and a hardness on the surface of 612 HVI. A lineal variation between the weight loss and the load applied was obtained as a response to the wear. The following phenomena were observed: abrasion, plastic deformation, oxidation and adhesion to the wear surfaces, as well as a tempering effect in the condition of the biggest load. The wear mechanisms acting on both surfaces were identified (CW)

  4. Wear behaviour of wear-resistant adaptive nano-multilayered Ti-Al-Mo-N coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergevnin, V. S.; Blinkov, I. V.; Volkhonskii, A. O.; Belov, D. S.; Kuznetsov, D. V.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Skryleva, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Coating samples in the Ti-Al-Mo-N system were obtained by arc-PVD method at variable bias voltage Ub applied to the substrate, and the partial pressure of nitrogen P(N2) used as a reaction gas. The deposited coatings were characterized by a nanocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 30-40 nm and multilayered architecture with alternating layers of (Ti,Al)N nitride and Mo-containing phases with a thickness comparable to the grain size. Coatings of (Ti,Al)N-Mo-Mo2N and (Ti,Al)N-Mo2N compositions were obtained by changing deposition parameters. The obtained coatings had hardness of 40 GPa and the relative plastic deformation under microindentation up to 60%. (Ti,Al)N-Mo2N coatings demonstrated better physicomechanical characteristics, showing high resistance to crack formation and destruction through the plastic deformation mechanism without brittle fracturing, unlike (Ti,Al)N-Mo-Mo2N. The friction coefficient of the study coatings (against Al2O3 balls under dry condition using a pin-on-disc method) reached the values of 0.35 and 0.5 at 20 °C and 500 °C respectively, without noticeable wear within this temperature range. These tribological properties were achieved by forming MoO3 acting as a solid lubricant. At higher temperatures the deterioration in the tribological properties is due to the high rate of MoO3 sublimation from friction surfaces.

  5. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth L. Knittel

    2005-05-09

    The work performed on this program was to develop wear resistant, tough FM composite materials with efforts focused on WC-Co based FM systems. The materials were developed for use in mining industry wear applications. Components of interest were drill bit inserts for drilling blast holes. Other component applications investigated included wear plates for a variety of equipment such as pit shovels, wear surfaces for conveyors, milling media for ball milling operations, hydrocyclone cones, grader blades and dozer teeth. Cross-cutting technologies investigated included hot metal extrusion dies, drill bits for circuit board fabrication, cutting tools for cast iron and aluminum machining. An important part of the work was identification of the standard materials used in drilling applications. A materials trade study to determine those metals and ceramics used for mining applications provided guidance for the most important materials to be investigated. WC-Co and diamond combinations were shown to have the most desirable properties. Other considerations such as fabrication technique and the ability to consolidate shifted the focus away from diamond materials and toward WC-Co. Cooperating partners such as Kennametal and Kyocera assisted with supplies, evaluations of material systems, fabricated parts and suggestions for cross-cutting technology applications for FM architectures. Kennametal provided the raw materials (WC-Co and Al-TiCN powders) for the extent of the material evaluations. Kyocera shared their research into various FM systems and provided laboratory testing of fabricated materials. Kyocera also continued research of the FM systems with the intention of developing commercial markets for a variety of applications. The continued development of FM technology by Kyocera is seen as a direct result of the cooperation established under this funding. Kyocera has a specific interest in the commercial development of the FM technology and have licensed it and have paid

  6. Creep behavior and wear resistance of Al 5083 based hybrid composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Ali [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Alireza, E-mail: alirezaabdollahi1366@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biukani, Hootan [Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    In the current research, aluminum based hybrid composite reinforced with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was produced by powder metallurgy method. creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and hardness of the samples were investigated. To prepare the samples, Al 5083 powder was milled with boron carbide particles and carbon nanotubes using planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere with ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1 for 5 h. Afterwards, the milled powders were formed by hot press process at 380{sup °}C and then were sintered at 585{sup °}C under argon atmosphere for 2 h. There was shown to be an increase in hardness values of composite with an increase in B{sub 4}C content. The micrograph of worn surfaces indicate a delamination mechanism due to the presence of CNTs and abrasion mechanism in composite containing 10 vol.%B{sub 4}C. Moreover, it was shown that increasing B{sub 4}C content increases the wear resistance by 3 times under a load of 20 N and 10 times under a load of 10 N compared to CNTs-reinforced composite. surface roughness of the composite containing 5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples. The results of creep test showed that adding carbon nanotubes increases creep rate of Al 5083 alloy; however, adding B{sub 4}C decreases its creep rate. - Highlights: • Al 5083/(CNTs + B{sub 4}C) hybrid composite was produced by powder metallurgy method. • Creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and Hardness of samples were investigated. • Addition of CNTs to Al 5083 matrix reduces alloy hardness, wear resistance and creep strength. • By addition of B{sub 4}C and composite hybridization, creep strength and wear resistance increased. • Surface roughness of Al-5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples.

  7. Friction and Wear of Metals With a Single-Crystal Abrasive Grit of Silicon Carbide - Effect of Shear Strength of Metal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the removal and plastic deformation of metal as a function of the metal properties when the metal is in sliding contact with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide...

  8. Nitrogen implantation of type 303 stainless steel gears for improved wear and fatigue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Misra, M.S.; Tack, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Fine-positioning mechanisms are responsible for accurate and reproducible control of aerospace system devices, i.e. filter grading wheels. Low wear and fatigue resistance of mechanism components, such as pinions and gears, can reduce system performance and reliability. Surface modification using ion implantation with nitrogen was used on type 303 stainless steel pinions and gears to increase tribological performance. Wear-life tests of untreated, nitrogen-implanted and nitrogen-implanted-and-annealed gears were performed in a fine-positioning mechanism under controlled environmental conditions. Wear and fatigue resistance were monitored at selected time intervals which were a percentage of the predicted failure life as determined by a numerical stress analysis. Surface analyses including scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy were performed to establish the wear and fatigue mechanisms and the nitrogen concentration-depth distributions respectively. Nitrogen implantation resulted in a significant improvement in both surface wear and fatigue spalling resistance over those of untreated gears. A 40% reduction in surface wear and a 44% reduction in dedendum spalling was observed. In contrast, the nitrogen-implanted-and-annealed gears showed a 46% increase in sliding wear area and an 11% increase in spall density compared with those of untreated gears, indicating that the post-implantation anneal was detrimental to wear and fatigue resistance. (orig.)

  9. Microhardness and wear resistance of PEO-coated 5754 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyaliy, I. E.; Egorkin, V. S.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Minaev, A. N.; Gnedenkov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of the study aimed at assessing the effect of duty cycle (D) during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on protective properties of the coatings produced on 5754 aluminum alloy. It is shown that increasing the duty cycle of a microsecond current pulses leads to increased hardness and reduced abrasive wear of the PEO-layers, improving mechanical properties. The obtained data allowed confirming, that increasing the amount of energy consumed for coating growth leads to the formation of thicker PEO-layers with improved tribological properties. The effect of duty cycle during plasma electrolytic oxidation on protective properties of the produced coatings was assessed.

  10. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  11. Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: As a physical property, wear resistance of the materials used in the fabrication of orthodontic retainers play a significant role in the stability and long term use of the appliances. Objectives: To evaluate the wear resistance of two commonly used materials for orthodontic retainers: Acropars OP, i.e. a polymethyl methacrylate based material, and 3A-GS060, i.e. a polyethylene based material. Materials and Methods: For each material, 30 orthodontic retainers were made according to the manufacturers’ instructions and a 30×30×2 mm block was cut out from the mid- palatal area of each retainer. Each specimen underwent 1000 cycles of wear stimulation in a pin on disc machine. The depth of wear of each specimen was measured using a Nano Wizard II atomic force microscope in 3 random points of each specimen’s wear trough. The average of these three measurements was calculated and considered as mean value wear depth of each specimen (µm. Results: The mean wear depth was 6.10µm and 2.15µm for 3A-GS060 and Acropars OP groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.001. The results show Polymethyl methacrylate base (Acropars is more wear resistance than the polyethylene based material (3A-GS060. Conclusions: As the higher wear resistance of the fabrication material can improve the retainers’ survival time and its cost-effectiveness, VFRs should be avoided in situations that the appliance needs high wear resistance such as bite blocks opposing occlusal forces.

  12. Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Moshkelgosha; M, Shomali; M, Momeni

    2016-06-01

    As a physical property, wear resistance of the materials used in the fabrication of orthodontic retainers play a significant role in the stability and long term use of the appliances. To evaluate the wear resistance of two commonly used materials for orthodontic retainers: Acropars OP, i.e. a polymethyl methacrylate based material, and 3A-GS060, i.e. a polyethylene based material. For each material, 30 orthodontic retainers were made according to the manufacturers' instructions and a 30×30×2 mm block was cut out from the mid- palatal area of each retainer. Each specimen underwent 1000 cycles of wear stimulation in a pin on disc machine. The depth of wear of each specimen was measured using a Nano Wizard II atomic force microscope in 3 random points of each specimen's wear trough. The average of these three measurements was calculated and considered as mean value wear depth of each specimen (µm). The mean wear depth was 6.10µm and 2.15µm for 3A-GS060 and Acropars OP groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups ( p < 0.001). The results show Polymethyl methacrylate base (Acropars) is more wear resistance than the polyethylene based material (3A-GS060). As the higher wear resistance of the fabrication material can improve the retainers' survival time and its cost-effectiveness, VFRs should be avoided in situations that the appliance needs high wear resistance such as bite blocks opposing occlusal forces.

  13. Crack and wear behavior of SiC particulate reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite fabricated by direct metal laser sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Partha

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, crack density and wear performance of SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) fabricated by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process have been studied. Mainly, size and volume fraction of SiCp have been varied to analyze the crack and wear behavior of the composite. The study has suggested that crack density increases significantly after 15 volume percentage (vol.%) of SiCp. The paper has also suggested that when size (mesh) of reinforcement increases, wear resistance of the composite drops. Three hundred mesh of SiCp offers better wear resistance; above 300 mesh the specific wear rate increases significantly. Similarly, there has been no improvement of wear resistance after 20 vol.% of reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the worn surfaces have revealed that during the wear test SiCp fragments into small pieces which act as abrasives to result in abrasive wear in the specimen.

  14. Wear resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to low temperature plasma carburizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Barcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the AISI 304 stainless steel has high corrosion/oxidation resistance, its tribological properties are poor, being one of the barriers for use in severe wear applications. Thus, there is a wide field for studying technologies that aim to increase the surface hardness and wear resistance of this material. In this work, hardness and wear resistance for AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to the thermochemical treatment by low temperature plasma carburizing (LTPC in a fixed gas mixture composition of 93% H2 and 7% CH4 are presented. Through the evaluation of the carburizing layers, it was possible to observe a substantial improvement in tribological properties after all temperature and time of treatment. This improvement is directly related to the increase of the process variables; among them temperature has a stronger influence on the wear resistance obtained using LTPC process.

  15. Effect of Isothermal Bainitic Quenching on Rail Steel Impact Strength and Wear Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Fatih Hayati; Çelik, Osman Nuri

    2017-09-01

    The effect of heat treatment regimes on hardness, impact strength, and wear resistance of rail steel for high-speed tracks (rail quality category R350HT) is studied. Analysis of steel properties with a different structure is compared: pearlitic, and upper and lower bainite. It is shown that the steel with bainitic structure has the best impact strength, but wear resistance is better for steel with a lower bainite structure.

  16. Study on microstructure and high temperature wear resistance of laser cladded nuclear valve clack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunliang; Chen Zichen

    2002-01-01

    Laser cladding of Co-base alloy on the nuclear valve-sealing surface are performed with a 5 kW CO 2 transverse flowing laser. The microstructure and the high temperature impact-slide wear resistance of the laser cladded coating and the plasma cladded coating are studied. The results show that the microstructure, the dilution rate and the high temperature impact-slide wear resistance of the laser cladded coating have obvious advantages over the spurt cladding processing

  17. Standard test method for ranking resistance of materials to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of materials to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank pairs of materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. However, the interlaboratory testing has been limited to metals. In addition, the test can be run with various lubricants, liquids, or gaseous atmospheres, as desired, to simulate service conditions. Rotational speed and load can also be varied to better correspond to service requirements. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for both the block and ring. Materials...

  18. The analysis of mechanism of rhenium-coated tools' wear-resistance rising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petrosyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to obtain wear-resistant layers on the hard-alloy materials by thermochemical treatment. In the different field of production – mechanical engineering, metallurgy and military technologies, with machine parts demanding high wearproof and corrosion-proof machinery parts on the surfaces of syntheses of diamonds, with metal surface thermal-diffusion with rhenium, to receive diffusion wearing layers for the first time. A method for thermochemical treatment of hard alloy plates has been investigated, allowing to raise the wear-resistance of cutting and mining tools.

  19. Effect of the post heat treatment on the sliding wear resistance of a nickel base coating deposited by high velocity oxyl-fuel (HVOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadenas, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Staia, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, a nickel base coating was deposited on an AISI 1020 substrate by using high velocity oxy-fuel technique (HVOF). The coating was subsequently post heat-treated by means of an oxyacetylene flame. For the conditions evaluated in the present study, it was found that the CTT coating coating has 1,15 better wear resistance for the smaller level of the applied load and nearly 50 times for the highest level of the applied load when compared to the STT coatings. These results have been attributed to a better distribution of the hard phases, better cohesion between particles and an increase in hardness, as consequence of the post heat treatment process. A severe wear regime was found for all the samples since the wear rates presented values which were higher tan 1.10''-5 mm''3/m. For the CT T coatings, the wear mechanisms was mainly due to the adhesion and oxidation phenomena, meanwhile for the steel counterpart mechanisms such oxidation, grooving and three body abrasion were observed. (Author) 22 refs

  20. On the abrasion of heat-treated 2.8C21Cr1Mo white cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rubaie, Kassim S.; Preti, Orlando [Centro Universitario SOCIESC, Joinville (Brazil). Engenharia Mecanica; Pohl, Michael [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2016-09-15

    The abrasion behaviour of heat-treated 2.8C21Cr1Mo cast iron was studied. The specimens were destabilised at two temperatures, 980 and 1050 C, for 4 h, air hardened, and then tempered at five temperatures, 220, 320, 400, 500, and 620 C, for 2 h followed by air cooling. Using a pin-on-plate abrasion apparatus, the specimens were abraded on four types of bonded abrasives (silicon carbide, corundum, flint, and glass). The effect of work hardening on the abrasion resistance was investigated. It was found that the increase in alloy hardness produced by heat treatment had little effect on the abrasion resistance against silicon carbide or corundum; the inverse was true against flint or glass. The as-hardened structure containing 40% retained austenite gave the best abrasion resistance, whereas the hardened and tempered at 620 C showed the worst. Both bulk hardness and matrix hardness before wear correlated poorly with the abrasion resistance. Therefore, a general model ''equivalent hardness'' was developed, in which the hardness of the abraded matrix was considered. With this model, the abrasion behaviour can be clearly analysed.

  1. Microstructure and wear resistance of in situ porous TiO/Cu composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingdong; Huang, Bowei; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An in situ porous TiO/Cu composite is successfully prepared using powder metallurgy by the reaction of Ti2CO and Cu powder. Morphological examination of the composite shows that the porosity of composites lies in the range between 10.2% and 35.2%. Dry sliding un-lubricated wear tests show that the wear resistance of the composite is higher than that of the Cu-Al alloy ingot. The coefficient of friction test shows that, as the volume fraction of the reinforced phase increases, the coefficient of friction decreases. The wear rate variation trend of the oil-lubricated wear test results is similar to that of the un-lubricated wear test results. The coefficient of friction for oil lubrication is similar for different volume fractions of the reinforced phase. The wear resistance of the composite at a sliding velocity of 200 rpm is slightly larger than that at 50 rpm. The porosity of the composites enhances the high-velocity oil-lubricated sliding wear resistance.

  2. Evaluation of Resistance to Los Angeles Abrasion and Physical Factors with Grindability Properties of Some Aggregate Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sensogut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the usage of aggregate materials has increased both in Turkey and the entire world. It can be said that the main reason of this rise is the population growth together with the demand towards the more qualitative life. Therefore, the usability of some aggregate materials was investigated in the present paper. The properties of Los Angeles abrasion resistance, freezing-thaw resistance, slake durability strength and frost resistance of basalt and andesite samples obtained from Karaman and Ankara regions were studied at the first stage. In the second order, the grindability performance of these materials was also determined from the discontinuous grinding tests and the obtained results were correlated. Whereas the Los Angeles resistance of the basalt sample was higher than the andesite sample, the mass losses after the freezing-thaw and the frost tests for the andesite sample were superior. Both of the basalt and andesite samples were classified as ‘very high’ for their slake durability strength (Id-2 values. The material percentage of the andesite sample, which is passing through the sub-size ( %90 was greater than the value obtained for the basalt sample during the same grinding time. The resistance to the crushing process was obtained to be maximum at -850+600 µm of feed size for the basalt and the andesite samples.

  3. Amorphous Metallic Alloys: Pathways for Enhanced Wear and Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Ayyagari; Felix Wu, H.; Arora, Harpreet; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys are widely used in bulk form and as coatings for their desirable corrosion and wear behavior. Nevertheless, the effects of heat treatment and thermal cycling on these surface properties are not well understood. In this study, the corrosion and wear behavior of two Zr-based bulk metallic glasses were evaluated in as-cast and thermally relaxed states. Significant improvement in wear rate, friction coefficient, and corrosion penetration rate was seen for both alloys after thermal relaxation. A fully amorphous structure was retained with thermal relaxation below the glass transition. There was an increase in surface hardness and elastic modulus for both alloys after relaxation. The improvement in surface properties was explained based on annihilation of free volume.

  4. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of low modulus β-type Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) dental alloys through thermal oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Gan, Xiaxia; Tang, Hongqun; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2017-07-01

    In order to obtain material with low elastic modulus, good abrasion resistance and high corrosion stability as screw for dental implant, the biomedical Zr-20Nb and Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy with low elastic modulus were thermal oxidized respectively at 700°C for 1h and 600°C for 1.25h to obtain the compact oxidized layer to improve its wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The results show that smooth compact oxidized layer (composed of monoclinic ZrO 2 , tetragonal ZrO 2 and 6ZrO 2 -Nb 2 O 5 ) with 22.6μm-43.5μm thickness and 1252-1306HV hardness can be in-situ formed on the surface of the Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3). The adhesion of oxidized layers to the substrates is determined to be 58.35-66.25N. The oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi alloys reveal great improvement of the pitting corrosion resistance in comparison with the un-oxidized alloys. In addition, the oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti exhibits sharply reduction of the corrosion rates and the oxidized Zr-20Nb shows higher corrosion rates than un-oxidized alloys, which is relevant with the content of the t-ZrO 2 . Wear test in artificial saliva demonstrates that the wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) are superior to pure Ti. All of the un-oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys suffer from serious adhesive wear due to its high plasticity. Because of the protection from compact oxide layer with high adhesion and high hardness, the coefficients of friction and wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys decrease 50% and 95%, respectively. The defects on the oxidized Zr-20Nb have a negative effect on the friction and wear properties. In addition, after the thermal oxidation, compression test show that elastic modulus and strength of Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) increase slightly with plastic deformation after 40% of transformation. Furthermore, stripping of the oxidized layer from the alloy matrix did not occur during the whole experiments. As the surface oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy has a combination of excellent performance

  5. Effects of the different frequencies and loads of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface mechanical properties and fretting wear resistance of HIP Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G., E-mail: ligang_scut@outlook.com; Qu, S.G., E-mail: qusg@scut.edu.cn; Pan, Y.X.; Li, X.Q.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of MUSR frequency and load on surface properties of HIP Ti-6Al-4V investigated. • The grains in surface-modified layer were refined and appeared twins and many dense dislocations. • The hardened layer depth and surface residual stress of MUSR- treated samples were significantly improved. • MUSR- treated samples showed the good fretting friction and wear resistance. • The best microstructure and properties of surface-modified layer obtained by sample treated by 30 kHz and 900 N. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of the different frequencies and loads of multi-pass ultrasonic surface rolling (MUSR) on surface layer mechanical properties, microstructure and fretting friction and wear characteristics of HIP (hot isostatic pressing) Ti–6Al–4 V alloy. Some microscopic analysis methods (SEM, TEM and EDS) were used to characterize the modified surface layer of material after MUSR treatment. The results indicated that the material in sample surface layer experienced a certain extent plastic deformation, and accompanied by some dense dislocations and twins generation. Moreover surface microhardness and residual stress of samples treated by MUSR were also greatly improved compared with the untreated. The fretting friction and wear properties of samples treated by MUSR in different conditions are tested at 10 and 15 N in dry friction conditions. It could be found that friction coefficient and wear volume loss were significantly declined in the optimal result. The main wear mechanism of MUSR-treated samples included abrasive wear, adhesion and spalling.

  6. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J. (Applications of Nuclear Physics, Ansto, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)); Paoloni, F.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wollongong, GPO Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10[sup 16]ionscm[sup -2] were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  7. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  8. The structure of abrasion-resisting castings made of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of chrome iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in rugged conditions abrasion-percussive and high temperature. While producing the casts of chrome iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technologi cal process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Cr alloy Ni, Mo or Cu and then proper heat treatment leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. Then it is possible to develop high mechanical properties which are recommended by PN-EN12513. As can it be seen from the above research silicon is an adverse chemical element in this kind of alloy cast iron. However, the reason of cracksappearing in chrome iron casts are phosphorus eutectic microareas. When the compound of Si and P reach the critical point, described inPN-88/H-83144 outdated standard, the microareas might appear.

  9. Effect of La2O3 content on wear resistance of alumina ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tingting; ZHOU Jian; WU Bolin; LI Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance, a kind of alumina ceramic with good wear resistance was created in an Al2O3-CaCO3-SiO2-MgO-La2O3 (ACSML) system. The effects of La2O3 content on sintering temperature, bulk density, and wear rate were investigated. The wear rate of sample was as low as 0.0393‰. The wear resistance of the sample containing La2O3 has im-proved 43% than that of the sample without La2O3. Appropriate La2O3 doping could inhibit grain growth, enhance density, and purify grain boundary. La2O3 could diffuse into Al2O3 to form a solid solution and react with Al2O3 to form high-aluminum low-lanthanum complex oxides. The combination among Al2O3, the solid solution layer, and the layer of high-aluminum low-lanthanum complex oxides combined closely, which could improve grain boundary cohesion. Besides, the homogeneous distributions of elements made uniform structure. Finally, the wear resistance of alumina ceramic was improved.

  10. The effect of boriding on wear resistance of cold work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzawa, Y; Koyama, S; Shohji, I

    2017-01-01

    Recently, boriding has attracted extensive attention as surface stiffening processing of plain steel. In this research, the influence of processing time on the formation layer of cold work tool steel (KD11MAX) by Al added fused salt bath was examined. In addition, in order to improve the abrasion resistance of KD11MAX, the effect of the treatment of boronization on the formation layer has been investigated. Boriding were performed in molten borax which contained about 10 mass% Al at processing time of 1.8 ∼ 7.2 ks (processing temperature of 1303 K). As a result of the examination, the hardness of the boriding layer becomes about 1900 HV when the processing time of 3.6 ks. Also the abrasion resistance has improved remarkably. Furthermore, it was revealed that the formation layer was boronized iron from the Vickers hardness and analysis of the X-ray diffraction measurement. (paper)

  11. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  12. Silane effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of transparent SiO2/UV-curable resin nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Chang, Yu-Lun; Chen, Chi-Yu; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    Transparent ultraviolet curable nano-composite coatings consisting of nano-sized SiO 2 and acrylate resin have been developed to improve the abrasion resistance of organic polymers. The nano-sized SiO 2 particles were surface-modified using various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane concentration effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of the transparent SiO 2 /ultraviolet-curable resin nano-composites were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.6, the dispersion, compatibility and cross-linking density between the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane-modified SiO 2 particles and acrylate resin were improved, leading to an increase in abrasion resistance. However, as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio was increased to 1.5, the additional 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane may exceed that needed to fill the pores with the probability of SiO 2 nano-particles existing on the coating surface was lower than that for samples with a 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio of 0.6. This produced a decrease in abrasion resistance.

  13. The comparative studies of ADI versus Hadfield cast steel wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kaczorowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative studies of wear resistance of ADI versus high manganese Hadfield cast steel are presented. For evaluation ofwear resistance three type of ADI were chosen. Two of them were of moderate strength ADI with 800 and 1000MPa tensile strength whilethe third was 1400MPa tensile strength ADI. The specimens were cut from ADI test YII type casting poured and heat treated in Institute ofFoundry in Krakow. The pin on disc method was used for wear resistance experiment. The specimens had a shape of 40mm long rod withdiameter 6mm. The load and speed were 100N and 0,54m/s respectively. It was concluded that the wear resistance of ADI is comparablewith high manganese cast steel and in case of low tensile grade ADI and is even better for high strength ADI than Hadfield steel.

  14. The enhancement in wear resistance of W18Cr4V steel by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ping; Xu Peiguang

    1987-01-01

    Two new methods of ion implantation were adopted in comparison with nitrogen implantation: carbon monoxide was implanted directly into W18Cr4V steel, and nitrogen was implanted into a deposited titanium film about 1000 A thick. It is shown that higher surface hardness and wear resistance have been achieved. The composition and phase structure of the implanted layer was determined in detail. The wear mechanisms were discussed

  15. Microstructure and corrosive wear resistance of plasma sprayed Ni-based coatings after TIG remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianshun, Dong; Xiukai, Zhou; Guolu, Li; Li, Liu; Ran, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Ni based coatings were prepared on steel substrate by means of plasma spraying, and were remelted by TIG (tungsten inert gas arc) method subsequently. The microstructure, microhardness, electrochemical corrosion and corrosive wear resistance under PH = 4, PH = 7 and PH = 10 conditions of the coatings before and after remelting were investigated. The results showed that the TIG remelting obviously reduced the defects and dramatically decreased the coating’s porosity from 7.2% to 0.4%. Metallurgical bonding between the remelted coating and substrate was achieved. Meanwhile, the phase compositions of as-sprayed coating were γ-Ni, Mn5Si2 and Cr2B, while the phase compositions of the remelting coating were Fe3Ni, Cr23C6, Cr2B and Mn5Si2. The microhardness of the coating decreased from 724 HV to 608 HV, but the fracture toughness enhanced from 2.80 MPa m1/2 to 197.3 MPa m1/2 after remelting. After corrosive wear test, the average wear weight loss and 3D morphology of wear scar of two coatings indicated that the wear resistance of the remelted coating was remarkably higher than that of as-sprayed coating. Therefore, TIG remelting treatment was a feasible method to improve the coating’s microstructure and enhance its corrosive wear resistance.

  16. THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND WEAR RESISTANCE OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina F. Kadhim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray cast iron has many applications as pipes , pumps and valve bodies where it has influenced by heat and contact with other solutions . This research has studied the corrosion behavior and Vickers hardness of gray cast iron by immersion in four strong alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2, LiOHwith three concentrations (1%,2%,3% of each solution. Dry sliding wear has carried out before and after the heat treatments (stress relief ,normalizing, hardening and tempering. In this work ,maximum wear strength has obtained at tempered gray cast iron and minimum corrosion rate has obtained in LiOH solution by forming protective white visible oxide layer.

  17. Wear resistance of a pressable low-fusing ceramic opposed by dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; de Oliveira, André Almeida; Alves Gomes, Érica; Silveira Rodrigues, Renata Cristina; Faria Ribeiro, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    Dental alloys have increasingly replaced by dental ceramics in dentistry because of aesthetics. As both dental alloys and ceramics can be present in the oral cavity, the evaluation of the wear resistance of ceramics opposed by dental alloys is important. The aim of the present study was to evaluate wear resistance of a pressable low-fusing ceramic opposed by dental alloys as well as the microhardness of the alloys and the possible correlation of wear and antagonist microhardness. Fifteen stylus tips samples of pressable low-fusing ceramic were obtained, polished and glazed. Samples were divided into three groups according to the disk of alloy/metal to be used as antagonist: Nickel-Chromium (Ni-Cr), Cobalt-Chromium (Co-Cr) and commercially pure titanium (cp Ti). Vickers microhardness of antagonist disks was evaluated before wear tests. Then, antagonist disks were sandblasted until surface roughness was adjusted to 0.75μm. Wear tests were performed at a speed of 60 cycles/min and distance of 10mm, in a total of 300,000 cycles. Before and after wear tests, samples were weighted and had their profile designed in an optical comparator to evaluate weight and height loss, respectively. Ni-Cr and cp Ti caused greater wear than Co-Cr, presenting greater weight (p=.009) and height (p=.002) loss. Cp Ti microhardness was lower than Ni-Cr and Co-Cr (pceramic presents different wear according to the dental alloy used as antagonist and the wear is not affected by antagonist microhardness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternate paddle configuration for improved wear resistance in the saltstone mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-23

    The Saltstone Production Facility has a 10-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer that mixes the premix dry feeds and low-level waste salt solution to make fresh (uncured) saltstone. Inspection of the mixer in January 2013 showed significant wear on the third, fourth and fifth paddle pairs after the conveying augers. A 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer was used to test alternate paddle configurations for use in the 10-inch mixer to decrease the wear rate on the paddles. Two wear tests were conducted to investigate a method of reducing wear on the mixer paddles. The first test (wear test 2a) had a paddle configuration similar to the currently installed 10-inch mixer in the SPF. This test established baseline wear. The second test (wear test 2b) had a reconfigured paddle arrangement that replaced the flat paddles with helical paddles for paddle pairs 2 - 6 and aligned paddle pair 1 with the augers. The intent of the reconfiguration was to more effectively convey the partially wetted dry feeds through the transition region and into the liquid feed where paddle wear is reduced due to dry feeds and salt solution being mixed at the intended water to premix ratio. The design of the helical paddles provides conveyance through the transition region to the liquid feed inlet. The alignment with the auger is aimed to provide a smoother transition (minimizing the discontinuity between the auger and paddle pair 1) into the downstream paddles. A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum) was used for the wear testing paddles to determine wear patterns while minimizing run time and maximizing wear rate. For the two paddle configurations tested using the scaled 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer, with the first six paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles and the remaining paddles were stainless steel. Since the 10-inch SPF mixer is designed with the liquid inlet centered over paddle pairs 5 and 6, the scaled 2-inch mixer was configured the

  19. Microstructure and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron containing niobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiguo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the effect of niobium addition on the microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron has been studied. The results show that the microstructure of the heat-treated alloys is composed of M7C3 and M23C6 types primary carbide, eutectic carbide, secondary carbide and a matrix of martensite and retained austenite. NbC particles appear both inside and on the edge of the primary carbides. The hardness of the studied alloys maintains around 66 HRC, not significantly affected by the Nb content within the selected range of 0.48%-0.74%. The impact toughness of the alloys increases with increasing niobium content. The wear resistance of the specimens presents little variation in spite of the increase of Nb content under a light load of 40 N. However, when heavier loads of 70 and 100 N are applied, the wear resistance increases with increasing Nb content.

  20. Plasma nitrocarburizing process - a solution to improve wear and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Alphonsa J.; Ghanshyam, J.; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    To prevent wear and corrosion problems in steam turbines, coatings have proved to have an advantage of isolating the component substrate from the corrosive environment with minimal changes in turbine material and design. Diffusion based coatings like plasma nitriding and plasma nitrocarburizing have been used for improving the wear and corrosion resistance of components undergoing wear during their operation. In this study plasma nitrocarburizing process was carried out on ferritic alloys like ASTM A182 Grade F22 and ATM A105 alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels like AISI 304 and AISI 316 which are used to make trim parts of control valves used for high pressure and high temperature steam lines to enhance their wear and corrosion resistance properties. The corrosion rate was measured by a potentiodynamic set up and salt spray unit in two different environments viz., tap water and 5% NaCl solutions. The Tafel plots of ferritic alloys and austenitic stainless steels show that plasma nitrocarburizing process show better corrosion resistance compared to that of the untreated steel. It was found that after plasma nitrocarburizing process the hardness of the alloy steels increased by a factor of two. The corrosion resistance of all the steels mentioned above improved in comparison to the untreated steels. This improvement can be attributed to the nitrogen and carbon incorporation in the surface of the material. This process can be also applied to components used in nuclear industries to cater to the wear and corrosion problems. (author)

  1. Effects of Synchronous Rolling on Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Resistance of Laser Multilayer Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Zha, G. C.; Xi, M. Z.; Gao, S. Y.

    2018-03-01

    A synchronous rolling method was proposed to assist laser multilayer cladding, and the effects of this method on microstructure, microhardness, and wear resistance were studied. Results show that the microstructure and mechanical properties of the traditional cladding layer exhibit periodic inhomogeneity. Synchronous rolling breaks the columnar dendrite crystals to improve the uniformity of the organization, and the residual plastic energy promotes the precipitation of strengthening phases, as CrB, M7C3, etc. The hardness and wear resistance of the extruded cladding layer increase significantly because of the grain refinement, formation of dislocations, and dispersion strengthening. These positive significances of synchronous rolling provide a new direction for laser cladding technology.

  2. Wear resistance increase of the modified coatings, deposited in the beam of relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletika, I.M.; Perovskaya, M.V.; Balushkina, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The 1.5-3 mm thickness coatings have been obtained by vacuum - free electron beam cladding of tungsten carbide on low - carbon steel sub state. The coatings have an increased hardness but low wear resistance. Adding both nickel and titanium carbide to the tungsten carbide results in essentially improving the wear resistance of the coatings due to austenite-promoting effect of nickel and precipitation of fine Tic particles resulting in the formation of the final and nano grain structure. In the layer of weld one can find 30-100 nm grain - size structures. (authors)

  3. Correlation of microstructure and wear resistance of molybdenum blend coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Sunghak; Ahn, Jeehoon

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of microstructure and wear resistance of various molybdenum blend coatings applicable to automotive parts was investigated in this study. Five types of spray powders, one of which was pure molybdenum powder and the others were blends of brass, bronze, and aluminum alloy powders with molybdenum powder, were deposited on a low-carbon steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Microstructural analysis of the coatings showed that they consisted of a curved lamellar structure formed by elongated splats, with hard phases that formed during spraying being homogeneously distributed in the molybdenum matrix. The wear test results revealed that the blend coatings showed better wear resistance than the pure molybdenum coating because they contained a number of hard phases. In particular, the molybdenum coating blended with bronze and aluminum alloy powders and the counterpart material showed an excellent wear resistance due to the presence of hard phases, such as CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 . In order to improve overall wear properties for the coating and the counterpart material, appropriate spray powders should be blended with molybdenum powders to form hard phases in the coatings

  4. The wear and corrosion resistance of shot peened-nitrided 316L austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, B.; Rezaee Yazdi, M.; Azar, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Shot peening-nitriding increased the wear resistance and surface hardness of samples. → This treatment improved the surface mechanical properties. → Shot peening alleviates the adverse effects of nitriding on the corrosion behavior. -- Abstract: 316L austenitic stainless steel was gas nitrided at 570 o C with pre-shot peening. Shot peening and nitriding are surface treatments that enhance the mechanical properties of surface layers by inducing compressive residual stresses and formation of hard phases, respectively. The structural phases, micro-hardness, wear behavior and corrosion resistance of specimens were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Vickers micro-hardness, wear testing, scanning electron microscopy and cyclic polarization tests. The effects of shot peening on the nitride layer formation and corrosion resistance of specimens were studied. The results showed that shot peening enhanced the nitride layer formation. The shot peened-nitrided specimens had higher wear resistance and hardness than other specimens. On the other hand, although nitriding deteriorated the corrosion resistance of the specimens, cyclic polarization tests showed that shot peening before the nitriding treatment could alleviate this adverse effect.

  5. THE COURSE IN TESTING THE WEARING OUT OF MUD PUMPS PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Matanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Piston and cylinder are such parts in the mud pumps which cause the greatest expences due to the work stoppage of drilling rig. To reduce so caused expences it is necessary to produce spare parts of better quality. In determining the abrasion wear resistance for chosen materials, so called dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion test as an ASTM standard has been used (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Analysis and Modelling of Electrode Wear in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders; Pedersen, Kim; Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    2010-01-01

    A model describing electrode wear as a function of weld number, initial tip diameter, truncated cone angle, welding current and electrode force is proposed. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental results is achieved, showing that the model can describe the change in electrode tip...... diameter with increasing weld number at different weld settings. Furthermore a method for measuring the worn tip diameter in a fast and robust manner is developed. The method relies on a well-known technique for capturing the electrode tip area by the use of carbon imprints and a new developed image...... a central cavity is formed and one where smaller pits are formed randomly across the electrode face. The influence of these two types of surface pits on the nugget size are investigated using the FE code SORPAS, revealing ring welds and undersized weld nuggets....

  7. Development of bushing material with higher corrosion and wear resistance; Taishoku taimamosei dogokin bush zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, T; Yokota, H; Kamiya, S [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recent diesel engines require a higher performance and a longer life. Due to higher cylinder pressure, the operating load and temperature of piston pin bushings become higher. Therefore, higher load capacity, higher wear resistance and higher corrosion resistance are required for piston pin bushings. For this reason, we have studied the effect of components added to copper alloy upon the corrosion resistance and the effect of hard particles dispersed in copper matrix upon the wear resistance and the influence of hard particles on the machinablity of materials. Based on the experimental results, we have developed a new bushing material improving wear and corrosion resistance. 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Concrete surface with nano-particle additives for improved wearing resistance to increasing truck traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study focused on the use of nanotechnology in concrete to improve the wearing resistance of concrete. The nano : materials used were polymer cross-linked aerogels, carbon nanotubes, and nano-SiO2, nano-CaCO3, and nano-Al2O3 : particles. As an in...

  9. Wear analysis and cyclic fatigue resistance of electro discharge machined NiTi rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Iacono

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The typical irregular surface of HyFlex EDM remained unaffected after multiple uses, confirming a high wear resistance. The new manufacturing process of electrical discharge machining had a substantial impact on fatigue lifetime of EDM files when compared with HyFlex CM. Within limitations of the present in vitro results, EDM files appeared suitable in shaping severely curved canals.

  10. Improvement of wear-resistance of solid lubricants by ionic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1993-01-01

    A solid lubricating material, preferentially as a coating, deposited on a substrate surface by conventional technique such as dipping in a suspension, painting, or spraying is bombarded with energetic ions fron an ion accelerator or in a plasma discharge. By such a treatment the wear resistance o...

  11. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium on energy research in its 3rd year (Research and development of mezoscopic composite phase material based on heat-/wear-resistant metal); 1999 nendo mezoscopic fukuso soshiki seigyo tainetsu taimamosei kinzokuki fukugo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Using an in-situ method, three kinds of Fe-C-Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb-based alloys are developed, whose strength is not less than 800MPa at 1073K. They exhibit, in a high-temperature erosion wear test, a wear resistance which is 2-3 times higher than that of conventional materials. When they are cast, wear-causing graphite precipitation is suppressed thanks to the cast iron coagulating in gaps in the ceramic formed into a net shape. It is also found that in this process the precipitation of cementites etc., which improves on the abrasion and wear characteristics, is accelerated and that the cementites etc. are finely dispersed for improvement on the brake (brake block) characteristics. Tentatively produced brake blocks are tested for performance at the Railway Technical Research Institute. The new materials are found to exhibit a wear resistance which is 2.2 times higher, and a braking capability 1.6 times better, than those of conventional materials. In the case of an Fe-50Cr-4.8C alloy produced by an MA (mechanical alloying) method, {alpha}-Fe is dispersed into M{sub 23}C{sub 6} for a remarkable improvement on the wear-resisting feature. A 10%TiC cermet exhibits a remarkably high wear resistance, that is, a transverse rupture strength of 1270MPa which is higher than that of a cast high-speed steel. (NEDO)

  12. Tooth wear

    OpenAIRE

    Tušek Ivan; Tušek Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction), which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to toot...

  13. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yan; Li, Zhuguo; Feng, Kai; Guo, Xingwu; Zhou, Zhifeng; Dong, Jie; Wu, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbon film with nickel interlayer (Ni + C coating) is deposited on GW83. • In Ni + C composite coating the carbon coating has good adhesion with the nickel interlayer. • The wear track of Ni + C coating is narrower compared to the bare one. • The wear resistance of GW83 is greatly improved by the Ni + C coating. - Abstract: Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating

  14. Wear resistance and electrical properties of functionally graded epoxy-resin/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihan, Y. A.; Abd El-Bary, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper graded Silica/Epoxy composite fabricated by controlled mold filling to obtain a stepwise graded structure. The generated graded structure was controlled by the w 1% content of silica particulates of size range from (45 μm-250 μm). Microstructural characterization was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electrical properties were conducted in High Voltage-Lab using Sphere-Plate Electrode System and Insulating resistance equipment s. Wear characteristics were studied using Block-on-Ring wear testing machine for the different layers of the graded silica/epoxy composites, The prepared materials are used as coating materials for the floors of chemical laboratories. (Author)

  15. Effect of power toothbrushing on simulated wear of dental cement margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2007-01-01

    Power toothbrushes (PTBs), in combination with abrasive dentifrices, may encourage wear of dental cements at crown margins. The objective of this in vitro simulation was to control the clinical variables associated with PTB use and measure the potential side effects of PTBs with mild and abrasive dentifrices. Four PTBs ( Braun-Oral-B-Professional Care at 150 g brushing force, Sonicare-Elite at 90 g, Colgate-Actibrush at 200 g and Crest-Spinbrush-Pro at 250 g) and 2 dentifrices mixed 1:1 with tap water (Mild= Colgate-Total, Colgate-Palmolive; Abrasive= Close-up, Chesebrough-Ponds) versus tap water alone (control) were used to abrade 2 cements (Fleck's Mizzy Zinc Phosphate [ZP]; 3M-ESPE Unicem universal cement [UC]) using cement-filled slots (160 m wide) cut into wear-resistant ceramic blocks. A custom fixture controlled PTB/block alignment, PTB loads, and other testing variables. Wear was measured (3 profilometer traces/slot, 5 slots/block/group, baseline to 5-year differences) and analyzed (3-way ANOVA, p PTBs and both dentifrices. Brushing with water showed no effects (pPTBs. Pooled 5y-wear levels for ZP for both dentifrices approximately 21 microm /5y) were similar to values for current-day posterior composite materials. Combinations of PTBs with mild and abrasive dentifrices produced significant wear with ZP but not UC; thus, resin-composite cements seem to represent a better choice for wear resistance.

  16. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  17. Wear behavior of Al-7%Si-0.3%Mg/melon shell ash particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, M; Dodo, R M; Suleiman, I Y; Gebi, A I; Umar, I

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10 -4 mm 3 /Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.

  18. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed A.; Mohammed, Abdul Samad; Al-Aqeeli, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  19. Nanostructured wear resistant coating for reversible cultivator shovels: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V., E-mail: vdaditya1000@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering,College of Technology and Engineerin, MPUAT Udaipur, 313001,India (India); Rao, G. P., E-mail: ragrao38@gmail.com; Tiwari, G. S., E-mail: tiwarigsin@yahoo.com [Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, MPUAT Udaipur, 313001,India (India); Sanger, A., E-mail: amitsangeriitr@gmail.com; Kumar, A., E-mail: 01ashraj@gmail.com; Chandra, R., E-mail: ramesfic@gmail.com [Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Cultivator, one of the agriculture farm tool, extensively suffers from the wear problem. In this paper, we report nanostructured chromium nitrite (CrN) coating for the cultivator shovels to mitigate wear problem. The (CrN) coating was developed using DC magnetron sputtering technique at 200 °C. The structural, morphological, hydrophobic and wear properties were investigated using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, contact angle goniometer and custom designed soil bin assembly. The XRD reveals that the deposited coating was polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Also, The deposited coating was found to be anti wear resistant as well as hydrophobic in nature. The gravimetric wear for the coating developed at 200 °C coated was found out to be 8.15 gm and for non coated it was 14.48 gm tested for 100 hrs. The roughness of the coating plays an important role in determining the hydrophobicity of the coated film. Roughness and contact angle measured for 200 °C coated shovel was found out to be 11.17 nm and 105 ° respectively.

  20. Nanostructured wear resistant coating for reversible cultivator shovels: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, V.; Rao, G. P.; Tiwari, G. S.; Sanger, A.; Kumar, A.; Chandra, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivator, one of the agriculture farm tool, extensively suffers from the wear problem. In this paper, we report nanostructured chromium nitrite (CrN) coating for the cultivator shovels to mitigate wear problem. The (CrN) coating was developed using DC magnetron sputtering technique at 200 °C. The structural, morphological, hydrophobic and wear properties were investigated using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, contact angle goniometer and custom designed soil bin assembly. The XRD reveals that the deposited coating was polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Also, The deposited coating was found to be anti wear resistant as well as hydrophobic in nature. The gravimetric wear for the coating developed at 200 °C coated was found out to be 8.15 gm and for non coated it was 14.48 gm tested for 100 hrs. The roughness of the coating plays an important role in determining the hydrophobicity of the coated film. Roughness and contact angle measured for 200 °C coated shovel was found out to be 11.17 nm and 105 ° respectively.

  1. Nanostructured wear resistant coating for reversible cultivator shovels: An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, V.; Rao, G. P.; Tiwari, G. S.; Sanger, A.; Kumar, A.; Chandra, R.

    2016-04-01

    Cultivator, one of the agriculture farm tool, extensively suffers from the wear problem. In this paper, we report nanostructured chromium nitrite (CrN) coating for the cultivator shovels to mitigate wear problem. The (CrN) coating was developed using DC magnetron sputtering technique at 200 °C. The structural, morphological, hydrophobic and wear properties were investigated using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, contact angle goniometer and custom designed soil bin assembly. The XRD reveals that the deposited coating was polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Also, The deposited coating was found to be anti wear resistant as well as hydrophobic in nature. The gravimetric wear for the coating developed at 200 °C coated was found out to be 8.15 gm and for non coated it was 14.48 gm tested for 100 hrs. The roughness of the coating plays an important role in determining the hydrophobicity of the coated film. Roughness and contact angle measured for 200 °C coated shovel was found out to be 11.17 nm and 105 ° respectively.

  2. Effect of denture cleaning on abrasion resistance and surface topography of polymerized CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinawi, Lana Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The application of computer-aided design computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) technology in the fabrication of complete dentures, offers numerous advantages as it provides optimum fit and eliminates polymerization shrinkage of the acrylic base. Additionally, the porosity and surface roughness of CAD CAM resins is less compared to conventionally processed resins which leads to a decrease in the adhesion of bacteria on the denture base, which is associated with many conditions including halitosis and aspiration pneumonia in elderly denture wearers. To evaluate the influence of tooth brushing with dentifrices on CAD CAM resin blocks in terms of abrasion resistance, surface roughness and scanning electron photomicrography. This experimental study was carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry of King Abdulaziz University during 2016. A total of 40 rectangular shaped polymerized CAD CAM resin samples were subjected to 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes under a 200-gram vertical load simulating three years of tooth brushing strokes using commercially available denture cleaning dentifrice. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20, using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. ANOVA test revealed a statistical significant weight loss of CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base specimens following 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes as well as a statistical significant change (p=0.0.5) in the surface roughness following brushing. The CAD CAM resin samples SEM baseline imaging revealed a relatively smooth homogenous surface, but following 40,000 and 60,000 brushing strokes, imaging displayed the presence of small scratches on the surface. CAD CAM resin displayed a homogenous surface initially with low surface roughness that was significantly affected following simulating three years of manual brushing, but despite the significant weight loss, the findings are within the clinically acceptable limits.

  3. Enhancing wear resistance of working bodies of grinder through lining crushed material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovich, A. A.; Annenko, D. M.; Romanovich, M. A.; Apukhtina, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of directions of increasing wear resistance of working surfaces of rolls. A technical solution developed at the level of the invention is proposed, which is simple to implement in production conditions and which makes it possible to protect the roll surface from heavy wear due to surfacing of wear-resistant mesh material, cells of which are filling with grinding material in the process of work. Retaining them enables one to protect the roll surface from wear. The paper dwells on conditions of pressing materials in cells of eccentric rolls on the working surface with a grid of rectangular shape. The paper presents an equation for calculation of the cell dimension that provides the lining of the working surface by a mill material with respect to its properties. The article presents results of comparative studies on the grinding process of a press roller grinder (PRG) between rolls with and without a fusion-bonded mesh. It is clarified that the lining of rolls working surface slightly reduces the quality of the grinding, since the material thickness in the cell is small and has a finely divided and compacted structure with high strength.

  4. Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Man Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use.

  5. Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Joo-Hee

    2018-06-20

    3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use.

  6. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    The costs and hazards resulting from nuclear plant radiation exposure with activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. However, the hardnesses of many cobalt-base wear alloys are significantly lower than conventional PVD hard coatings, and mechanical support of the hard coating is a concern. Four approaches have been taken to minimize the hardness differences between the substrate and PVD hard coating: (1) use a thin Cr-nitride hard coating with layers that are graded with respect to hardness, (2) use a thicker, multilayered coating (Cr-nitride or Zr-nitride) with graded layers, (3) use nitriding to harden the alloy subsurface followed by application of a multilayered coating of Cr-nitride, and (4) use of nitriding alone. Since little work has been done on application of PVD hard coatings to cobalt-base alloys, some details on process development and characterization of the coatings is presented. Scratch testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the different coatings. A bench-top rolling contact test was used to evaluate the wear resistance of the coatings. The test results are discussed, and the more desirable coating approaches are identified

  7. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  8. Hardness and Wear Resistance of TiC-Fe-Cr Locally Reinforcement Produced in Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ball-on-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.

  9. Ultra-high wear resistance of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond film: Correlation with microstructure and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R.; Kumar, N.; Lin, I.-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured diamond films are having numerous unique properties including superior tribological behavior which is promising for enhancing energy efficiency and life time of the sliding devices. High wear resistance is the principal criterion for the smooth functioning of any sliding device. Such properties are achievable by tailoring the grain size and grain boundary volume fraction in nanodiamond film. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was attainable using optimized gas plasma condition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. Crystalline phase of ultra-nanodiamond grains with matrix phase of amorphous carbon and short range ordered graphite are encapsulated in nanowire shaped morphology. Film showed ultra-high wear resistance and frictional stability in micro-tribological contact conditions. The negligible wear of film at the beginning of the tribological contact was later transformed into the wearless regime for prolonged sliding cycles. Both surface roughness and high contact stress were the main reasons of wear at the beginning of sliding cycles. However, the interface gets smoothened due to continuous sliding, finally leaded to the wearless regime.

  10. Selected Properties And Tribological Wear Alloys Co-Cr-Mo And Co-Cr-Mo-W Used In Dental Prosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyn-Pieniążek J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work provides the results of the abrasive wear resistance tests performed on Co-Cr-Mo and Co-Cr-Mo-W alloys with the use of the Miller’s apparatus. The analyzed alloys underwent microstructure observations as well as hardness measurements, and the abraded surfaces of the examined materials were observed by means of electron scanning microscopy. The performed examinations made it possible to state that the Co-Cr alloys characterized in a high hardness, whereas the changes in the mass decrement were minimal, which proved a high abrasive wear resistance.

  11. Laser Tailoring the Surface Chemistry and Morphology for Wear, Scale and Corrosion Resistant Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Domantovsky, Alexander G; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M

    2018-06-04

    A strategy, combining laser chemical modification with laser texturing, followed by chemisorption of the fluorinated hydrophobic agent was used to fabricate the series of superhydrophobic coatings on an aluminum alloy with varied chemical compositions and parameters of texture. It was shown that high content of aluminum oxynitride and aluminum oxide formed in the surface layer upon laser treatment allows solving the problem of enhancement of superhydrophobic coating resistance to abrasive loads. Besides, the multimodal structure of highly porous surface layer leads to self-healing ability of fabricated coatings. Long-term behavior of designed coatings in "hard" hot water with an essential content of calcium carbonate demonstrated high antiscaling resistance with self-cleaning potential against solid deposits onto the superhydrophobic surfaces. Study of corrosion protection properties and the behavior of coatings at long-term contact with 0.5 M NaCl solution indicated extremely high chemical stability and remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  12. Provision of wear resistance and fatigue strength of surfaces during electroerosive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedonin, O. N.; Syanov, S. Yu; Papikyan, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is a generalization of the results of theoretical studies of the effect of erosion control regimes on the operational properties of mold-forming parts of molds. The main problem is the provision of wear resistance and fatigue strength in the electroerosion processing of these types of products. The analysis showed that the fatigue strength is affected by the processing regimes and the coefficient after the erosion treatment. The index of wear resistance is determined both by the treatment modes and by the physical-mechanical properties of the billet materials. To ensure the operational performance of products, it is necessary to establish the physical picture of the processing of complex profile parts by finding the optimum eroding regime.

  13. CrN-based wear resistant hard coatings for machining and forming tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S; Cooke, K E; Teer, D G [Teer Coatings Ltd, West Stone House, Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich, Worcestershire WR9 9AS (United Kingdom); Li, X [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); McIntosh, F [Rolls-Royce plc, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire PA4 9AF, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-21

    Highly wear resistant multicomponent or multilayer hard coatings, based on CrN but incorporating other metals, have been developed using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating technology. They are exploited in coated machining and forming tools cutting and forming of a wide range of materials in various application environments. These coatings are characterized by desirable properties including good adhesion, high hardness, high toughness, high wear resistance, high thermal stability and high machining capability for steel. The coatings appear to show almost universal working characteristics under operating conditions of low and high temperature, low and high machining speed, machining of ordinary materials and difficult to machine materials, and machining under lubricated and under minimum lubricant quantity or even dry conditions. These coatings can be used for cutting and for forming tools, for conventional (macro-) machining tools as well as for micromachining tools, either as a single coating or in combination with an advanced, self-lubricating topcoat.

  14. Chemically robust carbon nanotube–PTFE superhydrophobic thin films with enhanced ability of wear resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kewei Wang; Pan Xiong; Xiuping Xu; Kan Wang; YanLong Li; Yufeng Zheng

    2017-01-01

    A chemically robust superhydrophobic nanocomposite thin film with enhanced wear resistance is prepared from a composite comprising polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and carbon nanotubes. The superhydrophobic thin films with hierarchical structure are fabricated by spraying an environmentally friendly aqueous dispersion containing carbon nanotubes and PTFE resin on silicon wafer. Thin films with a contact angle of 154.1° ± 2° and a sliding angle less than 2° remain superhydrophobic after abrading over 500 times under a pressure of 50 g/cm2. The thin film is also extremely stable even under much stress conditions. To further the understanding of the enhancement of wear resistance, we investigated the formation of microsized structure and their effects. The growth of microbumps is caused by attracting solution droplet to the hydrophilic islands on hydrophobic surface.

  15. Design of Wear-Resistant Austenitic Steels for Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, J. N.; Casati, R.; Lecis, N.; Andrianopoli, C.; Varone, A.; Montanari, R.; Vedani, M.

    2018-03-01

    Type 316L stainless steel feedstock powder was modified by alloying with powders containing carbide/boride-forming elements to create improved wear-resistant austenitic alloys that can be readily processed by Selective Laser Melting. Fe-based alloys with high C, B, V, and Nb contents were thus produced, resulting in a microstructure that consisted of austenitic grains and a significant amount of hard carbides and borides. Heat treatments were performed to modify the carbide distribution and morphology. Optimal hard-phase spheroidization was achieved by annealing the proposed alloys at 1150 °C for 1 hour followed by water quenching. The total increase in hardness of samples containing 20 pct of C/B-rich alloy powder was of 82.7 pct while the wear resistance could be increased by a factor of 6.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF LASER CLADDING WEAR-RESISTANT COATING ON TITANIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    RUILIANG BAO; HUIJUN YU; CHUANZHONG CHEN; BIAO QI; LIJIAN ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advanced surface modification technology with broad prospect in making wear-resistant coating on titanium alloys. In this paper, the influences of laser cladding processing parameters on the quality of coating are generalized as well as the selection of cladding materials on titanium alloys. The microstructure characteristics and strengthening mechanism of coating are also analyzed. In addition, the problems and precaution measures in the laser cladding are pointed out.

  17. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of beta titanium alloy by laser gas alloying with nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Lee, Seunghwan; Smith, Graham

    2016-01-01

    be resolved before commercialising in the orthopaedic market. In this work, a newly developed laser surface treatment technique was employed to improve the surface properties of Ti-35.3Nb-7.3Zr-5.7Ta alloy. The surface structure and composition of the laser-treated TNZT surface were examined by grazing...... findings showed that the laser surface treatment technique reported in this work can effectively improve the wear and corrosion resistance of TNZT....

  18. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...... are determined in experiments. The wear resistance of diamond tools with metallic binders modified by various nanoreinforcements was estimated. 3D hierarchical computational finite element model of the tool binder with hybrid nanoscale reinforcements is developed, and applied for the structure...

  19. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of beta titanium alloy by laser gas alloying with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Lee, Seunghwan; Smith, Graham; Sarri, Gianluca; Ng, Chi-Ho; Sharba, Ahmed; Man, Hau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser technology is a fast, clean and flexible method for surface hardening of TNZT. • Laser can form a protective hard layer on TNZT surface without altering surface roughness. • The laser-formed layer is metallurgically bonded to the substrate. • Laser-treated TNZT is highly resistant to corrosion and wear in Hank's solution. - Abstract: The relatively high elastic modulus coupled with the presence of toxic vanadium (V) in Ti6Al4V alloy has long been a concern in orthopaedic applications. To solve the problem, a variety of non-toxic and low modulus beta-titanium (beta-Ti) alloys have been developed. Among the beta-Ti alloy family, the quaternary Ti–Nb–Zr–Ta (TNZT) alloys have received the highest attention as a promising replacement for Ti6Al4V due to their lower elastic modulus and outstanding long term stability against corrosion in biological environments. However, the inferior wear resistance of TNZT is still a problem that must be resolved before commercialising in the orthopaedic market. In this work, a newly developed laser surface treatment technique was employed to improve the surface properties of Ti–35.3Nb–7.3Zr–5.7Ta alloy. The surface structure and composition of the laser-treated TNZT surface were examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wear and corrosion resistance were evaluated by pin-on-plate sliding test and anodic polarisation test in Hanks’ solution. The experimental results were compared with the untreated (or base) TNZT material. The research findings showed that the laser surface treatment technique reported in this work can effectively improve the wear and corrosion resistance of TNZT.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  1. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of beta titanium alloy by laser gas alloying with nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Lee, Seunghwan; Smith, Graham; Sarri, Gianluca; Ng, Chi-Ho; Sharba, Ahmed; Man, Hau-Chung

    2016-03-01

    The relatively high elastic modulus coupled with the presence of toxic vanadium (V) in Ti6Al4V alloy has long been a concern in orthopaedic applications. To solve the problem, a variety of non-toxic and low modulus beta-titanium (beta-Ti) alloys have been developed. Among the beta-Ti alloy family, the quaternary Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta (TNZT) alloys have received the highest attention as a promising replacement for Ti6Al4V due to their lower elastic modulus and outstanding long term stability against corrosion in biological environments. However, the inferior wear resistance of TNZT is still a problem that must be resolved before commercialising in the orthopaedic market. In this work, a newly developed laser surface treatment technique was employed to improve the surface properties of Ti-35.3Nb-7.3Zr-5.7Ta alloy. The surface structure and composition of the laser-treated TNZT surface were examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wear and corrosion resistance were evaluated by pin-on-plate sliding test and anodic polarisation test in Hanks' solution. The experimental results were compared with the untreated (or base) TNZT material. The research findings showed that the laser surface treatment technique reported in this work can effectively improve the wear and corrosion resistance of TNZT.

  2. Enhanced wear resistance of production tools and steel samples by implantation of nitrogen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, N.J.; Straede, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years ion implantation has become a feasible technique for obtaining improved wear resistance of production tools. However, basic knowledge of how and in which cases ion implantation is working at its best is still needed. The present paper discusses structural and tribological investigations of carbon and nitrogen implanted steels. The nitrogen data were obtained mainly from field tests and the investigation of carbon implantations took place mainly in the laboratory. A study was made of how the tribological behaviour of implanted steels changes with different implantation parameters. The tribological laboratory investigations were carried out using pin-on-disc equipment under controlled test conditions, and deal with high dose carbon implantation (approximately (1-2)x10 18 ions cm -2 ). The wear resistance of steels was enhanced dramatically, by up to several orders of magnitude. The field test results cover a broad range of ion implanted production tools, which showed a marked improvement in wear resistance. Nitrogen implanted tools are also compared with carbon and titanium implanted tools. (orig.)

  3. Microstructure and wear behaviors of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-WS2 high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Fan, Ji-Wei; He, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Shi-Hong; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Shu-Fa

    2012-02-01

    The high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 coating and wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2 coating were fabricated on 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel by laser cladding. Phase constitutions and microstructures were investigated, and the tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc wear tester under dry sliding condition at room-temperature (17 °C), 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Results indicated that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2 coating consisted of Cr7C3 primary phase and γ-(Fe,Ni)/Cr7C3 eutectic colony, while the coating added with WS2 was mainly composed of Cr7C3 and (Cr,W)C carbides, with the lubricating WS2 and CrS sulfides as the minor phases. The wear tests showed that the friction coefficients of two coatings both decrease with the increasing temperature, while the both wear rates increase. The friction coefficient of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 is lower than the coating without WS2 whatever at room-temperature, 300 °C, 600 °C, but its wear rate is only lower at 300 °C. It is considered that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 composite coating has good combination of anti-wear and friction-reducing capabilities at room-temperature up to 300 °C.

  4. Wear Behavior and Microstructure of Mg-Sn Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Shen, Yen-Chen; Chao, Chuen-Guang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2017-11-16

    Mg-5wt.% Sn alloy is often used in portable electronic devices and automobiles. In this study, mechanical properties of Mg-5wt.% Sn alloy processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) were characterized. More precisely, its hardness and wear behavior were measured using Vickers hardness test and a pin-on-disc wear test. The microstructures of ECAE-processed Mg-Sn alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. ECAE process refined the grain sizes of the Mg-Sn alloy from 117.6 μm (as-cast) to 88.0 μm (one pass), 49.5 μm (two passes) and 24.4 μm (four passes), respectively. Meanwhile, the hardness of the alloy improved significantly. The maximum wear resistance achieved in the present work was around 73.77 m/mm³, which was obtained from the Mg-Sn alloy treated with a one-pass ECAE process with a grain size of 88.0 μm. The wear resistance improvement was caused by the grain size refinement and the precipitate of the second phase, Mg₂Sn against the oxidation of the processed alloy. The as-cast Mg-Sn alloy with the larger grain size, i.e., 117.6 μm, underwent wear mechanisms, mainly adhesive wear and abrasive wear. In ECAE-processed Mg-Sn alloy, high internal energy occurred due to the high dislocation density and the stress field produced by the plastic deformation, which led to an increased oxidation rate of the processed alloy during sliding. Therefore, the oxidative wear and a three-body abrasive wear in which the oxide debris acted as the three-body abrasive components became the dominant factors in the wear behavior, and as a result, reduced the wear resistance in the multi-pass ECAE-processed alloy.

  5. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from wear (attrition and abrasion) of gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G Mark; Clemow, Scott R; Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the chemical exposures and risks of dental restorative materials other than from dental amalgam and composite resins. Here we provide the first exposure and risk assessment for gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. Based on the 2001-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we assessed the exposure of US adults to the components of Au alloy and ceramic dental restorations owing to dental material wear. Silver (Ag) is the most problematic component of Au alloy restorations, owing to a combination of toxicity and proportional composition. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of four tooth surfaces restored with Au alloy before exceeding, on average, the reference exposure level (REL) for Ag. Lithium (Li) is the most problematic component of dental ceramics. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of 15 tooth surfaces restored with ceramics before exceeding the REL for Li. Relative risks of chemical exposures from dental materials decrease in the following order: Amalgam>Au alloys>ceramics>composite resins.

  6. Improvement of Scratch and Wear Resistance of Polymers by Fillers Including Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Brostow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs. We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can be metallic or ceramic—with obvious consequences for electrical resistivity of the composites. Distinctions between effectiveness of micro- versus nano-particles are analyzed. For example, aluminum nanoparticles as filler are more effective for property improvement than microparticles at the same overall volumetric concentration. Prevention of local agglomeration of filler particles is discussed along with a technique to verify the prevention.

  7. A nanometric cushion for enhancing scratch and wear resistance of hard films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Gotlib-Vainshtein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect” of a soft intermediate layer.

  8. Microstructure and wear resistance of a laser clad TiC reinforced nickel aluminides matrix composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wear resistant TiC/(NiAl-Ni 3 Al) composite coating was fabricated on a substrate of electrolyzed nickel by laser cladding using Ni-Al-Ti-C alloy powders. The laser clad coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate and has a homogenous fine microstructure consisting of the flower-like equiaxed TiC dendrite and the dual phase matrix of NiAl and Ni 3 Al. The intermetallic matrix composite coating exhibits excellent wear resistance under both room- and high-temperature sliding wear test conditions due to the high hardness of TiC coupled with the strong atomic bonds of intermetallic matrix

  9. Improvement of the wear resistance of electroplated Au-Ni coatings by Zr ion bombardment of Ni-B sublayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyazgin, Alexander; Shugurov, Artur; Sergeev, Viktor; Neufeld, Vasily; Panin, Alexey; Shesterikov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bombardment of the Ni-B sublayer by Zr ion beams on the surface morphology and tribomechanical properties of Au-Ni coatings was investigated. It was found that the treatment has no significant effect on the surface roughness and grain size of the Au-Ni coatings, while it provides essential reducing of their friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance. It is shown that increased wear resistance of these coatings was caused by their strain hardening resulted from localization of plastic strain. The optimal Zr fluence were determined that provide the maximum reduction of linear wear of the coatings

  10. The Tribological Performance of Hardfaced/ Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Ventilation Mill Working Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the coal pulverizing, the working parts of the ventilation mill are being worn by the sand particles. For this reason, the working parts are usually protected with materials resistant to wear (hardfaced/thermal sprayed coatings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of four different types of coatings as candidates for wear protection of the mill’s working parts. The coatings were produced by using the filler materials with the following nominal chemical composition: NiFeBSi-WC, NiCrBSiC, FeCrCTiSi, and FeCrNiCSiBMn, and by using the plasma arc welding and flame and electric arc spraying processes. The results showed that Ni-based coatings exhibited higher wear resistance than Fe-based coatings. The highest wear resistance showed coating produced by using the NiFeBSi-WC filler material and plasma transferred arc welding deposition process. The hardness was not the only characteristic that affected the wear resistance. In this context, the wear rate of NiFeBSi-WC coating was not in correlation with its hardness, in contrast to other coatings. The different wear performance of NiFeBSi-WC coating was attributed to the different type and morphological features of the reinforcing particles (WC.

  11. Wear resistance of laser-deposited boride reinforced Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy composites for orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Sonia; Nag, Soumya; Scharf, Thomas W.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2008-01-01

    The inherently poor wear resistance of titanium alloys limits their application as femoral heads in femoral (hip) implants. Reinforcing the soft matrix of titanium alloys (including new generation β-Ti alloys) with hard ceramic precipitates such as borides offers the possibility of substantially enhancing the wear resistance of these composites. The present study discusses the microstructure and wear resistance of laser-deposited boride reinforced composites based on Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys. These composites have been deposited using the LENS TM process from a blend of elemental Ti, Nb, Zr, Ta, and boron powders and consist of complex borides dispersed in a matrix of β-Ti. The wear resistance of these composites has been compared with that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI, the current material of choice for orthopedic femoral implants, against two types of counterfaces, hard Si 3 N 4 and softer SS440C stainless steel. Results suggest a substantial improvement in the wear resistance of the boride reinforced Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys as compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI against the softer counterface of SS440. The presence of an oxide layer on the surface of these alloys and composites also appears to have a substantial effect in terms of enhanced wear resistance

  12. Improvement of the Wear Resistance of Ferrous Alloys by Electroless Plating of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleicheva, J. K.; Karaguiozova, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The electroless nickel (Ni) and composite nickel - nanodiamond (Ni+DND) coatings are investigated in this study. The method EFTTOM-NICKEL for electroless nickel plating with nanosized strengthening particles (DND 4-6 nm) is applied for the coating deposition. The coatings are deposited on ferrous alloys samples. The wear resistance of the coatings is performed by friction wear tests under 50-400 MPa loading conditions - in accordance with a Polish Standard PN-83/H-04302. The microstructure observations are made by optic metallographic microscope GX41 OLIMPUS and the microhardness is determined by Vickers Method. Tests for wear resistance, thickness and microhardness measurements of the coatings without heat treatment and heat treatment are performed. The heat treatment regime is investigated with the aim to optimize the thermal process control of the coated samples without excessive tempering of the substrate material. The surface fatigue failure is determined by contact fatigue test with the purpose to establish suitable conditions for production of high performance materials.

  13. Electrodeposited Ni-B coatings: Formation and evaluation of hardness and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaveni, K.; Sankara Narayanan, T.S.N.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of electrodeposited Ni-B alloy coatings using a dimethylamine borane (DMAB) modified Watt's nickel bath and evaluation of their structural characteristics, hardness and wear resistance are discussed. The boron content in the electrodeposited Ni-B alloy coating is determined by the ratio of rate of reduction of nickel and rate of decomposition of DMAB. The boron content of the electrodeposited Ni-B coating decreases as the current density increased from 0.4 to 4 A dm -2 . XRD diffraction pattern of electrodeposited Ni-B coatings in their as-plated condition exhibits the presence of Ni (1 1 1) (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) reflections with (1 1 1) texture. Heat treatment at 400 deg. C for 1 h has resulted in the formation of nickel boride phases, which results in an increase in hardness and wear resistance. The mechanism of wear in electrodeposited Ni-B coatings is intensive plastic deformation of the coating due to the ploughing action of the hard counter disk

  14. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TIG Remelted NiCrBSi Thick Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-lu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-fluxing NiCrBSi coatings with 800 μm thickness were prepared on the surface of AISI1045 steel substrate by plasma spraying. And the remelted coating was obtained using by the tungsten inert gas (TIG arc process. The microstructure, surface roughness, hardness, phase composition, and wear resistance of the sprayed coating and remelted coating were systematically investigated. The results demonstrate that TIG remelted treatment can significantly eliminate the microscopic defects in thick coating and improve its density. The surface roughness (Ra of the remelted coating is only 18.9% of the sprayed coating. The hardness of the remelted coating is 26.8% higher than that of the sprayed coating. The main phases in the sprayed coating are changed from γ-Ni, Cr7C3, and Cr2B to γ-Ni, Cr23C6, CrB, Ni3B, and Fe3C. The wear mass loss of the remelted coating is only 17.1% of the sprayed coating. Therefore, a Ni-based thick coating with good wear resistance can be obtained by plasma spraying and remelted technique.

  15. Abrasion of Polymeric Composites on Basis of Machining Splinters from Hardfacing Alloys – Usable in Agrocomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Valášek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper focuses on a description of two-body and three-body abrasion wear of polymeric particle composites with fillers on a basis of machining splinters from hardfacing alloys. The abrasive wear is typical for functional surfaces of agricultural machines processing the soil. One of possibilities of the functional surface renovation is an application of resistant layers in a form of composite systems. Just the inclusion of hard inorganic particles into a polymeric matrix significantly increases its wear resistance. So long as the primary filler is replaced by the waste – by particles from the material machining – the matrix in which the filler is dispersed is a bearer of a material recyclation. This way of the recyclation is inexpensive, economic and sensitive to environment. The paper focuses on the experimental description of the two-body and three-body abrasion and the composites hardness, it describes a production of a prototype for field tests with the functional surface on the basis of the investigated composite system at the same time.

  16. Wear resistant PTFE thin film enabled by a polydopamine adhesive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckford, Samuel; Zou, Min

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive layer on the friction and wear resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films coated on stainless steel was investigated. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a ball on flat configuration under a normal load of 50 g, sliding speed of 2.5 mm/s, and stroke length of 15 mm. It is found that the PDA/PTFE film is able to withstand approximately 500 times more rubbing cycles than the PTFE film alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious layer of PTFE remains adhered to the PDA layer, which enables the durability of the PDA/PTFE film. Because of the relatively low thickness of the film, PDA/PTFE shows great potential for use in applications where durable, thin films are desirable

  17. Wear Resistance of Steel 20MnCr5 After Surfacing with Micro-jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasiuk W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental research concerning the impact of an innovative method of micro-jet cooling on the padding weld performed with MIG welding. Micro-jet cooling is a novel method patented in 2011. It enables to steer the parameters of weld cooling in a precise manner. In addition, various elements which may e.g. enhance hardness or alter tribological properties can be entered into its top surface, depending on the applied cooling gas. The material under study was steel 20MnCr5, which was subject to the welding process with micro-jet cooling and without cooling. Nitrogen was used as a cooling gas. The main parameter of weld assessment was wear intensity. The tests were conducted in a tribological pin-on-disc type position. The following results exhibit growth at approximately 5% in wear resistance of padding welds with micro-jet cooling.

  18. Modeling and Investigation of the Wear Resistance of Salt Bath Nitrided Aisi 4140 via ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Şerafettin; Akdemir, Ahmet; Kahramanli, Humar

    2013-05-01

    Nitriding is usually used to improve the surface properties of steel materials. In this way, the wear resistance of steels is improved. We conducted a series of studies in order to investigate the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of salt bath nitrided AISI 4140 steel. The present study has two parts. For the first phase, the tribological behavior of the AISI 4140 steel which was nitrided in sulfinuz salt bath (SBN) was compared to the behavior of the same steel which was untreated. After surface characterization using metallography, microhardness and sliding wear tests were performed on a block-on-cylinder machine in which carbonized AISI 52100 steel discs were used as the counter face. For the examined AISI 4140 steel samples with and without surface treatment, the evolution of both the friction coefficient and of the wear behavior were determined under various loads, at different sliding velocities and a total sliding distance of 1000 m. The test results showed that wear resistance increased with the nitriding process, friction coefficient decreased due to the sulfur in salt bath and friction coefficient depended systematically on surface hardness. For the second part of this study, four artificial neural network (ANN) models were designed to predict the weight loss and friction coefficient of the nitrided and unnitrided AISI 4140 steel. Load, velocity and sliding distance were used as input. Back-propagation algorithm was chosen for training the ANN. Statistical measurements of R2, MAE and RMSE were employed to evaluate the success of the systems. The results showed that all the systems produced successful results.

  19. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6 and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress® (Ivoclar- Vivadent ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA. Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s. Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120ºC, 5 hours. Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19% < Tetric Ceram (22% < glass composite (28%. leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion

  20. Strength and wear resistance of a dental glass-ionomer cement with a novel nanofilled resin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Krämer, Norbert; Siedschlag, Gustavo; Schubert, Edward W; Lauerer, Brigitte; Müller, Frank A; Petschelt, Anselm; Ebert, Johannes

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of different resin coating protocols on the fracture strength and wear resistance of a commercial glass-ionomer cement (GIC). A new restorative concept [Equia (GC Europe)] has been introduced as a system application consisting of a condensable GIC (Fuji IX GP Extra) and a novel nanofilled resin coating material (G-Coat Plus). Four-point fracture strength (FS, 2 x 2 x 25 mm, 14-day storage, distilled water, 37 degrees C) were produced and measured from three experimental protocols: no coating GIC (Group 1), GIC coating before water contamination (Group 2), GIC coating after water contamination (Group 3). The strength data were analyzed using Weibull statistics. Three-body wear resistance (Group 1 vs. Group 2) was measured after each 10,000 wear cycles up to a total of 200,000 cycles using the ACTA method. GIC microstructure and interfaces between GIC and coating materials were investigated under SEM and CLSM. The highest FS of 26.1 MPa and the most homogenous behavior (m = 7.7) has been observed in Group 2. The coated and uncoated GIC showed similar wear resistance until 90,000 cycles. After 200,000 wear cycles, the coated version showed significantly higher wear rate (ANOVA, P< 0.05). The coating protocol has been shown to determine the GIC fracture strength. Coating after water contamination and air drying is leading to surface crack formation thus significantly reducing the FS. The resin coating showed a proper sealing of GIC surface porosities and cracks. In terms of wear, the coating did not improve the wear resistance of the underlying cement as similar or higher wear rates have been measured for Group 1 versus Group 2.

  1. Scratch, wear and corrosion resistant organic inorganic hybrid materials for metals protection and barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Puopolo, M.; Vesco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polysiloxane coatings as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion of Fe 430 B metal substrates. • Methyl groups feature a very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone. • Phenyl groups feature a larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. • Remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance. • Innovative ways to design of long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and aggressive chemicals. - Abstract: Polysiloxanes are widely used as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion and increase chemical inertness of metal substrates. In the present work, a high molecular weight methyl phenyl polysiloxane resin was designed to manufacture a protective coating for Fe 430 B structural steel. Methyl groups feature very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone of the organic inorganic hybrid resin, thus allowing the achievement of high thickness. Phenyl groups feature larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. Visual appearance and morphology of the coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge surface profilometry. Micro-mechanical response of the coatings was analyzed by instrumented progressive load scratch, while wear resistance by dry sliding linear reciprocating tribological tests. Lastly, chemical inertness and corrosion endurance of the coatings were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aggressive acid environment. The resulting resins yielded protective materials, which feature remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance, thus laying the foundations to manufacture long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and, more in general, against aggressive chemicals

  2. Effect of Nanosilica Particle Size on the Water Permeability, Abrasion Resistance, Drying Shrinkage, and Repair Work Properties of Cement Mortar Containing Nano-SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattawat Haruehansapong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effect of nanosilica particle sizes on durability properties and repair work properties of cement mortar containing nanosilica (NS. Three different NS particle sizes of 12, 20, and 40 nm were used and compared with those of cement mortar without NS and cement mortar with silica fume (SF. Interesting results were obtained in which the particle size of NS affected directly the abrasion resistance and water permeability. NS with particle size of 40 nm is the optimum size and gave the highest abrasion resistance and water permeability. For repair work properties, cement mortars containing NS (12 and 20 nm and SF experienced higher drying shrinkage than that of cement mortar without NS and then presented cracking behavior and debonding between the cement mortars and concrete substrate. Cement mortar containing 40 nm of NS gave the lowest drying shrinkage, the lowest crack number, and the highest adhesive strength. These results indicate that the particle size of NS affected not only the durability properties but also the repair work properties of cement mortar.

  3. Morphologic and Chemical Properties of PMMA/ATH Layers with Enhanced Abrasion Resistance Realised by Cold Plasma Spraying at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wallenhorst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the morphologic and chemical properties of coatings based on PMMA/ATH powder and deposited by cold plasma spraying on wood and glass. Since the deposition of pure PMMA/ATH powder with air as process gas yielded coatings with insufficient abrasion resistance, two modifications of the basic process were investigated. Previous studies showed that replacing air as process gas with forming gas did not enhance the abrasion resistance, but the addition of a phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF succeeded in stabilising the particle coatings. In this work, results from morphologic and chemical analysis suggested an encasement of the PMMA/ATH particles by plasma-modified PF and thus a fusion of individual particles, explaining the enhanced bonding. Moreover, adhesion tests confirmed an outstanding bonding between the coating and wood as well as glass, which is assumed to result from interactions between the PF’s hydroxyl groups and functional groups on the substrates’ surfaces. Studies on the wettability revealed a hydrophobic character of such coatings, therefore generally indicating a possible application, for example, to reduce water uptake by wooden materials.

  4. Effect of Cu content on wear resistance and mechanical behavior of Ti-Cu binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Wang, Hefeng; Yuan, Guozheng; Shu, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    Arc melting with nonconsumable tungsten electrode and water-cooled copper crucible was used to fabricate Ti-Cu binary alloys with different Cu contents in an argon atmosphere. The compositions and phase structures of the fabricated alloys were investigated by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoindentation tests through continuous stiffness measurement were then performed at room temperature to analyze the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. Results indicated that the composition of each Ti-Cu binary alloy was Ti(100- x) Cu x ( x = 43, 60, 69, and 74 at.%). The XRD analysis results showed that the alloys were composed of different phases, indicating that different Cu contents led to the variations in alloy hardness. The wear tests results revealed that elemental Cu positively affects the wear resistance properties of the Ti-Cu alloys. Nanoindentation testing results showed that the moduli of the Ti-Cu alloys were minimally changed at increasing Cu content, whereas their hardness evidently increased according to the wear test results.

  5. Influence of the ion nitriding temperature in the wear resistance of AISI H13 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, Stenio Cristaldo; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Pereira, Ricardo Gomes; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos; Totten, George Edward

    2010-01-01

    The AISI H13 tool steel for hot work is the most used in its category. This steel was developed for injection molds and extrusion of hot metals as well as for conformation in hot presses and hammers. Plasma nitriding can improve significantly the surface properties of these steels, but the treatments conditions, such as temperature, must be optimized. In this work the influence of nitriding treatment temperature on the wear behavior of this steel is investigated. Samples of AISI H13 steel were quenched and tempered and then ion nitrided in the temperatures of 450, 550 and 650 deg C, at 4mbar pressure, during 5 hours. Samples of the treated material were characterized by optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, x-ray analysis and wear tests. Plasma nitriding formed hard diffusion zones in all the treated samples. White layers were formed in samples treated at 550 deg C and 650 deg C. The treatment temperature of 450 deg C produced the highest hardness. Treatment temperature showed great influence in the diffusion layer thickness. X-ray analysis indicated the formation of the Fe_3N, Fe_4N and CrN phases for all temperatures, but with different concentrations. Nitriding increased significantly the AISI H13 wear resistance. (author)

  6. A material based approach to creating wear resistant surfaces for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sailesh

    Tools and dies used in metal forming are characterized by extremely high temperatures at the interface, high local pressures and large metal to metal sliding. These harsh conditions result in accelerated wear of tooling. Lubrication of tools, done to improve metal flow drastically quenches the surface layers of the tools and compounds the tool failure problem. This phenomenon becomes a serious issue when parts forged at complex and are expected to meet tight tolerances. Unpredictable and hence uncontrolled wear and degradation of tooling result in poor part quality and premature tool failure that result in high scrap, shop downtime, poor efficiency and high cost. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a computer-based methodology for analyzing the requirements hot forging tooling to resist wear and plastic deformation and wear and predicting life cycle of forge tooling. Development of such is a system is complicated by the fact that wear and degradation of tooling is influenced by not only the die material used but also numerous process controls like lubricant, dilution ratio, forging temperature, equipment used, tool geometries among others. Phenomenological models available u1 the literature give us a good thumb rule to selecting materials but do not provide a way to evaluate pits performance in field. Once a material is chosen, there are no proven approaches to create surfaces out of these materials. Coating approaches like PVD and CVD cannot generate thick coatings necessary to withstand the conditions under hot forging. Welding cannot generate complex surfaces without several secondary operations like heat treating and machining. If careful procedures are not followed, welds crack and seldom survive forging loads. There is a strong need for an approach to selectively, reliably and precisely deposit material of choice reliably on an existing surface which exhibit not only good tribological properties but also good adhesion to the substrate

  7. Titanium Carbides Coatings for Wear Resistant Biomedical Devices: Manufacturing and Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contro, R.; Vena, P.; Gastaldi, D.; Masante, S.; Cavallotti, P. L.; Nobili, L.; Bestetti, M.

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of Titanium Carbide coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate, through the reactive magnetron sputtering technique is here presented. The mechanical characterization of the coatings has been carried out through a set of indentation tests at different maximum applied loads. The elastic stiffness as well as the hardness of the coating-substrate system indicate that these coatings are suitable candidates for wear resistance applications in the orthopaedic field. Numerical simulation of the indentation tests allowed the identification of the constitutive parameters of the titanium carbide. Good agreement was achieved between experimental and numerical results

  8. Tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction, which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to tooth abfraction and microfracture. Wear of tooth surfaces due to the presence of microscopic imperfections of tooth surfaces is clinically manifested as sanding veneers. Tribology, as an interdisciplinary study of the mechanisms of friction, wear and lubrication at the ultrastructural level, has defined a universal model according to which the etiopathogenesis of tooth wear is caused by the following factors: health and diseases of the digestive tract, oral hygiene, eating habits, poor oral habits, bruxism, temporomandibular disorders and iatrogenic factors. Attrition and dental erosion are much more common in children with special needs (Down syndrome. Erosion of teeth usually results from diseases of the digestive tract that lead to gastroesophageal reflux (GER of gastric juice (HCl. There are two basic approaches to the assessment of the degree of wear and dental erosion. Depending on the type of wear (erosion, attrition, abfraction, the amount of calcium that was realised during the erosive attack could be determined qualitatively and quantitatively, or changes in optical properties and hardness of enamel could be recorded, too. Abrasion of teeth (abrasio dentium is the loss of dental hard tissue caused by friction between the teeth and exogenous foreign substance. It is most commonly provoked by prosthetic dentures and bad habits, while its effect depends on the size of abrasive particles and their amount, abrasive particle hardness and hardness of tooth

  9. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex” cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex��� in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL- 250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.

  10. Transforming Anaerobic Adhesives into Highly Durable and Abrasion Resistant Superhydrophobic Organoclay Nanocomposite Films: A New Hybrid Spray Adhesive for Tough Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Brown, Andrea; Steele, Adam; Loth, Eric

    2009-12-01

    The authors report fabrication of tough nanostructured self-cleaning superhydrophobic polymer-organoclay films from anaerobic acrylic adhesives displaying strong adhesion to metal surfaces. Both industrial and bio-grade anaerobic adhesives such as bone cements could be used. Montmorillonite clay filled anaerobic adhesives were modified by blending with a water dispersed fluoro-methacrylic latex in solution to form abrasion resistant interpenetrating polymer network films upon spray casting. The adhesive films could cure by thermosetting in oxygen-rich environments. Very high contact angles with low hysteresis were also measured for acidic (pH 2) and basic (pH 11) aqueous buffer solutions indicating resistance to acidic and basic media.

  11. Mechanical properties and wear and corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Sun Chufeng; Gao Ping; Zhou Feng; Liu Weimin

    2006-01-01

    Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coatings with various contents of SiC nano-particulates were prepared by electrodeposition in a Ni-Co plating bath containing SiC nano-particulates to be co-deposited. The influences of the nanoparticulates concentration, current density, stirring rate and temperature of the plating bath on the composition of the coatings were investigated. The shape and size of the SiC nano-particulates were observed and determined using a transmission electron microscope. The polarization behavior of the composite plating bath was examined on a PAR-273A potentiostat/galvanostat device. The wear behavior of the Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coatings was evaluated on a ball-on-disk UMT-2MT test rig. The worn surface morphologies of the Ni-Co/SiC nanocomposite coatings were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion behavior of the nanocomposite coatings was evaluated by charting the Tafel curves of the solution of 0.5 mol L -1 NaCl at room temperature. It was found that the cathodic polarization potential of the composite electrolyte increased with increasing SiC concentration in the plating bath. The microhardness and wear and corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite coatings also increased with increasing content of the nano-SiC in the plating bath, and the morphologies of the nanocomposite coatings varied with varying SiC concentration in the plating bath as well. Moreover, the co-deposited SiC nano-particulates were uniformly distributed in the Ni-Co matrix and contributed to greatly increase the microhardness and wear resistance of the Ni-Co alloy coating

  12. Optimizing Wear Resistance and Impact Toughness in High Chromium Iron Mo-Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Verma, R. S.; Murty, G. M. D.

    2009-06-01

    An alloy with carbon and chromium in the range of 2.0 to 2.5% and 20 to 25%, respectively, with the addition of Mo and Ni in the range of 1.0 to 1.5% each when heat-treated at a quenching temperature of 1010 °C and tempering temperature of 550 °C produces a hardness in the range of 54 to 56 HRC and a microstructure that consists of discontinuous bands of high volume (35-40%) of wear resistant primary (eutectic) carbides in a tempered martensitic matrix with uniformly dispersed secondary precipitates. This alloy has been found to possess adequate impact toughness (5-6 J/cm2) with a wear resistance of the order of 3-4 times superior to Mn steel and 1.25 times superior to martensitic stainless steel with a reduction in cost-to-life ratio by a factor of 1.25 in both the cases.

  13. The effect of chromium diffusion redistribution on wear resistance of carburized 3Kh13 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbedinskij, G.V.; Shumakov, A.I.; Zemskij, S.V.; Pereverzev, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    The redistribution of chromium in steel 3Kh13 on carburization in a high-activity carburizer and the wear-resistance of the steel have been investigated. Surface layers with an increased chromium concentration show the highest wear-resistance. The chromium content in the surface layer increases due to its diffusion from the interior. The distribution of carbon and chromium in the carburized layers has been studied with the aid of the radioactive isotope 14 C by the method of layer-by-layer spectral analysis on a vacuum quantometer, layer-by-layer chemical and X-ray structure analysis. The composition of the carbides has been determined by physicochemical analysis. It has been established that the carburized layer can be divided into four zones with respect to its phase composition: first zone - hematite and spinal with 0.5-2.0% C; second zone - solid carbides (Fe,Cr) 7 C 3 ; up to 5% C; third zone - globular carbides in a troostite matrix (Cr,Fe) 7 C 3 and Cr 23 C 6 ; up to 3.5% C; fourth, transitional, zone - troostite carbide mixture Cr 23 C 6 ; up to 1% C. The chromium diffusion in the carburized layer is faster than in the initial austenite. The chromium counterdiffusion is due to the development of a zone of solid carbides M 7 C 3

  14. Effect of laser modification of B-Ni complex layer on wear resistance and microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Aneta; Pertek, Aleksandra; Popławski, Mikołaj; Bartkowski, Dariusz; Przestacki, Damian; Miklaszewski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the results of microstructure observations, microhardness measurements and wear resistance tests of B-Ni complex layers. Boronickelizing is a three-step process of layer production on metallic substrate. Nickel modified boronized layers were called 'boronickelized'. Nickel plating was applied first and, as a result, nickel coatings with a varying thickness were obtained. Diffusion boronizing was carried out as a second step. Boronickelized layer was formed following the merger of galvanic and diffusion processes. In the third step the galvanic-diffusion boronickelized layer was obtained by remelting it with a CO2 laser beam. Galvanic-diffusion boronickelized layer had a dual-zone microstructure. The first zone was continuous and nickel-enriched, and characterized by reduced microhardness, whereas the second zone was characterized by needle-shaped microstructure, with microhardness similar to Fe2B iron borides. After laser modification steel specimens with the boronickelized layer consisted of remelted zone (MZ), heat affected zone (HAZ), and substrate. It was found that increasing the thickness of nickel coating leads to decreasing the microhardness of the remelted zone. Increasing thickness of nickel coating causes the reduction of wear resistance of boronickelized layer modified by laser beam. The application of a nickel coating thicker than 20 μm causes incomplete remelting of needle-shaped microstructure of boronickelized layer.

  15. Properties of P/M forged Al-Si alloys made by premixed powders. 1. Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance; Kongoho ni yotte sakuseishita Al-Si kei shoketsu tanzo gokin no tokusei. 1. Taimamosei ni oyobosu shosho Si no bunsan jotai to ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishijima, Z.; Ichikawa, J.; Sasaki, s.; Shikata, H. [Hitachi Powdered Metals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-15

    Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance of P/M Al-Si alloys using the prealloying method and premixing method have been investigated. As a result, discretely dispersed proeutectic Si showed excellent wear resistance in compassion with uniformly dispersed one. The cause is considered to be the unclosed Si soft phase which has been preferentially worn away, consequently acting on forming oil grooves and burying worn particles. Further more the existence of the optimum size of proeutectic Si on wear resistance was confirmed. In the case of finer particles, only Al-Si alloy (pin) was warned away substantially. On the other handgun the case of larger particles, both the Al-Si alloy (pin) and the mating malarial (steel disc) were excessively warned away. It is assumed therefore that the finer proeutectic Si particles are not effective as hard particles, on the contrary, larger proeutectic Si particles increase the abrasive wear against the mating material, and those buried into the mating material initiate wear of Al-Si alloy at the same time. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Wear resistance of Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 and AISI 420 coatings produced by thermal spray wire arc; Resistencia al desgaste de recubrimientos Fe-Nb-Cr-W, Nb, AISI 1020 y AISI 420 producidos por proyeccion termica por arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Covaleda, E. A.; Mercado-Veladia, J. L.; Olaya-Florez, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    The commercial materials 140MXC (with iron, tungsten, chrome, niobium), 530AS (AISI 1015 steel) and 560AS (AISI 420 steel) on AISI 4340 steel were deposited using thermal spray with arc. The aim of work was to evaluate the best strategy abrasive wear resistance of the system coating-substrate using the following combinations: (1) homogeneous coatings and (2) coatings depositing simultaneously 140MXC + 530AS and 140MXC + 560AS. The coatings microstructure was characterized using Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Laser con focal microscopy. The wear resistance was evaluated through dry sand rubber wheel test (DSRW). We found that the wear resistance depends on the quantity of defects and the mechanical properties like hardness. For example, the softer coatings have the biggest wear rates and the failure mode was characterized by plastic deformation caused by particles indentation, and the other hand the failure mode at the harder materials was grooving. The details and wear mechanism of the coatings produced are described in this investigation. (Author)

  17. Development of wear resistant NFSS-HA novel biocomposites and study of their tribological properties for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, M; Bahrololoom, M E; Fooladfar, H

    2010-02-01

    Implants made of nickel free austenitic stainless steel can reduce the toxic effect of released nickel ion and compounds from the conventional stainless steels. On the other hand, hydroxyapatite is a ceramic which has been used in orthopaedic applications due to its good osteoconductivity, biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, there is no evidence in the literature up to now on producing composites based on nickel free stainless steel and hydroxyapatite and study of their tribology. The aim of this work was to produce novel biocomposites made up of nickel free stainless steel with hydroxyapatite (prepared by heat treating bone ash) and studying their tribology under various loads in air and in Ringer's physiological solution. Different amounts of hydroxyapatite powder (10, 20, 30 and 40% Vol.) were added to this nickel free stainless steel powder to get the biocomposites. Variation of their density, hardness, wear resistance and friction with the ceramic (hydroxyapatite) content and wear load were investigated in air and in Ringer's solution. The density of the composites was decreased by increasing the volume percentage of the hydroxyapatite, while wear resistance of the composites was increased. The wear mechanism of these composites was changed by increasing the wear load and consequently the volume loss was enhanced dramatically. Furthermore, by increasing the sliding distance, the rate of volume loss was decreased slightly. The friction coefficient of the composites was also decreased by increasing the weight percentage of hydroxyapatite. Effect of the physiological Ringer's solution on wear resistance and friction coefficient of the composites was nearly negligible. The wear mechanisms of the samples were identified by studying the SEM images of the worn surfaces of the tested samples in different wear loads and HA contents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical and wear properties of pre-alloyed molybdenum P/M steels with nickel addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanoglu R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the effect of nickel addition on mechanical and wear properties of molybdenum and copper alloyed P/M steel. Specimens with three different nickel contents were pressed under 400 MPa and sintered at 1120ºC for 30 minutes then rapidly cooled. Microstructures and mechanical properties (bending strength, hardness and wear properties of the sintered specimens were investigated in detail. Metallographical investigations showed that the microstructures of consolidated specimens consist of tempered martensite, bainite, retained austenite and pores. It is also reported that the amount of pores varies depending on the nickel concentration of the alloys. Hardness of the alloys increases with increasing nickel content. Specimens containing 2% nickel showed minimum pore quantity and maximum wear resistance. The wear mechanism changed from abrasive wear at low nickel content to adhesive wear at higher nickel content.

  19. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  20. Investigation on wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electron beam cladding co-alloy coating on Inconel617

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hailang; Zhang, Guopei; Huang, Yiping; Qi, Zhengwei; Wang, Bo; Yu, Zhibiao; Wang, Dezhi

    2018-04-01

    To improve surface properties of Inconel 617 alloy (referred to as 617 alloy), co-alloy coating metallurgically bonded to substrate was prepared on the surface of 617 alloy by electron beam cladding. The microstructure, phase composition, microhardness, tribological properties and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated. The XRD results of the coatings reinforced by co-alloy (Co800) revealed the presence of γ-Co, CoCx and Cr23C6 phase as matrix and new metastable phases of Cr2Ni3 and Co3Mo2Si. These hypoeutectic structures contain primary dendrites and interdendritic eutectics. The metallurgical bonding forms well between the cladding layer and the matrix of 617 alloy. In most studied conditions, the co-alloy coating displays a better hardness, tribological performance, i.e., lower coefficient of frictions and wear rates, corrosion resistance in 1 mol L‑1 HCl solution, than the 617 alloy.

  1. Splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks as a function of dry bulk specific gravity and ultrasonic pulse velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haktanir, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Portland cement concrete paving blocks are widely used in many countries. These paving blocks come in a variety of designs with names such as "Interlocking" and "Italian Flower", and are manufactured with special machinery using rather high quality concrete having a compressive strength of about 50 MPa. Concrete blocks are employed instead of natural cobble stones for essentially economic reasons. The laboratoiy equipment required to measure paving block splitting strength and abrasion resistance, two of the chief properties to be tested in quality checks, is costly and the tests are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The present paper reports on a detailed experimental study performed to relate the splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks to "dry bulk specific gravity" (DBSG and "ultrasonic pulse velocity" (UPV, respectively. Statistically significant regression equations describing the dependence of splitting strength on DBSG and abrasion resistance on UPV were obtained with data from random samples of material provided by seven different manufacturers.

    RESUMEN Los bloques para pavimentos (adoquines elaborados con hormigón se utilizan habitualmente en numerosos países. Estos bloques de pavimentación se diseñan de diversas formas, como por ejemplo "Entrelazado " ("Interlocking " o "Flor Italiana " ("Italian Flower"; se fabrican con maquinaria especial y con frecuencia se utiliza hormigón de la más alta calidad, con resistencia a la compresión de alrededor de 50 MPa. La razón de utilizar bloques de hormigón en lugar de bloques de piedra natural es básicamente económica. Los equipos de laboratorio necesarios para medir la resistencia a la compresión y a la abrasión -dos de las propiedades más importantes para determinar la calidad de los bloques en estudio- son costosos y los ensayos requieren tiempo y mano de obra considerables. En el presente trabajo se exponen ensayos experimentales

  2. [Influences of composition on brush wear of composite resins. Influences of particle size and content of filler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, S

    1990-07-01

    The influences of the composition on abrasion resistance of composite resins were examined using various experimental composite resins which had various matrix resin, filler size and content. The abrasion test was conducted by the experimental toothbrush abrasion testing machine developed in our laboratory. Three series of heat-curing composite resins were tested. One series was made from a Bis-MPEPP or UDMA monomer, and a silica filler with an average particle size of 0.04, 1.9, 3.8, 4.3, 7.5, 13.8 and 14.1 microns. The filler content of this series was constant at 45 wt%. The second series contained a silica filler of 4.3 microns in a content ranging from 35 to 75 wt%. The third series contained a microfiller (0.04 microns) and macrofiller (4.3 microns) in total content of 45 wt%. In this series, the microfiller was gradually replaced by 5, 15, 25 and 45 wt% of the macrofiller. The results obtained for these three series indicated that the abrasion resistance of composite resins was controlled by the inorganic filler, mainly filler size and content. The abrasion loss did not vary with the difference of matrix resin. When the particle size of the filler was below about 5 microns, the abrasion resistance decreased markedly with the decrease in filler size. The composite resin which contained a 0.04 or 1.9 micron filler was less resistant to toothbrush wear than the unfilled matrix resin. However, the microfiller also contributed to abrasion resistance when used in combination with the macrofiller, although abrasion resistance decreased with the increase in the microfiller concentration. The increase of filler content clearly improved the abrasion resistance when used the macrofiller. The analysis of these results and SEM observations of the brushed surfaces of samples suggested that the toothbrush abrasion was three-body abrasion caused by the abrasive in the toothpaste, and affected by the difference in the particle size between abrasive and filler, and between

  3. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  4. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  5. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  6. Ultrananocrystalline diamond film as a wear resistant and protective coating for mechanical seal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumant, A.V.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Auciello, O.; Erdemir, A.; Williams, M.; Artiles, A.F.; Adams, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical shaft seals used in pumps are critically important to the safe operation of the paper, pulp, and chemical process industry, as well as petroleum and nuclear power plants. Specifically, these seals prevent the leakage of toxic gases and hazardous chemicals to the environment and final products from the rotating equipment used in manufacturing processes. Diamond coatings have the potential to provide negligible wear, ultralow friction, and high corrosion resistance for the sliding surfaces of mechanical seals, because diamond exhibits outstanding tribological, physical, and chemical properties. However, diamond coatings produced by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibit high surface roughness (R a ≥ 1 μm), which results in high wear of the seal counterface, leading to premature seal failure. To avoid this problem, we have developed an ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film formed by a unique CH 4 /Ar microwave plasma CVD method. This method yields extremely smooth diamond coatings with surface roughness R a = 20-30 nm and an average grain size of 2-5 nm. We report the results of a systematic test program involving uncoated and UNCD-coated SiC shaft seals. Results confirmed that the UNCD-coated seals exhibited neither measurable wear nor any leakage during long-duration tests that took 21 days to complete. In addition, the UNCD coatings reduced the frictional torque for seal rotation by five to six times compared with the uncoated seals. This work promises to lead to rotating shaft seals with much improved service life, reduced maintenance cost, reduced leakage of environmentally hazardous materials, and increased energy savings. This technology may also have many other tribological applications involving rolling or sliding contacts.

  7. On the influence of Ti-Al intermetallic coating architecture on mechanical properties and wear resistance of end mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, E. L.; Budilov, V. V.; Ramazanov, K. N.; Ataullin, Z. R.

    2017-07-01

    Thin-film wear-resistant coatings are widely used to increase life and efficiency of metal cutting tools. This paper shows the results of a study on the influence of architecture (number, sequence and thickness of layers) of wear-resistant coatings on physical, mechanical and operational properties of end mills. Coatings consisting of alternating Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N layers of equal thickness demonstrated the best physical and mechanical properties. Durability of coated tools when processing materials from chromium-vanadium steel increased twice as compared to uncoated tools.

  8. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Min

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains.Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated.The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes.Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings.

  9. Effect of vanadium of mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminium grain refined by Ti+B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Hamid, A.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that aluminum and its alloys are industrially grain refined by adding either Ti or Ti-B to improve their mechanical behavior and surface finish. In a previous paper, it was found that the grain refining efficiency of aluminum master alloys containing Ti or Ti+B was enhanced by addition of small amounts of other elements including vanadium. V. Therefore, it is anticipated that such an element will improve mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In this paper, the effect of vanadium addition, up to 0.3% on mechanical behavior is investigated. Machinability was assessed under different cutting conditions: speed, feed and depth of cut and finally the wear resistance was determined at different loads and speeds. The results indicated that improvement in hardness and mechanical strength were achieved by the addition of V that addition of more than 0.2%V resulted in little or no improvement. Similarly, addition of V resulted in improvement of surface quality under the different cutting conditions of speed, feed and depth of cut, and resistance to wear. However addition of more than 0.2% V resulted in increase of wear rate and change of wear mechanisms. (author)

  10. Wear resistance of nano- and micro-crystalline diamond coatings onto WC-Co with Cr/CrN interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Barletta, Massimiliano, E-mail: barletta@ing.uniroma2.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Cristofanilli, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    Cr/CrN bi-layers have been used recently to promote the growth of high quality Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) diamond coatings onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-6 wt.%Co) substrates. In the present investigation, the influence of the crystalline size of the diamond coatings on their wear endurance is looked into. Nano- (NDC) and micro-crystalline Diamond Coatings (MDC) were deposited by HFCVD onto untreated and Fluidized Bed (FB) treated Cr/CrN interlayers. NDCs, characterized by a cauliflower-like morphology, showed improved wear resistance. However, the superimposition of NDCs onto Cr/CrN interlayers micro-corrugated by FB treatment was found to be the most promising choice, leading to the formation of highly adherent and wear resistant coatings.

  11. Characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloys after a thermal treatment for high wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagna, C.; Spriano, S.; Faga, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloys are characterized by a high resistance to wear and corrosion, as well as good mechanical properties, allowing their use in the substitution of hip and knee joints. Five alloys were used as substrates for a coating deposition by a thermal treatment in molten salts, as reported elsewhere, in order to form a tantalum‐rich coating on the sample surface, able to improve the biocompatibility and wear resistance of the materials. However, the temperature (970 °C), reached during this process, is considered critical for the phase transformation of the Co-based alloys. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature effects on the structure, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the considered substrates, after the removal of the coating by polishing. The substrates are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and profilometry. The mechanical behavior is evaluated by the macro- and micro-hardness and bending tests, whereas the tribological properties are analyzed through a ball on disc test. A comparison between the as-received alloys and thermal treated substrates is reported. The biocompatibility feature is not reported in this work. The substrate crystalline structure changed during the heat treatment, inducing the formation of the hexagonal cobalt phase and the decrement of the cubic one. This crystallographic modification does not seem to influence the tribological behavior of the substrates. On the contrary, it affects the strength and ductility of the substrates. - Highlights: ► Effect of a thermal treatment on different CoCrMo alloys suitable for hip and knee joint substitution. ► The temperature induced an increment in the amount of hexagonal phase and a change in the grain size. ► The increment of the hexagonal phase decreases the hardness of the substrates but not the tribological properties.

  12. Improved dental implant drill durability and performance using heat and wear resistant protective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; İlday, Serim; Bengu, Erman

    2018-03-02

    Dental implant drilling procedure is an essential step for implant surgery and frictional heat appeared in bone during drilling is a key factor affecting the success of an implant. The aim of this study is to increase the dental implant drill lifetime and performance using heat- and wear-resistant protective coatings hence to decrease the alveolar bone temperature caused by the dental implant drilling procedure. Commercially obtained stainless steel drills were coated with titanium aluminum nitride, diamond-like carbon, titanium boron nitride, and boron nitride coatings via magnetron-sputter deposition. Drilling procedure was performed on a bovine femoral cortical bone under the conditions mimicking clinical practice, where the tests were performed both under water-assisted cooling and under the conditions without any cooling was applied. Coated drill performances and durabilities were compared to that of three commonly used commercial drills which surfaces are made from namely; zirconia, black diamond and stainless steel. Protective coatings with boron nitride, titanium boron nitride and diamond-like carbon have significantly improved drill performance and durability. Especially boron nitride-coated drills have performed within safe bone temperature limits for 50 drillings even without any cooling is applied. Titanium aluminium nitride coated drills did not show any improvement over commercially obtained stainless steel drills. Surface modification using heat and wear resistant coatings is an easy and highly effective way to improve implant drill performance and durability, which can reflect positively on surgical procedure and healing period afterwards. The noteworthy success of different types of coatings is novel and likely to be applicable to various other medical systems.

  13. Effect of Ni Addition on the Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-20Cr-1.7C-1Si Hardfacing Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Seon Jin

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance of Fe-20Cr-1.7C-1Si hardfacing alloy without a loss of wear resistance, the effect of Ni addition was investigated. As expected, the corrosion resistance of the alloy increased with increasing Ni concentration. The wear resistance of the alloy did not decrease, even though the hardness decreased, up to Ni concentration of 5 wt.%. This was attributed to the fact that the decrease in hardness was counterbalanced by the strain-induced martensitic transformation. The wear resistance of the alloy, however, decreased abruptly with increases of the Ni concentration over 5 wt.%.

  14. Preparation and Wear Resistance of Aluminum Composites Reinforced with In Situ Formed TiO/Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Q. D.; Huang, B. W.; Li, W.; Zeng, Z. Y.

    2016-05-01

    An in situ TiO/Al2O3-reinforced Al composite is successfully prepared using a powder metallurgy route by the reaction of Ti2CO and Al powder. The Ti2CO powder is produced by carrying out a carbothermic reduction of titanium dioxide at 1000 °C. XRD results show that the final product is composed of Al, TiO, Al2O3, and Al3Ti. Morphology examination of the composite reveals the presence of bigger blocks of TiO and fine particles of Al2O3 and the volume fraction of reinforcement is found to range between 18 and 55%. As the volume fraction of the reinforced materials approaches 50%, the particles start to agglomerate. Dry sliding wear tests conducted using a conventional pin-on-disk testing machine show that the wear resistance of the composite is higher than that of the pure aluminum ingot. The wear rate of the composite increases almost linearly with the increase in the wear distance. The sliding wear test shows that as the volume fraction of the reinforced phase increases, the coefficient of friction decreases. The wear mechanism is also discussed.

  15. Experimental studies of resistance fretting-wear of fuel rods for VVER-1000 and TVS-KVADRAT fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, V.; Afanasiev, A.; Egorov, Yu.; Matvienko, I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper covers the results of the studies performed to justify the wear resistance of fuel rods in contact with the spacer grids of TVS VVER-1000 fuel assembly and TVS-KVADRAT square fuel assembly of Russian design for PWR-900 reactor. The presented results of three testing stages comprise: Testing of mockup fuel rods of VVER TVS fuel assembly for fretting wear under the conditions of the water chemistry of VVER reactor; Testing models of different design embodiments of the fuel rods for VVER TVS fuel assembly for fretting wear in still cold water; Testing mockup fuel rods of TVS-KVADRAT square fuel assembly for PWR reactor for frettingwear under the conditions of PWR water chemistry. The effect of structural and operational factors was determined (amplitudes, fuel rod vibration frequencies, values of cladding-to-spacer grid cell gap for the depth of fuel rod cladding wear etc.), an assessment was made of the threshold values of fuel rod vibration parameters, which, if not exceeded, provide the absence of the fuel rod cladding fretting wear in the fuel rod-to spacer grid contact area. Key words: fretting wear, fuel rod, spacer grid, VVER, PWR (author)

  16. EFECT OF PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION TREATEMENT IN THE WEAR RESISTANCE OF Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepka, Susana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the evaluation of wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII in different immersion times. The goal of this process was the modification of surface properties of the alloy to obtain better tribology properties. In this process, atoms can be injected on the material´s surface changing the mechanical properties in the region near the surface independently of thermodynamics variables, as solubility and difusivity. The samples were submitted to 120 e 180 minutes of implantation at 250°C in the three samples for each condition. The wear analyses were made by pin-on-disk process, where the lost volumes and wear coefficients were compared in the samples. It was observed the decreasing of attrite coefficient and the lost volume of the material during wear test. The implanted sample by 180 minutes has showed the wear coefficient 35.12% lower in comparison of the sample without treatment, and 11.09% lower in comparison of implanted sample by 120 minutes. It can be observed that the sample implanted by 180 minutes showed lower wear coefficient.

  17. Microstructure Characterization and Wear-Resistant Properties Evaluation of an Intermetallic Composite in Ni–Mo–Si System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyuan Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic compounds have been studied for their potential application as structural wear materials or coatings on engineering steels. In the present work, a newly designed intermetallic composite in a Ni–Mo–Si system was fabricated by arc-melting process with commercially pure metal powders as starting materials. The chemical composition of this intermetallic composite is 45Ni–40Mo–15Si (at %, selected according to the ternary alloy diagram. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and the wear-resistant properties at room temperature were evaluated under different wear test conditions. Microstructure characterization showed that the composite has a dense and uniform microstructure. XRD results showed that the intermetallic composite is constituted by a binary intermetallic compound NiMo and a ternary Mo2Ni3Si metal silicide phase. Wear test results indicated that the intermetallic composite has an excellent wear-resistance at room-temperature, which is attributed to the high hardness and strong atomic bonding of constituent phases NiMo and Mo2Ni3Si.

  18. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer

  19. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  20. Evaluation of Skid Resistance of Wearing Course Made Of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixture in Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the comparison of skid resistance of wearing course made of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) mixtures which differ in resistance to polishing of coarse aggregate. Dolomite, limestone, granite and trachybasalt were taken for investigation. SMA mixtures have the same nominal size of aggregate (11 mm) and very similar aggregate particle-size distribution in mineral mixtures. Tested SMA11 mixtures were designed according to EN 13108-5 and Polish National Specification WT-2: 2014. Evaluation of the skid resistance has been performed using the FAP (Friction After Polishing) test equipment also known as the Wehner/Schulze machine. Laboratory method enables to compare the skid resistance of different types of mixtures under specified conditions simulating polishing processes. Tests were performed on both the specimens made of each coarse aggregate and SMA11 mixtures containing these aggregates. Measuring of friction coefficient μm was conducted before and during polishing process up to 180 0000 passes of polishing head. Comparison of the results showed differences in sensitivity to polishing among particular mixtures which depend on the petrographic properties of rock used to produce aggregate. Limestone and dolomite tend to have a fairly uniform texture with low hardness which makes these rock types susceptible to rapid polishing. This caused lower coefficient of friction for SMA11 mixtures with limestone and dolomite in comparison with other test mixtures. These significant differences were already registered at the beginning of the polishing process. Limestone aggregate had lower value of μm before starting the process than trachybasalt and granite aggregate after its completion. Despite the differences in structure and mineralogical composition between the granite and trachybasalt, slightly different values of the friction coefficient at the end of polishing were obtained. Images of the surface were taken with the optical microscope for better

  1. Wear resistance and electronic structure of cutting tool materials on a basis carbides of tungsten and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhkin, A.A.; Ilyasov, V.V.; Lyulko, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The tool materials durability problem, in particular shock and wear resistance, has allowed to formulate a set of requirements and also to stablish the dependence between physical properties and wear. However, for understanding the nature of the process, for example determining the tribological property of the cutting tool, it is necessary to consider the atom interactions in a crystal. A theoretical study of the physical properties of cutting tool materials (W-Ti-C) with varying concentration of titanium is presented. Total and partial local electronic density for each atom in such hard solutions were calculated. (nevyjel)

  2. Wear-resistance investigation of electro-screen coatings obtained using electroerosive powders of micro and nanofractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, E. V.; Altukhov, A. Yu; Malneva, Yu V.; Novikov, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The results of the wear resistance investigation of electro sparking coatings, applied using electrode material from electroerosive powders of hard alloy VK-8 (90%) with the addition of powder of high-speed steel of grade R6M5 (10%), are presented. Electro spark coatings were formed on samples of 30KhGSA steel using these electrodes and installation UR-121. The coefficient of friction and the wear rate of the surface of the sample and counterbody were measured on an automated friction machine “Tribometer” (CSM Instruments, Switzerland), controlled by a computer, according to the standard “ball-disk” test scheme.

  3. Fabrication of wear-resistant silicon microprobe tips for high-speed surface roughness scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Yu, Feng; Doering, Lutz; Völlmeke, Stefan; Brand, Uwe; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Silicon microprobe tips are fabricated and integrated with piezoresistive cantilever sensors for high-speed surface roughness scanning systems. The fabrication steps of the high-aspect-ratio silicon microprobe tips were started with photolithography and wet etching of potassium hydroxide (KOH) resulting in crystal-dependent micropyramids. Subsequently, thin conformal wear-resistant layer coating of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was demonstrated on the backside of the piezoresistive cantilever free end using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method in a binary reaction sequence with a low thermal process and precursors of trimethyl aluminum and water. The deposited Al2O3 layer had a thickness of 14 nm. The captured atomic force microscopy (AFM) image exhibits a root mean square deviation of 0.65 nm confirming the deposited Al2O3 surface quality. Furthermore, vacuum-evaporated 30-nm/200-nm-thick Au/Cr layers were patterned by lift-off and served as an etch mask for Al2O3 wet etching and in ICP cryogenic dry etching. By using SF6/O2 plasma during inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, micropillar tips were obtained. From the preliminary friction and wear data, the developed silicon cantilever sensor has been successfully used in 100 fast measurements of 5- mm-long standard artifact surface with a speed of 15 mm/s and forces of 60-100 μN. Moreover, the results yielded by the fabricated silicon cantilever sensor are in very good agreement with those of calibrated profilometer. These tactile sensors are targeted for use in high-aspect-ratio microform metrology.

  4. Machinability and scratch wear resistance of carbon-coated WC inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazhanivel, B., E-mail: palcecri@yahoo.co.in; Kumar, T. Prem; Sozhan, G.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cemented WC inserts were coated with carbon by CVD. • The deposits were either loosely held MWCNTs or adherent carbides. • Co-efficient of friction (ramp load; 1–13 N); 0.2 and 0.1 μ, respectively, for the uncoated and carbide-coated inserts. • The carbide-coated insert exhibited better machinability and surface finish than a commercial TiCN-coated insert. - Abstract: In this work, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) inserts were coated with nanocarbons/carbides by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their machinability and scratch wear resistance were investigated. The hardness and surface conditions of the WC substrate were studied before and after coating. The CVD-generated nanocarbons on the insert surfaces were examined by SEM, FE-SEM and TEM. The electron microscopic images revealed that the carbons generated were multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbides depending on the experimental conditions. In both the cases, the cutting edges of the inserts had dense deposits. Scratch wear test with the coated inserts showed that the co-efficient of friction was 0.1 μ as against 0.2 μ for the uncoated inserts under a ramp load of 1–13 N. The machinability characteristics of commercially available TiCN-coated inserts and the carbon-coated WC inserts were compared by using a CNC machine and a Rapid I vision inspection system. It was found that the carbide-coated inserts exhibited machinability with better surface finish comparable to that of the TiCN-coated inserts while the MWCNT-coated inserts showed inferior adhesion properties.

  5. Wear behavior of niobium carbide coated AISI 52100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Kleber Nascimento de; Lombardi Neto, Amadeu; Totten, George Edward

    2010-01-01

    Bearing steels must have high hardness, good wear resistance and dimensional stability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of NbC coating, produced using the thermo-reactive deposition (TRD) process, on the wear resistance of the AISI 52100 steel. Untreated AISI 52100 samples were ground up to 600 mesh emery paper. The bath was composed of 5wt.% ferroniobium (65 wt.% Nb), 3wt.% aluminum and (Na2B4O7) to 100%. Samples were treated at 1000 deg C for 4h and quenched in oil directly from the bath. The resulting layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a micro-abrasive wear testing. The thermo-reactive deposition process in molten borax produced a hard and homogeneous layer composed by NbC, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The NbC coating produced a great increase in the wear resistance of the AISI 52100 steel, decreasing the wear rate by an order of magnitude in relation to the substrate. For coated and uncoated samples the worn volume and wear rate increases with the load. (author)

  6. Self-assembled thin film of imidazolium ionic liquid on a silicon surface: Low friction and remarkable wear-resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusain, Rashi; Kokufu, Sho; Bakshi, Paramjeet S.; Utsunomiya, Toru; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Khatri, Om P.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ionic liquid thin film is deposited on a silicon surface via covalent interaction. • Chemical and morphological features of ionic liquid thin film are probed by XPS and AFM. • Ionic liquid thin film exhibited low and steady friction along with remarkable wear-resistivity. - Abstract: Imidazolium-hexafluorophosphate (ImPF_6) ionic liquid thin film is prepared on a silicon surface using 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane as a bifunctional chemical linker. XPS result revealed the covalent grafting of ImPF_6 thin film on a silicon surface. The atomic force microscopic images demonstrated that the ImPF_6 thin film is composed of nanoscopic pads/clusters with height of 3–7 nm. Microtribological properties in terms of coefficient of friction and wear-resistivity are probed at the mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.35–0.6 GPa under the rotational sliding contact. The ImPF_6 thin film exhibited low and steady coefficient of friction (μ = 0.11) along with remarkable wear-resistivity to protect the underlying silicon substrate. The low shear strength of ImPF_6 thin film, the covalent interaction between ImPF_6 ionic liquid thin film and underlying silicon substrate, and its regular grafting collectively reduced the friction and improved the anti-wear property. The covalently grafted ionic liquid thin film further shows immense potential to expand the durability and lifetime of M/NEMS based devices with significant reduction of the friction.

  7. The fabrication, nano/micro-structure, heat- and wear-resistance of the superhydrophobic PPS/PTFE composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhao, Jingyan; Zhu, Youzhuang; Meng, Yang; Zhu, Yanji

    2013-07-15

    A simple engineering method was used to fabricate stability and wear-resistance of superhydrophobic PPS-based PPS/PTFE surfaces through nano/micro-structure design and modification of the lowest surface energy groups (-CF2-), which was inspired by the biomimic lotus leaves. The hydrophobic properties and wear-resistance of the coatings were measured by a contact angle meter and evaluated on a pin-on-disk friction and wear tester, respectively. Moreover, the surfaces of the PPS/PTFE composite coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Results showed that the highest contact angle of the PPS/PTFE surface, with papillae-like randomly distributed double-scale structure, could reach up to 162°. When 1 wt.% PDMS was added, the highest contact angle could hold is 172°. The coatings also retained superhydrophobicity, even under high temperature environment. The investigation also indicated that the coatings were not only superhydrophobic but also oleophobic behavior at room temperature, such as the crude oil, glycerol, and oil-water mixture. The PPS/45%PTFE coatings had more stable friction coefficient and excellent wear-resistance (331,407 cycles) compared with those with less than 45% of PTFE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zheng, Xueping; Geng, Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe 3 B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  9. Advanced KSNP fuel, plus7 : grid-to-rod fretting wear resistance of the plus7 spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Yong Hwan; Jang, Young Ki; Choi, Joon Hyung

    2003-01-01

    Vibration-induced grid-to-rod fretting wear initiates at a certain critical gap correlated with a critical work rate. A critical gap between grid and rod forms due to in-reactor performance of fuel, thermal relaxation of grid spring and irradiation growth of grid strap, etc. A critical work rate may be generated by three vibration mechanisms proposed in this paper. Three vibration mechanisms have been derived with various fretting wear experience in commercial reactors as well as various out-of-pile hydraulic test results. The first active vibration mechanism is high turbulence-induced excessive fuel rod vibration with the combination of excessive grid-to-rod gap. The second active vibration mechanism is self-excited fuel assembly vibration in a low frequency range caused by hydraulically unbalanced mixing vanes of the spacer grid assembly. The third active vibration mechanism is self-excited spacer grid strap vibration in quite a high frequency range caused by some spacer grid designs. In this study, each vibration mechanism on the grid-to-rod fretting wear damage is discussed. On the other hand, the effects of various grid designs on the fretting wear damage in the commercial reactors are predicted using the long-term fretting wear test results. It is found that the larger grid-to-rod initial contact area generates the less fretting wear damage. Consequently the conformal spring of PLUS7 is superior to typical convex shaped spring with regard to fretting wear resistance since the former generates relatively larger contact area than the latter

  10. Enhancement of the Wear Resistance and Microhardness of Aluminum Alloy by Nd:YaG Laser Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham T. Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray florescence analysis (EDS, optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4 : 1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment.

  11. Wear Assessment of Fe-TiC/ZrC Hardfacing Produced from Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corujeira-Gallo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct conversion of oxides into carbides during plasma transferred arc welding is a promising processing route to produce wear resistant overlays at low cost. In the present study, Fe-TiC and Fe-ZrC composite overlays were produced by carbothermic reduction of TiO2 and ZrO2 during plasma transferred arc deposition. The overlays were characterised by optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The microstructure consisted of small TiC and ZrC evenly dispersed in a pearlitic matrix. The Vickers microhardness was measured and low-stress abrasion tests were conducted. The results showed increased hardness and promising wear resistance under low-stress abrasion conditions.

  12. Study of wear mechanism of chopped fiber reinforced epoxy composite filled with graphite and bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nitinchand; Prasad, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    The combined effect of graphite and sintered bronze with a short glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites was investigated in this work. A pin on disc wear test was carried out to study the wear behaviour and mechanism of the composites. The objective of this work is to develop an alternate friction resistance material for the application of sliding bearing. It was observed that the addition of sintered bronze improved mechanical and thermal stability of the composites as bronze has low contact resistance with graphite and has high thermal conductivity. It was observed from the test results that increased volume percentage of graphite and presence of bronze are play significant role in wear mechanism of the composites. It was observed from the scanning electronic microscopes (SEM) that the abrasive and adhesive wear mechanism was prominent in this study. It was also evident from the result that the frictional force remains stable irrespective of the applied normal load.

  13. Estudo comparativo da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo do revestimento de três ligas metálicas utilizadas na indústria, aplicadas por soldagem com arames tubulares Comparative study of the wear resistance of three metal cored wire welded coatings used in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinícius de Melo Leite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As ligas metálicas aplicadas por soldagem em superfícies, objetivando a proteção contra o desgaste e o conseqüente aumento da vida útil de peças e equipamentos, têm sido utilizadas em larga escala nas indústrias de bens de consumo e nos setores de mineração e sucroalcooleiro. O desgaste abrasivo em peças e equipamentos representa, nestas industriais, um dos principais fatores de depreciação de capital e uma importante fonte de despesas com manutenção. Para a aplicação do revestimento por soldagem, os arames tubulares têm sido uma alternativa cada vez mais viável, devido à sua alta produtividade e qualidade de solda, substituindo, em parte, o uso do eletrodo revestido. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer um estudo comparativo da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo do revestimento aplicado por soldagem com arames tubulares autoprotegidos de três ligas metálicas utilizadas na indústria, uma do tipo Fe-Cr-C, outra do tipo Fe-Cr-C com adição de nióbio e boro e a terceira, do tipo Fe-Cr-C com adição de nióbio. Os revestimentos anti-desgaste, conhecidos como revestimento duro, foram aplicados em chapas de aço carbono, com os mesmos parâmetros e procedimentos de soldagem. Os corpos de prova foram obtidos por corte e retificação e foram submetidos a ensaios de desgaste abrasivo, em um abrasômero Roda de Borracha, conforme procedimento estabelecido pela norma ASTM G65-91. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a liga Fe-Cr-C com adição de Nióbio e Boro apresentou desempenho superior em relação ao desgaste abrasivo.The metal alloys deposited by welding on the components surface, with the objective of protection against wear and the consequent increase in the lifetime of parts and equipments, have been used extensively in the consumer products industry and sectors of Mining and Sugar & alcohol. The abrasive wear on parts and equipments represents one of the main depreciation factors of capital and the major source of

  14. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  15. Tribaloy intermetallic alloy compositions: new materials or additives for wear resistant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.B.; Hoffman, R.A.; Poskitt, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Properties and uses of TRIBALOY alloys in powder metallurgy fabrication are discussed. Powders of TRIBALOY can be blended with essentially any powder processed by powder metallurgy. Green strength of the blended powder parts is reduced as the amount of TRIBALOY is increased. The concentration of TRIBALOY, however, is usually 15 to 20 volume percent, a compromise between green strength and effectiveness as a wear resistant part. Blended powders are sintered at the temperature normally used for the base metal with special consideration given to a low dew point in the atmosphere. The sintered parts can be coined, carburized, machined, or impregnated in any of the well-known ways. TRIBALOY as a powder blending agent has extended the useful life of P/M parts by factors of 5 and more. A variety of industries are presently using P/M parts at higher temperatures, heavier loads, in poorer or non-lubricated conditions or at higher speeds because of the addition of TRIBALOY. More important, however, is that TRIBALOY can be incorporated in parts to be made by powder metallurgy which until now had not been feasible. The overall effect has been considerable savings for the customer by switching to the powder metal method of manufacturing and increased activity for the fabricator

  16. Characterisation of WC-12Co thermal spray powders and HPHVOF wear resistant coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lovelock, HDL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available were selected for the deposition of thermal spray coatings using the JP 5000 high pressure high velocity oxyfuel (HPHVOF) system. Dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tests were performed on the coatings in order to determine the effect of powder...

  17. Use of dentifrices to prevent erosive tooth wear: harmful or helpful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is the loss of dental hard tissues caused by non-bacterial acids. Due to acid contact, the tooth surface becomes softened and more prone to abrasion from toothbrushing. Dentifrices containing different active agents may be helpful in allowing rehardening or in increasing surface resistance to further acidic or mechanical impacts. However, dentifrices are applied together with brushing and, depending on how and when toothbrushing is performed, as well as the type of dentifrice and toothbrush used, may increase wear. This review focuses on the potential harmful and helpful effects associated with the use of dentifrices with regard to erosive wear. While active ingredients like fluorides or agents with special anti-erosive properties were shown to offer some degree of protection against erosion and combined erosion/abrasion, the abrasive effects of dentifrices may increase the surface loss of eroded teeth. However, most evidence to date comes from in vitro and in situ studies, so clinical trials are necessary for a better understanding of the complex interaction of active ingredients and abrasives and their effects on erosive tooth wear.

  18. Patients presenting with miliaria while wearing flame resistant clothing in high ambient temperatures: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Anisa M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clothing can be a cause of occupational dermatitis. Frequent causes of clothing-related dermatological problems can be the fabric itself and/or chemical additives used in the laundering process, friction from certain fabrics excessively rubbing the skin, or heat retention from perspiration-soaked clothing in hot working environments. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of miliaria rubra associated with prolonged use of flame resistant clothing in the medical literature. Case presentation We report 18 cases (14 men and 4 women, with an age range of 19 to 37 years of moderate to severe skin irritation associated with wearing flame resistant clothing in hot arid environments (temperature range: 39 to 50°C, 5% to 25% relative humidity. We describe the medical history in detail of a 23-year-old Caucasian woman and a 31-year-old African-American man. A summary of the other 16 patients is also provided. Conclusions These cases illustrate the potential serious nature of miliaria with superimposed Staphylococcus infections. All 18 patients fully recovered with topical skin treatment and modifications to their dress ensemble. Clothing, in particular blend fabrics, must be thoroughly laundered to adequately remove detergent residue. While in hot environments, individuals with sensitive skin should take the necessary precautions such as regular changing of clothing and good personal hygiene to ensure that their skin remains as dry and clean as possible. It is also important that they report to their health care provider as soon as skin irritation or rash appears to initiate any necessary medical procedures. Miliaria rubra can take a week or longer to clear, so removal of exposure to certain fabric types may be necessary.

  19. The friction and wear of γ-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, B.J.; Ni, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The exposure of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to γ radiation significantly reduces the molecular weight but below the gross softening temperature suppresses the overall molecular domain mobility. The shear modulus and creep resistance increase but the toughness is reduced. Data are presented to substantiate these trends and to interpret their influence on the friction and wear of γ-damaged PTFE. The sliding friction on smooth rigid counterfaces increases but the wear in this configuration is decreased. The rate of abrasion on rough rigid counterfaces is increased. There is also an improvement in the ultimate load-bearing capacity. All the changes produced are a function of the exposure but most of the effects are fully manifested by 20 Mrad. The general conclusion is that the extent of the molecular mobility or migration induced by mechanical stresses, imposed in both the interface and the bulk of the polymer, has a critical effect on the friction and wear processes. (Auth.)

  20. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  1. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  2. Influence of Corrosion on the Abrasion of Cutter Steels Used in TBM Tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallargas, N.; Jakobsen, P. D.; Langmaack, L.; Macias, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abrasion on tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutters may be critical in terms of project duration and costs. Several researchers are currently studying the degradation of TBM cutter tools used for excavating hard rock, soft ground and loose soil. So far, the primary focus of this research has been directed towards abrasive wear. Abrasive wear is a very common process in TBM excavation, but with a view to the environment in which the tools are working, corrosion may also exert an influence. This paper presents a selection of techniques that can be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on abrasion on TBM excavation tools. It also presents the influence of corrosion on abrasive wear for some initial tests, with constant steel and geomaterial and varying properties of the excavation fluids (soil conditioners, anti-abrasion additives and water). The results indicate that the chloride content in the water media greatly influences the amount of wear, providing evidence of the influence of corrosion on the abrasion of the cutting tools. The presence of conditioning additives tailored to specific rock or soil conditions reduces wear. However, when chloride is present in the water, the additives minimise wear rates but fail to suppress corrosion of the cutting tools.

  3. The effects of vanadium on the microstructure and wear resistance of centrifugally cast Ni-hard rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Minwoo; Suh, Yongchan; Oh, Yong-Jun; Lee, Young-Kook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • V addition changed the pro-eutectic phase from austenite to vermicular (V,Nb)C. • Pro-eutectic (V,Nb)C particles were segregated to the inner part of the roll. • Wear loss was inversely proportional to MC fraction under the same graphite fraction. • Cementite particles acted as the initiation site and propagation path of cracks. • High-temperature wear sequence of centrifugally cast Ni-hard rolls was suggested. - Abstract: The effects of V on the microstructure and wear resistance of centrifugally cast Ni-hard rolls are investigated under a constant fraction of graphite using electron microscopes and a revolving disk-type high-temperature wear tester. The volume fraction of (V,Nb)C particles was increased at the expense of the volume fraction of cementite with an increase in the V concentration. However, the volume fraction of graphite was held nearly constant by controlling the concentration ratio of Si and Cr. As the V concentration was higher than 3 wt.%, the pro-eutectic phase was changed from austenite to (V,Nb)C carbide. The pro-eutectic vermicular (V,Nb)C particles were segregated to the inner part of the roll during centrifugal casting. The wear resistance was improved with an addition of V due to the high volume fractions of the coarse eutectic and pro-eutectic (V,Nb)C particles and the precipitation hardening of fine (V,Nb)C particles in the martensitic matrix. The worn surface showed that cementite particles acted as the initiation site and propagation route of cracks

  4. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  5. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Fretting wear studies for evaluating the contact damages of nuclear fuel rods have been focused on the contact shape, rod motion, contact condition, environment, etc.. However, fretting wear mechanism was dramatically changed with slight variation of test variables such as test environments and contact shapes. For example, in an unlubricated condition, effects of wear debris and/or its layer on the fretting wear mechanism showed that the formation of a well-developed layer on the contact surfaces has a beneficial effect for decreasing a friction coefficient. Otherwise, a severe wear was happened due to a third body abrasion. In addition, in water lubrication condition, some of wear debris was remained on worn surface of fuel rod specimens at both sliding and impacting loading conditions. So, it is apparent that a wear rate of fuel rod specimen was easily accelerated by the third-body abrasion. This is because the restrained agglomeration behavior between generated wear particles results in rapid removal of wear debris and its layer. In case of contact shape effects, previous studies show that wear debris are easily trapped between contact surfaces and its debris layer was well developed in a localized area especially in a concave spring rather than a convex spring shape. Consequently, localized wear was happened at both ends of a concave spring and center region of a convex spring. So, it is useful for determining the fretting wear resistance of spacer gird spring and dimple by using part unit in the various lubricated conditions. It is well known that the fretting wear phenomenon of nuclear fuel rod is originated from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to the rapid primary coolant. This means that both rod vibration and debris removal behavior were affected by flow fields around the contact regions between fuel rod and spring/dimple. However, all most of the fretting tests were performed by simulating rod vibrating motions such as axial vibration, conservative rod

  6. Experimental research on microhardness and wear resistances of pure Cu subjected to surface dynamic plastic deformation by ultrasonic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoxia; He, Yangming

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) has been induced in the surface of pure Cu by ultrasonic impact treating (UIT) with the varied impact current and coverage percentage. The microstructures of the treated surface were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). And the wear resistance of pure Cu was experimentally researched both with the treated and untreated specimens. The effect of DPD on the hardness was also investigated using microhardness tester. The results show that the grains on the top surfaces of pure Cu are highly refined. The maximum depth of the plastic deformation layer is approximately 1400 µm. The larger the current and coverage percentage, the greater of the microhardness and wear resistance the treated surface layer of pure Cu will be. When the impact current is 2 A and coverage percentage is 300%, the microhardness and wear resistance of the treated sample is about 276.1% and 68.8% higher than that of the untreated specimen, respectively. But the properties of the treated sample deteriorate when the UIT current is 3 A and the coverage percentage is 300% because of the formation of a new phase forms in the treated surface.

  7. Effect of the low temperature ion nitriding on the wear and corrosion resistance of 316L austenitic stainless steel biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Bambang Siswanto; Wirjoadi; Lely Susita RM

    2012-01-01

    In the present study has been completed done the ion nitriding process and characterization of the 316L SS samples. The ion nitriding process has been conducted on the samples for nitriding temperature variation of 350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 °C, the optimum nitrogen gas pressure of 1.8 mbar and optimum nitriding time of 3 hours. The micro-structure, elemental composition and the phase structure of the nitride layer formed on the surface of samples were observed using the techniques of SEM-EDAX and XRD, respectively. It is known that a thin layer of iron nitrides has been formed on the surface of the samples. Iron nitride layer has a phase structure including ε-Fe_2_-_3N, γ'-Fe_4N, CrN, Cr_2N and expanded austenite γN. The characterization results of the wear resistance of the 316L SS samples showed an increasing of about 2.6 times the wear resistance of standard samples after nitriding temperature of 350 °C. From the corrosion test by using the Hanks solution was obtained 29.87 mpy corrosion rate or the increasing of corrosion resistance of about 137%. Thus it can be seen that by using ion nitriding technique the iron nitride layer has been formed on the surface of the 316L SS samples, and they have an excellent properties of wear resistance and corrosion resistance, which were caused especially due to the formation of an expanded austenite γN. Properties of the high hardness and has the good corrosion resistance, especially due to the formation of iron nitride and expanded austenite phases γN at low temperature nitriding process. (author)

  8. Effects of sintering temperature on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of WCp reinforced Ni-based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-hui; Bai, Yang; Ye, Xu-chu

    2014-12-01

    This article focuses on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of 50wt%WC reinforced Ni-based composites prepared onto 304 stainless steel substrates by vacuum sintering at different sintering temperatures. The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by thrust washer testing. The mechanisms of the decomposition, dissolution, and precipitation of primary carbides, and their influences on the wear resistance have been discussed. The results indicate that the coating sintered at 1175°C is composed of fine WC particles, coarse M6C (M=Ni, Fe, Co, etc.) carbides, and discrete borides dispersed in solid solution. Upon increasing the sintering temperature to 1225°C, the microstructure reveals few incompletely dissolved WC particles trapped in larger M6C, Cr-rich lamellar M23C6, and M3C2 in the austenite matrix. M23C6 and M3C2 precipitates are formed in both the γ/M6C grain boundary and the matrix. These large-sized and lamellar brittle phases tend to weaken the wear resistance of the composite coatings. The wear behavior is controlled simultaneously by both abrasive wear and adhesive wear. Among them, abrasive wear plays a major role in the wear process of the coating sintered at 1175°C, while the effect of adhesive wear is predominant in the coating sintered at 1225°C.

  9. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Song; Wang, Fei; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingliang; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~ 500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  10. Study on torsional fretting wear behavior of a ball-on-socket contact configuration simulating an artificial cervical disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Fei [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liao, Zhenhua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Wang, Qingliang [School of Material Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Liu, Yuhong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Weiqiang, E-mail: weiqliu@hotmail.com [Biomechanics and Biotechnology Lab, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-01

    A ball-on-socket contact configuration was designed to simulate an artificial cervical disk in structure. UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) hot pressed by powders and Ti6Al4V alloy were selected as the material combination of ball and socket. The socket surface was coated by a ~ 500 nm C-DLC (carbon ion implantation-diamond like carbon) mixed layer to improve its surface nano hardness and wear resistance. The torsional fretting wear behavior of the ball-on-socket model was tested at different angular displacements under 25% bovine serum lubrication with an axial force of 100 N to obtain more realistic results with that in vivo. The fretting running regimes and wear damage characteristics as well as wear mechanisms for both ball and socket were studied based on 2D (two dimension) optical microscope, SEM (scanning electron microscope) and 3D (three dimension) profiles. With the increase of angular displacement amplitude from 1° to 7°, three types of T-θ (Torsional torque-angular displacement amplitude) curves (i.e., linear, elliptical and parallelogram loops) corresponding to running regimes of PSR (partial slip regime), MR (mixed regime) and SR (slip regime) were observed and analyzed. Both the central region and the edge zone of the ball and socket were damaged. The worn surfaces were characterized by wear scratches and wear debris. In addition, more severe wear damage and more wear debris appeared on the central region of the socket at higher angular displacement amplitude. The dominant damage mechanism was a mix of surface scratch, adhesive wear and abrasive wear for the UHMWPE ball while that for the coated socket was abrasive wear by PE particles and some polishing and rolling process on the raised overgrown DLC grains. The frictional kinetic behavior, wear type, damage region and damage mechanism for the ball-on-socket model revealed significant differences with those of a ball-on-flat contact while showing better consistency with that of in

  11. Improving of Water Resistance of Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Using Latex-Bitumen Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Henri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that presence of water in a bituminous mix is a critical factor which can lead to premature failure of flexible pavements. This requires solutions one of which is to formulate an asphalt mix that has a high resistance to moisture and one way to do this is to mix latex with the asphalt mix. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of water on Marshall stability of asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC made with a latex-bitumen binder. Latex-bitumen was mixed with aggregate and four levels of latex content were investigated in this study, namely, 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% respectively by weight of asphalt. Wet procces was used in the blending of mixtures. The procedure used to obtain the optimum binder contents conformed to the Marshall procedure (SNI 06-2489-1991. Six Marshall specimens at optimum binder content were prepared for each binder mix investigated. Three of six specimens from each group were tested under Marshall standards. The remaining specimens were tested by immersion in a bath at 60°C for 24 hours. The Marshall index of retained stability was used to evaluate the effect of water on the Marshall stability of ACWC. The results indicated that the addition of up to 4% latex to ACWC mix increased the retained Marshall stability, whereas the addition of latex above 4% decreased the retained stability of the mixture. The addition of 4% CRM significantly improved the retained stability of the mixture and was the best latex – ACWC mix.

  12. Self-assembled thin film of imidazolium ionic liquid on a silicon surface: Low friction and remarkable wear-resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusain, Rashi [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India); Kokufu, Sho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Bakshi, Paramjeet S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Utsunomiya, Toru; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Khatri, Om P., E-mail: opkhatri@iip.res.in [CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, Mohkampur, Dehardun 248005 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ionic liquid thin film is deposited on a silicon surface via covalent interaction. • Chemical and morphological features of ionic liquid thin film are probed by XPS and AFM. • Ionic liquid thin film exhibited low and steady friction along with remarkable wear-resistivity. - Abstract: Imidazolium-hexafluorophosphate (ImPF{sub 6}) ionic liquid thin film is prepared on a silicon surface using 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane as a bifunctional chemical linker. XPS result revealed the covalent grafting of ImPF{sub 6} thin film on a silicon surface. The atomic force microscopic images demonstrated that the ImPF{sub 6} thin film is composed of nanoscopic pads/clusters with height of 3–7 nm. Microtribological properties in terms of coefficient of friction and wear-resistivity are probed at the mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.35–0.6 GPa under the rotational sliding contact. The ImPF{sub 6} thin film exhibited low and steady coefficient of friction (μ = 0.11) along with remarkable wear-resistivity to protect the underlying silicon substrate. The low shear strength of ImPF{sub 6} thin film, the covalent interaction between ImPF{sub 6} ionic liquid thin film and underlying silicon substrate, and its regular grafting collectively reduced the friction and improved the anti-wear property. The covalently grafted ionic liquid thin film further shows immense potential to expand the durability and lifetime of M/NEMS based devices with significant reduction of the friction.

  13. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on Co-free amorphous material cladding using a laser beam to improve the resistance of primary system parts in NPPs to wear/erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Woo, S. S.; Seo, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    A study on Co-free amorphous material, ARMACOR M, cladding using a laser beam has been performed to improve resistance of the primary system main parts on nuclear power plants to wear/erosion-corrosion. The wear/erosion-corrosion properties of ARMACRO M cladded speciemens were characterized in air at room temperature and 300 .deg. C and in air at room temperature, and compared to those of other hardfacing materials, such as Stellite 6, NOREM 02, Deloro 50, TIG-welde or laer cladded. According to the results, ARMACOR M laser-cladded specimen showed to have the highest resistance to wear/erosion-corrosion

  15. Effects of applying an external magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment on the corrosion resistance and wear behavior of 1.2080 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Amini, Kamran; Javadpour, Sirus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deep cryogenic increases the carbide percentage and make a more homogenous distribution. ► Deep cryogenic improve the wear resistance and corrosion behavior of 1.2080 tool steel. ► Applying the magnetic field weaker the carbide distribution and decreases the carbides percentage. ► Magnetized samples showed weaker corrosion and wear behavior. -- Abstract: This work concerns with the effect of applying an external magnetic field on the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and microstructure of 1.2080 (D2) tool steel during the deep cryogenic heat treatment. These analyses were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ay diffraction (XRD) to study the microstructure, a pin-on-disk wear testing machine to study the wear behavior, and linear sweep voltammetry to study the corrosion behavior of the samples. It was shown that the deep cryogenic heat treatment eliminates retained austenite and makes a more uniform carbide distribution with higher percentage. It was also observed that the deep cryogenic heat treatment improves the wear behavior and corrosion resistance of 1.2080 tool steel. In comparison between the magnetized and non-magnetized samples, the carbide percentage decreases and the carbide distribution weakened in the magnetized samples; subsequently, the wear behavior and corrosion resistance attenuated compared in the magnetized samples.

  16. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnologies -- Terminology and definitions for nano-objects -- Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate Definitions Abrasion - wearing away...ER D C SR -1 6- 2 Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2...ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies ERDC SR-16-2 April 2016

  17. Imposed Thermal Fatigue and Post-Thermal-Cycle Wear Resistance of Biomimetic Gray Cast Iron by Laser Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Deping; Chen, Zhikai; Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to create coupling biomimetic units on gray cast iron substrate by laser surface treatment (LST). LSTs for single-step (LST1) and two-step (LST2) processes, were carried out on gray cast iron in different media (air and water). Their effects on microstructure, thermal fatigue, and post-thermal-cycle wear (PTW) resistance on the specimens were studied. The tests were carried out to examine the influence of crack-resistance behavior as well as the biomimetic surface on its post-thermal-cycle wear behavior and different units, with different laser treatments for comparison. Results showed that LST2 enhanced the PTW behaviors of gray cast iron, which then led to an increase in its crack resistance. Among the treated cast irons, the one treated by LST2 in air showed the lowest residual stress, due to the positive effect of the lower steepness of the thermal gradient. Moreover, the same specimen showed the best PTW performance, due to its superior crack resistance and higher hardness as a result of it.

  18. Comparison of performance coatings thermally sprayed subject to testing adhesive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, G.F.; Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R. da

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes and wear resistance adhesive coatings obtained from powders thermally sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were evaluated. Based coatings chrome-nickel and tungsten-cobalt are applied in conditions subject to intense wear especially abrasive. With the aim of evaluate the performance of these coatings under conditions of adhesive wear, these coatings samples were tested by the standard ASTM G99. As test parameters were used: Tungsten carbide pin (SAE 52100) with 6 mm diameter, normal load of 50N and a tangential velocity of 0.5 m / s. The worn surfaces of the coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the performance front wear is related to the conditions of adhesion and uniformity of the coating applied. (author)

  19. Effect of CeO₂ on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TiC Bioinert Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Defu; Wu, Fan; Wang, Haojun

    2017-12-31

    To solve the lack of wear resistance of titanium alloys for use in biological applications, various prepared coatings on titanium alloys are often used as wear-resistant materials. In this paper, TiC bioinert coatings were fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding using mixed TiC and ZrO₂ powders as the basic pre-placed materials. A certain amount of CeO₂ powder was also added to the pre-placed powders to further improve the properties of the TiC coatings. The effects of CeO₂ additive on the phase constituents, microstructures and wear resistance of the TiC coatings were researched in detail. Although the effect of CeO₂ on the phase constituents of the coatings was slight, it had a significant effect on the microstructure and wear resistance of the coatings. The crystalline grains in the TiC coatings, observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), were refined due to the effect of the CeO₂. With the increase of CeO₂ additive content in the pre-placed powders, finer and more compact dendrites led to improvement of the micro-hardness and wear resistance of the TiC coatings. Also, 5 wt % content of CeO₂ additive in the pre-placed powders was the best choice for improving the wear properties of the TiC coatings.

  20. Effect of CeO2 on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TiC Bioinert Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    To solve the lack of wear resistance of titanium alloys for use in biological applications, various prepared coatings on titanium alloys are often used as wear-resistant materials. In this paper, TiC bioinert coatings were fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding using mixed TiC and ZrO2 powders as the basic pre-placed materials. A certain amount of CeO2 powder was also added to the pre-placed powders to further improve the properties of the TiC coatings. The effects of CeO2 additive on the phase constituents, microstructures and wear resistance of the TiC coatings were researched in detail. Although the effect of CeO2 on the phase constituents of the coatings was slight, it had a significant effect on the microstructure and wear resistance of the coatings. The crystalline grains in the TiC coatings, observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), were refined due to the effect of the CeO2. With the increase of CeO2 additive content in the pre-placed powders, finer and more compact dendrites led to improvement of the micro-hardness and wear resistance of the TiC coatings. Also, 5 wt % content of CeO2 additive in the pre-placed powders was the best choice for improving the wear properties of the TiC coatings. PMID:29301218

  1. Study on the wear of TiN/Ti duplex and multilayer coatings in microabrasion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M; De Las Heras, E; Ruelas, R; Rodriguez, E; Bautista, A; Pazos, L; Corengia, P

    2008-01-01

    Ionic nitriding, on steels, is used to harden the surface of components improving resistance to corrosion and wear and increasing the stress life. Duplex treatments are an alternative for resolving the limitations of very hard coatings on less hard substrates. In this case the duplex treatment consists of an ionic nitriding treatment followed by a single or multilayer coatings deposited by means of the PVD technique. This work presents the influence of the variation in the severity of contact on the kind of wear present in the microabrasion test used to measure the wear coefficient of duplex coatings, consisting of a layer nitrided by DC-pulsed plasma plus TiN coatings and multilayers of TiN/Ti deposited on non-nitrided and nitrided AISI 316L stainless steel and H13 steel. The severity of contact was modified by varying the charge (0.25 to 1 N). The abrasives used were a suspension of 0.1μm diameter diamond particles and a suspension of an average 5 μm diameter aluminum particles. The influence of the presence of relatively soft metallic layers on the determination of the wear coefficient was analyzed in the metal-ceramic multilayers. Two sphere revolving speeds of de 0.05 and 0.154 m/s were used on two microabrasion machines: one commercial and the other built in the UdeG laboratory. The wear marks were photographed and measured with an optic microscope. The value of the critical charge at which the transition occurs between the methods of wear of the substrates and the nitrited samples was determined. Resistance to the AISI 316L steel's microabrasive wear increases with the ionic nitriding treatment. The duplex coatings increase resistance to the wear from the nitrited samples. The wear resistance of the samples with multilayer coatings surpassed that of the duplex samples with multilayer coatings. The greater resistance of the multilayers may be explained by an increase in the resistance to the fracture and not by a increase in surface hardness. The transition

  2. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  3. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  4. Dry sliding wear behaviour of Al-12Si-4Mg alloy with cerium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasyida, A.S.; Daud, A.R.; Ghazali, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the effect of cerium addition on wear resistance behaviour of as-cast alloys. Al-12Si-4 Mg alloys with 1-5 wt% cerium addition were prepared using the casting technique. A sliding wear test was carried out under applied loads of 10 N, 30 N and 50 N at a fixed sliding speed of 1 m/s using a pin-on-disc configuration. The wear test was conducted in dry conditions at room temperature of ∼25 o C. Detailed analysis of the microstructure, worn surface, collected debris and microhardness was undertaken in order to investigate the differences between the as-cast alloys with different levels of cerium addition. The addition of 1-5 wt% cerium was found to lead to the precipitation of intermetallic phases (Al-Ce), resulting a needle-like structures. Increasing cerium content up to 2 wt% improved both wear resistance and microhardness of as-cast alloys. Addition of more than 2 wt% cerium, however, led to a decrease in microhardness, resulting in lower wear resistance of the alloys. Moderate wear was observed at all loads, with specific wear rates (K') ranging from 6.82 x 10 -5 with 2 wt% Ce at applied load of 50 N to 21.48 x 10 -5 mm 3 /N m without added Ce at an applied load of 10 N. Based on K' ranges, the as-cast alloys exhibited moderate wear regimes, and the mechanism of wear is a combination of abrasion and adhesion. Alloy containing 2 wt% Ce, with the highest hardness and lowest K' value, showed the greatest wear resistance.

  5. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Neha, E-mail: neha87bhu@gmail.com [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E. [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS{sub 2} and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS{sub 2} and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  6. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Neha; Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E.; Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS_2) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS_2 and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS_2 and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  7. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neha; Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E.

    2016-05-01

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS2) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS2 and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS2 and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  8. Cleaning, abrasion, and polishing effect of novel perlite toothpaste abrasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to optimize perlite particle size and morphology for better tooth cleaning and lower tooth abrasion, and to evaluate the performance of a whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive for tooth cleaning, abrasion, and polishing. Perlite toothpaste abrasive samples were prepared by air classifying a commercial expanded perlite product. The tooth cleaning and abrasion properties for these classified perlite samples were reported via the pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) and relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Performance of the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive in tooth cleaning, polishing, and abrasion was evaluated against a widely used synthetic high-cleaning silica. Air classification removes large perlite particles and also physically changes perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two dimensional and platy particles. All the classified samples show good tooth cleaning effect, but tooth abrasion decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive (PerlClean) is slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion, and significantly better at tooth polishing. Fine platy perlite particles are effective in tooth cleaning with low tooth abrasion. The enhanced performance of optimized perlite toothpaste abrasive compared to high-cleaning silica in a whitening toothpaste is attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

  9. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Composite Coating by Laser Cladding Al/TiN on the Ti-6Al-4V Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. X.; Yu, H. J.; Chen, C. Z.

    2015-05-01

    The composite coatings were fabricated by laser cladding Al/TiN pre-placed powders on Ti-6Al-4V substrate for enhancing wear resistance and hardness of the substrate. The composite coatings were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The sliding wear tests were performed by MM200 wear test machine. The hardness of the coatings was tested by HV-1000 hardness tester. After laser cladding, it was found that there was a good metallurgical bond between the coating and the substrate. The composite coatings were mainly composed of the matrix of β-Ti (Al) and the reinforcements of titanium nitride (TiN), Ti3Al, TiAl and Al3Ti. The hardness and wear resistance of the coatings on four samples were greatly improved, among which sample 4 exhibited the highest hardness and best wear resistance. The hardness of the coating on sample 4 was approximately 2.5 times of the Ti-6Al-4V substrate. And the wear resistance of sample 4 was four times of the substrate.

  10. A Study on Corrosion and Fretting Wear Resistance of Alloy 690 Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Ju Jin; Min, Su Jung; Kim, Myeong Su; Kim, Kyu Tae [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this article, the effects of such failures have on the materials of alloy 690 are assessed. The corroded volume variation and mass decreased continuously with time. However, the oxide volume changes in an irregular pattern since the oxide formed on the alloy 690 metal may be detached due to the flake formation. The amount of the fretting wear increased with time. It can be seen that the wear rate increased with time and reduced at the later time. The test results show that the ductility decreased as corrosion increases. Alloy 690 is broadly used as a material of nuclear power plant's steam generator tubes because of its excellent mechanical strength, corrosion properties, wear properties and stability at a high temperature. However, the tubes for nuclear power plant's steam generators become a major threat for lifetime management and efficient operation of nuclear power plant due to various corrosion and fretting wear failures caused by flow-induced vibration (FIV) that occurs between tubes.

  11. Improvement of wear resistance of machine elements by plasma spraying followed by hardening in the chlorine-barium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.V.; Stepanov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed is the mathematical model, allowing to choose the optimal regime of sprayed coating hardening in the BaCl 2 salt melt. The method of hardening of machine elements by spraying wear resistance coatings of the Ni-Cr-B-Si alloys is described. It is established that diffusion heating followed by coating melting in the BaCl 2 solution increases the adhesion of sprayed layer to substrate metal. The formation of intermediate intermetallic compounds of the Ni 3 Si and Ni 3 Fe types takes place as a result of diffusion of interacting material atoms and valence electron joining

  12. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    , the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus......This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...... is on environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....

  13. Increasing Wear Resistance of Titanium Alloys by Anode Plasma Electrolytic Saturation with Interstitial Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, P. N.; Kusmanov, S. A.; Dyakov, I. G.; Silkin, S. A.; Smirnov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    In our previous studies, we have shown that anode plasma electrolytic saturation of titanium alloys with nitrogen and carbon can improve their tribological properties. Obtained structure containing oxide layer and solid solution of diffused element in titanium promotes the enhancement of running-in ability and the decrease in the wear rate in some special cases. In this paper, further investigations are reported regarding the tribological properties of alpha- and beta-titanium alloys in wear test against hardened steel (50 HRC) disk using pin-on-disk geometry and balls of Al2O3 (6.25 mm in diameter) or bearing steel (9.6 mm in diameter) with ball-on-plate one and normal load from 5 to 209 N. Reproducible results were obtained under testing samples treated by means of the plasma electrolytic nitriding (PEN) with the mechanical removal of the oxide layer. Friction coefficient of nitrided samples is 0.5-0.9 which is somewhat higher than that for untreated one (0.48-0.75) during dry sliding against Al2O3 ball. An increase in the sliding speed results in the polishing of nitrided samples and reduction of their wear rate by 60 times. This result is obtained for 5 min at 850 °C using PEN in electrolyte containing 5 wt.% ammonia and 10 wt.% ammonium chloride followed by quenching in solution. Optical microscope was employed to assist in the evaluation of the wear behavior. Sizes of wear tracks were measured by profilometer TR200.

  14. Design and tailoring of Ni-Sn-W composites for bonded abrasive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourtoukova, G.L.; Demetry, C.; Biederman, R.R. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Program; Ramanath, S.; Andrews, R.M.; Jacobs, D.S. [Saint-Gobain/Norton Company, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-01-15

    The combination of properties ideal for metal bonds in abrasive products can rarely be achieved in a monolithic material. This research demonstrates a successful approach for producing a composite bond with higher elastic modulus without a significant increase in wear resistance, by taking advantage of the reaction between matrix and reinforcement to produce intermetallics. Composites comprised of a Ni-Sn matrix with continuous W fiber and/or W powder dispersoid were prepared by powder metallurgy methods. Composite specimens densified by hot pressing were characterized with a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, measurements of wear resistance, and measurements of Young's modulus and hardness by both bulk and nanoindentation methods. A significant stiffening effect was observed; the elastic modulus of the composites was up to 30% greater than that predicted by a rule of mixtures based on the moduli of the unreacted fiber and matrix constituents alone. As desired, the wear resistance of the composite was approximately equal to that of the Ni-Sn matrix. One contribution to this combination of properties is believed to be the high elastic moduli and likely low fracture toughness of the Ni-W and Ni-Sn intermetallics that are formed. Properties of the Ni-Sn-W composites are contrasted with those of a Ni-Sn matrix reinforced with WC particulate, where no reaction occurs at the interface. (orig.)

  15. Tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; He, L H; Lyons, K; Swain, M V

    2012-03-01

    Tooth wear has been recognised as a major problem in dentistry. Epidemiological studies have reported an increasing prevalence of tooth wear and general dental practitioners see a greater number of patients seeking treatment with worn dentition. Although the dental literature contains numerous publications related to management and rehabilitation of tooth wear of varying aetiologies, our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of tooth wear is still limited. The wear behaviour of dental biomaterials has also been extensively researched to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for the development of restorative materials with good wear resistance. The complex nature of tooth wear indicates challenges for conducting in vitro and in vivo wear investigations and a clear correlation between in vitro and in vivo data has not been established. The objective was to critically review the peer reviewed English-language literature pertaining to prevalence and aetiology of tooth wear and wear investigations in dentistry identified through a Medline search engine combined with hand-searching of the relevant literature, covering the period between 1960 and 2011. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. MICROSTRUCTURE AND WEAR RESISTANCE OF COMPOSITE COATING BY LASER CLADDING Al/TiN ON THE Ti–6Al–4V SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    H. X. ZHANG; H. J. YU; C. Z. CHEN

    2015-01-01

    The composite coatings were fabricated by laser cladding Al/TiN pre-placed powders on Ti–6Al–4V substrate for enhancing wear resistance and hardness of the substrate. The composite coatings were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The sliding wear tests were performed by MM200 wear test machine. The hardness of the coatings was tested by HV-1000 hardness tester. After laser cladding, it was found that there...

  17. The effect of laser treatment on the wear resistance of steel in corrosive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyatsko, G.V.; Porter, A.I.; Prejs, G.A.; Mojsa, M.I.

    1975-01-01

    The corrosion mechanical wearing properties of steel 45 treated with a laser beam (H 100 =7800 Mn/sq.m) under friction with nitrated steel 40KhNMA (HV=7000 Mn/sq.m), chrome cast iron Kh15M (hardened and low-temperature tempered, modified), perlite cast iron and bronze are studied. The aqueous buffers with pH=6 and 11 are used as a corrosion active media. In a weakly acid medium the most intensive wearing of steel 40KhNMA is observed at P=8 Mn/sq.m. Its wearing reduces due to increase of pressure to 12 Mn/sq.m. Extent of steel 45 wearing increases with pressure increase from 8 to 12 Mn/sg.m. Friction coefficient of this pair changes by jumps at an increase of normal pressure and its variation range is smaller than that observed in an alkaline medium. The maximum value of friction coefficient is shifted to the higher pressure. The wearing of cast iron Kh15M-steel 45 pair has an alternative pattern. In an alkaline medium the cast iron wearing intensity shows a linear increase with the normal contact pressure but that of the steel changes jumpwise attaining extreme at 8 and 12 Mn/sq.m. In a weak acid medium the intensity of grasping and graphitization at the friction surface of cast iron Kh15M-steel 45 pair is higher than that in the alkaline medium. Experiments demonstrate an effectiveness of the laser beam treatment of steel 45 for its friction in the alkaline medium with nitrated steel 40KhNMA and with hardened low-temperature tempered cast iron 45 under friction contact pressure as high as 8 Mn/sq.m, and in acid medium at 12 and 8 Mn/sq.m respectively. The laser treatment provides high corrosion-mechanical stability of steel 45 and the counterbodies described, as well as the low friction coefficient of these pairs

  18. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  19. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    Laser surfacing in the form of cladding, alloying, and modifications are gaining widespread use because of its ability to provide high deposition rates, low thermal distortion, and refined microstructure due to high solidification rates. Because of these advantages, laser surface alloying is considered a prime candidate for producing ultra-hard coatings through the establishment or in situ formation of composite structures. Therefore, a program was conducted by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the scientific and engineering basis for performing laser-based surface modifications involving the addition of hard particles, such as carbides, borides, and nitrides, within a metallic matrix for improved wear, fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This has involved the development of advanced laser processing and simulation techniques, along with the refinement and application of these techniques for predicting and selecting materials and processing parameters for the creation of new surfaces having improved properties over current coating technologies. This program has also resulted in the formulation of process and material simulation tools capable of examining the potential for the formation and retention of composite coatings and deposits produced using laser processing techniques, as well as positive laboratory demonstrations in producing these coatings. In conjunction with the process simulation techniques, the application of computational thermodynamic and kinetic models to design laser surface alloying materials was demonstrated and resulted in a vast improvement in the formulation of materials used for producing composite coatings. The methodology was used to identify materials and to selectively modify microstructures for increasing hardness of deposits produced by the laser surface alloying process. Computational thermodynamic calculations indicated that it was possible to induce the

  20. Surfactant-free electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide/copper composite coatings with enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Y. J.; Zhou, M. P.; Ling, H. J.; Chen, F. X.; Lian, W. Q.; Jie, X. H.

    2018-03-01

    How to uniformly disperse graphene sheets into the electrolyte is one of the main challenges to synthesize graphene enhanced nanocomposites by electrodeposition. A surfactant-free colloidal solution comprised of copper (II)-ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid ([CuIIEDTA]2-) complexes and graphene oxide (GO) sheets is proposed to electrodeposit reduced graphene oxide/copper (RGO/Cu) composite coatings. Anionic [CuIIEDTA]2- complexes stably coexist with negatively charged GO sheets due to the electrostatic repulsion between them, facilitating the electrochemical reduction and uniform dispersion of GO sheets into the copper matrix. The RGO/Cu composite coatings are well characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM and XPS. Their tribological behavior as a function of RGO content in composite coatings and normal loads are investigated. Also the chemical composition and topography of the wear tracks for the composite coatings are analyzed to deduce the lubricating and anti-wear mechanism of RGO/Cu composite coatings.

  1. Impact of UHMWPE texture on friction and wear resistance of hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene (UHMWPE is a polymer widely used in hip implants (prostheses as a bearing surface against metal, because of its good mechanical properties and biocompatibility [1]. Nevertheless, the durability of such implants is limited because of failure resulting from osteolysis and aseptic loosening. These two phenomenons are due to the immune response of human body consecutive to the apparition of wear particles of UHMWPE with time.

  2. Wear resistant composite structure of vitreous carbon containing convoluted fibers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, R.G.; Burton, R.A.

    1996-05-28

    Energy Related Inventions Program Number 613 was a two year program to commercialize a unique new wear material, Metal Reinforced Carbon Composite, MRCC. The program was designed to manufacture sample components of MRCC for evaluation by potential users and manufacturers. As a result of the program Burton Technologies Inc. and Rotary Power International are forming a joint company to manufacture, market and license MRCC materials to a wide range of industries.

  3. Influence of high sintering pressure on the microhardness and wear resistance of diamond powder and silicon carbide-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov Oleksandr Sergueevitch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported on here involved the development of several samples of "diamond-SiC" composite produced under sintering pressures of up to 9.0 GPa at temperatures of up to 1973 7K. The average size of the diamond micropowder crystals used was 40/28 µm. The sintering process was carried out in a 2500-ton hydraulic press equipped with an anvil-type high-pressure device having a toroidal work surface and a central concavity diameter of 20 mm. The microhardness and wear resistance of the samples were found to be dependent on the sintering pressure. The experimental results indicated that the maximum microhardness and minimum wear resistance coefficients of each compact were attained when the pressure applied during sintering exceeded 6.5 GPa. Based on the established values of pressure, this study served to identify the types of devices applicable for the manufacture of composite material inserts for a variety of rock drilling applications.

  4. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe Based Coatings by HVOF Sprayed on Gray Cast-Iron for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Priyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available FeSiNiCr and FeBCr alloy powders were designed with suitable compositions, gas atomized and then coated on gray cast-iron substrate. The microstructures of the feed stock Fe based alloy powders and the coatings were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In the present study, both the coating materials experienced two-body wear mechanisms. The results showed that for loads of 0.05 N, 0.1 N and 0.2 N, the wear resistance of FeBCr coating was less than FeSiNiCr by 44 %, 40 % and 31 %, respectively. The results indicated that the coated substrates exhibited lower corrosion current densities and lower corrosion rates, when placed in 20 wt.% H2SO4 solutions. In addition, the use of optimal spraying parameters/conditions gave improvements to the corrosion resistance of the substrates that had been treated with the crystalline coating.

  5. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao, E-mail: zsm@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Pingyu [Henan University, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials (China)

    2017-03-15

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  6. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  7. Wear resistance evaluation of palm fatty acid distillate using four-ball tribotester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshokouh, Iman; Ani, Farid Nasir; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    Petroleum reserves are declining nowadays while ironically petroleum is a major source of pollution despite many uses. Researchers are in effort to find an alternative to replace petroleum as a lubricant. One of the best replace sources for petroleum is bio-oil. In this paper, a comparative study of friction and wear was carried out using a fourball tester. In this research, Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) and Jatropha oil, two well-known oils from the vegetable family oils were compared with Hydraulic mineral oil and commercial mineral Engine oil. All investigated oils in this study are used in industries as lubricants. PFAD is a product from refined crude palm oil. It exists as a light brown solid at room temperature and Jatropa oil is produced from the seeds of the Jatropha cruces, a plant that grows in marginal lands. For the wear test, the experimental research condition was comparing four kind of oils with ASTM condition in which the load applied was 392N. The sliding speed was 1200rpm under the lubricant temperature of 75 degree Celsius. The experiment was run for 3600 seconds. The experimental results demonstrated that the PFAD and Jatropha oils exhibited better performance in term of friction and wear compared to Hydraulic and Engine mineral oils.

  8. High Kinetic Energy Penetrator Shielding and High Wear Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTS) and BNNT Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Bryant, Robert George (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphites, or combinations, are incorporated into matrices of polymer, ceramic or metals. Fibers, yarns, and woven or nonwoven mats of BNNTs are used as toughening layers in penetration resistant materials to maximize energy absorption and/or high hardness layers to rebound or deform penetrators. They can be also used as reinforcing inclusions combining with other polymer matrices to create composite layers like typical reinforcing fibers such as Kevlar.RTM., Spectra.RTM., ceramics and metals. Enhanced wear resistance and usage time are achieved by adding boron nitride nanomaterials, increasing hardness and toughness. Such materials can be used in high temperature environments since the oxidation temperature of BNNTs exceeds 800.degree. C. in air. Boron nitride based composites are useful as strong structural materials for anti-micrometeorite layers for spacecraft and space suits, ultra strong tethers, protective gear, vehicles, helmets, shields and safety suits/helmets for industry.

  9. Influence of halogen irradiance on short- and long-term wear resistance of resin-based composite materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhamra, Gurcharn S

    2009-02-01

    The Oregon Health Science University (OHSU) four-chamber oral wear simulator was used to examine the impact of halogen irradiance on the short- and long-term wear behavior of four-methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed was that exacerbated wear would occur following the long-term wear of RBCs irradiated under non-optimized irradiance conditions.

  10. Effect of low temperature annealing on the wear properties of NITINOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukunda, Sriram; Nath S, Narendra; Herbert, Mervin A.; Mukunda, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy is a wonder material that is a solution looking for problems. The material finds wide biomedical applications like endodontic files for root canal treatment and cardiovascular stents. This material has rendered the surgical procedure simple compared to that with the existing Stainless Steel (SS) or titanium ones. NiTi as an endodontic file would cause less discomfort to the patients in comparison to that with far stiffer SS or titanium ones. Here nearly equi-atomic 50:50 commercial NiTi rods were subjected to low temperature aging at 300 to 450°C. The wear resistance of the as-received and the heat-treated samples was studied using adhesive wear tests on hardened steel counter face. Abrasive wear tests were run against Alumina disc to simulate the working of endodontic drills and files against dental hard and soft tissues. The abrasive wear resistance is expected to be proportional to the Vickers Hardness of the material and is high for the 450°C heat-treated sample. A correlation between the mechanical properties and microstructures of this material is attempted (paper)

  11. Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Cr-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.; Mohan, L.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, V. Praveen; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anandan, C.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques has been employed to deposit chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel, silicon and glass substrates. The concentrations of Cr in the coatings are varied by changing the parameters of the bipolar pulsed power supply and the argon/acetylene gas composition. The coatings have been studied for composition, morphology, surface nature, nanohardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties. The changes in I D / I G ratio with Cr concentrations have been obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. Ratio decreases with an increase in Cr concentration, and it has been found to increase at higher Cr concentration, indicating the disorder in the coating. Carbide is formed in Cr-doped DLC coatings as observed from XPS studies. There is a decrease in sp 3/ sp 2 ratios with an increase in Cr concentration, and it increases again at higher Cr concentration. Nanohardness studies show no clear dependence of hardness on Cr concentration. DLC coatings with lower Cr contents have demonstrated better corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move toward nobler (more positive) values. A low coefficient of friction (0.15) at different loads is observed from reciprocating wear studies. Lower wear volume is found at all loads on the Cr-doped DLC coatings. Wear mechanism changes from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear on the coating.

  12. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytecnical University, Xian 710072 (China)], E-mail: xuyunhua@vip.163.com; Peng, J.H. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Xian 716000 (China); Fang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710049 (China)

    2008-06-15

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons.

  13. Nano-crystallization of steel wire and its wear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.H.; Peng, J.H.; Fang, L.

    2008-01-01

    As carbon steel wire is widely used in civil engineering and industry, it is quite important to increase its strength. In the present paper, a severe cold drawing approach is applied to increase strength and is shown to produce nano grains. With increasing true strain, the tensile strength increases continuously and the cementite flake thickness decreases correspondingly. It is observed by transmission electron microscopy that a significant amount of cementite flakes have been fragmented and dissolved at true strains. Finally, the grains are transformed to nano-sized crystals. Additionally, the cold drawn nano-sized steel wire has been knitted and filled with polyurethane to produce a composite material. Three-body abrasive wear tests show that the wear resistance of the test material is even better than that of high-Cr white cast irons

  14. Hydrophobicity attainment and wear resistance enhancement on glass substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization of mixtures of an aminosilane and a fluorocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.mugica@alum.unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Alba-Elías, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.alba@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Sainz-García, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.sainzg@unirioja.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, c/ Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola, E-mail: mpruiz@ing.uc3m.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, IAAB, Materials Performance Group, University Carlos III of Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911, Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • APTES and PFH were used to coat glass by non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma. • A mixture of 75% of APTES and 25% PFH produced the best sample of this work. • Hydrophobicity was achieved by changes in surface morphology and chemistry. • Wear resistance was enhanced by the formation of siloxane groups. - Abstract: Mixtures of different proportions of two liquid precursors were subjected to plasma-polymerization by a non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma system in a search for a coating that achieves a hydrophobic character on a glass substrate and enhances its wear resistance. 1-Perfluorohexene (PFH) was chosen as a low-surface-energy precursor to promote a hydrophobic character. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was chosen for its contribution to the improvement of wear resistance by the formation of siloxane bonds. The objective of this work was to determine which of the precursors’ mixtures that were tested provides the coating with the most balanced enhancement of both hydrophobicity and wear resistance, given that coatings deposited with fluorocarbon-based precursors such as PFH are usually low in resistance to wear and coatings deposited with APTES are generally hydrophilic. The coatings obtained were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), static Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements, tribological ball-on-disc tests and contact profilometry. A relationship between the achievement of a hydrophobic character and the modifications to roughness and surface morphology and the incorporation of fluorocarbon groups in the surface chemistry was observed. Also, it was seen that the wear resistance was influenced by the SiOSi content of the coatings. In turn, the SiOSi content appears to be directly related to the percentage of APTES used in the mixture of precursors. The best conjunction of

  15. Effect of SiC Content on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser Cladding SiC/Ni60A Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Long-zhi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The SiC reinforced Ni60A alloy laser cladding coating on the 45 steel substrate was fabricated with the LDM2500-60 semiconductor laser equipment. The effect of SiC content on microstructure, dilution rate, wear resistance, friction coefficient and microhardness was investigated systematically.The results show that with the increase of SiC content, the microstructure of upper coating is refined obviously, the dilution rate, wear resistance, friction coefficient and microhardness increase firstly and then decrease;when the mass fraction of SiC is 20%, the wear resistance of the cladding coating is the best one, in which the wear loss of coating is only 0.0012g and is 1/36.3 of the matrix;the minimum friction coefficient is 0.464, the friction process is the most stable;the highest microhardness of the cladding coating is 1039.9HV0.2, which is 3.5 times of the substrate;but when the mass fraction of SiC is 25%, the microhardness and wear resistance of coating decrease.

  16. Effects of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on the Wear Resistance and Mechanical Properties of AISI H13 Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Adem; Kara, Fuat; Kıvak, Turgay; Ekici, Ergün; Uygur, İlyas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a number of wear and tensile tests were performed to elucidate the effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the wear behavior and mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength) of AISI H13 tool steel. In accordance with this purpose, three different heat treatments (conventional heat treatment (CHT), deep cryogenic treatment (DCT), and deep cryogenic treatment and tempering (DCTT)) were applied to tool steel samples. DCT and DCTT samples were held in nitrogen gas at -145 °C for 24 h. Wear tests were conducted on a dry pin-on-disk device using two loads of 60 and 80 N, two sliding velocities of 0.8 and 1 m/s, and a wear distance of 1000 m. All test results showed that DCT improved the adhesive wear resistance and mechanical properties of AISI H13 steel. The formation of small-sized and uniformly distributed carbide particles and the transformation of retained austenite to martensite played an important role in the improvements in the wear resistance and mechanical properties. After cleavage fracture, the surfaces of all samples were characterized by the cracking of primary carbides, while the DCT and DCTT samples displayed microvoid formation by decohesion of the fine carbides precipitated during the cryo-tempering process.

  17. Sputter deposition and characterisation of hard wear-resistant Ti/TiN multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmonds, M.C.; Swygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Multilayered Ti/TiN thin films have been synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition. Alternating layers of Ti and TiN with layer thickness in the 5-50 nm range are sequentially deposited. The structure of the films have been characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and reflection and Auger depth profiling. The mechanical properties have been investigated using pin-on-disc wear rate testing, nanoindentation determination of hardness and micro scratch testing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  18. Fabrication of ZIF-8@SiO2 Micro/Nano Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surface on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Impressive Corrosion Resistance and Abrasion Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuiqing; Liu, Qi; Chen, Rongrong; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Liu, Peili; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-29

    Superhydrophobic coatings are highly promising for protecting material surfaces and for wide applications. In this study, superhydrophobic composites, comprising a rhombic-dodecahedral zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8@SiO 2 ), have been manufactured onto AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical etching and dip-coating methods to enhance stability and corrosion resistance. Herein, we report on a simple strategy to modify hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilan (HDTMS) on ZIF-8@SiO 2 to significantly improve the property of repelling water. We show that various liquids can be stable on its surface and maintain a contact angle higher than 150°. The morphologies and chemical composition were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR). In addition, the anticorrosion and antiattrition properties of the film were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization and HT, respectively. Such a coating shows promising potential as a material for large-scale fabrication.

  19. Effect of in-situ TiC particulate on the wear resistance of spray-deposited 7075 Al matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Liu Huimin; Yang Bin

    2005-01-01

    TiC reinforced 7075 Al matrix composites have been fabricated by a melt in-situ reaction spray deposition. The microstructures of spray-deposited alloys were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dry sliding wear behavior of the alloys was investigated using a pin-on-disc machine under four loads, namely 8.9, 17.8, 26.7 and 35.6 N. It has been found that the wear behavior of the alloys was dependent on the TiC content in the microstructure and the applied load. At a lower load (8.9 N), with increasing TiC content, the wear rate of the alloy was decreased. At a higher loads (26.7, 35.6 N), a spray-deposited 7075 Al alloy exhibited superior wear resistance to the 7075/TiC composites

  20. Effect of CeO2 on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TiC Bioinert Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Laser Cladding

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Defu; Wu, Fan; Wang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    To solve the lack of wear resistance of titanium alloys for use in biological applications, various prepared coatings on titanium alloys are often used as wear-resistant materials. In this paper, TiC bioinert coatings were fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding using mixed TiC and ZrO2 powders as the basic pre-placed materials. A certain amount of CeO2 powder was also added to the pre-placed powders to further improve the properties of the TiC coatings. The effects of CeO2 additive on the ph...

  1. The Effects of Rare Earth Pr and Heat Treatment on the Wear Properties of AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the influences of Pr addition and heat treatment (T6 on the dry sliding wear behavior of AZ91 alloy. The wear rates and friction coefficients were measured by using a pin-on-disc tribometer under loads of 30, 60 and 90 N at dry sliding speeds of 100 rpm, over a sliding time of 15 min. The worn surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope and was analyzed with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The experimental results revealed that AZ91-1.0%Pr magnesium alloy exhibited lower wear rate and friction coefficient than the other investigated alloys. As the applied load increased, the wear rate and friction coefficient increased. Compared with the as-cast AZ91-1.0%Pr magnesium alloy, the hardness and wear resistance of the alloy after solution treatment were reduced, and through the subsequent aging, the hardness and wear resistance of the alloy were improved and the hardness was 101.1 HB (compared to as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy, it increased by 45%. The AZ91-1.0%Pr with T6 magnesium alloy exhibited best wear resistance. Abrasion was dominant at load of 30 N, delamination was dominant at load of 60 N and plastic deformation was dominant at load of 90 N. Oxidation was observed at all loads.

  2. Monitoring of Non-Ferrous Wear Debris in Hydraulic Oil by Detecting the Equivalent Resistance of Inductive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear debris in hydraulic oil contains important information on the operation of equipment, which is important for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in mechanical equipment. A micro inductive sensor based on the inductive coulter principle is presented in this work. It consists of a straight micro-channel and a 3-D solenoid coil wound on the micro-channel. Instead of detecting the inductance change of the inductive sensor, the equivalent resistance change of the inductive sensor is detected for non-ferrous particle (copper particle monitoring. The simulation results show that the resistance change rate caused by the presence of copper particles is greater than the inductance change rate. Copper particles with sizes ranging from 48 μm to 150 μm were used in the experiment, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results. By detecting the inductive change of the micro inductive sensor, the detection limit of the copper particles only reaches 70 μm. However, the detection limit can be improved to 48 μm by detecting the equivalent resistance of the inductive sensor. The equivalent resistance method was demonstrated to have a higher detection accuracy than conventional inductive detection methods for non-ferrous particle detection in hydraulic oil.

  3. A New Design of In Situ Ti(C,N) Reinforced Composite Coatings and Their Microstructures, Interfaces, and Wear Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingliang; Cui, Hongzhi; Wei, Na; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Xinjie; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Canming; Song, Qiang

    2018-01-31

    Here, a unique combination of a novel carbon-nitrogen source (g-C 3 N 4 ) with different mole ratios of Ti/g-C 3 N 4 has been utilized to fabricate iron matrix composite coatings by a synchronized powder feeding plasma transferred arc (PTA) cladding technology. The results show that submicron Ti(C,N) particles are successfully fabricated in situ on a Q235 low carbon steel substrate to reinforce the iron matrix composite coatings and exhibit dense microstructures and good metallurgical bonding between the coating and the substrate. The microstructure of the coating consists of an α-Fe matrix and Ti(C,N) particles when the mole ratio of Ti/g-C 3 N 4 is no more than 5:1. The microhardness and wear resistance of the coating gradually improve with increasing abundance of the in-situ-synthesized Ti(C,N) particles. Interestingly, for a Ti/g-C 3 N 4 mole ratio of 6:1, a fine lamellar eutectic Laves phase (Fe 2 Ti) appears, and this phase further improves the microhardness and wear resistance of the coating. The microhardness of the coating is 3.5 times greater than that of the Q235 substrate, and the wear resistance is enhanced 7.66 times over that of the substrate. The Ti(C,N)/Fe 2 Ti and Fe 2 Ti/α-Fe interfaces are very clean, and the crystallographic orientation relationships between the phases are analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and an edge-to-edge matching model. The theoretical predictions and the experimental results are in good agreement. Furthermore, based on the present study, for the solidification process near equilibrium, smaller interatomic spacing misfits and interplanar spacing d-value mismatches contribute to the formation of crystallographic orientation relationships between phases during the PTA cladding process. The existence of orientation relationships is beneficial for improving the properties of the coatings. This work not only expands the application fields of g-C 3 N 4 but also provides a new idea for the

  4. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ABRASION PROBLEM IN CHENILLE YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Kenan ÇEVEN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenille yarns are traditionally used in the manufacture of furnishing fabrics, fashion knitwear, and as decorative threads in many types of broad and narrow fabrics. Chenille yarn has a very distinct weakness-it does not have very good inherent abrasion resistance. When the yarns are in use, clearly the abrasion resistance of the chenille yarn is crucially important. Either during further processing or during the eventual end-use, any removal of the effect yarn forming the beard will expose the ground yarns, which in turn will result in a bare appearance. To avoid this undesirable result, several options are available. Therefore, the studies on this area are about the investigation of the influences of some material types and machine parameters on the abrasion resistance of chenille yarns and fabrics produced with these yarns. In this paper, the experimental studies about the abrasion properties of chenille yarns in yarn, knitted and woven fabric forms are summarized.

  5. Anodized porous titanium coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits for enhancing surface toughness and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaowei, E-mail: zhouxiaowei901@163.com; Ouyang, Chun

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Structural design of anodized nanoporous Ti was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical bonding interface. • Anodized porous Ti substrate was activated by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as transitional layer to deposit Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. • An analytical model was validated for predicting the Ce-rich worn products as a self-lubricant phase for monitoring wear mechanisms. - Abstract: In order to make large improvements of surface toughness and wear resistance for pure titanium (Ti) substrate, anodic titanium oxide (ATO) surface with nanoporous structure was coated with the Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Regarding TiO{sub 2} barrier layer on Ti surface to inhibit its electrochemical activity, pre-treatments were successively processed with anodizing, sensitizing, activating, and then followed by electroless Ni-P film to be acted as an activated layer for electroplating Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits. The existing Pd atoms around ATO nanopores were expected as the heterogeneous nucleation sites for supporting the growing locations of electroless Ni-P film. The innovative of interface design using porous structure was introduced for bonding pinholes to achieve a metallurgical adhesion interface between Ti substrate and surface coatings. Besides the objectives of this work were to elucidate how effects by the adding CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles on modifying microstructures and wear mechanisms of Ni-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. Many efforts of XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and Nanoindentation tests were devoted to comparing different wear behaviors of Ni-CeO{sub 2} coatings relative to pure nickel. Results indicated that uniform-distributed Ti nanopores with an average diameter size of ∼200 nm was achieved using the Phosphate-type anodizing solution at DC 150 V. A worn surface without fatigue cracks was observed for TAO surface coated with Ni-CeO{sub 2} deposits, showing the existing Ce-rich worn products to be acted as a

  6. Microstructural evolution during dry wear test in magnesium and Mg-Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi, E-mail: SOMEKAWA.Hidetoshi@nims.go.jp [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Shunsuke; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Inoue, Tadanobu [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The friction and wear properties of pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy were investigated using the pin-on-disk configuration. The friction and wear resistance of the Mg-Y alloy was superior to those of pure magnesium. The wear mechanism was abrasion under all the conditions. The deformed microstructural evolutions near the surface region were observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The stress and strain states were also evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The deformed microstructures of both alloys consisted of the {l_brace}10-12{r_brace} twinning formation and the FEA results showed the occurrence of plastic deformation even at the beginning of the test. The formation of low angle grain boundaries was also confirmed with an increase in the applied load in the Mg-Y alloy. On the other hand, grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization was observed in pure magnesium as the wear test progressed. The different microstructures resulted from difference in the surface temperature during the wear test, which was estimated to be around 393 K and 363 K for pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy, respectively. The high increment temperature in the fine-grained alloys brought about the occurrence of grain boundary sliding, i.e., material softening, which led to a decrease in the friction and wear properties. The present results indicated that one of the methods for enhancing the friction and wear properties is to increase the dynamic recrystallization temperature.

  7. Wear behavior of Cu-Ag-Cr alloy wire under electrical sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, S.G.; Liu, P.; Ren, F.Z.; Tian, B.H.; Zheng, M.S.; Zhou, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    The wear behavior of a Cu-Ag-Cr alloy contact wire against a copper-base sintered alloy strip was investigated. Wear tests were conducted under laboratory conditions with a special sliding wear apparatus that simulated train motion under electrical current conditions. The initial microstructure of the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy contact wire was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Worn surfaces of the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy wire were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the wear rate of the Cu-Ag-Cr wire increased with increasing electrical current and sliding. Within the studied range of electrical current, the wear rate increases with increasing electrical current and sliding speed. Compared with the Cu-Ag contact wire under the same testing conditions, the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy wire has much better wear resistance. Adhesive, abrasive, and electrical erosion wear are the dominant mechanisms during the electrical sliding processes

  8. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  9. Characterisation of Wear Resistant Boride Layers on a Tool Steel by Activity Controlled Pack Boronising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work addresses the production and characterisation of iron boride layers by pack boronising of a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The boride layers were produced at 900°C for 2h using different pack compositions in order to obtain a single-phase boride layer. The layers were characterized...... by electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers hardness tests and wear testing with a pin-on-disc tribometer. It was found that the type of boride phases (FeB and/or Fe2B) present in the treated layer can be controlled by changing the boron activity...... by pack boronising for all conditions as compared to the heat treated tool steel....

  10. Lead-free, bronze-based surface layers for wear resistance in axial piston hydraulic pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetterick, Gregory Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of lead have provided sufficient motivation to develop substitute materials for the surface layer on a thrust bearing type component known as a valve plate in axial piston hydraulic pumps that consists of 10% tin, 10% lead, and remainder cooper (in wt. %). A recently developed replacement material, a Cu-10Sn-3Bi (wt.%) P/M bronze, was found to be unsuitable as valve plate surface layer, requiring the development of a new alloy. A comparison of the Cu-1-Sn-10Pb and Cu-10Sn-3Bi powder metal valve plates showed that the differences in wear behavior between the two alloys arose due to the soft phase bismuth in the alloy that is known to cause both solid and liquid metal embrittlement of copper alloys.

  11. Endurance in Al Alloy Melts and Wear Resistance of Titanium Matrix Composite Shot-Sleeve for Aluminum Alloy Die-casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bong-Jae; Kim, Young-Jig; Sung, Si-Young

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the endurance against Al alloy melts and wear resistance of an in-situ synthesized titanium matrix composite (TMC) sleeve for aluminum alloy die-casting. The conventional die-casting shot sleeve material was STD61 tool steel. TMCs have great thermal stability, wear and oxidation resistance. The in-situ reaction between Ti and B4C leads to two kinds of thermodynamically stable reinforcements, such as TiBw and TiCp. To evaluate the feasibility of the application to a TMCs diecasting shot sleeve, the interfacial reaction behavior was examined between Al alloys melts with TMCs and STD61 tool steel. The pin-on-disk type dry sliding wear test was also investigated for TMCs and STD61 tool steel.

  12. Sliding Wear Behaviour and Corosion Resistance to Ringer’s Solution of Uncoated and DLC Coated X46Cr13 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scendo M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear properties and corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution of uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC coated X46Cr13 steel was tested. The Raman spectra showed that the DLC film was successfully coated by plasma assisted CVD method onto the steel surface. The wear test, carried out using a ball-on disk tribometer, revealed that the DLC coating show better resistance to sliding wear and lower friction coefficient against a 100Cr6 steel ball than five times softer X46Cr13 steel. The oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by means of both the gravimetric and electrochemical method. It was found that the DLC coating markedly decreased the rate of corrosion of the X46Cr13 steel, irrespective of the corrosion mechanism involved.

  13. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions.

  14. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  15. Scanning velocity influence on microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance performance of laser deposited Ti6Al4V/TiC composite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V is the most widely used titanium alloy in the aerospace industry because of its excellent properties. However, the wear resistance behaviour of this material is not very impressive and surface damage occurs in applications involving contact...

  16. APPRAISAL OF APPLICATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIC CAST IRONS FOR PRODUCTION OF MOULDED PIECES OF EQUIPMENT ON PRODUCTION OF BRICK OF CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. aranovkij

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The appraisal of application of wear-resistant chromic cast irons of different chemical compositions for production of moulded pieces of equipment on production of bricks of clay is carried out. It is determined that working resource of the details of test cast-irons is correlated with their hardness and not lower than of hardened steel.

  17. Improving the corrosion wear resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by particulate reinforced Ni matrix composite alloying layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Zhuo, Chengzhi; Tao, Jie; Jiang, Shuyun; Liu, Linlin

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome the problem of corrosion wear of AISI 316L stainless steel (SS), two kinds of composite alloying layers were prepared by a duplex treatment, consisting of Ni/nano-SiC and Ni/nano-SiO2 predeposited by brush plating, respectively, and subsequent surface alloying with Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu by a double glow process. The microstructure of the two kinds of nanoparticle reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layers was investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of composite alloying layers compared with the Ni-based alloying layer and 316L SS under different conditions was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that under alloying temperature (1000 °C) conditions, amorphous nano-SiO2 particles still retained the amorphous structure, whereas nano-SiC particles were decomposed and Ni, Cr reacted with SiC to form Cr6.5Ni2.5Si and Cr23C6. In static acidic solution, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiO2 particles interlayer is lower than that of the Ni-based alloying layer. However, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiO2 particles interlayer is prominently superior to that of the Ni-based alloying layer under acidic flow medium condition and acidic slurry flow condition. The corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiC particles interlayer is evidently lower than that of the Ni-based alloying layer, but higher than that of 316L SS under all test conditions. The results show that the highly dispersive nano-SiO2 particles are helpful in improving the corrosion wear resistance of the Ni-based alloying layer, whereas carbides and silicide phase are deleterious to that of the Ni-based alloying layer due to the fact that the preferential removal of the matrix around the precipitated phase takes place by the chemical

  18. Effect of plasma spraying parameter on wear resistance of NiCrBSiCFe plasma coatings on austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures at various loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathi, N.L.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Borah, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of plasma spraying parameters, especially the stand-off distance. ► Effect of microstructure and applied load on coating in sliding wear. ► The reason for maximum wear rate at 250 °C and the minimum wear at 350 °C were explained. ► The worn debris were characterised by SEM analysis and correlated with wear rate. -- Abstract: The dry sliding wear tests were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plasma coated with NiCrBSiCFe alloy powder under two set of plasma spraying parameters (PSP-1 and PSP-2). EN 8 medium carbon steel was used as a counterface material. The tests were carried out at loads of 20 N and 40 N with a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s at room temperature (35°), 150 °C, 250 °C and 350 °C. Metallographic characterisation was carried out by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Between the two plasma parameters tested, stand-off distance of 125 mm was found to be more suitable for producing uniform lamellar microstructure with fewer amounts of pores which shows better wear resistance. The wear rate at 250 °C was comparatively more due to the material softening and adhesion by intermolecular bonding. The worn debris collected during sliding at 350 °C turn into oxides which further behaves like a protective and lubricative film eliminating the chances of severe material loss. SEM was used to characterise the worn track and debris to identity the wear mechanism.

  19. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high-entropy alloy coating after laser remelting processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yang; Dong, Meiling; Jin, Guo

    2018-02-01

    An attempt, combined with the technologies of laser cladding and laser remelting, has been made to develop a Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high entropy alloy coating. The phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and wear resistance (rolling friction) were studied in detail. The results show that after laser remelting, the phase composition remains unchanged, that is, as-cladded coating and as-remelted coatings are all composed of (Ni, Co)Ti2 intermetallic compound, Ti-rich phase and BCC solid solution phase. However, after laser remelting, the volume fraction of Ti-rich phase increases significantly. Moreover, the micro-hardness is increased, up to ∼900 HV at the laser remelting parameters: laser power of 1 kW, laser spot diameter of 3 mm, and laser speed of 10 mm/s. Compared to the as-cladded high-entropy alloy coating, the as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings have high friction coefficient and low wear mass loss, indicating that the wear resistance of as-remelted coatings is improved and suggesting practical applications, like coatings on brake pads for wear protection. The worn surface morphologies show that the worn mechanism of as-cladded and as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings are adhesive wear.

  20. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  1. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  2. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Rao, D.S.; Prasad, K.U.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12% Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode

  3. Superior quality diamond heel inserts improve cutting structure and seal life in abrasive and directional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Tyler; Scott, Dan; Nelms, Derek [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, continuous improvements over the last century have led to the development of increasingly efficient drilling equipment. Among the new technologies is the polycrystalline diamond compact bit which has become more efficient than roller cone bits for several applications; the utilization of roller cone bits is now restricted to tough applications such as directional drilling and drilling through hard and abrasive formations. The aim of this paper is to present the development of improved roller cone bits using new designs and diamond inserts of superior quality. Two case studies on the use of improved roller cone bits are presented herein. Results showed that the novel diamond inserts combined with the design improvements provide better wear resistance. This paper demonstrated that roller cone bits have achieved greater reliability and longevity thanks to the new generation of diamond inserts and to design improvements.

  4. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  5. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Volta Research Group, 101-80 Bogota (Colombia); Caicedo, J. C., E-mail: g.ing.materiales@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Tribology Polymers, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  6. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Cermet compositions having high temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance, and particularly adapted for production of high temperature resistant cermet insulator bodies are presented. The compositions are comprised of a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Also disclosed are novel ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride.

  7. Improvement of wear and corrosion resistances of 17-4PH stainless steel by plasma nitrocarburizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.L.; Yan, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 460 o C for improving its mechanical properties without compromising its desirable corrosion resistance. The plasma nitrocarburized layers were studied by optical microscope, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tester, pin-on-disc tribometer and the anodic polarization method in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The experimental results show that the nitrocarburized layer depths increase with increasing duration time and the layers growth conform approximately to the parabolic law. The phases in the nitrocarburized layer are mainly of γ'-Fe 4 N and α'-Fe with traces of CrN phase. The surface hardness of the modified specimen is more than 1200 HV, which is three times higher than that of untreated one. The friction coefficient and corrosion resistance of the specimen can be apparently improved by plasma nitrocarburizing. With the increase of duration time, the surface hardness slightly decreases whereas the friction coefficient and corrosion resistance of the modified specimen are first increase and then decrease. The 8 h treated specimen has the lowest friction coefficient and the best corrosion resistance in the present test conditions.

  8. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, M. Brad; Sebright, Jason L.

    2008-11-18

    Wear and corrosion of structures cuts across industries and continues to challenge materials scientists and engineers to develop cost effective solutions. Industries typically seek mature technologies that can be implemented for production with rapid or minimal development and have little appetite for the longer-term materials research and development required to solve complex problems. The collaborative work performed in this project addressed the complexity of this problem in a multi-year program that industries would be reluctant to undertake without government partnership. This effort built upon the prior development of Advanced Abrasion Resistant Materials conduct by Caterpillar Inc. under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41054. In this referenced work, coatings were developed that exhibited significant wear life improvements over standard carburized heat treated steel in abrasive wear applications. The technology used in this referenced work, arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings, was one of the primary technical paths in this work effort. In addition to extending the capability of the coating technology to address corrosion issues, additional competitive coating technologies were evaluated to insure that the best technology was developed to meet the goals of the program. From this, plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding was selected as the second primary technology that was investigated. Specifically, this project developed improved, cost effective surfacing materials and processes for wear and corrosion resistance in both sliding and abrasive wear applications. Materials with wear and corrosion performance improvements that are 4 to 5 times greater than heat treated steels were developed. The materials developed were based on low cost material systems utilizing ferrous substrates and stainless steel type matrix with hard particulates formed from borides and carbides. Affordability was assessed against other competing hard surfacing or coating

  9. A Comparative Study on Wear Properties of As Cast, Cast Aged and Forge Aged A356 Alloy with Addition of Grain Refiner and/or Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Mallapur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative wear behavior study of three categories of materials viz, as cast, cast aged (casting followed by T6 and forge aged (forging followed by T6 has been investigated. Neither melt treatment nor solid state processing (like aging and forging seems to be altering the wear behavior of the materials drastically. Cast aged A356 materials exhibit higher wear resistance compared to as cast and forge aged A356 materials. Further, it was observed that cast aged samples register lower coefficient of friction compared to other samples. It is also noted that the difference in wear behavior is revealed only at conditions of higher load, higher speed and longer sliding distance of testing. At lower regimes the difference is marginal. Among cast aged samples, ones treated with combined addition exhibit better wear resistance compared to other materials. Samples treated with combined addition register lowest coefficient of friction followed by samples treated with Sr, those with B, those with Ti and untreated ones. Abrasive wear mechanism is found to be operative in the regime of higher loading and higher velocity of sliding. Adhesive wear mechanism seems to be dominating the wear process at the lower regime of load and velocity of sliding.

  10. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of In-Office Carbamide Peroxide-Based Tooth Bleaching System on Wear Resistance of Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Dental Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have assessed the characteristics and properties of silorane-based composites and adhesive systems. Considering the extensive application of tooth-whitening agents, possible deteriorative effects of tooth bleaching agents on these restorative materials must be studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an in-office carbamide peroxide-based tooth bleaching agent on the wear resistance of a silorane-based and a conventional microhybrid dimethyl methacrylate-based dental composite with two different application times.  Materials and Methods: Thirty cylindrical specimens were made of Z250 and P90 dental composite resins (n=15 for each composite. Samples made of each composite were divided into three groups (n=5 for immersion in an in-office bleaching agent (Opalescence® Quick 45% for either three or eight hours or saline solution (control. Wear tests were conducted after bleaching using a pin-on disk apparatus under the load of 40N at a constant sliding speed of 0.5 ms-1 for a sliding distance of 300 m. The samples were weighed before and after the wear test. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to statistically analyze the obtained data (α=0.05.Results: There was a significant decrease in the weight of samples after the wear test (P<0.001. However, no significant difference was found among groups in the mean weight of samples before and after the wear test (P>0.05. Conclusion: Bleaching for three or eight hours using 45% carbamide peroxide had no deteriorative effect on the wear resistance of Z250 and P90 composites.

  12. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  13. Laser surface modification of Ti6Al4V-Cu for improved microhardness and wear resistance properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available operating with linear reciprocating motion drive. The samples are rubbed against a ball-shaped upper specimen made of 9.5 mm diameter tungsten carbide ball. A load of 25 N, stroke length of 2 mm, oscillation frequency of 5 Hz and test duration of 1000... seconds were selected for the operation. The dry sliding wear tests were carried out according to the ASTM G133- 05 for determining the sliding wear of metals23. The wear loss was calculated from the length of the stroke, the width of the wear scar...

  14. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduction of machine tools. Development of dry cutting use abrasion resistant/lubricous coated tools; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Dry sessakuyo taimamo junkatsusei hifuku kogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and reduction of environmental loads of machine tools, study was conducted on the dry cutting which is the cutting with no use of cutting oil, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The study was made on dry cutting use abrasion resistance/lubricous coated tools coated with the composite membrane of which the cutting life become little lower than that of existing tools using coolant. In the survey of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, it was found out that in the adhesion to ultra-hard substrates, the DLC single-layer film consisting only of carbon indicated the same excellent adhesion as intermediate-layer inserts. As to the synthesis of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, the synthesis of the composite membrane (WC/C membrane) consisting of tungsten carbide (WC) and carbon (C) was made using arc ion plating device. The WC/C membrane is composed of W and C and has the structure in which at nm levels the layer with much W and the layer with less W were alternately piled. Study was made of devices necessary for the development of abrasion resistant/lubricous films and the film formation for drill. (NEDO)

  15. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummert, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.) [de

  16. Backside wear in modern total knee designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Furman, Bridgette D; Cottrell, Jocelyn M; Wright, Timothy M

    2007-02-01

    Although modularity affords various options to the orthopedic surgeon, these benefits come at a price. The unintended bearing surface between the back surface of the tibial insert and the metallic tray results in micromotion leading to polyethylene wear debris. The objective of this study was to examine the backside wear of tibial inserts from three modern total knee designs with very different locking mechanisms: Insall-Burstein II (IB II), Optetrak, and Advance. A random sample of 71 inserts were obtained from our institution's retrieval collection and examined to assess the extent of wear, depth of wear, and wear damage modes. Patient records were also obtained to determine patient age, body mass index, length of implantation, and reason for revision. Modes of wear damage (abrasion, burnishing, scratching, delamination, third body debris, surface deformation, and pitting) were then scored in each zone from 0 to 3 (0 = 0%, 1 = 0-10%, 2 = 10-50%, and 3 = >50%). The depth of wear was subjectively identified as removal of manufacturing identification markings stamped onto the inferior surface of the polyethylene. Both Advance and IB II polyethylene inserts showed significantly higher scores for backside wear than the Optetrak inserts. All IB II and Advance implants showed evidence of backside wear, whereas 17% (5 out of 30) of the retrieved Optetrak implants had no observable wear. There were no significant differences when comparing the depth of wear score between designs. The locking mechanism greatly affects the propensity for wear and should be considered when choosing a knee implant system.

  17. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions. [for thermal resistant insulators and refractory coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance are properties of cermet compositions particularly to provide high temperature resistant refractory coatings on metal substrates, for use as electrical insulation seals for thermionic converters. The compositions comprise a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride are also described.

  18. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded composite coatings prepared from pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder with different laser spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Guolong; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Qunli; Liu, Rong

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of WC particles in laser cladded composite coatings can significantly affect the wear resistance of the coatings under aggressive environments. In this study, pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder is deposited on SS316L via laser cladding with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively. The microstructure and WC distribution of the coatings are investigated with optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear behavior of the coatings is investigated under dry sliding-wear test. The experimental results show that the partially dissolved WC particles are uniformly distributed in both coatings produced with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively, and the microstructures consist of WC and M23C6 carbides and γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution matrix. However, due to Fe dilution, the two coatings have different microstructural characteristics, resulting in different hardness and wear resistance. The wide-band spot laser prepared coating shows better performance than the circular spot laser prepared coating.

  19. Combating wear in bulk solids handling plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A total of five papers presented at a seminar on problems of wear caused by abrasive effects of materials in bulk handling. Topics of papers cover the designer viewpoint, practical experience from the steel, coal, cement and quarry industries to create an awareness of possible solutions.

  20. Hydrothermal development and characterization of the wear-resistant boron carbide from Pandanus: a natural carbon precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha Devi, H. V.; Swapna, M. S.; Ambadas, G.; Sankararaman, S.

    2018-04-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a prominent semiconducting material that finds applications in the field of science and technology. The excellent physical, thermal and electronic properties make it suitable as ceramic armor, wear-resistant, lens polisher and neutron absorber in the nuclear industry. The existing methods of synthesis of boron carbide involve the use of toxic chemicals that adversely affect the environment. In the present work, we report for the first time the use of the hydrothermal method, for converting the cellulose from Pandanus leaves as the carbon precursor for the synthesis of B4C. The carbon precursor is changed into porous functionalized carbon by treating with sodium borohydride (NaBH4), followed by treating with boric acid to obtain B4C. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, Raman, photoluminescent and Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The formation of B4C from natural carbon source— Pandanus presents an eco-friendly, economic and non-toxic approach for the synthesis of refractory carbides.

  1. Ultrafine Ceramic Grains Embedded in Metallic Glass Matrix: Achieving Superior Wear Resistance via Increase in Both Hardness and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Wen, Mao; Dai, Xuan; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Kan

    2018-05-09

    As structural materials, crystalline or metallic glass materials have attracted scientific and practical interests. However, some mechanisms involving critical size and shear bands have adverse effects on their mechanical properties. Here, we counter these two effects by introducing a special structure with ultrafine ceramic grains (with a diameter of ∼2.0 nm) embedded into a metallic glass matrix, wherein the grains are mainly composed of a Ta-W-N solid solution structure in nature, surrounded by a W-based amorphous matrix that contains Ta and N atoms. Such a structure is in situ formed during preparation, which combines the merits of both phases to achieve simultaneous increase in hardness and toughness relative to references (pure TaN and W) and thus superior wear resistance. Even more remarkable, a favorable variation of increased hardness but reduced elasticity modulus can be induced by this structure. Intrinsically, ultrafine ceramic grains (free of dislocations), embedded in the metallic glass matrix, could prevent shear band propagation within the glass matrix and further improve the hardness of the matrix material. In return, such glass matrix allows for stiffness neutralization and structural relaxation to reduce the elasticity modulus of ceramic grains. This study will offer a new guidance to fabricate ultrahigh-performance metal-based composites.

  2. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  3. Development of corrosion and wear resistant coatings by an improved HVOF spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Kawakita, J.; Kuroda, S. [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have developed an improved HVOF spray process called ''Gas-shrouded HVOF'' (GS-HVOF) over the past several years. By using an extension nozzle at the exit of a commercial HVOF spray gun, GS-HVOF is capable of controlling the oxidation of sprayed materials during flight as well as achieving higher velocity of sprayed particles. These features result in extremely dense and clean microstructure of the sprayed coatings. The process has been successfully applied to corrosion resistant alloys such as SUS316L, Hastelloy C, and alloy 625 as well as cermets such as WC-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-Ni. The spray process, coatings microstructure and property evaluation will be discussed with potential industrial applications in the near future. (orig.)

  4. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Penamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  5. Development of a new inexpensive green thermoplastic composite and evaluation of its physico-mechanical and wear properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, Murtuza Ali; Syed, Akheel Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turmeric spent (TS) incorporated polypropylene (PP) green composites were fabricated. ► Addition of TS into PP matrix improved tensile modulus and flexural properties of composites. ► The water absorption characteristics of composites were determined. ► Wear volume loss and specific wear rate as a function of abrading distance and load were determined. ► Surface morphology of composites was examined using scanning electron microscope. -- Abstract: In the present study an attempt has been made to use turmeric spent (TS) as reinforcing filler to fabricate polypropylene (PP) green composite for load bearing and tribological applications. PP/TS composites were fabricated using varying amounts of TS viz, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w) by twin screw extrusion method. The fabricated PP green composites were evaluated for physico-mechanical and tribological properties. Experimentally obtained tensile values were compared with theoretically predicted values using different theoretical models. Tensile modulus of composites increased from 1041 to 1771 MPa with the increase in filler addition from 0 to 40 wt.%. Flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites were improved after incorporation of TS into PP matrix. The water absorption characteristics of composites were determined. The effect of abrading distances viz., 150, 300, 450, and 600 m and different loads of 23.54 and 33.54 N at 200 rpm on the abrasive wear behaviour were studied using dry sand/rubber wheel abrasive test rig. The TS filler lowered the abrasion resistance of PP/TS composites. The wear volume loss and specific wear rate as a function of abrading distance and load were determined. The surface morphology of tensile fractured green composites and their worn surface features were examined under scanning electron microscope.

  6. Development and characterization of laser clad high temperature self-lubricating wear resistant composite coatings on Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiu-Bo; Meng, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Hai-Qing; Shi, Gao-Lian; Wu, Shao-Hua; Sun, Cheng-Feng; Wang, Ming-Di; Qi, Long-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel high temperature self-lubricating anti-wear composite coating was fabricated. • Reinforced carbides as well as self-lubricating sulfides were in situ synthesized. • Microhardness of the Ti–6Al–4V substrate was significantly improved. • Friction coefficient and wear rate of the composite coating were greatly reduced. - Abstract: To enhance the wear resistance and friction-reducing capability of titanium alloy, a process of laser cladding γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC + TiWC 2 /CrS + Ti 2 CS coatings on Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrate with preplaced NiCr/Cr 3 C 2 –WS 2 mixed powders was studied. A novel coating without cracks and few pores was obtained in a proper laser processing. The composition and microstructure of the fabricated coating were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques, and tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding wear test conditions at 20 °C (room-temperature), 300 °C, 600 °C, respectively. The results show that the coating has unique microstructure consisting of α-Ti, TiC, TiWC 2 , γ-NiCrAlTi, Ti 2 CS and CrS phases. Average microhardness of the composite coating is 1005 HV 0.2 , which is about 3-factor higher than that of Ti–6Al–4V substrate (360 HV 0.2 ). The friction coefficient and wear rate of the coating are greatly decreased due to the combined effects of the dominating anti-wear capabilities of reinforced TiC and TiWC 2 carbides and the CrS and Ti 2 CS sulfides which have excellent self-lubricating property

  7. Processing and study of the wear and friction behaviour of discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    due to the increase in the braking energy, (3) at low sliding speeds (5, 10 m s−1), abrasive wear is the main wear ... tion materials, gas turbine thermal barrier coatings, armour ..... in a optimum level to balance both the wear loss and the stop-.

  8. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of TiC Composite Coating in situ Synthesized on 35CrMnSi Steel by Argon Arc Cladding%35CrMnSi 表面氩弧熔覆原位自生 TiC 复合涂层的组织及耐磨性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁天; 孟君晟; 乔盛楠; 吕东亮; 宋永平; 李阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve the wear resistance of cutting tooth and to prolong its service life. Methods The TiC enhanced nickel-based composite coating was prepared on the surface of 35CrMnSi steel by argon arc cladding technique. The microstructure of the coating was analyzed by OM, SEM and XRD. Microhardness and wear resistance at room temperature of the composite coat-ing were examined by means of microhardness testing and impact abrasion resistance testing, respectively. Results The compact microstructure was obtained in the composite coating, and good metallurgical bonding could be obtained between the 35CrMnSi steel and cladding coating, with the main phases of TiC, γ-Ni and M23 C6 . The majority of TiC was blocky. The TiC particles was about 1 ~ 2 μm in size and the particles were dispersed in the coatings. The hardness and wear resistance of the coating were related with the (Ti+C) content. The highest hardness of 20% (Ti+C) coating was 1190HV. The relative wear resistance of the composite coating was 7. 5 times higher than that of 35CrMnSi steel. Conclusion The cladding coating reinforced by TiC particle showed ap-parently improved surface hardness as compared to 35CrMnSi steel. The wear mechanism of the composite coating under impact loading at room temperature was micro-cutting wear. The wear resistance of coating was greatly increased by argon arc cladding.%目的:提高截齿的耐磨性,延长其使用寿命。方法利用氩弧熔覆技术在35CrMnSi 钢表面制备 TiC 增强镍基复合涂层,分析涂层的显微组织和物相组成,测试涂层在室温下的显微硬度和耐磨性,并分析磨损机制。结果氩弧熔覆涂层的显微组织致密均匀,涂层与基体呈冶金结合,主要由 TiC,γ-Ni, M23 C6等物相组成。 TiC 颗粒呈块状,尺寸为1~2μm,弥散分布在涂层中。涂层硬度和耐磨性与(Ti+C)含量有关,熔覆粉末中(Ti+C)质量分数为20%时,涂层最高硬度可达1190HV,耐磨性达到基体的7.5倍

  9. Abrasives and possibilities of increase in efficiency of abrasive waterjets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Martinec, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, March 2016 (2016), s. 877-881 ISSN 1805-0476 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-speed waterjets * abrasive waterjets * abrasives * garnet * zirconia Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.mmscience.eu/content/file/archives/MM_Science_201603.pdf

  10. Single-asperity contributions to multi-asperity wear simulated with molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, S J; Cihak-Bayr, U; Bianchi, D

    2016-01-01

    We use a molecular dynamics approach to simulate the wear of a rough ferrite surface due to multiple hard, abrasive particles under variation of normal pressure, grinding direction, and particle geometry. By employing a clustering algorithm that incorporates some knowledge about the grinding process such as the main grinding direction, we can break down the total wear volume into contributions from the individual abrasive particles in a time-resolved fashion. The resulting analysis of the simulated grinding process allows statements on wear particle generation, distribution, and stability depending on the initial topography, the grinding angle, the normal pressure, as well as the abrasive shape and orientation with respect to the surface. (paper)

  11. Enhancing Corrosion and Wear Resistance of AA6061 by Friction Stir Processing with Fe78Si₉B13 Glass Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lingyu; Liu, Yan; Shen, Kechang; Song, Chaoqun; Yang, Min; Kim, Kibuem; Wang, Weimin

    2015-08-07

    The AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy samples including annealed Fe 78 Si₉B 13 particles were prepared by friction stir processing (FSP) and investigated by various techniques. The Fe 78 Si₉B 13 -reinforced particles are uniformly dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix. The XRD results indicated that the lattice parameter of α-Al increases and the preferred orientation factors F of (200) plane of α-Al reduces after friction stir processing. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for FSP samples increases at first with the temperature but then decreases as the temperature further increased, which can be explained by the dissolving of Mg and Si from β phase and Fe 78 Si₉B 13 particles. The corrosion and wear resistance of FSP samples have been improved compared with that of base metal, which can be attributed to the reduction of grain size and the CTE mismatch between the base metal and reinforced particles by FSP, and the lubrication effect of Fe 78 Si₉B 13 particles also plays a role in improving wear resistance. In particular, the FSP sample with reinforced particles in amorphous state exhibited superior corrosion and wear resistance due to the unique metastable structure.

  12. Enhancing Corrosion and Wear Resistance of AA6061 by Friction Stir Processing with Fe78Si9B13 Glass Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy samples including annealed Fe78Si9B13 particles were prepared by friction stir processing (FSP and investigated by various techniques. The Fe78Si9B13-reinforced particles are uniformly dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix. The XRD results indicated that the lattice parameter of α-Al increases and the preferred orientation factors F of (200 plane of α-Al reduces after friction stir processing. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE for FSP samples increases at first with the temperature but then decreases as the temperature further increased, which can be explained by the dissolving of Mg and Si from β phase and Fe78Si9B13 particles. The corrosion and wear resistance of FSP samples have been improved compared with that of base metal, which can be attributed to the reduction of grain size and the CTE mismatch between the base metal and reinforced particles by FSP, and the lubrication effect of Fe78Si9B13 particles also plays a role in improving wear resistance. In particular, the FSP sample with reinforced particles in amorphous state exhibited superior corrosion and wear resistance due to the unique metastable structure.

  13. High performance corrosion and wear resistant composite titanium nitride layers produced on the AZ91D magnesium alloy by a hybrid method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tacikowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite, diffusive titanium nitride layers formed on a titanium and aluminum sub-layer were produced on the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The layers were obtained using a hybrid method which combined the PVD processes with the final sealing by a hydrothermal treatment. The microstructure, resistance to corrosion, mechanical damage, and frictional wear of the layers were examined. The properties of the AZ91D alloy covered with these layers were compared with those of the untreated alloy and of some engineering materials such as 316L stainless steel, 100Cr6 bearing steel, and the AZ91D alloy subjected to commercial anodizing. It has been found that the composite diffusive nitride layer produced on the AZ91D alloy and then sealed by the hydrothermal treatment ensures the corrosion resistance comparable with that of 316L stainless steel. The layers are characterized by higher electrochemical durability which is due to the surface being overbuilt with the titanium oxides formed, as shown by the XPS examinations, from titanium nitride during the hydrothermal treatment. The composite titanium nitride layers exhibit high resistance to mechanical damage and wear, including frictional wear which is comparable with that of 100Cr6 bearing steel. The performance properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy covered with the composite titanium nitride coating are substantially superior to those of the alloy subjected to commercial anodizing which is the dominant technique employed in industrial practice.

  14. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasive and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.

  15. Sandstone Turning by Abrasive Waterjet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Cárach, J.; Hloch, Sergej; Vasilko, K.; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 2489-2493 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : turning away from the jet * conventional turning towards the jet * sandstone * abrasive water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2015 http://www.springerprofessional.de/sandstone-turning-by-abrasive-waterjet/6038028.html

  16. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Friction and wear properties of novel HDPE--HAp--Al2O3 biocomposites against alumina counterface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Nath, Shekhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-03-01

    In an effort to enhance physical properties of biopolymers (high-density polyethylene, HDPE) in terms of elastic modulus and hardness, various ceramic fillers, like alumina (Al2O3) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are added, and therefore it is essential to assess the friction and wear resistance properties of HDPE biocomposites. In this perspective, HDPE composites with varying ceramic filler content (upto 40 vol%) were fabricated under the optimal compression molding conditions and their friction and wear properties were evaluated against Al2O3 at fretting contacts. All the experiments were conducted at a load of 10 N for duration of 100,000 cycles in both dry as well as simulated body fluid (SBF). Such planned set of experiments has been designed to address three important issues: (a) whether the improvement in physical properties (hardness, E-modulus) will lead to corresponding improvement in friction and wear properties; (b) whether the fretting in SBF will provide sufficient lubrication in order to considerably enhance the tribological properties, as compared to that in ambient conditions; and (c) whether the generation of wear debris particles be reduced for various compositionally modified polymer composites, in comparison to unreinforced HDPE. The experimental results indicate the possibility of achieving extremely low coefficient of friction (COF approximately 0.047) as well as higher wear resistance (wear rate in the order of approximately 10(-7) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) with the newly developed composites in SBF. A low wear depth of 3.5-4 microm is recorded, irrespective of fretting environment. Much effort has been put forward to correlate the friction and wear mechanisms with abrasion, adhesion, and wear debris formation.

  18. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  19. A method for simultaneous determination of wear-resistance of structurally identical machine parts with mutual friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valigura, V.; Volyn'ski, A.

    1979-01-01

    There are mechanisms in the technique, boundary state of separate parts of which is determined by the process of wear of three elements of the mechanism, made of the same material (for example antifriction bearings). The main concept of wear determination in the case of such a mechanism is to conduct measurements by means of simultaneous application of three different methods, for example: the method of roentgen-fluorescence; the tracer technique with application of activation by means of irradiation by different elementary particles, practically by means of neutrons and protons; the method of artifical bases application. In the paper the method is presented having been developed in the Institute of Working Machines of the Poznan Polytechnic. This method of simultaneous investigation in the wear process of bearing rings, inner and outer, and rolling elements of roller bearings. All these elements of bearings are made of LX-15 steel. The method developed, permits to determine the wear sufficient for practical purposes sensitivity [ru

  20. Gear Tooth Wear Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-based condition indicators continue to be developed for Health Usage Monitoring of rotorcraft gearboxes. Testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center have shown correlations between specific condition indicators and specific types of gear wear. To speed up the detection and analysis of gear teeth, an image detection program based on the Viola-Jones algorithm was trained to automatically detect spiral bevel gear wear pitting. The detector was tested using a training set of gear wear pictures and a blind set of gear wear pictures. The detector accuracy for the training set was 75 percent while the accuracy for the blind set was 15 percent. Further improvements on the accuracy of the detector are required but preliminary results have shown its ability to automatically detect gear tooth wear. The trained detector would be used to quickly evaluate a set of gear or pinion pictures for pits, spalls, or abrasive wear. The results could then be used to correlate with vibration or oil debris data. In general, the program could be retrained to detect features of interest from pictures of a component taken over a period of time.

  1. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of bi-directional E-glass fibre. Density (g cm. −3. ) 2.55–2.6. Bulk modulus (GPa). 43–50. Elastic modulus (MPa). 2750–2875. Hardness (MPa). 3000–6000. Shear modulus (GPa). 30–36. Tensile strength (MPa). 1950–2050. Young's modulus (GPa). 72–85. Endurance limit (MPa). 2970–3110. Thermal expansion ( ...

  2. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser-Clad (Co, Ni61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8 Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that a quaternary Co61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8 alloy is a good glass former and can be laser-clad to an amorphous composite coating with superior hardness and wear resistance. In this paper, alloys with varying Ni contents to substitute for Co are coated on the surface of #45 carbon steel using a 5-kW CO2 laser source for the purpose of obtaining protective coatings. In contrast to the quaternary case, the clad layers are characterized by a matrix of α-(Fe, Co, Ni solid solution plus CoB, Co3B, and Co3Ta types of precipitates. The cladding layer is divided into four regions: Near-surface dendrites, α-(Fe, Co, Ni solid solution plus dispersed particles in the middle zone, columnar bonding zone, and heat-affected area that consists of martensite. The hardness gradually decreases with increasing Ni content, and the maximum hardness occurs in the middle zone. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume are minimized in the alloy containing 12.2% Ni. Compared with the previous cobalt-based quaternary alloy Co61.2B26.2Si7.8Ta4.8, the addition of the Ni element reduces the glass-forming ability and henceforth the hardness and wear resistance of the clad layers.

  3. Effect of Mo and nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladding Ni-based alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lin; Hu, Shengsun; Shen, Junqi [Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China); Quan, Xiumin [Lu' an Vocation Technology College, School of Automobile and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Lu' an (China)

    2016-04-15

    Three kinds of coatings were successfully prepared on Q235 steel by laser cladding technique through adulterating with Mo and nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} into Ni-based alloys. The effect of Mo and nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the microstructure and properties of Ni-based coatings was investigated systematically by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and microhardness testing and wear testing. The results indicated a certain amount of fine grains and polygonal equiaxed grains synthesized after adding Mo and nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both the microhardness and wear resistance of Ni-based coatings improved greatly with a moderate additional amount of Mo and nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The largest improvement in microhardness was 31.9 and 14.7 %, and the largest reduction in loss was 45.0 and 30.7 %, respectively, for 5.0 wt% Mo powders and 1.0 wt% nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The effect of Mo on microhardness and wear resistance of laser cladding Ni-based alloy coatings is greater than the effect of nano-Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (orig.)

  4. Microstructure and wear resistance of Al2O3-M7C3/Fe composite coatings produced by laser controlled reactive synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Luo, Zhen; Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Duan, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Based on the principle of thermite reaction of Al and Fe2O3 powders, the Al2O3 ceramic reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were fabricated on a steel substrate by laser controlled reactive synthesis and cladding. The effects of different additions of thermite reactants on the phase transition, microstructure evolution, microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Vickers microhardness and block-on-ring wear test, respectively. The results show that Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide are in situ synthesized via the laser controlled reactive synthesis. The Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbides prefer to distribute along the γ-Fe phase boundary continuously, which separates the γ-Fe matrix and is beneficial to the grain refinement. With the increase of thermite reactants, the amount of Al2O3 ceramic and M7C3 carbide in the composite coatings increases gradually. Moreover the cladding layer changes from dendritic structure to columnar structure and martensite structure in the heat affected zone becomes coarse. The increased thermite reactants improve the microhardness and wear resistance of the in situ composite coatings obviously and enhance the hardness of the heat affected zone, which should be ascribed to the grain refinement, ceramic and carbide precipitation and solid solution strengthening.

  5. Influence of load and sliding velocity on wear resistance of solid-lubricant composites of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Buslovich, D. G.; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    To determine the limits of the operation loading intervals appropriate for the use of solid lubricant UHMWPE composites in tribounits for mechanical engineering and medicine, the tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE blends with the optimum solid lubricant filler content (polytetrafluoroethylene, calcium stearate, molybdenum disulfide, colloidal graphite, boron nitride) are studied under dry sliding friction at different velocities (V = 0.3 and 0.5 m/s) and loads (P = 60 and 140 N). It is shown that the wear resistance of solid lubricant UHMWPE composites at moderate sliding velocities (V = 0.3 m/s) and loads (P = 60 N) increases 2-3 times in comparison with pure UHMWPE, while at high load P = 140 N wear resistance of both neat UHMWPE and its composites is reduced almost twice. At high sliding velocities and loads (up to P = 140 N), multiple increasing of the wear of pure UHMWPE and its composites takes place (by the factor of 5 to 10). The operational conditions of UHMWPE composites in tribounits in engineering and medicine are discussed.

  6. Wear rate quantifying in real-time using the charged particle surface activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.

    1997-02-01

    Surface activation, commonly known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), is currently employed in over 30 accelerator laboratories around the world for wear and/or corrosion monitoring in industrial plants [1-6]. TLA was primarily designed and developed to meet requirements of potential industrial partners, in order to transfer this technique from research to industry. The method consists of accelerated ion bombardment of a surface of interest, e.g., a machine part subjected to wear. Loss of material owing to wear, erosive corrosion or abrasion is characterized by monitoring the resultant changes in radioactivity. In principle, depending upon the case at hand, one may choose to measure either the remnant activity of the component of interest or to monitor the activity of the debris. For applications of the second type, especially when a lubricating agent is involved, dedicated installations have been constructed and adapted to an engine or a tribological testing stand in order to assure oil circulation around an externally placed detection gauge. This way, the wear particles suspended in the lubricant can be detected and the material loss rates quantified in real time. Moreover, in specific cases, such as the one presented in this paper, remnant activity measurements prove to be useful tools for complementary results. This paper provides a detailed presentation of such a case: in situ resistance-to-wear testing of two types of piston rings.

  7. Wear resistance of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted carbon fiber reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) liners against metal and ceramic femoral heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Shihori; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Younger, active patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increasing needs for wider range of motion and improved stability of the joint. Therefore, bearing materials having not only higher wear resistance but also mechanical strength are required. Carbon fiber-reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) (CFR-PEEK) is known as a super engineering plastic that has great mechanical strength. In this study, we focused on poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted CFR-PEEK and investigated the effects of PMPC grafting and the femoral heads materials on the wear properties of CFR-PEEK liners. Compared with untreated CFR-PEEK, the PMPC-grafted CFR-PEEK surface revealed higher wettability and lower friction properties under aqueous circumstances. In the hip simulator wear test, wear particles generated from the PMPC-grafted CFR-PEEK liners were fewer than those of the untreated CFR-PEEK liners. There were no significant differences in the size and the morphology of the wear particles between the differences of PMPC-grafting and the counter femoral heads. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads had significantly smoother surfaces compared to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy femoral heads after the hip simulator test. Thus, we conclude that the bearing combination of the PMPC-grafted CFR-PEEK liner and ZTA head is expected to be a lifelong bearing interface in THA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1028-1037, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Friction, adhesion and wear properties of PDMS films on silicon sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penskiy, I; Gerratt, A P; Bergbreiter, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first tests of friction, adhesion and wear properties of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films on the sidewalls of silicon-on-insulator structures. The test devices were individually calibrated using a simple method that included optical and electrical measurements. The static coefficient of friction versus normal pressure curves were obtained for PDMS–PDMS, PDMS–silicon and silicon–silicon sidewall interfaces. The effects of aging on friction and adhesion properties of PDMS were also evaluated. The results of friction tests showed that the static coefficient of friction follows the JKR contact model, which means that the friction force depends on the apparent area of contact. The wear tests showed high resistance of PDMS to abrasion over millions of cycles.

  9. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  10. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  11. 3D FEM Simulation of Flank Wear in Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2011-05-01

    This work deals with tool wear simulation. Studying the influence of tool wear on tool life, tool substitution policy and influence on final part quality, surface integrity, cutting forces and power consumption it is important to reduce the global process costs. Adhesion, abrasion, erosion, diffusion, corrosion and fracture are some of the phenomena responsible of the tool wear depending on the selected cutting parameters: cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, …. In some cases these wear mechanisms are described by analytical models as a function of process variables (temperature, pressure and sliding velocity along the cutting surface). These analytical models are suitable to be implemented in FEM codes and they can be utilized to simulate the tool wear. In the present paper a commercial 3D FEM software has been customized to simulate the tool wear during turning operations when cutting AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated tungsten carbide tip. The FEM software was improved by means of a suitable subroutine able to modify the tool geometry on the basis of the estimated tool wear as the simulation goes on. Since for the considered couple of tool-workpiece material the main phenomena generating wear are the abrasive and the diffusive ones, the tool wear model implemented into the subroutine was obtained as combination between the Usui's and the Takeyama and Murata's models. A comparison between experimental and simulated flank tool wear curves is reported demonstrating that it is possible to simulate the tool wear development.

  12. Corrosion-wear of β-Ti alloy TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe) in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyuan; Hutchinson, Christopher R

    2016-09-15

    Titanium alloys are popular metallic implant materials for use in total hip replacements. Although, α+β titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V have been the most commonly used alloys, the high Young's modulus (∼110GPa) leads to an undesirable stress shielding effect. An alternative is to use β titanium alloys that exhibit a significantly lower Young's modulus (∼70GPa). Femoral stems made of a β titanium alloy known as TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe (wt.%)) have been used as part of modular hip replacements since the early 2000's but these were recalled in 2011 by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) due to unacceptable levels of 'wear debris'. The wear was caused by small relative movement of the stem and neck at the junction where they fit together in the modular hip replacement design. In this study, the corrosion and wear properties of the TMZF alloy were investigated in simulated body fluid to identify the reason for the wear debris generation. Ti64 was used as a control for comparison. It is shown that the interaction between the surfaces of Ti64 and TMZF with simulated body fluid is very similar, both from the point of view of the products formed and the kinetics of the reaction. The dry wear behaviour of TMZF is also close to that of Ti64 and consistent with expectations based on Archard's law for abrasive wear. However, wear of Ti64 and TMZF in simulated body fluid show contrasting behaviours. A type of time-dependent wear test is used to examine the synergy between corrosion and wear of TMZF and Ti64. It is shown that the wear of TMZF accelerated rapidly in SBF whereas that of Ti64 is reduced. The critical role of the strain hardening capacity of the two materials and its role in helping the surface resist abrasion by hydroxyapatite particles formed as a result of the reaction with the SBF is discussed and recommendations are made for modifications that could be made to the TMZF alloy to improve the corrosion-wear response. TMZF is a low modulus β-Ti alloy

  13. Fretting Wear Behaviors of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced (ACSR Conductors in High-Voltage Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchi Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the fretting wear behavior of aluminum cable steel reinforced (ACSR conductors for use in high-voltage transmission line. Fretting wear tests of Al wires were conducted on a servo-controlled fatigue testing machine with self-made assistant apparatus, and their fretting process characteristics, friction force, wear damage, and wear surface morphology were detailed analyzed. The results show that the running regime of Al wires changes from a gross slip regime to a mixed regime more quickly as increasing contact load. With increasing amplitudes, gross slip regimes are more dominant under contact loads of lower than 30 N. The maximum friction force is relatively smaller in the NaCl solution than in a dry friction environment. The primary wear mechanisms in dry friction environments are abrasive wear and adhesive wear whereas abrasive wear and fatigue damage are dominant in NaCl solution.

  14. Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Avita; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini H; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena

    2017-01-01

    Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.

  15. Remarkable improvement of the wear resistance of poly(vinylidene difluoride) by incorporating polyimide powder and carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chunying; Liu, Dengdeng; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Qiaqia; Shen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) composites reinforced via adding different fillers have attracted wide attention in the field of dielectric materials, but few have been reported in the tribological area. In this paper, the effect of polyimide (PI) powder and carbon nanofibers (CF) as reinforcement phases on the friction and wear performance of PVDF composites has been investigated. It was found that PI powder enhances the mechanical and tribological properties of PVDF and especially as the content of the PI powder reaches 5 wt%. In addition, CF and PI exhibited synergistic effect on the tribological properties of PVDF. With PVDF containing 5 wt% PI powder and 20 wt% CF, the friction and wear behavior of the PVDF composite showed the best performance. PVDF, PI powder and CF can form a consistent network structure, which prevents the polymer molecular chains from moving or deformation, decreasing the wear loss of PVDF composites.

  16. Wear behavior of pressable lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhongxiao; Izzat Abdul Rahman, Muhammad; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Ling

    2016-07-01

    This article reports effects of surface preparation and contact loads on abrasive wear properties of highly aesthetic and high-strength pressable lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDGC). Abrasive wear testing was performed using a pin-on-disk device in which LDGC disks prepared with different surface finishes were against alumina pins at different contact loads. Coefficients of friction and wear volumes were measured as functions of initial surface finishes and contact loads. Wear-induced surface morphology changes in both LDGC disks and alumina pins were characterized using three-dimensional laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that initial surface finishes of LDGC specimens and contact loads significantly affected the friction coefficients, wear volumes and wear-induced surface roughness changes of the material. Both wear volumes and friction coefficients of LDGC increased as the load increased while surface roughness effects were complicated. For rough LDGC surfaces, three-body wear was dominant while for fine LDGC surfaces, two-body abrasive wear played a key role. Delamination, plastic deformation, and brittle fracture were observed on worn LDGC surfaces. The adhesion of LDGC matrix materials to alumina pins was also discovered. This research has advanced our understanding of the abrasive wear behavior of LDGC and will provide guidelines for better utilization and preparation of the material for long-term success in dental restorations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 968-978, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. WEAR OF THE FRICTION SURFACES PARTS IN THE PRESENSE OF SOLID PARTICLES CONTACTING ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Musaibov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of intensity of wear of details of the cars working in the oil polluted by abrasive particles, depending on mechanical properties of material of details and abrasive particles, their sizes, a form and concentration, loading, temperature of a surface of friction, speed of sliding, quality of lubricant are considered. 

  18. How wear affects road surface texture and its impact on tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pavement wear in the Nordic countries is essentially influenced by the use of studded tires during long winter seasons. The abrasive effect of the studded tires is the cause of significant damage on the pavement and a contributor to rutting. In addition, the mechanical aggregate removal due to the studded tires is the reason for significant changes in the road surface texture. At traditional dense asphalt pavements, the mechanical wear is initiated by the abrasion of the mortar, wh...

  19. Effect of Fe content on the friction and abrasion properties of copper base overlay on steel substrate by TIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Shixiong; Song Jianling; Liu Lei; Yang Shiqin

    2009-01-01

    Copper base alloy was overlaid onto 35CrMnSiA steel plate by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The heat transfer process was simulated, the microstructures of the copper base overlay were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and the friction and abrasion properties of the overlay were measured. The results show that the Fe content increases in the overlay with increasing the welding current. And with the increase of Fe content in the overlay, the friction coefficient increases and the wear mechanism changes from oxidation wear to abrasive wear and plough wear, which is related to the size and quantity of Fe grains in the overlay. While with the increase of Fe content in the overlay, the protection of oxidation layer against the oxidation wear on the melted metal decreases.

  20. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, S; Stack, M M

    2013-01-01

    The micro-abrasion of Y-TZP, a candidate dental restorative material, was investigated in a range of caffeine-containing solutions which included tea and coffee. Additions of sugar and milk were used to test the effects of viscosity and pH on the wear rate. The results indicated a significant increase in wear rate in the various solutions, with some correlation between wear rate and increases in viscosity and this was linked to enhance particle entrainment in the more viscous solutions. The generally lower wear rate in tea compared to coffee was associated with a longer ageing period in this solution before uniform wear was observed. Micro-abrasion maps were used to characterize the differences in performance for the material in the environments studied. (paper)