WorldWideScience

Sample records for aboveground carbon stocks

  1. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Doetterl

    Full Text Available African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors.Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock. This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system.We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to the terrestrial C budget.

  2. Aboveground vs. Belowground Carbon Stocks in African Tropical Lowland Rainforest: Drivers and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetterl, Sebastian; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Bauters, Marijn; Hufkens, Koen; Lisingo, Janvier; Baert, Geert; Verbeeck, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    African tropical rainforests are one of the most important hotspots to look for changes in the upcoming decades when it comes to C storage and release. The focus of studying C dynamics in these systems lies traditionally on living aboveground biomass. Belowground soil organic carbon stocks have received little attention and estimates of the size, controls and distribution of soil organic carbon stocks are highly uncertain. In our study on lowland rainforest in the central Congo basin, we combine both an assessment of the aboveground C stock with an assessment of the belowground C stock and analyze the latter in terms of functional pools and controlling factors. Our study shows that despite similar vegetation, soil and climatic conditions, soil organic carbon stocks in an area with greater tree height (= larger aboveground carbon stock) were only half compared to an area with lower tree height (= smaller aboveground carbon stock). This suggests that substantial variability in the aboveground vs. belowground C allocation strategy and/or C turnover in two similar tropical forest systems can lead to significant differences in total soil organic C content and C fractions with important consequences for the assessment of the total C stock of the system. We suggest nutrient limitation, especially potassium, as the driver for aboveground versus belowground C allocation. However, other drivers such as C turnover, tree functional traits or demographic considerations cannot be excluded. We argue that large and unaccounted variability in C stocks is to be expected in African tropical rain-forests. Currently, these differences in aboveground and belowground C stocks are not adequately verified and implemented mechanistically into Earth System Models. This will, hence, introduce additional uncertainty to models and predictions of the response of C storage of the Congo basin forest to climate change and its contribution to the terrestrial C budget.

  3. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Bright; J. A. Hicke; A. T. Hudak

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field...

  4. Tropical Soil Carbon Stocks do not Reflect Aboveground Forest Biomass Across Geological and Rainfall Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D. F.; Markesteijn, L.; Turner, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (C) dynamics present a large source of uncertainty in global C cycle models, and inhibit our ability to predict effects of climate change. Tropical wet and seasonal forests exert a disproportionate influence on the global C cycle relative to their land area because they are the most C-rich ecosystems on Earth, containing 25-40% of global terrestrial C stocks. While significant advances have been made to map aboveground C stocks in tropical forests, determining soil C stocks using remote sensing technology is still not possible for closed-canopy forests. It is unclear to what extent aboveground C stocks can be used to predict soil C stocks across tropical forests. Here we present 1-m-deep soil organic C stocks for 42 tropical forest sites across rainfall and geological gradients in Panama. We show that soil C stocks do not correspond to aboveground plant biomass or to litterfall productivity in these humid tropical forests. Rather, soil C stocks were strongly and positively predicted by fine root biomass, soil clay content, and rainfall (R2 = 0.47, p chemical characteristics form an important basis for improving model estimates of soil C stocks and predictions of climate change effects on tropical C storage.

  5. Carbon stock in forest aboveground biomass –comparison based on Landsat data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechanec, V.; Stržínek, F.; Purkyt, Jan; Štěrbová, Lenka; Cudlín, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, 2-3 (2017), s. 126-132 ISSN 2454-0358 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Grant - others:EHP,MF ČR(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : aboveground biomass * carbon stock * remote sensing data * vegetation indices * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  6. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our

  7. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  8. Observations and modeling of aboveground tree carbon stocks and fluxes following a bark beetle outbreak in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. Pfeifer; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Arjan J.H. Meddens

    2011-01-01

    Bark beetle epidemics result in tree mortality across millions of hectares in North America. However, few studies have quantified impacts on carbon (C) cycling. In this study, we quantified the immediate response and subsequent trajectories of stand-level aboveground tree C stocks and fluxes using field measurements and modeling for a location in central Idaho, USA...

  9. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Kristensen, Søren B.P.; Traoré, Oumar

    2012-01-01

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha −1 , depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  10. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, B C; Hicke, J A; Hudak, A T

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  11. ABILITY OF LANDSAT-8 OLI DERIVED TEXTURE METRICS IN ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND CARBON STOCKS OF COPPICE OAK FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9, and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1] to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared. Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived

  12. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  13. Multiscale analysis of tree cover and aboveground carbon stocks in pinyon-juniper woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Barger, Nichole N; Neff, Jason C

    2009-04-01

    Regional, high-resolution mapping of vegetation cover and biomass is central to understanding changes to the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the context of C management. The third most extensive vegetation type in the United States is pinyon-juniper (P-J) woodland, yet the spatial patterns of tree cover and aboveground biomass (AGB) of P-J systems are poorly quantified. We developed a synoptic remote-sensing approach to scale up pinyon and juniper projected cover (hereafter "cover") and AGB field observations from plot to regional levels using fractional photosynthetic vegetation (PV) cover derived from airborne imaging spectroscopy and Landsat satellite data. Our results demonstrated strong correlations (P satellite PV estimates (r2 = 0.61). Field data also indicated that P-J AGB can be estimated from canopy cover using a unified allometric equation (r2 = 0.69; P < 0.001). Using these multiscale cover-AGB relationships, we developed high-resolution, regional maps of P-J cover and AGB for the western Colorado Plateau. The P-J cover was 27.4% +/- 9.9% (mean +/- SD), and the mean aboveground woody C converted from AGB was 5.2 +/- 2.0 Mg C/ha. Combining our data with the southwest Regional Gap Analysis Program vegetation map, we estimated that total contemporary woody C storage for P-J systems throughout the Colorado Plateau (113 600 km2) is 59.0 +/- 22.7 Tg C. Our results show how multiple remote-sensing observations can be used to map cover and C stocks at high resolution in drylands, and they highlight the role of P-J ecosystems in the North American C budget.

  14. Aboveground carbon in Quebec forests: stock quantification at the provincial scale and assessment of temperature, precipitation and edaphic properties effects on the potential stand-level stocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel; Ouimet, Rock; Lambert, Marie-Claude; Logan, Travis

    2016-01-01

    Biological carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems plays an important role in the net balance of greenhouse gases, acting as a carbon sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the abiotic environmental factors (including climate) that control carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests and consequently, about their potential response to climate changes. From a set of more than 94,000 forest inventory plots and a large set of spatial data on forest attributes interpreted from aerial photographs, we constructed a fine-resolution map (∼375 m) of the current carbon stock in aboveground live biomass in the 435,000 km(2) of managed forests in Quebec, Canada. Our analysis resulted in an area-weighted average aboveground carbon stock for productive forestland of 37.6 Mg ha(-1), which is lower than commonly reported values for similar environment. Models capable of predicting the influence of mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and soil physical environment on maximum stand-level aboveground carbon stock (MSAC) were developed. These models were then used to project the future MSAC in response to climate change. Our results indicate that the MSAC was significantly related to both mean annual temperature and precipitation, or to the interaction of these variables, and suggest that Quebec's managed forests MSAC may increase by 20% by 2041-2070 in response to climate change. Along with changes in climate, the natural disturbance regime and forest management practices will nevertheless largely drive future carbon stock at the landscape scale. Overall, our results allow accurate accounting of carbon stock in aboveground live tree biomass of Quebec's forests, and provide a better understanding of possible feedbacks between climate change and carbon storage in temperate and boreal forests.

  15. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Taylor

    Full Text Available Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors

  16. A remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ballanti, Laurel; Thomas, Nathan; Nguyen, Dung; Holmquist, James R.; Simard, Marc; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2018-05-01

    Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our objective was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We developed the first calibration-grade, national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we tested whether imagery from multiple sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar, Landsat, and the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), can improve model performance. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n = 409, RMSE = 310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model results were improved by scaling field-measured biomass calibration data by NAIP-derived 30 m fraction green vegetation. With a mean plant carbon content of 44.1% (n = 1384, 95% C.I. = 43.99%-44.37%), we generated regional 30 m aboveground carbon density maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map. We applied a multivariate delta method to calculate uncertainties in regional carbon densities and stocks that considered standard error in map area, mean biomass and mean %C. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ± 0.004 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had the highest C density of all

  17. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mixed-species allometric equations and estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in restoring degraded landscape in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokria, Mulugeta; Mekuria, Wolde; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Aynekulu, Ermias; Belay, Beyene; Gashaw, Tadesse; Bräuning, Achim

    2018-02-01

    Accurate biomass estimation is critical to quantify the changes in biomass and carbon stocks following the restoration of degraded landscapes. However, there is lack of site-specific allometric equations for the estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB), which consequently limits our understanding of the contributions of restoration efforts in mitigating climate change. This study was conducted in northwestern Ethiopia to develop a multi-species allometric equation and investigate the spatial and temporal variation of C-stocks following the restoration of degraded landscapes. We harvested and weighed 84 trees from eleven dominant species from six grazing exclosures and adjacent communal grazing land. We observed that AGB correlates significantly with diameter at stump height D 30 (R 2 = 0.78 P Ethiopia over space and time. The estimated C-stocks can be used as a reference against which future changes in C-stocks can be compared.

  19. A forward-looking, national-scale remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, J. R.; Byrd, K. B.; Ballanti, L.; Nguyen, D.; Simard, M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Thomas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our goal was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). To meet this objective we developed the first national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest algorithm we tested Sentinel-1 radar backscatter metrics and Landsat vegetation indices as predictors of biomass. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n=409, RMSE=310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass and carbon for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model error was reduced by scaling field measured biomass by Landsat fraction green vegetation derived from object-based classification of National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery. We generated 30m resolution biomass maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map for each region. With a mean plant %C of 44.1% (n=1384, 95% C.I.=43.99% - 44.37%) we estimated mean aboveground carbon densities (Mg/ha) and total carbon stocks for each wetland type for each region. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ±0.08 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had the highest C density of all estuarine emergent marshes (2.03 ±0.06 Mg/ha). This modeling and data synthesis effort will allow for aboveground

  20. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  1. A remote sensing-based model of tidal marsh aboveground carbon stocks for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ballanti, Laurel; Thomas, Nathan; Nguyen, Dung; Holmquist, James R.; Simard, Marc; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing based maps of tidal marshes, both of their extents and carbon stocks, have the potential to play a key role in conducting greenhouse gas inventories and implementing climate mitigation policies. Our objective was to generate a single remote sensing model of tidal marsh aboveground biomass and carbon that represents nationally diverse tidal marshes within the conterminous United States (CONUS). We developed the first calibration-grade, national-scale dataset of aboveground tidal marsh biomass, species composition, and aboveground plant carbon content (%C) from six CONUS regions: Cape Cod, MA, Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL, Mississippi Delta, LA, San Francisco Bay, CA, and Puget Sound, WA. Using the random forest machine learning algorithm, we tested whether imagery from multiple sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar, Landsat, and the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), can improve model performance. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices and with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important (n = 409, RMSE = 310 g/m2, 10.3% normalized RMSE), successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle and growth form. Model results were improved by scaling field-measured biomass calibration data by NAIP-derived 30 m fraction green vegetation. With a mean plant carbon content of 44.1% (n = 1384, 95% C.I. = 43.99%–44.37%), we generated regional 30 m aboveground carbon density maps for estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marshes as indicated by a modified NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program map. We applied a multivariate delta method to calculate uncertainties in regional carbon densities and stocks that considered standard error in map area, mean biomass and mean %C. Louisiana palustrine emergent marshes had the highest C density (2.67 ± 0.004 Mg/ha) of all regions, while San Francisco Bay brackish/saline marshes had

  2. [Tree above-ground biomass allometries for carbon stocks estimation in the Caribbean mangroves in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana; Zapata, Mauricio; Bolivar, Jhoanata; Monsalve, Alejandra; Espinosa, Sandra Milena; Sierra-Correa, Paula Cristina; Sierra, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The distribution of carbon in “Blue Carbon” ecosystems such as mangroves is little known, when compared with the highly known terrestrial forests, despite its particular and recognized high productivity and carbon storage capacity. The objective of this study was to analyze the above ground biomass (AGB) of the species Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans from the Marine Protected Area of Distrito de Manejo Integrado (DMI), Cispatá-Tinajones-La Balsa, Caribbean Colombian coast. With official authorization, we harvested and studied 30 individuals of each species, and built allometric models in order to estimate AGB. Our AGB results indicated that the studied mangrove forests of the DMI Colombian Caribbean was of 129.69 ± 20.24 Mg/ha, equivalent to 64.85 ± 10.12 MgC/ha. The DMI has an area of 8 570.9 ha in mangrove forests, and we estimated that the total carbon potential stored was about 555 795.93 Mg C. The equations generated in this study can be considered as an alternative for the assessment of carbon stocks in AGB of mangrove forests in Colombia; as other available AGB allometric models do not discriminate mangrove forests, despite being particular ecosystems. They can be used for analysis at a more detailed scale and are considered useful to determine the carbon storage potential of mangrove forests, as a country alternative to support forest conservation and emission reduction strategies. In general, the potential of carbon storage from Colombian Caribbean mangrove forests is important and could promote the country leadership of the “blue carbon” stored.

  3. Allometric Models for Predicting Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stock of Tropical Perennial C4 Grasses in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel H. Youkhana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a promising renewable energy option that provides a more environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil resources by reducing the net flux of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Yet, allometric models that allow the prediction of aboveground biomass (AGB, biomass carbon (C stock non-destructively have not yet been developed for tropical perennial C4 grasses currently under consideration as potential bioenergy feedstock in Hawaii and other subtropical and tropical locations. The objectives of this study were to develop optimal allometric relationships and site-specific models to predict AGB, biomass C stock of napiergrass, energycane, and sugarcane under cultivation practices for renewable energy and validate these site-specific models against independent data sets generated from sites with widely different environments. Several allometric models were developed for each species from data at a low elevation field on the island of Maui, Hawaii. A simple power model with stalk diameter (D was best related to AGB and biomass C stock for napiergrass, energycane, and sugarcane, (R2 = 0.98, 0.96, and 0.97, respectively. The models were then tested against data collected from independent fields across an environmental gradient. For all crops, the models over-predicted AGB in plants with lower stalk D, but AGB was under-predicted in plants with higher stalk D. The models using stalk D were better for biomass prediction compared to dewlap H (Height from the base cut to most recently exposed leaf dewlap models, which showed weak validation performance. Although stalk D model performed better, however, the mean square error (MSE-systematic was ranged from 23 to 43 % of MSE for all crops. A strong relationship between model coefficient and rainfall was existed, although these were irrigated systems; suggesting a simple site-specific coefficient modulator for rainfall to reduce systematic errors in water-limited areas. These allometric equations

  4. Allometric Models for Predicting Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stock of Tropical Perennial C4Grasses in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkhana, Adel H; Ogoshi, Richard M; Kiniry, James R; Meki, Manyowa N; Nakahata, Mae H; Crow, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is a promising renewable energy option that provides a more environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil resources by reducing the net flux of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Yet, allometric models that allow the prediction of aboveground biomass (AGB), biomass carbon (C) stock non-destructively have not yet been developed for tropical perennial C 4 grasses currently under consideration as potential bioenergy feedstock in Hawaii and other subtropical and tropical locations. The objectives of this study were to develop optimal allometric relationships and site-specific models to predict AGB, biomass C stock of napiergrass, energycane, and sugarcane under cultivation practices for renewable energy and validate these site-specific models against independent data sets generated from sites with widely different environments. Several allometric models were developed for each species from data at a low elevation field on the island of Maui, Hawaii. A simple power model with stalk diameter (D) was best related to AGB and biomass C stock for napiergrass, energycane, and sugarcane, ( R 2 = 0.98, 0.96, and 0.97, respectively). The models were then tested against data collected from independent fields across an environmental gradient. For all crops, the models over-predicted AGB in plants with lower stalk D, but AGB was under-predicted in plants with higher stalk D. The models using stalk D were better for biomass prediction compared to dewlap H (Height from the base cut to most recently exposed leaf dewlap) models, which showed weak validation performance. Although stalk D model performed better, however, the mean square error (MSE)-systematic was ranged from 23 to 43 % of MSE for all crops. A strong relationship between model coefficient and rainfall was existed, although these were irrigated systems; suggesting a simple site-specific coefficient modulator for rainfall to reduce systematic errors in water-limited areas. These allometric equations provide a

  5. Spatial Distribution of Aboveground Carbon Stock of the Arboreal Vegetation in Brazilian Biomes of Savanna, Atlantic Forest and Semi-Arid Woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolforo, Henrique Ferraco; Scolforo, Jose Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Rogerio; Mello, Jose Marcio; Ferraz Filho, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map the spatial distribution of aboveground carbon stock (using Regression-kriging) of arboreal plants in the Atlantic Forest, Semi-arid woodland, and Savanna Biomes in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The database used in this study was obtained from 163 forest fragments, totaling 4,146 plots of 1,000 m2 distributed in these Biomes. A geographical model for carbon stock estimation was parameterized as a function of Biome, latitude and altitude. This model was applied over the samples and the residuals generated were mapped based on geostatistical procedures, selecting the exponential semivariogram theoretical model for conducting ordinary Kriging. The aboveground carbon stock was found to have a greater concentration in the north of the State, where the largest contingent of native vegetation is located, mainly the Savanna Biome, with Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna phytophysiognomes. The largest weighted averages of carbon stock per hectare were found in the south-center region (48.6 Mg/ha) and in the southern part of the eastern region (48.4 Mg/ha) of Minas Gerais State, due to the greatest predominance of Atlantic Forest Biome forest fragments. The smallest weighted averages per hectare were found in the central (21.2 Mg/ha), northern (20.4 Mg/ha), and northwestern (20.7 Mg/ha) regions of Minas Gerais State, where Savanna Biome fragments are predominant, in the phytophysiognomes Wooded Savanna and Shrub Savanna.

  6. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  7. Impacts of fire management on aboveground tree carbon stocks in Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, John R.; Lutz, James A.; Tarnay, Leland W.; Smith, Douglas G.; Becker, Kendall M.L.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Forest biomass on Sierra Nevada landscapes constitutes one of the largest carbon stocks in California, and its stability is tightly linked to the factors driving fire regimes. Research suggests that fire suppression, logging, climate change, and present management practices in Sierra Nevada forests have altered historic patterns of landscape carbon storage, and over a century of fire suppression and the resulting accumulation in surface fuels have been implicated in contributing to recent increases in high severity, stand-replacing fires. For over 30 years, fire management at Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) national parks has led the nation in restoring fire to park landscapes; however, the impacts on the stability and magnitude of carbon stocks have not been thoroughly examined.

  8. Shade tree diversity and aboveground carbon stocks inTheobroma cacaoagroforestry systems: implications for REDD+ implementation in a West African cacao landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoe, Evans; Asante, Winston; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Bosu, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa. Biomass of cacao and shade trees was determined using allometric equations. One thousand four hundred and one (1401) shade trees comprising 109 species from 33 families were recorded. Total number of species ranged from 34 to 49. Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniacea) was the most frequently occurring specie and constituted 43.2 % of all shade trees. The most predominant families were Sterculiaceae and Moraceae (10 species each), followed by Meliaceae and Mimosaceae (8 species each) and Caesalpiniacaea (6 species). Shannon diversity indices (H', H max and J') and species richness were low compared to other similar studies. Shade tree densities ranged from 16.2 ± 3.0 to 22.8 ± 1.7 stems ha -1 and differed significantly between sites. Carbon stocks of shade trees differed between sites but were similar in cacao trees. The average C stock in cacao trees was 7.45 ± 0.41 Mg C ha -1 compared with 8.32 ± 1.15 Mg C ha -1 in the shade trees. Cacao landscapes in Ghana have the potential of contributing to forest carbon stocks enhancement by increasing the stocking density of shade trees to recommended levels.

  9. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schöngart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ. We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha−1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  10. Spatial complexities in aboveground carbon stocks of a semi-arid mangrove community: A remote sensing height-biomass-carbon approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, S. M.; Callow, N. J.; Phinn, S.; Lovelock, C. E.; Duarte, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Mangroves are integral to ecosystem services provided by the coastal zone, in particular carbon (C) sequestration and storage. Allometric relationships linking mangrove height to estimated biomass and C stocks have been developed from field sampling, while various forms of remote sensing has been used to map vegetation height and biomass. Here we combine both these approaches to investigate spatial patterns in living biomass of mangrove forests in a small area of mangrove in north-west Australia. This study used LiDAR data and Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) with allometric equations to derive mangrove height, biomass, and C stock estimates. We estimated the study site, Mangrove Bay, a semi-arid site in north-western Australia, contained 70 Mg ha-1 biomass and 45 Mg C ha-1 organic C, with total stocks of 2417 Mg biomass and 778 Mg organic C. Using spatial statistics to identify the scale of clustering of mangrove pixels, we found that living biomass and C stock declined with increasing distance from hydrological features (creek entrance: 0-150 m; y = -0.00041x + 0.9613, R2 = 0.96; 150-770 m; y = -0.0008x + 1.6808, R2 = 0.73; lagoon: y = -0.0041x + 3.7943, R2 = 0.78). Our results illustrate a set pattern of living C distribution within the mangrove forest, and then highlight the role hydrologic features play in determining C stock distribution in the arid zone.

  11. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  12. Spatial complexities in aboveground carbon stocks of a semi-arid mangrove community: A remote sensing height-biomass-carbon approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hickey, S.M.

    2017-11-10

    Mangroves are integral to ecosystem services provided by the coastal zone, in particular carbon (C) sequestration and storage. Allometric relationships linking mangrove height to estimated biomass and C stocks have been developed from field sampling, while various forms of remote sensing has been used to map vegetation height and biomass. Here we combine both these approaches to investigate spatial patterns in living biomass of mangrove forests in a small area of mangrove in north-west Australia. This study used LiDAR data and Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) with allometric equations to derive mangrove height, biomass, and C stock estimates. We estimated the study site, Mangrove Bay, a semi-arid site in north-western Australia, contained 70 Mg ha−1 biomass and 45 Mg C ha−1 organic C, with total stocks of 2417 Mg biomass and 778 Mg organic C. Using spatial statistics to identify the scale of clustering of mangrove pixels, we found that living biomass and C stock declined with increasing distance from hydrological features (creek entrance: 0–150 m; y = −0.00041x + 0.9613, R2 = 0.96; 150–770 m; y = −0.0008x + 1.6808, R2 = 0.73; lagoon: y = −0.0041x + 3.7943, R2 = 0.78). Our results illustrate a set pattern of living C distribution within the mangrove forest, and then highlight the role hydrologic features play in determining C stock distribution in arid zone.

  13. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asner Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1 could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy.

  14. Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks of an Undisturbed Regenerating Sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. F. Forest Of Goalpara District, Assam, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Rabha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the above ground biomass and carbon stocks of an undisturbed Sal forest of Goalpara district, Assam, Northeast India. The average AGB and C were recorded 239.45 ± 12.8 Mg ha-1 and 119.73 ± 6.4 Mg ha-1. Density distribution curve indicates the high carbon sequestration potential of the stand in near future which further helps in climate change mitigation. Currently, conservation measures are well imposed in combine effort of local community and government. Legal involvement of local community in conservation exercises along with the forest department might be very effective in management of Sal forests.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11743   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 147-155 

  15. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  16. Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, Adéyèmi; Lautenbach, Sven; Orekan, Vincent Oladokoun Agnila; Kyei-Baffour, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones. Such information has been sparse for the West African Sudan Savannah zone. This paper provides new data and results for this important zone. The analysis combines satellite images and locally derived allometric models based on non-destructive measurements to estimate aboveground biomass stocks at the watershed level in the Sudan Savannah zone in Benin. We compared three types of empirically fitted allometric models of varying model complexity with respect to the number of input parameters that are easy to measure at the ground: model type I based only on the diameter at breast height (DBH), type II which used DBH and tree height and model type III which used DBH, tree height and wood density as predictors. While for most LULC classes model III outperformed the other models even the simple model I showed a good performance. The estimated mean dry biomass density values and attached standard error for the different LULC class were 3.28 ± 0.31 (for cropland and fallow), 3.62 ± 0.36 (for Savanna grassland), 4.86 ± 1.03 (for Settlements), 14.05 ± 0.72 (for Shrub savanna), 45.29 ± 2.51 (for Savanna Woodland), 46.06 ± 14.40 (for Agroforestry), 94.58 ± 4.98 (for riparian forest and woodland), 162 ± 64.88 (for Tectona grandis plantations), 179.62 ± 57.61 (for Azadirachta indica plantations), 25.17 ± 7.46 (for Gmelina arborea plantations

  17. Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéyèmi Chabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC class is needed for the different ecological zones. Such information has been sparse for the West African Sudan Savannah zone. This paper provides new data and results for this important zone. The analysis combines satellite images and locally derived allometric models based on non-destructive measurements to estimate aboveground biomass stocks at the watershed level in the Sudan Savannah zone in Benin. Results We compared three types of empirically fitted allometric models of varying model complexity with respect to the number of input parameters that are easy to measure at the ground: model type I based only on the diameter at breast height (DBH, type II which used DBH and tree height and model type III which used DBH, tree height and wood density as predictors. While for most LULC classes model III outperformed the other models even the simple model I showed a good performance. The estimated mean dry biomass density values and attached standard error for the different LULC class were 3.28 ± 0.31 (for cropland and fallow, 3.62 ± 0.36 (for Savanna grassland, 4.86 ± 1.03 (for Settlements, 14.05 ± 0.72 (for Shrub savanna, 45.29 ± 2.51 (for Savanna Woodland, 46.06 ± 14.40 (for Agroforestry, 94.58 ± 4.98 (for riparian forest and woodland, 162 ± 64.88 (for Tectona grandis plantations, 179.62 ± 57.61 (for Azadirachta indica plantations, 25.17

  18. Estimating carbon stock in secondary forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan

    2011-01-01

    of trees and species for destructive biomass measurements. We assess uncertainties associated with these decisions using data from 94 secondary forest plots in central Panama and 244 harvested trees belonging to 26 locally abundant species. AGB estimates from species-specific models were used to assess......Secondary forests are a major terrestrial carbon sink and reliable estimates of their carbon stocks are pivotal for understanding the global carbon balance and initiatives to mitigate CO2 emissions through forest management and reforestation. A common method to quantify carbon stocks in forests...... is the use of allometric regression models to convert forest inventory data to estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB). The use of allometric models implies decisions on the selection of extant models or the development of a local model, the predictor variables included in the selected model, and the number...

  19. Effects of thinning on aboveground carbon sequestration by a 45-year-old eastern white pine plantation: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground carbon sequestration by a 45-year-old plantation of eastern white pines was determined in response to thinning to three levels of residual basal area: (1) Control (no thinning), (2) light thinning to 120 feet2/acre and (3) heavy thinning to 80 feet2/acre. After 11 years carbon stocks were lowest on the heavily...

  20. High-resolution three-dimensional mapping of forest structure and aboveground biomass stocks in blue carbon ecosystems with airborne Lidar, TanDEM-X and WorldView Stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, T.; Lagomasino, D.; Simard, M.; Lee, S. K.; Feliciano, E. A.; Trettin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetated coastal ecosystems, also called Blue Carbon ecosystems are highly efficient carbon sinks and have been shown to play a role in ameliorating the effect of increasing global climate change by capturing significant amounts of carbon into sediments and plant biomass. Mangrove-lined estuaries and coastal ecosystems are significant to global biogeochemical processes and regulate the structure, productivity and function of adjacent coastal ecosystems disproportionately to their land cover. Here we present recent efforts by the CMS Total Blue Carbon Stocks in Africa Project to estimate total (above and belowground) carbon stocks in East and Central Africa using in situ, high resolution stereo, airborne lidar and spaceborne SAR data. We generated Mangrove extent and change maps and canopy height estimates for the 2000 and 2015 eras that were used as input to carry out stratified field plot samples of above, below and soil Carbon stocks in the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique and Pongara National Park, Gabon. By combining the field measurements and remotely sensed data, we estimated countrywide mangrove total carbon stocks. Uncertainties of estimates associated with different remote sensing input data were also calculated and will be presented. In this talk, we will give an overview of recent efforts to quantify mangrove forest 3-D structure, composition and change at high resolution globally in the context of estimating forest biomass and blue carbon stocks. Our presentation covers field and remotely sensed investigations and describes unique remotely sensed datasets produced and collected at NASA, with an emphasis on recently collected airborne Lidar and Radar from the AfriSAR campaign. Specifically, we will present new results focusing on the validation and comparison of independent mangrove canopy height and biomass measurements from commercial airborne lidar, LVIS, TanDEM-X, UAVSAR and World View, from Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania.

  1. Estimating aboveground live understory vegetation carbon in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristofer D.; Domke, Grant M.; Russell, Matthew B.; Walters, Brian; Hom, John; Peduzzi, Alicia; Birdsey, Richard; Dolan, Katelyn; Huang, Wenli

    2017-12-01

    Despite the key role that understory vegetation plays in ecosystems and the terrestrial carbon cycle, it is often overlooked and has few quantitative measurements, especially at national scales. To understand the contribution of understory carbon to the United States (US) carbon budget, we developed an approach that relies on field measurements of understory vegetation cover and height on US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) subplots. Allometric models were developed to estimate aboveground understory carbon. A spatial model based on stand characteristics and remotely sensed data was also applied to estimate understory carbon on all FIA plots. We found that most understory carbon was comprised of woody shrub species (64%), followed by nonwoody forbs and graminoid species (35%) and seedlings (1%). The largest estimates were found in temperate or warm humid locations such as the Pacific Northwest and southeastern US, thus following the same broad trend as aboveground tree biomass. The average understory aboveground carbon density was estimated to be 0.977 Mg ha-1, for a total estimate of 272 Tg carbon across all managed forest land in the US (approximately 2% of the total aboveground live tree carbon pool). This estimate is more than twice as low as previous FIA modeled estimates that did not rely on understory measurements, suggesting that this pool may currently be overestimated in US National Greenhouse Gas reporting.

  2. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Carbon and Nutrient Stocks, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the carbon and nutrient stocks of above-ground vegetation and soil pools at three locations where post-pasture secondary forest...

  3. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Carbon and Nutrient Stocks, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the carbon and nutrient stocks of above-ground vegetation and soil pools at three locations where post-pasture secondary forest recovery ranged...

  4. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  5. High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; George V. N. Powell; Joseph Mascaro; David E. Knapp; John K. Clark; James Jacobson; Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin; Aravindh Balaji; Guayana Paez-Acosta; Eloy Victoria; Laura Secada; Michael Valqui; R. Flint. Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to mitigate climate change through the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks and emissions over large geographic areas. With a new integrated use of satellite imaging, airborne light detection and ranging, and field plots, we mapped aboveground carbon stocks and emissions at...

  6. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....... sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...

  7. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  8. Data for developing allometric models and evaluating carbon stocks of the Zambezi Teak Forests in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngoma, Justine; Moors, E.J.; Kruijt, B.; Speer, James H.; Vinya, Royd; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Leemans, H.B.J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents data on carbon stocks of tropical tree species along a rainfall gradient. The data was generated from the Sesheke, Namwala, and Kabompo sites in Zambia. Though above-ground data was generated for all these three sites, we uprooted trees to determine below-ground biomass from the

  9. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  10. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Wen J. Wang; Jacob S. Fraser; Stephen R. Shifley; Brice B. Hanberry; William D. Dijak

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using...

  11. Temporal Assessment of Growing Stock, Biomass and Carbon Stock of Indian Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhas, R.K.; Negi, J.D.S.; Chauhan, P.S. [Forest Ecology and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, 248 006, Uttaranchal (India); Kumar, R. [Forest Survey of India, Dehradun, 248 001, Uttaranchal (India)

    2006-01-15

    The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems depends on interactions between carbon, nutrient and hydrological cycles. Terrestrial ecosystems retain carbon in live biomass (aboveground and belowground), decomposing organic matter, and soil. Carbon is exchanged naturally between these systems and the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion. Human activities change carbon stock in these pools and exchanges between them and the atmosphere through land-use, land-use change, and forestry. In the present study we estimated the wood (stem) biomass, growing stock (GS) and carbon stock of Indian forests for 1984 and 1994. The forest area, wood biomass, GS, and carbon stock were 63.86 Mha, 4327.99 Mm{sup 3}, 2398.19 Mt and 1085.06 Mt respectively in 1984 and with the reduction in forest area, 63.34 Mha, in 1994, wood biomass (2395.12 Mt) and carbon stock (1083.69 Mt) also reduced subsequently. The Conifers, of temperate region, stocked maximum carbon in their woods, 28.88 to 65.21 t C/ha, followed by Mangrove forests, 28.24 t C/ha, Dipterocarp forests, 28.00 t C/ha, and Shorea robusta forests, 24.07 t C/ha. Boswellia serrata, with 0.22 Mha forest area, stocked only 3.91 t C/ha. To have an idea of rate of carbon loss the negative changes (loss of forest area) in forest area occurred during 1984-1994 (10yrs) and 1991-1994 (4yrs) were also estimated. In India, land-use changes and fuelwood requirements are the main cause of negative change. Total 24.75 Mt C was lost during 1984-1994 and 21.35 Mt C during 1991-94 at a rate of 2.48 Mt C/yr and 5.35 Mt C/yr respectively. While in other parts of India negative change is due to multiple reasons like fuelwood, extraction of non-wood forest products (NWFPs), illicit felling etc., but in the northeastern region of the country shifting cultivation is the only reason for deforestation. Decrease in forest area due to shifting cultivation accounts for 23.0% of the total deforestation in India, with an annual

  12. Measuring and modeling carbon stock change estimates for US forests and uncertainties from apparent inter-annual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2015-01-01

    Our approach is based on a collection of models that convert or augment the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis program survey data to estimate all forest carbon component stocks, including live and standing dead tree aboveground and belowground biomass, forest floor (litter), down deadwood, and soil organic carbon, for each inventory plot. The data, which include...

  13. A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Ferreira, Joice; Gardner, Toby Alan; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; De Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Durigan, Mariana; Cosme De Oliveira Junior, Raimundo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Barlow, Jos

    2014-12-01

    Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in disturbed forests compare to those found in undisturbed primary forests as well as in regenerating secondary forests. Here, we present the results of the largest field study to date on the impacts of human disturbances on above and belowground carbon stocks in tropical forests. Live vegetation, the largest carbon pool, was extremely sensitive to disturbance: forests that experienced both selective logging and understory fires stored, on average, 40% less aboveground carbon than undisturbed forests and were structurally similar to secondary forests. Edge effects also played an important role in explaining variability in aboveground carbon stocks of disturbed forests. Results indicate a potential rapid recovery of the dead wood and litter carbon pools, while soil stocks (0-30 cm) appeared to be resistant to the effects of logging and fire. Carbon loss and subsequent emissions due to human disturbances remain largely unaccounted for in greenhouse gas inventories, but by comparing our estimates of depleted carbon stocks in disturbed forests with Brazilian government assessments of the total forest area annually disturbed in the Amazon, we show that these emissions could represent up to 40% of the carbon loss from deforestation in the region. We conclude that conservation programs aiming to ensure the long-term permanence of forest carbon stocks, such as REDD+, will remain limited in their success unless they effectively

  14. Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Sofala Bay Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate changes through carbon storage. However, little is known regarding the carbon stocks of these ecosystems, particularly below-ground. This study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Sofala Bay, Central Mozambique, with the aim of quantifying carbon stocks of live and dead plant and soil components. The methods followed the procedures developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR for mangrove forests. In this study, we developed a general allometric equation to estimate individual tree biomass and soil carbon content (up to 100 cm depth. We estimated the carbon in the whole mangrove ecosystem of Sofala Bay, including dead trees, wood debris, herbaceous, pneumatophores, litter and soil. The general allometric equation for live trees derived was [Above-ground tree dry weight (kg = 3.254 × exp(0.065 × DBH], root mean square error (RMSE = 4.244, and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.89. The average total carbon storage of Sofala Bay mangrove was 218.5 Mg·ha−1, of which around 73% are stored in the soil. Mangrove conservation has the potential for REDD+ programs, especially in regions like Mozambique, which contains extensive mangrove areas with high deforestation and degradation rates.

  15. Partitioning Uncertainty In Aboveground Carbon Density Estimates: Relative Contributions From Lidar and Forest Inventory In The Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P.; Keller, M. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon accounting for REDD+ requires knowledge of deforestation, degradation, and associated changes in forest carbon stocks. Degradation is more difficult to detect than deforestation so SilvaCarbon, an US inter-agency effort, has set a priority to better characterize forest degradation effects on carbon loss. By combining information from forest inventory and lidar data products, impacts of deforestation, degradation, and associated changes in forest carbon stocks can be more accurately characterized across space. Our approach employs a hierarchical Bayesian modeling (HBM) framework where the assimilation of information from multiple sources is accomplished using a change of support (COS) technique. The COS formulation allows data from multiple spatial resolutions to be assimilated into an intermediate resolution. This approach is being applied in Paragominas, a jurisdiction in the eastern Brazilian Amazon with a high proportion of logged and burned degraded forests where political change has opened the way for REDD+. We build on a long history of research including our extensive studies of logging damage. Our primary objective is to quantify above-ground carbon stocks and corresponding uncertainty in a spatially explicit manner. A secondary objective is to quantify the relative contribution of lower level data products to the overall uncertainty, allowing for more focused subsequent data collection in the context of uncertainty reduction. This approach provides a mechanism to assimilate information from multiple sources to produce spatially-explicit maps of carbon stocks and changes with corresponding spatially explicit maps of uncertainty. Importantly, this approach also provides a mechanism that can be used to assess the value of information from specific data products.

  16. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhangquan; Zhang, Canming; Li, Jiao; Yang, Nan; Li, Xiquan; Niu, Yandong; Wu, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the relationshi...

  17. CARBON STOCKS AND STOCK CHANGES IN AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Agevi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trees on farmlands and agricultural lands play a crucial role in small holder farmers’ livelihoods in addition to carbon regulation through carbon sequestration. These trees have received much attention recently due to their contribution to climate change mitigation through carbon storage. Quantification of carbon stocks in these trees has always proven difficult due to the spatial extent of these trees and methodological difficulties encountered during measurement. This paper reviews a number of studies done in quantification of biomass and soil carbon stocks in agroforestry within tropics. Most appropriate method employed in determination of carbon stock changes is through use of allometric equations. The equations use parameters like diameter at breast height (DBH, height, crown area which can be measured during field inventory. DBH has always proven to be the best parameter to be used in the equation since it is easy to measure and it does not need expensive equipments.  Apart from trees, soils in agricultural lands have the capacity to store carbon and help mitigate effects of climate change. It then identifies the gap that future research can be done for accurate carbon quantification.

  18. Quantifying aboveground forest carbon pools and fluxes from repeat LiDAR surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Eva K. Strand; Lee A. Vierling; John C. Byrne; Jan U. H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Michael J. Falkowski

    2012-01-01

    Sound forest policy and management decisions to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 depend upon accurate methodologies to quantify forest carbon pools and fluxes over large tracts of land. LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, little work has evaluated the efficacy of repeat LiDAR...

  19. Measuring and modelling above-ground carbon and tree allometry along a tropical elevation gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, A.R.; Willcock, S.; Platts, P.J.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge; Balmford, A.; Burgess, N.D.; Latham, J.E.; Munishi, P.K.T.; Salter, R.; Shirima, D.D.; Lewis, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging international policy aimed at reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in developing countries, has resulted in numerous studies on above-ground live carbon (AGC) in tropical forests. However, few studies have addressed the relative importance of

  20. Measuring and modelling above-ground carbon and tree allometry along a tropical elevation gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, A.R.; Willcock, S.; Platts, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging international policy aimed at reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in developing countries, has resulted in numerous studies on above-ground live carbon (AGC) in tropical forests. However, few studies have addressed the relative importance of distur...

  1. Stocks of carbon and nitrogen and partitioning between above- and belowground pools in the Brazilian coastal Atlantic Forest elevation range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone A; Alves, Luciana F; Duarte-Neto, Paulo J; Martins, Susian C; Veiga, Larissa G; Scaranello, Marcos A; Picollo, Marisa C; Camargo, Plinio B; do Carmo, Janaina B; Neto, Eráclito Sousa; Santos, Flavio A M; Joly, Carlos A; Martinelli, Luiz A

    2011-11-01

    We estimated carbon and nitrogen stocks in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) along an elevation range in forest sites located on the steep slopes of the Serra do Mar on the north coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast Brazil. In elevations of 100 m (lowland), 400 m (submontane), and 1000 m (montane) four 1-ha plots were established, and above- (live and dead) and belowground (live and dead) biomass were determined. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in each compartment were determined and used to convert biomass into carbon and nitrogen stocks. The carbon aboveground stock (C(AGB)) varied along the elevation range from approximately 110 to 150 Mg·ha(-1), and nitrogen aboveground stock (N(AGB)), varied from approximately 1.0 to 1.9 Mg·ha(-1). The carbon belowground stock (C(BGB)) and the nitrogen belowground stock (N(BGB)) were significantly higher than the AGB and varied along the elevation range from approximately 200-300 Mg·ha(-1), and from 14 to 20 Mg·ha(-1), respectively. Finally, the total carbon stock (C(TOTAL)) varied from approximately 320 to 460 Mg·ha(-1), and the nitrogen total stock (N(TOTAL)) from approximately 15 to 22 Mg·ha(-1). Most of the carbon and nitrogen stocks were found belowground and not aboveground as normally found in lowland tropical forests. The above- and belowground stocks, and consequently, the total stocks of carbon and nitrogen increased significantly with elevation. As the soil and air temperature also decreased significantly with elevation, we found a significantly inverse relationship between carbon and nitrogen stocks and temperature. Using this inverse relationship, we made a first approach estimate that an increase of 1°C in soil temperature would decrease the carbon and nitrogen stocks in approximately 17 Mg·ha(-1) and 1 Mg·ha(-1) of carbon and nitrogen, respectively.

  2. Long rotation swidden systems maintain higher carbon stocks than rubber plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Berry, Nicholas; De Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    are poorly quantified. We undertook a chronosequence study to quantify changes in ecosystem carbon stocks following conversion from swidden agriculture to rubber plantations in Northern Laos. We measured above-ground biomass stocks and collected volume specific soil samples across rubber plantations......Conversion of shifting cultivation to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations is one of the dominant land use changes in montane mainland areas of Southeast Asia, with the area of rubber expected to quadruple by 2050. However, the impacts of this transition on total ecosystem carbon stocks...... established between 2 and 18 years prior to the study, and fallows used in a swidden system. The carbon stock in the upper 40 cm of the soil was almost 20% lower after 18 years of rubber than in the swidden system fallows, suggesting a SOC loss of 0.74 ± 0.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Rates of biomass accumulation...

  3. Community monitoring of carbon stocks for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brofeldt, Søren; Theilade, Ida; Burgess, Neil David

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropica...

  4. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Stehman, S. V.; Potapov, P. V.; Turubanova, S. A.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.; Houghton, R. A.; Hansen, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000-2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr-1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr-1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC.

  5. Influence of stocking, site quality, stand age, low-severity canopy disturbance, and forest composition on sub-boreal aspen mixedwood carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Michael; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Low-severity canopy disturbance presumably influences forest carbon dynamics during the course of stand development, yet the topic has received relatively little attention. This is surprising because of the frequent occurrence of such events and the potential for both the severity and frequency of disturbances to increase as a result of climate change. We investigated the impacts of low-severity canopy disturbance and average insect defoliation on forest carbon stocks and rates of carbon sequestration in mature aspen mixedwood forests of varying stand age (ranging from 61 to 85 years), overstory composition, stocking level, and site quality. Stocking level and site quality positively affected the average annual aboveground tree carbon increment (CAAI), while stocking level, site quality, and stand age positively affected tree carbon stocks (CTREE) and total ecosystem carbon stocks (CTOTAL). Cumulative canopy disturbance (DIST) was reconstructed using dendroecological methods over a 29-year period. DIST was negatively and significantly related to soil carbon (CSOIL), and it was negatively, albeit marginally, related to CTOTAL. Minima in the annual aboveground carbon increment of trees (CAI) occurred at sites during defoliation of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner), and minima were more extreme at sites dominated by trembling aspen than sites mixed with conifers. At sites defoliated by forest tent caterpillar in the early 2000s, increased sequestration by the softwood component (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) compensated for overall decreases in CAI by 17% on average. These results underscore the importance of accounting for low-severity canopy disturbance events when developing regional forest carbon models and argue for the restoration and maintenance of historically important conifer species within aspen mixedwoods to enhance stand-level resilience to disturbance agents and maintain

  6. Carbon Stocks in the Small Estuarine Mangroves of Geza and Mtimbwani, Tanga, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Alavaisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests offer important ecosystem services, including their high capacity for carbon sequestration and stocking. However, they face rapid degradation and loss of ecological resilience particularly at local scales due to human pressure. We conducted inventory of mangrove forests to characterise forest stand structure and estimate carbon stocks in the small estuarine mangroves of Geza and Mtimbwani in Tanga, Tanzania. Forest structure, above-ground carbon (AGC, and below-ground carbon (BGC were characterised. Soil carbon was estimated to 1 m depth using loss on ignition procedure. Six common mangrove species were identified dominated by Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. and Rhizophora mucronata Lamarck. Forest stand density and basal area were 1740 stems ha−1 and 17.2 m2 ha−1 for Geza and 2334 stems ha−1 and 30.3 m2 ha−1 for Mtimbwani. Total ecosystem carbon stocks were 414.6 Mg C ha−1 for Geza and 684.9 Mg C ha−1 for Mtimbwani. Soil carbon contributed over 65% of these stocks, decreasing with depth. Mid zones of the mangrove stands had highest carbon stocks. These data demonstrate that studied mangroves are potential for carbon projects and provide the baseline for monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV to support the projects.

  7. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galia Selaya, N.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Vos, Vincent A.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Pitman, Nigel C.A.; Brown, Foster Irving; Duchelle, Amy E.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Oliveiracarillo, Luis A.; Vasquez Colomo, Guido H.; Chupinagua, Severo Meo; Nay, Hugo Fuentes; Perz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC). We used 41 1-hectare

  8. Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sassan S; Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra; Lefsky, Michael; Mitchard, Edward T A; Salas, William; Zutta, Brian R; Buermann, Wolfgang; Lewis, Simon L; Hagen, Stephen; Petrova, Silvia; White, Lee; Silman, Miles; Morel, Alexandra

    2011-06-14

    Developing countries are required to produce robust estimates of forest carbon stocks for successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies related to reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Here we present a "benchmark" map of biomass carbon stocks over 2.5 billion ha of forests on three continents, encompassing all tropical forests, for the early 2000s, which will be invaluable for REDD assessments at both project and national scales. We mapped the total carbon stock in live biomass (above- and belowground), using a combination of data from 4,079 in situ inventory plots and satellite light detection and ranging (Lidar) samples of forest structure to estimate carbon storage, plus optical and microwave imagery (1-km resolution) to extrapolate over the landscape. The total biomass carbon stock of forests in the study region is estimated to be 247 Gt C, with 193 Gt C stored aboveground and 54 Gt C stored belowground in roots. Forests in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia accounted for 49%, 25%, and 26% of the total stock, respectively. By analyzing the errors propagated through the estimation process, uncertainty at the pixel level (100 ha) ranged from ± 6% to ± 53%, but was constrained at the typical project (10,000 ha) and national (>1,000,000 ha) scales at ca. ± 5% and ca. ± 1%, respectively. The benchmark map illustrates regional patterns and provides methodologically comparable estimates of carbon stocks for 75 developing countries where previous assessments were either poor or incomplete.

  9. Aboveground biomass, wood volume, nutrient stocks and leaf litter in novel forests compared to native forests and tree plantations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; O. Abelleira Martínez; J. Fonseca da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The article presents comparative data for aboveground biomass, wood volume, nutirent stocks (N, P, K) and leaf litter in different types of forests in Puerto Rico. The aim of the study is to assess how novel forests of Castilla elastica, Panama Rubber Tree, and Spathodea campanulata, African Tulip Tree, compare with tree plantations and native historical forests (both...

  10. Estimating above-ground carbon biomass in a newly restored coastal plain wetland using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Joseph B; Bernhardt, Emily; Swenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging) is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggrading vegetation. This study compared the abilities of discrete-return LiDAR and high resolution optical imagery to model above-ground carbon biomass at a young restored forested wetland site in eastern North Carolina. We found that the optical imagery model explained more of the observed variation in carbon biomass than the LiDAR model (adj-R(2) values of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively; root mean squared errors of 0.14 Mg C/ha and 0.17 Mg C/ha respectively). Optical imagery was also better able to predict high and low biomass extremes than the LiDAR model. Combining both the optical and LiDAR improved upon the optical model but only marginally (adj-R(2) of 0.37). These results suggest that the ability of discrete-return LiDAR to model above-ground biomass may be rather limited in areas with young, small trees and that high spatial resolution optical imagery may be the better tool in such areas.

  11. Estimating above-ground carbon biomass in a newly restored coastal plain wetland using remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Riegel

    Full Text Available Developing accurate but inexpensive methods for estimating above-ground carbon biomass is an important technical challenge that must be overcome before a carbon offset market can be successfully implemented in the United States. Previous studies have shown that LiDAR (light detection and ranging is well-suited for modeling above-ground biomass in mature forests; however, there has been little previous research on the ability of LiDAR to model above-ground biomass in areas with young, aggrading vegetation. This study compared the abilities of discrete-return LiDAR and high resolution optical imagery to model above-ground carbon biomass at a young restored forested wetland site in eastern North Carolina. We found that the optical imagery model explained more of the observed variation in carbon biomass than the LiDAR model (adj-R(2 values of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively; root mean squared errors of 0.14 Mg C/ha and 0.17 Mg C/ha respectively. Optical imagery was also better able to predict high and low biomass extremes than the LiDAR model. Combining both the optical and LiDAR improved upon the optical model but only marginally (adj-R(2 of 0.37. These results suggest that the ability of discrete-return LiDAR to model above-ground biomass may be rather limited in areas with young, small trees and that high spatial resolution optical imagery may be the better tool in such areas.

  12. Above-ground tree outside forest (TOF) phytomass and carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and refinement of classified images (Rawat et al. 2004). At the national level, an attempt is being made in the National Carbon. Project (NCP) to estimate the total phytomass and carbon density for plants/trees inside and out-side the forest through a project taken up by the Indian. Space Research Organization (ISRO), ...

  13. Taking Stock of Circumboreal Forest Carbon With Ground Measurements, Airborne and Spaceborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Nelson, Ross F.; Ranson, K. Jon; Margolis, Hank A.; Montesano, Paul M.; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, Viacheslav; Naesset, Erik; Wulder, Michael A.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest accounts for one-third of global forests, but remains largely inaccessible to ground-based measurements and monitoring. It contains large quantities of carbon in its vegetation and soils, and research suggests that it will be subject to increasingly severe climate-driven disturbance. We employ a suite of ground-, airborne- and space-based measurement techniques to derive the first satellite LiDAR-based estimates of aboveground carbon for the entire circumboreal forest biome. Incorporating these inventory techniques with uncertainty analysis, we estimate total aboveground carbon of 38 +/- 3.1 Pg. This boreal forest carbon is mostly concentrated from 50 to 55degN in eastern Canada and from 55 to 60degN in eastern Eurasia. Both of these regions are expected to warm >3 C by 2100, and monitoring the effects of warming on these stocks is important to understanding its future carbon balance. Our maps establish a baseline for future quantification of circumboreal carbon and the described technique should provide a robust method for future monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of the aboveground carbon content.

  14. An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, David F (deceased); Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J (for DF Karnosky)

    2009-02-17

    This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elite P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO2

  15. Ecosystem carbon stocks of micronesian mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

    2011-01-01

    Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions. Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation. We...

  16. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  17. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes.

  18. Modelling above-ground carbon dynamics using multi-temporal airborne lidar: insights from a Mediterranean woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, W.; Ruiz-Benito, P.; Valladares, F.; Coomes, D.

    2016-02-01

    Woodlands represent highly significant carbon sinks globally, though could lose this function under future climatic change. Effective large-scale monitoring of these woodlands has a critical role to play in mitigating for, and adapting to, climate change. Mediterranean woodlands have low carbon densities, but represent important global carbon stocks due to their extensiveness and are particularly vulnerable because the region is predicted to become much hotter and drier over the coming century. Airborne lidar is already recognized as an excellent approach for high-fidelity carbon mapping, but few studies have used multi-temporal lidar surveys to measure carbon fluxes in forests and none have worked with Mediterranean woodlands. We use a multi-temporal (5-year interval) airborne lidar data set for a region of central Spain to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon dynamics in typical mixed broadleaved and/or coniferous Mediterranean woodlands. Field calibration of the lidar data enabled the generation of grid-based maps of AGB for 2006 and 2011, and the resulting AGB change was estimated. There was a close agreement between the lidar-based AGB growth estimate (1.22 Mg ha-1 yr-1) and those derived from two independent sources: the Spanish National Forest Inventory, and a tree-ring based analysis (1.19 and 1.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively). We parameterised a simple simulator of forest dynamics using the lidar carbon flux measurements, and used it to explore four scenarios of fire occurrence. Under undisturbed conditions (no fire) an accelerating accumulation of biomass and carbon is evident over the next 100 years with an average carbon sequestration rate of 1.95 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This rate reduces by almost a third when fire probability is increased to 0.01 (fire return rate of 100 years), as has been predicted under climate change. Our work shows the power of multi-temporal lidar surveying to map woodland carbon fluxes and provide parameters for carbon

  19. Above-ground tree outside forest (TOF) phytomass and carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study results conclude that the classification of TOF and estimation of phytomass and carbon content in TOF can be successfully achieved through the combined approach of Remote Sensing and GIS based spatial technique with the supplement of field data. The present approach will help to find out the potential ...

  20. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  1. Carbon stocks and flux in French forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Pignard, Gerome; Badeau, Vincent; Thimonier, A.; Dhote, Jean-Francois; Nepveu, G.; Berges, L.; Augusto, L.; Belkacem, S.; Nys, C.

    2000-01-01

    Forests contain most of the carbon stored in the earth's biomass (81 %) and could play a role in CO 2 mitigation to a certain extent. We estimate French forest carbon stocks in biomass to be 860 MtC on 14.5 million hectares of forests, and 1,140 MtC in forest soils. Total carbon in the 14.5 million hectares of French forests is estimated at 2,000 MtC. Average annual flux for the 1979/91 period is 10.5 MtC/y, i.e. 10 % of national fossil fuel emissions. The main causes of this net carbon uptake are the rapid increase of forest area, increasing productivity due to environmental changes, ageing or, in some localized areas, more intensive silviculture practices. These carbon sinks are not offset by the harvesting level which remains low on average (61 % of the annual volume growth). Forestry carbon mitigation options applicable in France are discussed. The need for global economic and ecological budgets (including carbon stocks, soil fertility and biodiversity) of the possible alternatives is stressed. (authors)

  2. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  3. Scenarios in tropical forest degradation: carbon stock trajectories for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. de Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests—such as logging and fire—causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i develop short-term emissions factors (per area for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance. Results Average emissions from aboveground biomass were 19.9 MgC/ha for logging and 46.0 MgC/ha for fire disturbance, with an average period of study of 3.22 and 2.15 years post-disturbance, respectively. Longer-term studies of post-logging forest recovery suggest that biomass accumulates to pre-disturbance levels within a few decades. Very few studies exist on longer-term (>10 years effects of fire disturbance in tropical rainforests, and recovery patterns over time are unknown. Conclusions This review will aid in understanding whether degradation emissions are a substantial component of country-level emissions portfolios, or whether these emissions would be offset by forest recovery and regeneration.

  4. Fire and the distribution and uncertainty of carbon sequestered as above-ground tree biomass in Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A.; Matchett, John R.; Tarnay, Leland W.; Smith, Douglas F.; Becker, Kendall M.L.; Furniss, Tucker J.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is one of the principal agents changing forest carbon stocks and landscape level distributions of carbon, but few studies have addressed how accurate carbon accounting of fire-killed trees is or can be. We used a large number of forested plots (1646), detailed selection of species-specific and location-specific allometric equations, vegetation type maps with high levels of accuracy, and Monte Carlo simulation to model the amount and uncertainty of aboveground tree carbon present in tree species (hereafter, carbon) within Yosemite and Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks. We estimated aboveground carbon in trees within Yosemite National Park to be 25 Tg of carbon (C) (confidence interval (CI): 23–27 Tg C), and in Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Park to be 20 Tg C (CI: 18–21 Tg C). Low-severity and moderate-severity fire had little or no effect on the amount of carbon sequestered in trees at the landscape scale, and high-severity fire did not immediately consume much carbon. Although many of our data inputs were more accurate than those used in similar studies in other locations, the total uncertainty of carbon estimates was still greater than ±10%, mostly due to potential uncertainties in landscape-scale vegetation type mismatches and trees larger than the ranges of existing allometric equations. If carbon inventories are to be meaningfully used in policy, there is an urgent need for more accurate landscape classification methods, improvement in allometric equations for tree species, and better understanding of the uncertainties inherent in existing carbon accounting methods.

  5. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A.; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Camargo, Plínio B.; Cerri, Carlos E.; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C.; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor—an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  6. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Camargo, Plínio B; Cerri, Carlos E; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C; Vieira, Ima C G; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  7. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Berenguer

    Full Text Available Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH, which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85 whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human

  8. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmanabhan, E., E-mail: Eswaran_padmanabhan@petronas.com.my [Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, 31750, Perak (Malaysia); Eswaran, H.; Reich, P.F. [USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O have an anthropic source and of these CO{sub 2} is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10–15 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1 m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}. Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. - Highlights: • Soil carbon stocks in different soils in Sarawak • In depth discussion of

  9. Estimating Forest Carbon Stock in Alpine and Arctic Ecotones of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on measured carbon stocks in the forests of two tree line ecotones of the Ural region where climate change might improve growing conditions. The first is an alpine ecotone that is represented by an altitudinal gradient of the spruce-dominated forests on the Western slope of the Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain (Western part of the Konzhakovskii-Tylaiskii-Serebryanskii Mountain system, 59°30′N, 59°00′E, at the alpine timber line that has risen from 864 to 960 m above sea level in the course of the last 100 years. The second is an arctic ecotone in larch-dominated forests at the lower course of the Pur river (67°N, 78°E, at the transition zone between closed floodplain forests and open or island-like communities of upland forests on tundra permafrost. According to our results, there are large differences in the carbon of the aboveground biomass of both ecotones across environmental gradients. In the alpine tree line ecotone, a 19-fold drop of the carbon stocks was detected between the lower and higher altitudinal levels. In the arctic ecotone the aboveground biomass carbon stock of forests of similar densities (1300 to 1700 trees per ha was 7 times as much in the river flood bed, and 5 times as much in mature, dense forests as the low density forests at higher elevations. Twelve regression equations describing dependencies of the aboveground tree biomass (stems, branches, foliage, total aboveground part upon stem diameter of the tree are proposed, which can be used to estimating the biological productivity (carbon of spruce and larch forests on Tylaiskii Kamen Mountain and the lower Pur river and on surrounding areas on the base of traditional forest mensuration have been proposed. In order to reduce the labor intensity of a coming determination of forest biomass the average values of density and dry matter content in the biomass fractions are given that were obtained by taking our sample trees.The results can be useful in

  10. A Study of Phytolith-occluded Carbon Stock in Monopodial Bamboo in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Xu, Qiufang; Zhao, Peiping; He, Shanqiong

    2015-08-01

    Bamboo plants have been proven to be rich in phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) and play an important role in reducing atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The object of this paper was to obtain more accurate methods for estimation of PhytOC stock in monopodial bamboo because previous studies may have underestimated it. Eight monopodial bamboo species, widely distributed across China, were selected and sampled for this study in their own typical distribution areas. There were differences (P  branch > culm. The average PhytOC stored in aboveground biomass and PhytOC production flux contributed by aboveground biomass varied substantially, and they were 3.28 and 1.57 times corresponding dates in leaves, with the highest in Phyllostachys glauca McClure and lowest in Indocalamus tessellatus (Munro) Keng f. It can be concluded that it could be more accurate to estimate PhytOC stock or PhytOC production flux by basing on whole aboveground biomass rather than on leaf or leaf litter only. The whole biomass should be collected for more estimation of bamboo PhytOC sequestration capacity in the future.

  11. Thinning, Age, and Site Quality Influence Live Tree Carbon Stocks in Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of thinning, age, and site quality on aboveground live tree carbon (ATC) (Mg/ha) stocks in upland hardwood forests of mixed-species composition in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In 1974, 80 plots ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.1 ha were established in even-aged, mixed-hardwood forests throughout the southern Appalachians. All trees...

  12. Sensitivity of woody carbon stocks to bark investment strategy in Neotropical savannas and forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Trugman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire frequencies are changing in Neotropical savannas and forests as a result of forest fragmentation and increasing drought. Such changes in fire regime and climate are hypothesized to destabilize tropical carbon storage, but there has been little consideration of the widespread variability in tree fire tolerance strategies. To test how aboveground carbon stocks change with fire frequency and composition of plants with different fire tolerance strategies, we update the Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2 with (i a fire survivorship module based on tree bark thickness (a key fire-tolerance trait across woody plants in savannas and forests, and (ii plant functional types representative of trees in the region. With these updates, the model is better able to predict how fire frequency affects population demography and aboveground woody carbon. Simulations illustrate that the high survival rate of thick-barked, large trees reduces carbon losses with increasing fire frequency, with high investment in bark being particularly important in reducing losses in the wettest sites. Additionally, in landscapes that frequently burn, bark investment can broaden the range of climate and fire conditions under which savannas occur by reducing the range of conditions leading to either complete tree loss or complete grass loss. These results highlight that tropical vegetation dynamics depend not only on rainfall and changing fire frequencies but also on tree fire survival strategy. Further, our results indicate that fire survival strategy is fundamentally important in regulating tree size demography in ecosystems exposed to fire, which increases the preservation of aboveground carbon stocks and the coexistence of different plant functional groups.

  13. Sensitivity of woody carbon stocks to bark investment strategy in Neotropical savannas and forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trugman, Anna T.; Medvigy, David; Hoffmann, William A.; Pellegrini, Adam F. A.

    2018-01-01

    Fire frequencies are changing in Neotropical savannas and forests as a result of forest fragmentation and increasing drought. Such changes in fire regime and climate are hypothesized to destabilize tropical carbon storage, but there has been little consideration of the widespread variability in tree fire tolerance strategies. To test how aboveground carbon stocks change with fire frequency and composition of plants with different fire tolerance strategies, we update the Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) with (i) a fire survivorship module based on tree bark thickness (a key fire-tolerance trait across woody plants in savannas and forests), and (ii) plant functional types representative of trees in the region. With these updates, the model is better able to predict how fire frequency affects population demography and aboveground woody carbon. Simulations illustrate that the high survival rate of thick-barked, large trees reduces carbon losses with increasing fire frequency, with high investment in bark being particularly important in reducing losses in the wettest sites. Additionally, in landscapes that frequently burn, bark investment can broaden the range of climate and fire conditions under which savannas occur by reducing the range of conditions leading to either complete tree loss or complete grass loss. These results highlight that tropical vegetation dynamics depend not only on rainfall and changing fire frequencies but also on tree fire survival strategy. Further, our results indicate that fire survival strategy is fundamentally important in regulating tree size demography in ecosystems exposed to fire, which increases the preservation of aboveground carbon stocks and the coexistence of different plant functional groups.

  14. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, E; Eswaran, H; Reich, P F

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO2, CH4, and N2O have an anthropic source and of these CO2 is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m(-2) m(-1)), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10-15 kg m(-2) m(-1)). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m(-2) m(-1). Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined influence of sedimentation and vegetation on the soil carbon stocks of a coastal wetland in the Changjiang estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Chen, Huaipu; Cao, Haobing; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan

    2017-07-01

    Coastal wetlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Large quantities of sediment deposited in the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary by the Changjiang River promote the propagation of coastal wetlands, the expansion of saltmarsh vegetation, and carbon sequestration. In this study, using the Chongming Dongtan Wetland in the Changjiang estuary as the study area, the spatial and temporal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the influences of sedimentation and vegetation on the SOC stocks of the coastal wetland were examined in 2013. There was sediment accretion in the northern and middle areas of the wetland and in the Phragmites australis marsh in the southern area, and sediment erosion in the Scirpus mariqueter marsh and the bare mudflat in the southern area. More SOC accumulated in sediments of the vegetated marsh than in the bare mudflat. The total organic carbon (TOC) stocks increased in the above-ground biomass from spring to autumn and decreased in winter; in the below-ground biomass, they gradually increased from spring to winter. The TOC stocks were higher in the below-ground biomass than in the above-ground biomass in the P. australis and Spartina alterniflora marshes, but were lower in the below-ground biomass in S. mariqueter marsh. Stocks of SOC showed temporal variation and increased gradually in all transects from spring to winter. The SOC stocks tended to decrease from the high marsh down to the bare mudflat along the three transects in the order: P. australis marsh > S. alterniflora marsh > S. mariqueter marsh > bare mudflat. The SOC stocks of the same vegetation type were higher in the northern and middle transects than in the southern transect. These results suggest that interactions between sedimentation and vegetation regulate the SOC stocks in the coastal wetland in the Changjiang estuary.

  16. High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Powell, George V N; Mascaro, Joseph; Knapp, David E; Clark, John K; Jacobson, James; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Balaji, Aravindh; Paez-Acosta, Guayana; Victoria, Eloy; Secada, Laura; Valqui, Michael; Hughes, R Flint

    2010-09-21

    Efforts to mitigate climate change through the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks and emissions over large geographic areas. With a new integrated use of satellite imaging, airborne light detection and ranging, and field plots, we mapped aboveground carbon stocks and emissions at 0.1-ha resolution over 4.3 million ha of the Peruvian Amazon, an area twice that of all forests in Costa Rica, to reveal the determinants of forest carbon density and to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping carbon emissions for REDD. We discovered previously unknown variation in carbon storage at multiple scales based on geologic substrate and forest type. From 1999 to 2009, emissions from land use totaled 1.1% of the standing carbon throughout the region. Forest degradation, such as from selective logging, increased regional carbon emissions by 47% over deforestation alone, and secondary regrowth provided an 18% offset against total gross emissions. Very high-resolution monitoring reduces uncertainty in carbon emissions for REDD programs while uncovering fundamental environmental controls on forest carbon storage and their interactions with land-use change.

  17. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  18. From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandé, Jorge Andres; Stockert, Christine M; Liles, Garrett C; Williams, John N; Smart, David R; Viers, Joshua H

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley. We characterize C stocks in terms of allometric variation between biomass fractions of roots, aboveground wood, canes, leaves and fruits, and then test correlations between easy-to-measure variables such as trunk diameter, pruning weights and harvest weight to vine biomass fractions. Carbon stocks at the vineyard block scale were validated from biomass mounds generated during vineyard removal. Total vine C was estimated at 12.3 Mg C ha -1 , of which 8.9 Mg C ha -1 came from perennial vine biomass. Annual biomass was estimated at 1.7 Mg C ha -1 from leaves and canes and 1.7 Mg C ha -1 from fruit. Strong, positive correlations were found between the diameter of the trunk and overall woody C stocks (R 2  = 0.85), pruning weights and leaf and fruit C stocks (R 2  = 0.93), and between fruit weight and annual C stocks (R 2  = 0.96). Vineyard C partitioning obtained in this study provides detailed C storage estimations in order to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of winegrape C. Allometric equations based on simple and practical biomass and biometric measurements could enable winegrape growers to more easily estimate existing and future C stocks by scaling up from berries and vines to vineyard blocks.

  19. From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andres Morandé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California’s northern San Joaquin Valley. We characterize C stocks in terms of allometric variation between biomass fractions of roots, aboveground wood, canes, leaves and fruits, and then test correlations between easy-to-measure variables such as trunk diameter, pruning weights and harvest weight to vine biomass fractions. Carbon stocks at the vineyard block scale were validated from biomass mounds generated during vineyard removal. Results Total vine C was estimated at 12.3 Mg C ha−1, of which 8.9 Mg C ha−1 came from perennial vine biomass. Annual biomass was estimated at 1.7 Mg C ha−1 from leaves and canes and 1.7 Mg C ha−1 from fruit. Strong, positive correlations were found between the diameter of the trunk and overall woody C stocks (R2 = 0.85, pruning weights and leaf and fruit C stocks (R2 = 0.93, and between fruit weight and annual C stocks (R2 = 0.96. Conclusions Vineyard C partitioning obtained in this study provides detailed C storage estimations in order to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of winegrape C. Allometric equations based on simple and practical biomass and biometric measurements could enable winegrape growers to more easily estimate existing and future C stocks by scaling up from berries and vines to vineyard blocks.

  20. Urban Land Use Change Effects on Below and Aboveground Carbon Stocks—a Global Perspective and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyat, R. V.; Chen, Y.; Yesilonis, I.; Day, S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) has a significant impact on both above- and below-ground carbon (C) stocks; however, little is known about the net effects of urban LUC on the C cycle and climate system. Moreover, as climate change becomes an increasingly pressing concern, there is growing evidence that urban policy and management decisions can have significant regional impacts on C dynamics. Soil organic carbon (SOC) varies significantly across ecoregions at global and continental scales due to differential sensitivity of primary production, substrate quality, and organic matter decay to changes in temperature and soil moisture. These factors are highly modified by urban LUC due to vegetation removal, soil relocation and disruption, pollution, urban heat island effects, and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As a result, on a global scale urban LUC differentially affects the C cycle from ecoregion to ecoregion. For urban ecosystems, the data collected thus far suggests urbanization can lead to both an increase and decrease in soil C pools and fluxes, depending on the native ecosystem being impacted by urban development. For example, in drier climates, urban landscapes accumulate higher C densities than the native ecosystems they replaced. Results suggest also that soil C storage in urban ecosystems is highly variable with very high (> 20.0) and low (urban soils, total SOC densities are consistently 2-fold greater than aboveground stocks. For those soils with low SOC densities, there is potential to increase C sequestration through management, but specific urban related management practices need to be evaluated. In addition, urban LUC is a human-driven process and thus can be modified or adjusted to reduce its impacts on the C cycle. For example, policies that influence development patterns, population density, management practices, and other human factors can greatly ameliorate the impact of urban LUC on the C cycle. However, even with the recent and rapid expansion

  1. Black Carbon Contribution to Organic Carbon Stocks in Urban Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Potter, Jonathan; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Manning, David A C; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2015-07-21

    Soil holds 75% of the total organic carbon (TOC) stock in terrestrial ecosystems. This comprises ecosystem-derived organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), a recalcitrant product of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Urban topsoils are often enriched in BC from historical emissions of soot and have high TOC concentrations, but the contribution of BC to TOC throughout the urban soil profile, at a regional scale is unknown. We sampled 55 urban soil profiles across the North East of England, a region with a history of coal burning and heavy industry. Through combined elemental and thermogravimetic analyses, we found very large total soil OC stocks (31-65 kg m(-2) to 1 m), exceeding typical values reported for UK woodland soils. BC contributed 28-39% of the TOC stocks, up to 23 kg C m(-2) to 1 m, and was affected by soil texture. The proportional contribution of the BC-rich fraction to TOC increased with soil depth, and was enriched in topsoil under trees when compared to grassland. Our findings establish the importance of urban ecosystems in storing large amounts of OC in soils and that these soils also capture a large proportion of BC particulates emitted within urban areas.

  2. Multi-temporal assessment of forest cover, stocking parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miombo woodlands form the widespread ecosystem in Tanzania. The ecosystem of these woodlands serves as a carbon sink and source containing majority of the above-ground terrestrial organic carbon. The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree biomass dynamics in the Miombo ...

  3. High-resolution mapping of forest carbon stocks in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Asner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution mapping of tropical forest carbon stocks can assist forest management and improve implementation of large-scale carbon retention and enhancement programs. Previous high-resolution approaches have relied on field plot and/or light detection and ranging (LiDAR samples of aboveground carbon density, which are typically upscaled to larger geographic areas using stratification maps. Such efforts often rely on detailed vegetation maps to stratify the region for sampling, but existing tropical forest maps are often too coarse and field plots too sparse for high-resolution carbon assessments. We developed a top-down approach for high-resolution carbon mapping in a 16.5 million ha region (> 40% of the Colombian Amazon – a remote landscape seldom documented. We report on three advances for large-scale carbon mapping: (i employing a universal approach to airborne LiDAR-calibration with limited field data; (ii quantifying environmental controls over carbon densities; and (iii developing stratification- and regression-based approaches for scaling up to regions outside of LiDAR coverage. We found that carbon stocks are predicted by a combination of satellite-derived elevation, fractional canopy cover and terrain ruggedness, allowing upscaling of the LiDAR samples to the full 16.5 million ha region. LiDAR-derived carbon maps have 14% uncertainty at 1 ha resolution, and the regional map based on stratification has 28% uncertainty in any given hectare. High-resolution approaches with quantifiable pixel-scale uncertainties will provide the most confidence for monitoring changes in tropical forest carbon stocks. Improved confidence will allow resource managers and decision makers to more rapidly and effectively implement actions that better conserve and utilize forests in tropical regions.

  4. Species diversity, biomass, and carbon stock assessments of a natural mangrove forest in palawan, philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abino, A.C.; Lee, Y.J.; Castillo, J.A.A

    2014-01-01

    Philippines claims international recognition for its mangrove-rich ecosystem which play significant functions from the viewpoint of ecosystem services and climate change mitigation. In this study, we assessed the species diversity of the natural mangrove forest of Bahile, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan and evaluated its potential to sequester and store carbon. Sixteen plots with a size of 10 m * 10 m were established using quadrat sampling technique to identify, record, and measure the trees. Diversity index and allometric equations were utilized to determine species diversity, and biomass and carbon stocks. Sediment samples in undisturbed portions using a 30 cm high and 5 cm diameter corer were collected in all plots to determine near-surface sediment carbon. The diversity index (H = 0.9918) was very low having a total of five true mangrove species identified dominated by Rhizophora apiculata Bl. with an importance value index of 148.1%. Among the stands, 74% of the total biomass was attributed to the above-ground (561.2 t ha-1) while 26% was credited to the roots (196.5 t ha-1). The total carbon sequestered and stored in the above-ground and root biomass were 263.8 t C ha-1 (50%) and 92.3 t C ha-1 (17%), respectively. Sediments contained 33% (173.75 t C ha-1) of the mangrove C-stocks. Stored carbon was equivalent to 1944.5 t CO/sub 2/ ha-1. These values suggest that Bahile natural mangrove forest has a potential to sequester and store substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon, hence the need for sustainable management and protection of this important coastal ecosystem. (author)

  5. Above- and below-ground carbon stocks in an indigenous tree (Mytilaria laosensis) plantation chronosequence in subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Angang; Jia, Hongyan; Zhao, Jinlong; Tao, Yi; Li, Yuanfa

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of the total area of tree plantations in China is in subtropical, and over 70% of subtropical plantations consist of pure stands of coniferous species. Because of the poor ecosystem services provided by pure coniferous plantations and the ecological instability of these stands, a movement is under way to promote indigenous broadleaf plantation cultivation as a promising alternative. However, little is known about the carbon (C) stocks in indigenous broadleaf plantations and their dependence on stand age. Thus, we studied above- and below-ground biomass and C stocks in a chronosequence of Mytilaria laosensis plantations in subtropical China; stands were 7, 10, 18, 23, 29 and 33 years old. Our assessments included tree, shrub, herb and litter layers. We used plot-level inventories and destructive tree sampling to determine vegetation C stocks. We also measured soil C stocks by analyses of soil profiles to 100 cm depth. C stocks in the tree layer dominated the above-ground ecosystem C pool across the chronosequence. C stocks increased with age from 7 to 29 years and plateaued thereafter due to a reduction in tree growth rates. Minor C stocks were found in the shrub and herb layers of all six plantations and their temporal fluctuations were relatively small. C stocks in the litter and soil layers increased with stand age. Total above-ground ecosystem C also increased with stand age. Most increases in C stocks in below-ground and total ecosystems were attributable to increases in soil C content and tree biomass. Therefore, considerations of C sequestration potential in indigenous broadleaf plantations must take stand age into account.

  6. Methods and equations for estimating aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for trees in the U.S. forest inventory, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda S. Heath; Grant M. Domke; Michael C. Nichols

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program uses numerous models and associated coefficients to estimate aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for live and standing dead trees for most tree species in forests of the United States. The tree attribute models are coupled with FIA's national inventory of sampled trees to produce estimates of...

  7. 110 Years of change in urban tree stocks and associated carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Porras, Daniel F; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the long-term dynamics of urban vegetation is essential in determining trends in the provision of key resources for biodiversity and ecosystem services and improving their management. Such studies are, however, extremely scarce due to the lack of suitable historical data. We use repeat historical photographs from the 1900s, 1950s, and 2010 to assess general trends in the quantity and size distributions of the tree stock in urban Sheffield and resultant aboveground carbon storage. Total tree numbers declined by a third from the 1900s to the 1950s, but increased by approximately 50% from the 1900s-2010, and by 100% from the 1950s-2010. Aboveground carbon storage in urban tree stocks had doubled by 2010 from the levels present in the 1900s and 1950s. The initial decrease occurred at a time when national and regional tree stocks were static and are likely to be driven by rebuilding following bombing of the urban area during the Second World War and by urban expansion. In 2010, trees greater than 10 m in height comprised just 8% of those present. The increases in total tree numbers are thus largely driven by smaller trees and are likely to be associated with urban tree planting programmes. Changes in tree stocks were not constant across the urban area but varied with the current intensity of urbanization. Increases from 1900 to 2010 in total tree stocks, and smaller sized trees, tended to be greatest in the most intensely urbanized areas. In contrast, the increases in the largest trees were more marked in areas with the most green space. These findings emphasize the importance of preserving larger fragments of urban green space to protect the oldest and largest trees that contribute disproportionately to carbon storage and other ecosystem services. Maintaining positive trends in urban tree stocks and associated ecosystem service provision will require continued investment in urban tree planting programmes in combination with additional measures, such as

  8. Contrasts in Areas of Rubber Tree Clones in Regard to Soil and Biomass Carbon Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ribeiro Diniz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis crop may accumulate significant amounts of carbon either in biomass or in the soil. However, a comprehensive understanding of the potential of the C stock among different rubber tree clones is still distant, since clones are typically developed to exhibit other traits, such as better yield and disease tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study was to address differences among different areas planted to rubber clones. We hypothesized that different rubber tree clones, developed to adapt to different environmental and biological constrains, diverge in terms of soil and plant biomass C stocks. Clones were compared in respect to soil C stocks at four soil depths and the total depth (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.00-0.40 m, and in the different compartments of the tree biomass. Five different plantings of rubber clones (FX3864, FDR 5788, PMB 1, MDX 624, and CDC 312 of seven years of age were compared, which were established in a randomized block design in the experimental field in Rio de Janeiro State. No difference was observed among plantings of rubber tree clones in regard to soil C stocks, even considering the total stock from 0.00-0.40 m depth. However, the rubber tree clones were different from each other in terms of total plant C stocks, and this contrast was predominately due to only one component of the total C stock, tree biomass. For biomass C stock, the MDX 624 rubber tree clone was superior to other clones, and the stem was the biomass component which most accounted for total C biomass. The contrast among rubber clones in terms of C stock is mainly due to the biomass C stock; the aboveground (tree biomass and the belowground (soil compartments contributed differently to the total C stock, 36.2 and 63.8 %, respectively. Rubber trees did not differ in relation to C stocks in the soil, but the right choice of a rubber clone is a reliable approach for sequestering C from the air in the

  9. Increased soil organic carbon stocks under agroforestry: A survey of six different sites in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Cambou, Aurélie; Beral, Camille; Barthes, Bernard; Dupraz, Christian; Kouakoua, Ernest; Chenu, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Agroforestry systems are land use management systems in which trees are grown in combination with crops or pasture in the same field. In silvoarable systems, trees are intercropped with arable crops, and in silvopastoral systems trees are combined with pasture for livestock. These systems may produce forage and timber as well as providing ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation. Carbon (C) is stored in the aboveground and belowground biomass of the trees, and the transfer of organic matter from the trees to the soil can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Few studies have assessed the impact of agroforestry systems on carbon storage in soils in temperate climates, as most have been undertaken in tropical regions. Methods: This study assessed five silvoarable systems and one silvopastoral system in France. All sites had an agroforestry system with an adjacent, purely agricultural control plot. The land use management in the inter-rows in the agroforestry systems and in the control plots were identical. The age of the study sites ranged from 6 to 41 years after tree planting. Depending on the type of soil, the sampling depth ranged from 20 to 100 cm and SOC stocks were assessed using equivalent soil masses. The aboveground biomass of the trees was also measured at all sites. Results: In the silvoarable systems, the mean organic carbon stock accumulation rate in the soil was 0.24 (0.09-0.46) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a depth of 30 cm and 0.65 (0.004-1.85) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the tree biomass. Increased SOC stocks were also found in deeper soil layers at two silvoarable sites. Young plantations stored additional SOC but mainly in the soil under the rows of trees, possibly as a result of the herbaceous vegetation growing in the rows. At the silvopastoral site, the SOC stock was significantly greater at a depth of 30-50 cm than in the control. Overall, this study showed the potential of agroforestry systems to store C in both soil and biomass in

  10. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...... the accuracy of the ability levels of local community in biodiversity and carbon stock monitoring. This paper presents the implementation plan and preliminary data in Kampung Birang and Kampung Merabu, in Berau district. Professional forester-led methods of biodiversity and carbon stock assessment follow...

  11. Carbon Stock Stratification of Peat Soils in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nurzakiah; Muhammad Noor; Dedi Nursyamsi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon stock in peat soils is very high, it is necessary to prudent in its management because peat soils is emitting greenhouse gases such as CO2 during land clearing due to oxidation of peat layer.  This research was conducted to study soil carbon stock stratification in relation to soil physical and chemical properties. The carbon stock stratification was based on maturity degrees of peat.  The study was conducted in Pulau Damar Village, Hulu Sungai Utara District, South Kalimantan Province...

  12. Simulating Stakeholder-Based Land-Use Change Scenarios and Their Implication on Above-Ground Carbon and Environmental Management in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Lippe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine whether the coupling of a land-use change (LUC model with a carbon-stock accounting approach and participatory procedures can be beneficial in a data-limited environment to derive implications for environmental management. Stakeholder-based LUC scenarios referring to different storylines of agricultural intensification and reforestation were simulated to explore their impact on above-ground carbon (AGC for a period of twenty years (2009–2029. The watershed of Mae Sa Mai, Northern Thailand was used as a case study for this purpose. Coupled model simulations revealed that AGC stocks could be increased by up to 1.7 Gg C through expansion of forests or orchard areas. A loss of up to 0.4 Gg C would occur if vegetable production continue to expand at the expense of orchard and fallow areas. The coupled model approach was useful due to its moderate data demands, enabling the comparison of land-use types differing in AGC build-up rates and rotation times. The scenario analysis depicted clear differences in the occurrence of LUC hotspots, highlighting the importance of assessing the impact of potential future LUC pathways at the landscape level. The use of LUC scenarios based on local stakeholder scenarios offer a higher credibility for climate mitigation strategies but also underline the need to co-design policy frameworks that acknowledge the heterogeneity of stakeholder needs and environmental management frameworks.

  13. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory.

    We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils.

    The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the

  14. Monitoring of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nitrogen (SN) are the principal components in soil quality assessment, and in mitigation the global greenhouse effect. In Iran, little information exists on the stocks of SOC and SN. SOC and SN stocks are a function of the SOC and SN concentrations and the bulk density of the soil that are ...

  15. Aboveground carbon loss in natural and managed tropical forests from 2000 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Baccini, A.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.; Stehman, S. V.; Houghton, R. A.; Krylov, A. M.; Turubanova, S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Tropical forests provide global climate regulation ecosystem services and their clearing is a significant source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and resultant radiative forcing of climate change. However, consensus on pan-tropical forest carbon dynamics is lacking. We present a new estimate that employs recommended good practices to quantify gross tropical forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss from 2000 to 2012 through the integration of Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness and forest cover loss and GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass. An unbiased estimate of forest loss area is produced using a stratified random sample with strata derived from a wall-to-wall 30 m forest cover loss map. Our sample-based results separate the gross loss of forest AGC into losses from natural forests (0.59 PgC yr-1) and losses from managed forests (0.43 PgC yr-1) including plantations, agroforestry systems and subsistence agriculture. Latin America accounts for 43% of gross AGC loss and 54% of natural forest AGC loss, with Brazil experiencing the highest AGC loss for both categories at national scales. We estimate gross tropical forest AGC loss and natural forest loss to account for 11% and 6% of global year 2012 CO2 emissions, respectively. Given recent trends, natural forests will likely constitute an increasingly smaller proportion of tropical forest GHG emissions and of global emissions as fossil fuel consumption increases, with implications for the valuation of co-benefits in tropical forest conservation.

  16. Effects of vegetation's degradation on carbon stock, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of vegetation's degradation on carbon stock, morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils within the mangrove forest of the Rio del Rey Estuary: Case study – Bamusso (South-West Cameroon)

  17. Net Primary Production and Carbon Stocks for Subarctic Mesic-Dry Tundras with Contrasting Microtopography, Altitude, and Dominant Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Michelsen, Anders; Demey, A

    2009-01-01

    Mesic-dry tundras are widespread in the Arctic but detailed assessments of net primary production (NPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) stocks are lacking. We addressed this lack of knowledge by determining the seasonal dynamics of aboveground vascular NPP, annual NPP, and whole-ecosystem C stocks in five...... mesic-dry tundras in Northern Sweden with contrasting microtopography, altitude, and dominant species. Those measurements were paralleled by the stock assessments of nitrogen (N), the limiting nutrient. The vascular production was determined by harvest or in situ growing units, whereas the nonvascular...... hermaphroditum is more productive than Cassiope tetragona vegetation. Although the large majority of the apical NPP occurred in early-mid season (85%), production of stems and evergreen leaves proceeded until about 2 weeks before senescence. Most of the vascular vegetation was belowground (80%), whereas most...

  18. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Tara Gedam Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall objective of this study was to estimate the carbon stock potentials of Tara Gedam forest as potential sink for climate change mitigation. Forest plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as carbon sinks of the terrestrial ecosystem. The data was collected from the field by measuring plants with a DBH of ...

  19. Variability in above- and belowground carbon stocks in a Siberian larch watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elizabeth E.; Heard, Kathryn; Natali, Susan M.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Alexander, Heather D.; Berner, Logan T.; Kholodov, Alexander; Loranty, Michael M.; Schade, John D.; Spektor, Valentin; Zimov, Nikita

    2017-09-01

    Permafrost soils store between 1330 and 1580 Pg carbon (C), which is 3 times the amount of C in global vegetation, almost twice the amount of C in the atmosphere, and half of the global soil organic C pool. Despite the massive amount of C in permafrost, estimates of soil C storage in the high-latitude permafrost region are highly uncertain, primarily due to undersampling at all spatial scales; circumpolar soil C estimates lack sufficient continental spatial diversity, regional intensity, and replication at the field-site level. Siberian forests are particularly undersampled, yet the larch forests that dominate this region may store more than twice as much soil C as all other boreal forest types in the continuous permafrost zone combined. Here we present above- and belowground C stocks from 20 sites representing a gradient of stand age and structure in a larch watershed of the Kolyma River, near Chersky, Sakha Republic, Russia. We found that the majority of C stored in the top 1 m of the watershed was stored belowground (92 %), with 19 % in the top 10 cm of soil and 40 % in the top 30 cm. Carbon was more variable in surface soils (10 cm; coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.35 between stands) than in the top 30 cm (CV = 0.14) or soil profile to 1 m (CV = 0.20). Combined active-layer and deep frozen deposits (surface - 15 m) contained 205 kg C m-2 (yedoma, non-ice wedge) and 331 kg C m-2 (alas), which, even when accounting for landscape-level ice content, is an order of magnitude more C than that stored in the top meter of soil and 2 orders of magnitude more C than in aboveground biomass. Aboveground biomass was composed of primarily larch (53 %) but also included understory vegetation (30 %), woody debris (11 %) and snag (6 %) biomass. While aboveground biomass contained relatively little (8 %) of the C stocks in the watershed, aboveground processes were linked to thaw depth and belowground C storage. Thaw depth was negatively related to stand age, and soil C density

  20. Variability in above- and belowground carbon stocks in a Siberian larch watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Webb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost soils store between 1330 and 1580 Pg carbon (C, which is 3 times the amount of C in global vegetation, almost twice the amount of C in the atmosphere, and half of the global soil organic C pool. Despite the massive amount of C in permafrost, estimates of soil C storage in the high-latitude permafrost region are highly uncertain, primarily due to undersampling at all spatial scales; circumpolar soil C estimates lack sufficient continental spatial diversity, regional intensity, and replication at the field-site level. Siberian forests are particularly undersampled, yet the larch forests that dominate this region may store more than twice as much soil C as all other boreal forest types in the continuous permafrost zone combined. Here we present above- and belowground C stocks from 20 sites representing a gradient of stand age and structure in a larch watershed of the Kolyma River, near Chersky, Sakha Republic, Russia. We found that the majority of C stored in the top 1 m of the watershed was stored belowground (92 %, with 19 % in the top 10 cm of soil and 40 % in the top 30 cm. Carbon was more variable in surface soils (10 cm; coefficient of variation (CV  =  0.35 between stands than in the top 30 cm (CV  =  0.14 or soil profile to 1 m (CV  =  0.20. Combined active-layer and deep frozen deposits (surface – 15 m contained 205 kg C m−2 (yedoma, non-ice wedge and 331 kg C m−2 (alas, which, even when accounting for landscape-level ice content, is an order of magnitude more C than that stored in the top meter of soil and 2 orders of magnitude more C than in aboveground biomass. Aboveground biomass was composed of primarily larch (53 % but also included understory vegetation (30 %, woody debris (11 % and snag (6 % biomass. While aboveground biomass contained relatively little (8 % of the C stocks in the watershed, aboveground processes were linked to thaw depth and

  1. Carbon Stock Assessment Using Remote Sensing and Forest Inventory Data in Savannakhet, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phutchard Vicharnakorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannakhet Province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR, is a small area that is connected to Thailand, other areas of Lao PDR, and Vietnam via road No. 9. This province has been increasingly affected by carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted from the transport corridors that have been developed across the region. To determine the effect of the CO2 increases caused by deforestation and emissions, the total above-ground biomass (AGB and carbon stocks for different land-cover types were assessed. This study estimated the AGB and carbon stocks (t/ha of vegetation and soil using standard sampling techniques and allometric equations. Overall, 81 plots, each measuring 1600 m2, were established to represent samples from dry evergreen forest (DEF, mixed deciduous forest (MDF, dry dipterocarp forest (DDF, disturbed forest (DF, and paddy fields (PFi. In each plot, the diameter at breast height (DBH and height (H of the overstory trees were measured. Soil samples (composite n = 2 were collected at depths of 0–30 cm. Soil carbon was assessed using the soil depth, soil bulk density, and carbon content. Remote sensing (RS; Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM image was used for land-cover classification and development of the AGB estimation model. The relationships between the AGB and RS data (e.g., single TM band, various vegetation indices (VIs, and elevation were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the total carbon stock assessments from the ground data showed that the MDF site had the highest value, followed by the DEF, DDF, DF, and PFi sites. The RS data showed that the MDF site had the highest area coverage, followed by the DDF, PFi, DF, and DEF sites. The results indicated significant relationships between the AGB and RS data. The strongest correlation was found for the PFi site, followed by the MDF, DDF, DEF, and DF sites.

  2. Greenness and Carbon Stocks of Mangroves: A climate-driven Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, A. V.; Colditz, R. R.; Herrera-Silveira, J.; Guevara, M.; Rodriguez-Zuniga, M. T.; Cruz, I.; Ressl, R.; Vargas, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mangroves cover less than 1% of the earth's surface and are one o­­­f the most productive ecosystems of the world. They are highly vulnerable to climate variability due to their sensitivity to environmental changes; therefore, there are scientific and societal needs to designed frameworks to assess mangrove's vulnerability. We study the relationship between climate drivers, canopy greenness and carbon stocks to quantify a potential climate-driven effect on mangrove carbon dynamics. We identify greenness trends and their relationships with climate drivers and carbon stocks throughout 15 years (2001-2015) across mangrove forests of Mexico. We defined several categories for mangroves: a) Arid mangroves with superficial water input (ARsw); b) Humid mangroves with interior or underground water input (HUiw); and c) Humid mangroves with superficial water input (HUsw). We found a positive significant trend of greenness for ARsw and HUsw categories (p 0.69). Precipitation and temperature drive canopy greenness only across HUsw. Regarding carbon stocks, the HUiw shows the lower amount of aboveground carbon (AGC; 12.7 Mg C ha-1) and the higher belowground carbon (BGC; 219 Mg C ha-1). The HUsw shows the higher amount of AGC (169.5 Mg C ha-1) and the ARsw the lower of BGC (92.4 Mg C ha-1). Climate drivers are better related with canopy greenness and AGC for both humid mangrove categories (r2 > 0.48), while the relationship of BGC and canopy greenness is lower for all categories (r2 < 0.21). Our results have implications for better understanding mangrove's ecosystem function and environmental services, as well as their potential vulnerability to climate variability.

  3. QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density

  4. Carbon Stock Stratification of Peat Soils in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurzakiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon stock in peat soils is very high, it is necessary to prudent in its management because peat soils is emitting greenhouse gases such as CO2 during land clearing due to oxidation of peat layer.  This research was conducted to study soil carbon stock stratification in relation to soil physical and chemical properties. The carbon stock stratification was based on maturity degrees of peat.  The study was conducted in Pulau Damar Village, Hulu Sungai Utara District, South Kalimantan Province on land use rubber.  The location of the study area was determined by using the purposive sampling method.  All data obtained were analyzed by Excel spreadsheets and drawn on a CorelDraw 12. The results showed that the amount of carbon stock was influenced by the maturity degrees of peats, peat sapric degres has higher carbon stock than of hemik and fibric with a ratio of  2.0: 1.5: 1.  The relationship between soil carbon stock with soil physic (Bulk Density, BD and chemical properties (pH, Eh, Fe, and total-N were not significantly.

  5. A framework for assessing global change risks to forest carbon stocks in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Woodall

    Full Text Available Among terrestrial environments, forests are not only the largest long-term sink of atmospheric carbon (C, but are also susceptible to global change themselves, with potential consequences including alterations of C cycles and potential C emission. To inform global change risk assessment of forest C across large spatial/temporal scales, this study constructed and evaluated a basic risk framework which combined the magnitude of C stocks and their associated probability of stock change in the context of global change across the US. For the purposes of this analysis, forest C was divided into five pools, two live (aboveground and belowground biomass and three dead (dead wood, soil organic matter, and forest floor with a risk framework parameterized using the US's national greenhouse gas inventory and associated forest inventory data across current and projected future Köppen-Geiger climate zones (A1F1 scenario. Results suggest that an initial forest C risk matrix may be constructed to focus attention on short- and long-term risks to forest C stocks (as opposed to implementation in decision making using inventory-based estimates of total stocks and associated estimates of variability (i.e., coefficient of variation among climate zones. The empirical parameterization of such a risk matrix highlighted numerous knowledge gaps: 1 robust measures of the likelihood of forest C stock change under climate change scenarios, 2 projections of forest C stocks given unforeseen socioeconomic conditions (i.e., land-use change, and 3 appropriate social responses to global change events for which there is no contemporary climate/disturbance analog (e.g., severe droughts in the Lake States. Coupling these current technical/social limits of developing a risk matrix to the biological processes of forest ecosystems (i.e., disturbance events and interaction among diverse forest C pools, potential positive feedbacks, and forest resiliency/recovery suggests an operational

  6. Comparisons of allometric and climate-derived estimates of tree coarse root carbon stocks in forests of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew B; Domke, Grant M; Woodall, Christopher W; D'Amato, Anthony W

    2015-12-01

    Refined estimation of carbon (C) stocks within forest ecosystems is a critical component of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of projected climate change through forest C management. Specifically, belowground C stocks are currently estimated in the United States' national greenhouse gas inventory (US NGHGI) using nationally consistent species- and diameter-specific equations applied to individual trees. Recent scientific evidence has pointed to the importance of climate as a driver of belowground C stocks. This study estimates belowground C using current methods applied in the US NGHGI and describes a new approach for merging both allometric models with climate-derived predictions of belowground C stocks. Climate-adjusted predictions were variable depending on the region and forest type of interest, but represented an increase of 368.87 Tg of belowground C across the US, or a 6.4 % increase when compared to currently-implemented NGHGI estimates. Random forests regressions indicated that aboveground biomass, stand age, and stand origin (i.e., planted versus artificial regeneration) were useful predictors of belowground C stocks. Decreases in belowground C stocks were modeled after projecting mean annual temperatures at various locations throughout the US up to year 2090. By combining allometric equations with trends in temperature, we conclude that climate variables can be used to adjust the US NGHGI estimates of belowground C stocks. Such strategies can be used to determine the effects of future global change scenarios within a C accounting framework.

  7. Tree species diversity promotes aboveground carbon storage through functional diversity and functional dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Sylvanus; Veldtman, Ruan; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Glèlè Kakaï, Romain; Seifert, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has increasingly been debated as the cornerstone of the processes behind ecosystem services delivery. Experimental and natural field-based studies have come up with nonconsistent patterns of biodiversity-ecosystem function, supporting either niche complementarity or selection effects hypothesis. Here, we used aboveground carbon (AGC) storage as proxy for ecosystem function in a South African mistbelt forest, and analyzed its relationship with species diversity, through functional diversity and functional dominance. We hypothesized that (1) diversity influences AGC through functional diversity and functional dominance effects; and (2) effects of diversity on AGC would be greater for functional dominance than for functional diversity. Community weight mean (CWM) of functional traits (wood density, specific leaf area, and maximum plant height) were calculated to assess functional dominance (selection effects). As for functional diversity (complementarity effects), multitrait functional diversity indices were computed. The first hypothesis was tested using structural equation modeling. For the second hypothesis, effects of environmental variables such as slope and altitude were tested first, and separate linear mixed-effects models were fitted afterward for functional diversity, functional dominance, and both. Results showed that AGC varied significantly along the slope gradient, with lower values at steeper sites. Species diversity (richness) had positive relationship with AGC, even when slope effects were considered. As predicted, diversity effects on AGC were mediated through functional diversity and functional dominance, suggesting that both the niche complementarity and the selection effects are not exclusively affecting carbon storage. However, the effects were greater for functional diversity than for functional dominance. Furthermore, functional dominance effects were strongly transmitted by CWM of

  8. Carbon stocks and fluxes in the high latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadburn, Sarah E.; Krinner, Gerhard; Porada, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    It is important that climate models can accurately simulate the terrestrial carbon cycle in the Arctic due to the large and potentially labile carbon stocks found in permafrost-affected environments, which can lead to a positive climate feedback, along with the possibility of future carbon sinks...... from northward expansion of vegetation under climate warming. Here we evaluate the simulation of tundra carbon stocks and fluxes in three land surface schemes that each form part of major Earth system models (JSBACH, Germany; JULES, UK; ORCHIDEE, France). We use a site-level approach in which...

  9. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26–44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage. PMID:27278688

  10. Tree aboveground carbon storage correlates with environmental gradients and functional diversity in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Yu, Shixiao; Lian, Juyu; Shen, Hao; Cao, Honglin; Lu, Huanping; Ye, Wanhui

    2016-06-09

    Tropical forests play a disproportionately important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, but it remains unclear how local environments and functional diversity regulate tree aboveground C storage. We examined how three components (environments, functional dominance and diversity) affected C storage in Dinghushan 20-ha plot in China. There was large fine-scale variation in C storage. The three components significantly contributed to regulate C storage, but dominance and diversity of traits were associated with C storage in different directions. Structural equation models (SEMs) of dominance and diversity explained 34% and 32% of variation in C storage. Environments explained 26-44% of variation in dominance and diversity. Similar proportions of variation in C storage were explained by dominance and diversity in regression models, they were improved after adding environments. Diversity of maximum diameter was the best predictor of C storage. Complementarity and selection effects contributed to C storage simultaneously, and had similar importance. The SEMs disengaged the complex relationships among the three components and C storage, and established a framework to show the direct and indirect effects (via dominance and diversity) of local environments on C storage. We concluded that local environments are important for regulating functional diversity and C storage.

  11. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  12. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Boone Kauffman

    Full Text Available Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and 1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1 and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1. At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters. Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1 and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1 but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1. This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  13. Ground cover rice production systems increase soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D. E.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-08-01

    Rice production is increasingly limited by water scarcity. Covering paddy rice soils with films (so-called ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the growing season, which results in greater grain yields in relatively cold regions and also in those suffering from seasonal water shortages. However, it has been speculated that both increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS result in lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional-scale experiment conducted in Shiyan, a typical rice-producing mountainous area of China. We sampled paired adjacent paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites. Measured parameters included soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks (to 1 m depth), soil physical and chemical properties, δ15N composition of plants and soils, potential C mineralization rates, and soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions at all sampling sites. Root biomass was also quantified at one intensively monitored site. The study showed that: (1) GCRPS increased SOC and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion from traditional paddy systems; (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and paddy systems in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths, with the exception of soil bulk density; (3) GCRPS increased above-ground and root biomass in all soil layers down to a 40 cm depth; (4) δ15N values were lower in soils and plant leaves indicating lower NH3 volatilization losses from GCRPS than in paddy systems; and (5) GCRPS had lower C mineralization potential than that observed in paddy systems over a 200-day incubation period. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative production technique that not only increases rice yields using less irrigation water, but that it also increases SOC and N stocks.

  14. A universal approach to estimate biomass and carbon stock in tropical forests using generic allometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieilledent, G; Vaudry, R; Andriamanohisoa, S F D; Rakotonarivo, O S; Randrianasolo, H Z; Razafindrabe, H N; Rakotoarivony, C Bidaud; Ebeling, J; Rasamoelina, M

    2012-03-01

    Allometric equations allow aboveground tree biomass and carbon stock to be estimated from tree size. The allometric scaling theory suggests the existence of a universal power-law relationship between tree biomass and tree diameter with a fixed scaling exponent close to 8/3. In addition, generic empirical models, like Chave's or Brown's models, have been proposed for tropical forests in America and Asia. These generic models have been used to estimate forest biomass and carbon worldwide. However, tree allometry depends on environmental and genetic factors that vary from region to region. Consequently, theoretical models that include too few ecological explicative variables or empirical generic models that have been calibrated at particular sites are unlikely to yield accurate tree biomass estimates at other sites. In this study, we based our analysis on a destructive sample of 481 trees in Madagascar spiny dry and moist forests characterized by a high rate of endemism (> 95%). We show that, among the available generic allometric models, Chave's model including diameter, height, and wood specific gravity as explicative variables for a particular forest type (dry, moist, or wet tropical forest) was the only one that gave accurate tree biomass estimates for Madagascar (R2 > 83%, bias allometric models. When biomass allometric models are not available for a given forest site, this result shows that a simple height-diameter allometry is needed to accurately estimate biomass and carbon stock from plot inventories.

  15. Edaphic controls on soil organic carbon stocks in restored grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Sarah L.; Jastrow, Julie D.; Grimley, David A.; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.

    2015-08-01

    Cultivation of undisturbed soils dramatically depletes organic carbon stocks at shallow depths, releasing a substantial quantity of stored carbon to the atmosphere. Restoration of native ecosystems can help degraded soils rebuild a portion of the depleted soil organic matter. However, the rate and magnitude of soil carbon accrual can be highly variable from site to site. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling soil organic carbon stocks is necessary to improve predictions of soil carbon recovery. We measured soil organic carbon stocks and a suite of edaphic factors in the upper 10 cm of a series of restored tallgrass prairies representing a range of drainage conditions. Our findings suggest that factors related to soil organic matter stabilization mechanisms (texture, polyvalent cations) were key predictors of soil organic carbon, along with variables that influence plant and microbial biomass (available phosphorus, pH) and soil moisture. Exchangeable soil calcium was the strongest single predictor, explaining 74% of the variation in soil organic carbon, followed by clay content,which explained 52% of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative effects of even relatively small differences in these edaphic properties can have a large impact on soil carbon stocks when integrated over several decades.

  16. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  17. Measuring Biomass and Carbon Stock in Resprouting Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Radim; Damborská, Lenka; Nečasová, Monika; Geršl, Milan; Šrámek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Resprouting multi-stemmed woody plants form an important component of the woody vegetation in many ecosystems, but a clear methodology for reliable measurement of their size and quick, non-destructive estimation of their woody biomass and carbon stock is lacking. Our goal was to find a minimum number of sprouts, i.e., the most easily obtainable, and sprout parameters that should be measured for accurate sprout biomass and carbon stock estimates. Using data for 5 common temperate woody species, we modelled carbon stock and sprout biomass as a function of an increasing number of sprouts in an interaction with different sprout parameters. The mean basal diameter of only two to five of the thickest sprouts and the basal diameter and DBH of the thickest sprouts per stump proved to be accurate estimators for the total sprout biomass of the individual resprouters and the populations of resprouters, respectively. Carbon stock estimates were strongly correlated with biomass estimates, but relative carbon content varied among species. Our study demonstrated that the size of the resprouters can be easily measured, and their biomass and carbon stock estimated; therefore, resprouters can be simply incorporated into studies of woody vegetation. PMID:25719601

  18. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation....... The C-org stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m(-2) in Finland, while in Denmark the average C-org stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g Cm-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha(-1). Our results...... suggest that the Finnish eelgrass meadows are minor carbon sinks compared to the Danish meadows, and that majority of the C-org produced in the Finnish meadows is exported. Our analysis further showed that >40% of the variation in the C-org stocks was explained by sediment characteristics, i.e. dry...

  19. Carbon stocks and dynamics under improved tropical pasture and silvopastoral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of land use change on soil organic carbon, the carbon contents and stocks of primary forest, degraded pasture, and four improved pasture systems in Colombian Amazonia were compared in a flat and a sloping landscape. The improved pastures were Brachiaria humidicola, and

  20. Estimating forest carbon stocks in tropical dry forests of Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation and mapping of forest dendrometric characteristics such as carbon stocks using remote sensing techniques is fundamental for improved understanding of the role of forests in the carbon cycle and climate change. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent spectral transforms, i.e. vegetation indices ...

  1. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Mount Zequalla Monastery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.The present study was undertaken to estimate forest carbon stock along altitudinal gradient in Mount Zequalla Monastery forest.

  2. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Karunaratne, Senani B; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B; Singh, Brajesh K

    2017-04-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios.

  3. Carbon stocks and fluxes in managed peatlands in northern Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Cook, Sarah; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Sii, Longwin; Hill, Timothy; Page, Susan; Whelan, Mick; Evans, Chris; Gauci, Vincent; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics and accounts for 13 % of current tropical land area. Patterns of land-atmosphere exchange from oil palm ecosystems therefore have potentially important implications for regional and global C budgets due to the large scale of land conversion. This is particularly true for oil palm plantations on peat because of the large C stocks held by tropical peat soils that are potential sensitivity to human disturbance. Here we report preliminary findings on C stocks and fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project in Sarawak, Malaysia that aims to quantify the impacts of oil palm conversion on C and greenhouse gas fluxes from oil palm recently established on peat. Land-atmosphere fluxes were determined using a combination of top-down and bottom-up methods (eddy covariance, canopy/stem and soil flux measurements, net primary productivity). Fluvial fluxes were determined by quantifying rates of dissolved and particulate organic C export. Ecosystem C dynamics were determined using the intensive C plot method, which quantified all major C stocks and fluxes, including plant and soil stocks, leaf litterfall, aboveground biomass production, root production, stem/canopy respiration, root-rhizosphere respiration, and heterotrophic soil respiration. Preliminary analysis indicates that vegetative aboveground biomass in these 7 year old plantations was 8.9-11.9 Mg C ha-1, or approximately one-quarter of adjacent secondary forest. Belowground biomass was 5.6-6.5 Mg C ha-1; on par with secondary forests. Soil C stocks in the 0-30 cm depth was 233.1-240.8 Mg C ha-1, or 32-36% greater than soil C stocks in secondary forests at the same depth (176.8 Mg C ha-1). Estimates of vegetative aboveground and belowground net primary productivity were 1.3-1.7 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.8-0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Fruit brunch production was approximately 67 Mg C ha-1over 7 yearsor 9.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Total soil respiration rates were 18 Mg C ha

  4. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows...... in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation....... The C-org stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m(-2) in Finland, while in Denmark the average C-org stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g Cm-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha(-1). Our results...

  5. Carbon stocks, tree diversity and their relation to soil properties in a Neotropical rainforest of South-East Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Segueda, Armando; Siebe-Grabach, Christina; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Vázquez-Selem, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Site heterogeneity at the local scale is an important factor for the generation of ecosystem services across the landscape. Several investigations at regional or local scale have identified the important role of soil properties and topography to determine tree diversity and productivity in tropical forests. We studied how the characteristics of soils affect the tree richness and carbon storage in the tropical rain forest of south-east Mexico. We compared carbon stocks on above-ground dry biomass of living trees, litter and soil organic carbon in 9 plots of 5000 m2 distributed in three contrasting soil-topographic units in neotropical forest (Floodplains/Low altitude hills/Steep slopes) all under the same climate. In each plot, landform features and soil properties to rooting depths were determined. We obtained richness and biomass values of trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm. In each plot, litter and soil samples were taken for quantifying carbon in laboratory and allometric equations were applied to relate tree biomass (root and aerial) with carbon. We used cluster analysis as classification technique to compare richness between units. The relationship between soil properties and tree richness was obtained based on a canonical correspondence analysis. Both the classification and ordination techniques showed that plant diversity and richness respond to soil conditions. The variation was positively correlated with pH, total nitrogen, soil aeration, water retention capacity and exchange aluminum. The richness is smaller in floodplains, but this unit, with higher water and nutrient storage capacity, shows the largest carbon stocks. In contrast, limiting site for tree growth have less total carbon. Low altitude hills are much more heterogeneous in soil properties but also richer in tree species. The soil in this land unit has small rooting depth and available water holding capacity. Additionally, in this soil carbon stock is greater than the carbon

  6. Environmental analyse of soil organic carbon stock changes in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koco, Š.; Barančíková, G.; Skalský, R.; Tarasovičová, Z.; Gutteková, M.; Halas, J.; Makovníková, J.; Novákova, M.

    2012-04-01

    The content and quality of soil organic matter is one of the basic soil parameters on which soil production functioning depends as well as it is active in non production soil functions like an ecological one especially. Morphologic segmentation of Slovakia has significant influence of structure in using agricultural soil in specific areas of our territory. Also social changes of early 90´s of 20´th century made their impact on change of using of agricultural soil (transformation from large farms to smaller ones, decreasing the number of livestock). This research is studying changes of development of soil organic carbon stock (SOC) in agricultural soil of Slovakia as results of climatic as well as social and political changes which influenced agricultury since last 40 years. The main goal of this research is an analysis of soil organic carbon stock since 1970 until now at specific agroclimatic regions of Slovakia and statistic analysis of relation between modelled data of SOC stock and soil quality index value. Changes of SOC stock were evaluated on the basis SOC content modeling using RothC-26.3 model. From modeling of SOC stock results the outcome is that in that time the soil organic carbon stock was growing until middle 90´s years of 20´th century with the highest value in 1994. Since that year until new millennium SOC stock is slightly decreasing. After 2000 has slightly increased SOC stock so far. According to soil management SOC stock development on arable land is similar to overall evolution. In case of grasslands after slight growth of SOC stock since 1990 the stock is in decline. This development is result of transformational changes after 1989 which were specific at decreasing amount of organic carbon input from organic manure at grassland areas especially. At warmer agroclimatic regions where mollic fluvisols and chernozems are present and where are soils with good quality and steady soil organic matter (SOM) the amount of SOC in monitored time is

  7. Ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves across broad environmental gradients in West-Central Africa: Global and regional comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Bhomia, Rupesh K

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is recognized that blue carbon ecosystems, especially mangroves, often sequester large quantities of carbon and are of interest for inclusion in climate change mitigation strategies. While 19% of the world's mangroves are in Africa, they are among the least investigated of all blue carbon ecosystems. We quantified total ecosystem carbon stocks in 33 different mangrove stands along the Atlantic coast of West-Central Africa from Senegal to Southern Gabon spanning large gradients of latitude, soil properties, porewater salinity, and precipitation. Mangrove structure ranged from low and dense stands that were 35,000 trees ha-1 to tall and open stands >40m in height and Africa was 799 Mg C ha-1. Soils comprised an average of 86% of the total carbon stock. The greatest carbon stocks were found in the tall mangroves of Liberia and Gabon North with a mean >1,000 Mg C ha-1. The lowest carbon stocks were found in the low mangroves of the semiarid region of Senegal (463 Mg C ha-1) and in mangroves on coarse-textured soils in Gabon South (541 Mg C ha-1). At the scale of the entirety of West-Central Africa, total ecosystem carbon stocks were poorly correlated to aboveground ecosystem carbon pools, precipitation, latitude and soil salinity (r2 = ≤0.07 for all parameters). Based upon a sample of 158 sites from Africa, Asia and Latin America that were sampled in a similar manner to this study, the global mean of carbon stocks for mangroves is 885 Mg C ha-1. The ecosystem carbon stocks of mangroves for West-Central Africa are slightly lower than those of Latin America (940 Mg C ha-1) and Asia (1049 Mg C ha-1) but substantially higher than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) values for mangroves (511 Mg C ha-1). This study provides an improved estimation of default estimates (Tier 1 values) of mangroves for Asia, Latin America, and West Central Africa.

  8. Northern peatland carbon stocks and dynamics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands contain a large belowground carbon (C stock in the biosphere, and their dynamics have important implications for the global carbon cycle. However, there are still large uncertainties in C stock estimates and poor understanding of C dynamics across timescales. Here I review different approaches and associated uncertainties of C stock estimates in the literature, and on the basis of the literature review my best estimate of C stocks and uncertainty is 500 ± 100 (approximate range gigatons of C (Gt C in northern peatlands. The greatest source of uncertainty for all the approaches is the lack or insufficient representation of data, including depth, bulk density and carbon accumulation data, especially from the world's large peatlands. Several ways to improve estimates of peat carbon stocks are also discussed in this paper, including the estimates of C stocks by regions and further utilizations of widely available basal peat ages.

    Changes in peatland carbon stocks over time, estimated using Sphagnum (peat moss spore data and down-core peat accumulation records, show different patterns during the Holocene, and I argue that spore-based approach underestimates the abundance of peatlands in their early histories. Considering long-term peat decomposition using peat accumulation data allows estimates of net carbon sequestration rates by peatlands, or net (ecosystem carbon balance (NECB, which indicates more than half of peat carbon (> 270 Gt C was sequestrated before 7000 yr ago during the Holocene. Contemporary carbon flux studies at 5 peatland sites show much larger NECB during the last decade (32 ± 7.8 (S.E. g C m−2 yr–1 than during the last 7000 yr (∼ 11 g C m−2 yr–1, as modeled from peat records across northern peatlands. This discrepancy highlights the urgent need for carbon accumulation data and process understanding, especially at decadal and centennial timescales

  9. Global patterns in mangrove soil carbon stocks and losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Connolly, Rod M.; Almahasheer, Hanan; Carnell, Paul E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Ewers Lewis, Carolyn J.; Irigoien, Xabier; Kelleway, Jeffrey J.; Lavery, Paul S.; Macreadie, Peter I.; Serrano, Oscar; Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac; Steven, Andrew D. L.; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-07-01

    Mangrove soils represent a large sink for otherwise rapidly recycled carbon (C). However, widespread deforestation threatens the preservation of this important C stock. It is therefore imperative that global patterns in mangrove soil C stocks and their susceptibility to remineralization are understood. Here, we present patterns in mangrove soil C stocks across hemispheres, latitudes, countries and mangrove community compositions, and estimate potential annual CO2 emissions for countries where mangroves occur. Global potential CO2 emissions from soils as a result of mangrove loss were estimated to be ~7.0 Tg CO2e yr-1. Countries with the highest potential CO2 emissions from soils are Indonesia (3,410 Gg CO2e yr-1) and Malaysia (1,288 Gg CO2e yr-1). The patterns described serve as a baseline by which countries can assess their mangrove soil C stocks and potential emissions from mangrove deforestation.

  10. Global patterns in mangrove soil carbon stocks and losses

    KAUST Repository

    Atwood, Trisha B.

    2017-06-26

    Mangrove soils represent a large sink for otherwise rapidly recycled carbon (C). However, widespread deforestation threatens the preservation of this important C stock. It is therefore imperative that global patterns in mangrove soil C stocks and their susceptibility to remineralization are understood. Here, we present patterns in mangrove soil C stocks across hemispheres, latitudes, countries and mangrove community compositions, and estimate potential annual CO2 emissions for countries where mangroves occur. Global potential CO2 emissions from soils as a result of mangrove loss were estimated to be ~7.0 Tg CO2e yr−1. Countries with the highest potential CO2 emissions from soils are Indonesia (3,410 Gg CO2e yr−1) and Malaysia (1,288 Gg CO2e yr−1). The patterns described serve as a baseline by which countries can assess their mangrove soil C stocks and potential emissions from mangrove deforestation.

  11. Biomass and Soil Carbon Stocks in Wet Montane Forest, Monteverde Region, Costa Rica: Assessments and Challenges for Quantifying Accumulation Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Tanner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured carbon stocks at two forest reserves in the cloud forest region of Monteverde, comparing cleared land, experimental secondary forest plots, and mature forest at each location to assess the effectiveness of reforestation in sequestering biomass and soil carbon. The biomass carbon stock measured in the mature forest at the Monteverde Institute is similar to other measurements of mature tropical montane forest biomass carbon in Costa Rica. Local historical records and the distribution of large trees suggest a mature forest age of greater than 80 years. The forest at La Calandria lacks historical documentation, and dendrochronological dating is not applicable. However, based on the differences in tree size, above-ground biomass carbon, and soil carbon between the Monteverde Institute and La Calandria sites, we estimate an age difference of at least 30 years of the mature forests. Experimental secondary forest plots at both sites have accumulated biomass at lower than expected rates, suggesting local limiting factors, such as nutrient limitation. We find that soil carbon content is primarily a function of time and that altitudinal differences between the study sites do not play a role.

  12. Grassland management impacts on soil carbon stocks: a new synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Richard T; Cerri, Carlos E P; Osborne, Brooke B; Paustian, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Grassland ecosystems cover a large portion of Earths' surface and contain substantial amounts of soil organic carbon. Previous work has established that these soil carbon stocks are sensitive to management and land use changes: grazing, species composition, and mineral nutrient availability can lead to losses or gains of soil carbon. Because of the large annual carbon fluxes into and out of grassland systems, there has been growing interest in how changes in management might shift the net balance of these flows, stemming losses from degrading grasslands or managing systems to increase soil carbon stocks (i.e., carbon sequestration). A synthesis published in 2001 assembled data from hundreds of studies to document soil carbon responses to changes in management. Here we present a new synthesis that has integrated data from the hundreds of studies published after our previous work. These new data largely confirm our earlier conclusions: improved grazing management, fertilization, sowing legumes and improved grass species, irrigation, and conversion from cultivation all tend to lead to increased soil C, at rates ranging from 0.105 to more than 1 Mg C·ha -1 ·yr -1 . The new data include assessment of three new management practices: fire, silvopastoralism, and reclamation, although these studies are limited in number. The main area in which the new data are contrary to our previous synthesis is in conversion from native vegetation to grassland, where we find that across the studies the average rate of soil carbon stock change is low and not significant. The data in this synthesis confirm that improving grassland management practices and conversion from cropland to grassland improve soil carbon stocks. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Climate change mitigation by carbon stocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne Mette; Barfod, Anders S.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2009-01-01

    Semi-arid West Africa has not been integrated into the afforestation/reforestation (AR) carbon market. Most projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have focused on carbon emission reductions from industry and energy consumption, whereas only few (only one in West Africa) ...

  14. Distribution, stock, and influencing factors of soil organic carbon in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    Distribution, stock, and influencing factors of soil organic carbon. 1 in an alpine meadow in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibetan. 2. Plateau. 3. XUCHAO ZHU1 and MING'AN SHAO2,3,*. 4. 1State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science,. 5. Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008, Nanjing, ...

  15. Carbon stock in topsoil, standing floor litter and above ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides information on carbon stock at the habitat level in the above ground biomass (ABG), standing floor litter and soils in a 10 year-old Tectona grandis plantation following restoration of a degraded secondary forest at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria. Four sample plots 25 m x 25 m, two in Tectona ...

  16. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks along a seasonal wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecosystems of central and southern Africa are occupied by some of the largest seasonal wetlands commonly called dambos. Dambos are likely to store huge stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) because of their saturated conditions. However, most available literature report average SOC concentrations while ignoring ...

  17. Diminishing soil carbon stocks caused by the land-use change from secondary forests to terraced rubber plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blecourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Haensel, Maria V.; Corre, Marife D.; Xu, Jianchu; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-04-01

    Conversion from forest to rubber plantations (Hevea Brasiliensis) is an important recent land-use change in the Upper Mekong Region in Southeast Asia, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. Due to the mountainous topography most of the established rubber plantations include narrow terraces. Terrace bench construction involves redistribution of the soil within the plantations. The objectives of our study in Xishuangbanna prefecture, Yunnan province, China were: to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks (1) upon the conversion from secondary forest to rubber plantations, and (2) induced by terrace bench construction. We selected seven randomly selected clusters. Each cluster contained between one and three rubber plantations and one secondary forest which was the immediate reference land-use type. In total, there were 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years. In each land-use type, we measured soil carbon stock from a 20-m x 20-m plot down to 1.2-m depth. To gain insight into the effects of terracing, we additionally sampled the terrace benches in three rubber plantations aged 5, 29 and 44 years. In each plantation, six transect were positioned perpendicularly to terrace benches. Each transect consisted of 4 sampling points on the terrace bench and one sampling point on the undisturbed terrace riser, the latter is our reference position. All rubber plantations had lower soil carbon stocks than the forests with a mean difference of 37.4 Mg C ha-1 in the entire 1.2-m depth, which equals a 19% loss of the initial soil carbon stock. Strongest decrease was found in the top 0.15-m of the soil, exhibiting a mean loss of 27%. In the topsoil the soil carbon stock declined exponentially with years since land-use conversion and reached a steady state after ~20 years. The soil carbon losses observed in this study are much larger than published estimates on changes in aboveground carbon stocks. Results from the terracing case

  18. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1, compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1. We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1 and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced. Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  19. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  20. A Canadian upland forest soil profile and carbon stocks database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cindy; Hilger, Arlene; Filiatrault, Michelle; Kurz, Werner

    2018-04-01

    "A Canadian upland forest soil profile and carbon stocks database" was compiled in phases over a period of 10 years to address various questions related to modeling upland forest soil carbon in a national forest carbon accounting model. For 3,253 pedons, the SITES table contains estimates for soil organic carbon stocks (Mg/ha) in organic horizons and mineral horizons to a 100-cm depth, soil taxonomy, leading tree species, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, province or territory, terrestrial ecozone, and latitude and longitude, with an assessment of the quality of information about location. The PROFILES table contains profile data (16,167 records by horizon) used to estimate the carbon stocks that appear in the SITES table, plus additional soil chemical and physical data, where provided by the data source. The exceptions to this are estimates for soil carbon stocks based on Canadian National Forest Inventory data (NFI [2006] in REFERENCES table), where data were collected by depth increment rather than horizon and, therefore, total soil carbon stocks were calculated separately before being entered into the SITES table. Data in the PROFILES table include the carbon stock estimate for each horizon (corrected for coarse fragment content), and the data used to calculate the carbon stock estimate, such as horizon thickness, bulk density, and percent organic carbon. The PROFILES table also contains data, when reported by the source, for percent carbonate carbon, pH, percent total nitrogen, particle size distribution (percent sand, silt, clay), texture class, exchangeable cations, cation and total exchange capacity, and percent Fe and Al. An additional table provides references (REFERENCES table) for the source data. Earlier versions of the database were used to develop national soil carbon modeling categories based on differences in carbon stocks linked to soil taxonomy and to examine the potential of using soil taxonomy and leading tree species to improve

  1. Evaluating the Potential of Commercial Forest Inventory Data to Report on Forest Carbon Stock and Forest Carbon Stock Changes for REDD+ under the UNFCCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae Maniatis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the adoption at the 16th Conference of the Parties in 2010 on the REDD+ mitigation mechanism, it is important to obtain reliable data on the spatiotemporal variation of forest carbon stocks and changes (called Emission Factor, EF. A re-occurring debate in estimating EF for REDD+ is the use of existing field measurement data. We provide an assessment of the use of commercial logging inventory data and ecological data to estimate a conservative EF (REDD+ phase 2 or to report on EF following IPCC Guidance and Guidelines (REDD+ phase 3. The data presented originate from five logging companies dispersed over Gabon, totalling 2,240 plots of 0.3 hectares.We distinguish three Forest Types (FTs in the dataset based on floristic conditions. Estimated mean aboveground biomass (AGB in the FTs ranges from 312 to 333 Mg ha−1. A 5% accuracy is reached with the number of plots put in place for the FTs and a low sampling uncertainty obtained (± 10 to 13 Mg ha−1. The data could be used to estimate a conservative EF in REDD+ phase 2 and only partially to report on EF following tier 2 requirements for a phase 3.

  2. Local involvement in measuring and governing carbon stocks in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Køie. Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    An important element of MRV is to ensure accurate measurements of carbon stocks. Measuring trees on the ground may be needed for ground truthing of remote sensing results. It can also provide more accurate carbon stock monitoring than remote sensing alone. Local involvement in measuring trees for monitoring of carbon stocks may be advantageous in several ways....

  3. Effects of multiple interacting disturbances and salvage logging on forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Shawn Fraver; Amy M. Milo; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to increase the frequency of disturbances, potentially impacting carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the implications of either multiple disturbances or post-disturbance forest management activities on ecosystem carbon stocks. This study quantified how forest carbon stocks responded to stand-replacing...

  4. How accurately can soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes be quantified by soil inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Precise determination of changes in organic carbon (OC stocks is prerequisite to understand the role of soils in the global cycling of carbon and to verify changes in stocks due to management. A large dataset was collected to form base to repeated soil inventories at 12 CarboEurope sites under different climate and land-use, and with different soil types. Concentration of OC, bulk density (BD, and fine earth fraction were determined to 60 cm depth at 100 sampling points per site. We investigated (1 time needed to detect changes in soil OC, assuming future re-sampling of 100 cores; (2 the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to OC stocks; (3 the effect of OC stock calculation on mass rather than volume base for change detection; and (4 the potential use of pedotransfer functions (PTF for estimating BD in repeated inventories.

    The period of time needed for soil OC stocks to change strongly enough to be detectable depends on the spatial variability of soil properties, the depth increment considered, and the rate of change. Cropland sites, having small spatial variability, had lower minimum detectable differences (MDD with 100 sampling points (105 ± 28 gC m−2 for the upper 10 cm of the soil than grassland and forest sites (206 ± 64 and 246 ± 64 gC m−2 for 0–10 cm, respectively. Expected general trends in soil OC indicate that changes could be detectable after 2–15 yr with 100 samples if changes occurred in the upper 10 cm of stone-poor soils. Error propagation analyses showed that in undisturbed soils with low stone contents, OC concentrations contributed most to OC stock variability while BD and fine earth fraction were more important in upper soil layers of croplands and in stone rich soils. Though the calculation of OC stocks based on equivalent soil masses slightly decreases the chance to detect changes with time at most sites except for the croplands, it is still recommended to

  5. Land use change and terrestrial carbon stocks in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woomer, P.L.; Tieszen, L.L.; Tappan, G.; Toure, A.; Sall, M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from long-term drought and land use change has affected terrestrial carbon (C) stocks within Africa's Sahel. We estimated Senegal's terrestrial carbon stocks in 1965, 1985, and 2000 using an inventory procedure involving satellite images revealing historical land use change, and recent field measurements of standing carbon stocks occurring in soil and plants. Senegal was divided into eight ecological zones containing 11 land uses. In 2000, savannas, cultivated lands, forests, and steppes were the four largest land uses in Senegal, occupying 70, 22, 2.7, and 2.3 percent of Senegal's 199,823 km2. System C stocks ranged from 9 t C ha−1 in degraded savannas in the north, to 113 t C ha−1 in the remnant forests of the Senegal River Valley. This approach resulted in estimated total C stocks of 1019 and 727 MT C between 1965 and 2000, respectively, indicating a loss of 292 MT C over 35 years. The proportion of C residing in biomass decreased with time, from 55 percent in 1965 to 38 percent in 2000. Calculated terrestrial C flux for 1993 was −7.5 MT C year−1 and had declined by 17 percent over the previous 18 years. Most of the terrestrial C flux in 1993 was attributed to biomass C reduction. Human disturbance accounted for only 22 percent of biomass C loss in 1993, suggesting that the effects of long-term Sahelian drought continue to play an overriding role in ecosystem change. Some carbon mitigation strategies for Senegal were investigated, including potential C sequestration levels. Opportunities for C mitigation exist but are constrained by available knowledge and access to resources.

  6. Co-assessment of biomass and soil organic carbon stocks in a future reservoir area located in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Poilvé, Hervé; Grégoire, Alain

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the organic carbon stock present in living or dead vegetation and in the soil on the 450 km2 of the future Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric reservoir in Lao People's Democratic Republic was made. Nine land cover types were defined on the studied area: dense, medium, light, degraded, and riparian forests; agricultural soil; swamps; water; and others (roads, construction sites, and so on). Their geographical distribution was assessed by remote sensing using two 2008 SPOT 5 images. The area is mainly covered by dense and light forests (59%), while agricultural soil and swamps account for 11% and 2%, respectively. For each of these cover types, except water, organic carbon density was measured in the five pools defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: aboveground biomass, litter, deadwood, belowground biomass, and soil organic carbon. The area-weighted mean carbon densities for these pools were estimated at 45.4, 2.0, 2.2, 3.4, and 62.2 tC/ha, respectively, i.e., a total of about 115±15 tC/ha for a soil thickness of 30 cm, corresponding to a total flooded organic carbon stock of 5.1±0.7 MtC. This value is much lower than the carbon density for some South American reservoirs for example where total organic carbon stocks range from 251 to 326 tC/ha. It can be mainly explained by (1) the higher biomass density of South American tropical primary rainforest than of forests in this study and (2) the high proportion of areas with low carbon density, such as agricultural or slash-and-burn zones, in the studied area.

  7. Impact of priming on global soil carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenet, Bertrand; Camino-Serrano, Marta; Ciais, Philippe; Tifafi, Marwa; Maignan, Fabienne; Soong, Jennifer L; Janssens, Ivan A

    2018-01-24

    Fresh carbon input (above and belowground) contributes to soil carbon sequestration, but also accelerates decomposition of soil organic matter through biological priming mechanisms. Currently, poor understanding precludes the incorporation of these priming mechanisms into the global carbon models used for future projections. Here, we show that priming can be incorporated based on a simple equation calibrated from incubation and verified against independent litter manipulation experiments in the global land surface model, ORCHIDEE. When incorporated into ORCHIDEE, priming improved the model's representation of global soil carbon stocks and decreased soil carbon sequestration by 51% (12 ± 3 Pg C) during the period 1901-2010. Future projections with the same model across the range of CO 2 and climate changes defined by the IPCC-RCP scenarios reveal that priming buffers the projected changes in soil carbon stocks - both the increases due to enhanced productivity and new input to the soil, and the decreases due to warming-induced accelerated decomposition. Including priming in Earth system models leads to different projections of soil carbon changes, which are challenging to verify at large spatial scales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Benchmark values for forest soil carbon stocks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Bruno; Cools, Nathalie; Ilvesniemi, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    confirmed global patterns reported for forest soils: ~ 50% of SOC was stored in the upper 20 cm, and ~ 55–65% in the upper 30 cm of soil. Assuming 163 Mha of European forest cover and by using various scaling up procedures, we estimated total stocks at 3.50–3.94 Gt C in forest floors and 21.4–22.7 Gt C......Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in forest floors and in mineral and peat forest soils were estimated at the European scale. The assessment was based on measured C concentration, bulk density, coarse fragments and effective soil depth data originating from 4914 plots in 22 EU countries belonging...... to the UN/ECE ICP Forests 16 × 16 km Level I network. Plots were sampled and analysed according to harmonized methods during the 2nd European Forest Soil Condition Survey. Using continuous carbon density depth functions, we estimated SOC stocks to 30-cm and 1-m depth, and stratified these stocks according...

  9. Carbon stocks assessment in subtropical forest types of Kashmir Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Khan, R.W.A.; Hussain, K.; Ullah, T.S.; Mehmood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential. (author)

  10. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huilin; Dong, Lihu; Li, Fengri; Zhang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root). Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1). The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1) estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2) multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2), average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3), and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4)). The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D) as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  12. Effect of tree species on carbon stocks in forest floor and mineral soil and implications for soil carbon inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Catharina J E; Nabuurs, Gert Jan; Verburg, Peter H.; de Waal, Rein W.

    2008-01-01

    Forest soil organic carbon (SOC) and forest floor carbon (FFC) stocks are highly variable. The sampling effort required to assess SOC and FFC stocks is therefore large, resulting in limited sampling and poor estimates of the size, spatial distribution, and changes in SOC and FFC stocks in many

  13. Mapping soil organic carbon stocks by robust geostatistical and boosted regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Madlene; Papritz, Andreas; Baltensweiler, Andri; Walthert, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in forests offsets greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for greenhouse gas reporting according to the Kyoto protocol. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the aboveground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because the variables needed to quantify stocks vary strongly in space and precise quantification of some of them is very costly. Based on data from 1'033 plots we modeled SOC stocks of the organic layer and the mineral soil to depths of 30 cm and 100 cm for the Swiss forested area. For the statistical modeling a broad range of covariates were available: Climate data (e. g. precipitation, temperature), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) with respective terrain attributes and spectral reflectance data representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main mapping units of an overview soil map and a coarse scale geological map were used to coarsely represent the parent material of the soils. The selection of important covariates for SOC stocks modeling out of a large set was a major challenge for the statistical modeling. We used two approaches to deal with this problem: 1) A robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit linear regression model with spatially correlated errors. The large number of covariates was first reduced by LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and then further narrowed down to a parsimonious set of important covariates by cross-validation of the robustly fitted model. To account for nonlinear dependencies of the response on the covariates interaction terms of the latter were included in model if this improved the fit. 2) A boosted structured regression model with componentwise linear least squares or componentwise smoothing splines as base procedures. The selection of important covariates was done by the

  14. Towards a global harmonized permafrost soil organic carbon stock estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, G.; Mishra, U.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost affected soils store disproportionately large amount of organic carbon stocks due to multiple cryopedogenic processes. Previous permafrost soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates used a variety of approaches and reported substantial uncertainty in SOC stocks of permafrost soils. Here, we used spatially referenced data of soil-forming factors (topographic attributes, land cover types, climate, and bedrock geology) and SOC pedon description data (n = 2552) in a regression kriging approach to predict the spatial and vertical heterogeneity of SOC stocks across the Northern Circumpolar and Tibetan permafrost regions. Our approach allowed us to take into account both environmental correlation and spatial autocorrelation to separately estimate SOC stocks and their spatial uncertainties (95% CI) for three depth intervals at 250 m spatial resolution. In Northern Circumpolar region, our results show 1278.1 (1009.33 - 1550.45) Pg C in 0-3 m depth interval, with 542.09 (451.83 - 610.15), 422.46 (306.48 - 550.82), and 313.55 (251.02 - 389.48) Pg C in 0 - 1, 1 - 2, and 2 - 3 m depth intervals, respectively. In Tibetan region, our results show 26.68 (9.82 - 79.92) Pg C in 0 - 3 m depth interval, with 13.98 (6.2 - 32.96), 6.49 (1.73 - 25.86), and 6.21 (1.889 - 20.90) Pg C in 0 - 1, 1 - 2, and 2 - 3 m depth intervals, respectively. Our estimates show large spatial variability (50 - 100% coefficient of variation, depending upon the study region and depth interval) and higher uncertainty range in comparison to existing estimates. We will present the observed controls of different environmental factors on SOC at the AGU meeting.

  15. Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical lowland dipterocarp rainforests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Saner

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropics is an important source of carbon C release to the atmosphere. To provide a sound scientific base for efforts taken to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+ good estimates of C stocks and fluxes are important. We present components of the C balance for selectively logged lowland tropical dipterocarp rainforest in the Malua Forest Reserve of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Total organic C in this area was 167.9 Mg C ha⁻¹±3.8 (SD, including: Total aboveground (TAGC: 55%; 91.9 Mg C ha⁻¹±2.9 SEM and belowground carbon in trees (TBGC: 10%; 16.5 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.5 SEM, deadwood (8%; 13.2 Mg C ha⁻¹±3.5 SEM and soil organic matter (SOM: 24%; 39.6 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.9 SEM, understory vegetation (3%; 5.1 Mg C ha⁻¹±1.7 SEM, standing litter (<1%; 0.7 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.1 SEM and fine root biomass (<1%; 0.9 Mg C ha⁻¹±0.1 SEM. Fluxes included litterfall, a proxy for leaf net primary productivity (4.9 Mg C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹±0.1 SEM, and soil respiration, a measure for heterotrophic ecosystem respiration (28.6 Mg C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹±1.2 SEM. The missing estimates necessary to close the C balance are wood net primary productivity and autotrophic respiration.Twenty-two years after logging TAGC stocks were 28% lower compared to unlogged forest (128 Mg C ha⁻¹±13.4 SEM; a combined weighted average mean reduction due to selective logging of -57.8 Mg C ha⁻¹ (with 95% CI -75.5 to -40.2. Based on the findings we conclude that selective logging decreased the dipterocarp stock by 55-66%. Silvicultural treatments may have the potential to accelerate the recovery of dipterocarp C stocks to pre-logging levels.

  16. Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in Tropical Lowland Dipterocarp Rainforests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Philippe; Loh, Yen Yee; Ong, Robert C.; Hector, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropics is an important source of carbon C release to the atmosphere. To provide a sound scientific base for efforts taken to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+) good estimates of C stocks and fluxes are important. We present components of the C balance for selectively logged lowland tropical dipterocarp rainforest in the Malua Forest Reserve of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Total organic C in this area was 167.9 Mg C ha−1±3.8 (SD), including: Total aboveground (TAGC: 55%; 91.9 Mg C ha−1±2.9 SEM) and belowground carbon in trees (TBGC: 10%; 16.5 Mg C ha−1±0.5 SEM), deadwood (8%; 13.2 Mg C ha−1±3.5 SEM) and soil organic matter (SOM: 24%; 39.6 Mg C ha−1±0.9 SEM), understory vegetation (3%; 5.1 Mg C ha−1±1.7 SEM), standing litter (<1%; 0.7 Mg C ha−1±0.1 SEM) and fine root biomass (<1%; 0.9 Mg C ha−1±0.1 SEM). Fluxes included litterfall, a proxy for leaf net primary productivity (4.9 Mg C ha−1 yr−1±0.1 SEM), and soil respiration, a measure for heterotrophic ecosystem respiration (28.6 Mg C ha−1 yr−1±1.2 SEM). The missing estimates necessary to close the C balance are wood net primary productivity and autotrophic respiration. Twenty-two years after logging TAGC stocks were 28% lower compared to unlogged forest (128 Mg C ha−1±13.4 SEM); a combined weighted average mean reduction due to selective logging of −57.8 Mg C ha−1 (with 95% CI −75.5 to −40.2). Based on the findings we conclude that selective logging decreased the dipterocarp stock by 55–66%. Silvicultural treatments may have the potential to accelerate the recovery of dipterocarp C stocks to pre-logging levels. PMID:22235319

  17. Estimating carbon stock in secondary forests: decisions and uncertainties associated with allometric biomass models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.; Ransijn, J.; Craven, D.; Bongers, F.; Hall, J.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary forests are a major terrestrial carbon sink and reliable estimates of their carbon stocks are pivotal for understanding the global carbon balance and initiatives to mitigate CO2 emissions through forest management and reforestation. A common method to quantify carbon stocks in forests is

  18. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass and Carbon Stocks in the Temperate Forests of North-Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto Vargas-Larreta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new equations for estimating above-ground biomass (AGB and biomass components of seventeen forest species in the temperate forests of northwestern Mexico. A data set corresponding to 1336 destructively sampled oak and pine trees was used to fit the models. The generalized method of moments was used to simultaneously fit systems of equations for biomass components and AGB, to ensure additivity. In addition, the carbon content of each tree component was calculated by the dry combustion method, in a TOC analyser. The results of cross-validation indicated that the fitted equations accounted for on average 91%, 82%, 83% and 76% of the observed variance in stem wood and stem bark, branch and foliage biomass, respectively, whereas the total AGB equations explained on average 93% of the total observed variance in AGB. The inclusion of total height (h or diameter at breast height2 × total height (d2h as a predictor in the d-only based equations systems slightly improved estimates for stem wood, stem bark and total above-ground biomass, and greatly improved the estimates produced by the branch and foliage biomass equations. The predictive power of the proposed equations is higher than that of existing models for the study area. The fitted equations were used to estimate stand level AGB stocks from data on growing stock in 429 permanent sampling plots. Three machine-learning techniques were used to model the estimated stand level AGB and carbon contents; the selected models were used to map the AGB and carbon distributions in the study area, for which mean values of respectively 129.84 Mg ha−1 and 63.80 Mg ha−1 were obtained.

  19. [Regional and global estimates of carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-09-01

    As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and global climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present carbon stocks and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest carbon sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of carbon sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest carbon stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the carbon sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the carbon stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its carbon sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the carbon stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its carbon sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the carbon stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, carbon sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the carbon stock and carbon sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories

  20. Stand restoration burning in oak-pine forests in the southern Applachians: effects on aboveground biomass and carbon and nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp

    2004-01-01

    Understory prescribed burning is being suggested as a viable management tool for restoring degraded oak–pine forest communities in the southern Appalachians yet information is lacking on how this will affect ecosystem processes. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the watershed scale effects of understory burning on total aboveground biomass, and the carbon...

  1. CMS: Forest Carbon Stocks, Emissions, and Net Flux for the Conterminous US: 2005-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides maps of estimated carbon in forests of the 48 continental states of the US for the years 2005-2010. Carbon (termed committed carbon) stocks...

  2. Predicting future UK housing stock and carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Sukumar; Levermore, Geoffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for exploring future transformations in the UK housing stock. The method is shown to be more robust and faster than existing methods through various tests. A Java-based implementation of the method in a new model of the UK housing stock, DECarb, is examined using a back-cast scenario from 1970 to 1996. The results show an average difference of -5.4% between predicted and actual energy demand. Comparison with predicted carbon emissions from the BRE's BREHOMES model shows a difference of around -0.9% for the same period. These results suggest that DECarb is likely to be an effective tool in examining future scenarios since the same objects and processes used in back-casting in the model are also used in forecasting. The model has an open framework and could therefore significantly benefit ongoing domestic and non-domestic climate futures research

  3. Methods for biomass stock estimation in Mediterranean maquis systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sirca C; Caddeo A; Spano D; Bacciu V; Marras S

    2016-01-01

    As a result of Kyoto Protocol agreements, the scientific community increased its efforts to enhance the availability of biomass and organic carbon stock data in forest ecosystems. Nevertheless, a considerable data shortage has been recognized in estimating the stock of above-ground biomass (AGB) in Mediterranean maquis systems. This work aims at contributing in addressing such shortage by testing quick and non-disruptive methods to estimate the AGB stock in maquis species. Two methodologies w...

  4. The uncertainty of modeled soil carbon stock change for Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Aleksi; Heikkinen, Juha

    2013-04-01

    Countries should report soil carbon stock changes of forests for Kyoto Protocol. Under Kyoto Protocol one can omit reporting of a carbon pool by verifying that the pool is not a source of carbon, which is especially tempting for the soil pool. However, verifying that soils of a nation are not a source of carbon in given year seems to be nearly impossible. The Yasso07 model was parametrized against various decomposition data using MCMC method. Soil carbon change in Finland between 1972 and 2011 were simulated with Yasso07 model using litter input data derived from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and fellings time series. The uncertainties of biomass models, litter turnoverrates, NFI sampling and Yasso07 model were propagated with Monte Carlo simulations. Due to biomass estimation methods, uncertainties of various litter input sources (e.g. living trees, natural mortality and fellings) correlate strongly between each other. We show how original covariance matrices can be analytically combined and the amount of simulated components reduce greatly. While doing simulations we found that proper handling correlations may be even more essential than accurate estimates of standard errors. As a preliminary results, from the analysis we found that both Southern- and Northern Finland were soil carbon sinks, coefficient of variations (CV) varying 10%-25% when model was driven with long term constant weather data. When we applied annual weather data, soils were both sinks and sources of carbon and CVs varied from 10%-90%. This implies that the success of soil carbon sink verification depends on the weather data applied with models. Due to this fact IPCC should provide clear guidance for the weather data applied with soil carbon models and also for soil carbon sink verification. In the UNFCCC reporting carbon sinks of forest biomass have been typically averaged for five years - similar period for soil model weather data would be logical.

  5. Carbon stock in different ages and plantation systemof cocoa: allometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has 1.5 million hectare of cocoa plantation in 2008. which hasstrategic position in carbon dioxide absorption to decrease global warming. Biomass approach method in plants carbon stock estimation specific for cocoa is still not available. The aim of this research is to determine carbon stock in 1—30 years ages of cocoa plants and to measure carbon stock in various cocoa planting systems using specific allometric formula of carbon stock estimation. Regression model on plant biomass estimation was estimated based on height, diameter, and their combination. Carbon stock estimation in different ages and plan tation system of cocoa was conducted by randomized completely block design with 3 replications. The result showed that model Y:áDâ as the best allometric formula, where Y is plant biomass, D is diameter at the breast hight, â is a constant with a value of 0.1208 and á was a constant of 1.98. Increasing of carbon stock in cocoa plantations was proportional to the ages of the plants according to the polinomial equation Y=0.0518X2+2.8976X–4.524. Agroforestry system increased carbon stock in cocoa plantation. Cocoa-Paraserianthes falcataria plantation system produce highest of carbon stock in 7 years. Key words : Carbon stock, allometric, cocoa, ages of plant, planting system.

  6. Accounting for Biomass Carbon Stock Change Due to Wildfire in Temperate Forest Landscapes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B.; Mackey, Brendan G.; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha−1, which represented 6–7% and 9–14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha−1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities

  7. Accounting for biomass carbon stock change due to wildfire in temperate forest landscapes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B; Mackey, Brendan G; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1), which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1) depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities.

  8. Irrigating grazed pasture decreases soil carbon and nitrogen stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Paul L; Kelliher, Francis M; Knight, Trevor L; O'Connell, Denis; Fraser, Scott; Schipper, Louis A

    2017-02-01

    The sustainability of using irrigation to produce food depends not only on the availability of sufficient water, but also on the soil's 'response' to irrigation. Stocks of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are key components of soil organic matter (SOM), which is important for sustainable agricultural production. While there is some information about the effects of irrigation on soil C stocks in cropping systems, there is a paucity of such studies in pastoral food production systems. For this study, we sampled soils from 34 paired, irrigated and unirrigated pasture sites across New Zealand (NZ) and analysed these for total C and N. On average, irrigated pastures had significantly (P stocks and the length of time under irrigation. This study suggests SOM will decrease when pastures under a temperate climate are irrigated. On this basis, increasing the area of temperate pasture land under irrigation would result in more CO 2 in the atmosphere and may directly and indirectly increase N leaching to groundwater. Given the large and increasing area of land being irrigated both in NZ and on a global scale, there is an urgent need to determine whether the results found in this study are also applicable in other regions and under different land management systems (e.g. arable). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Predicting impacts of climate change on the aboveground carbon sequestration rate of a temperate forest in northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    Full Text Available The aboveground carbon sequestration rate (ACSR reflects the influence of climate change on forest dynamics. To reveal the long-term effects of climate change on forest succession and carbon sequestration, a forest landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS Pro7.0 was used to simulate the ACSR of a temperate forest at the community and species levels in northeastern China based on both current and predicted climatic data. On the community level, the ACSR of mixed Korean pine hardwood forests and mixed larch hardwood forests, fluctuated during the entire simulation, while a large decline of ACSR emerged in interim of simulation in spruce-fir forest and aspen-white birch forests, respectively. On the species level, the ACSR of all conifers declined greatly around 2070s except for Korean pine. The ACSR of dominant hardwoods in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, such as Manchurian ash, Amur cork, black elm, and ribbed birch fluctuated with broad ranges, respectively. Pioneer species experienced a sharp decline around 2080s, and they would finally disappear in the simulation. The differences of the ACSR among various climates were mainly identified in mixed Korean pine hardwood forests, in all conifers, and in a few hardwoods in the last quarter of simulation. These results indicate that climate warming can influence the ACSR in the Lesser Khingan Mountains area, and the largest impact commonly emerged in the A2 scenario. The ACSR of coniferous species experienced higher impact by climate change than that of deciduous species.

  10. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  11. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions from their conversion, and the other important functions and services they provide, their

  12. NACP Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Baseline Data, V.2 (NBCD 2000), U.S.A., 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The NBCD 2000 (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the Year 2000) data set provides a high-resolution (30 m) map of year-2000 baseline estimates of...

  13. NACP Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Baseline Data (NBCD 2000), U.S.A., 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The NBCD 2000 (National Biomass and Carbon data set for the Year 2000) data set provides a high-resolution (30 m) map of year-2000 baseline estimates of...

  14. NACP Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Baseline Data, V.2 (NBCD 2000), U.S.A., 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NBCD 2000 (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the Year 2000) data set provides a high-resolution (30 m) map of year-2000 baseline estimates of basal...

  15. Mapping afforestation and its carbon stock using time-series Landsat stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Three Norths Shelter Forest Programme (TNSFP) is the largest afforestation reconstruction project in the world. Remote sensing is a crucial tool to map land cover and cover changes, but it is still challenging to accurately quantify the plantation and its carbon stock from time-series satellite images. In this paper, the Yulin district, Shaanxi province, representing a typical afforestation area in the TNSFP region, was selected as the study area, and there were twenty-nine Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ epochs were collected from 1974 to 2012 to reconstruct the forest changes and carbon stock in last 40 years. Firstly, the Landsat ground surface reflectance (GSR) images from 1974 to 2013 were collected and processed based on 6S atmospheric transfer code and a relative reflectance normalization algorithm. Subsequently, we developed a vegetation change tracking method to reconstruct the forest change history (afforestation and deforestation) from the dense time-series Landsat GSR images based on the integrated forest z-score (IFZ) model, and the afforestation age was successfully retrieved from the Landsat time-series stacks in the last forty years and shown to be consistent with the surveyed tree ages, with a RMSE value of 4.32 years and a determination coefficient (R²) of 0.824. Then, the AGB regression models were successfully developed by integrating vegetation indices and tree age. The simple ratio vegetation index (SR) is the best candidate of the commonly used vegetation indices for estimating forest AGB, and the forest AGB model was significantly improved using the combination of SR and tree age, with R² values from 0.50 to 0.727. Finally, the forest AGB images were mapped at eight epochs from 1985 to 2013 using SR and afforestation age. The total forest AGB in six counties of Yulin District increased by 20.8 G kg, from 5.8 G kg in 1986 to 26.6 G kg in 2013, a total increase of 360%. For the forest area since 1974, the forest AGB density increased from 15.72 t

  16. Imputing forest carbon stock estimates from inventory plots to a nationally continuous coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barry Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. has been providing national-scale estimates of forest carbon (C stocks and stock change to meet United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC reporting requirements for years. Although these currently are provided as national estimates by pool and year to meet greenhouse gas monitoring requirements, there is growing need to disaggregate these estimates to finer scales to enable strategic forest management and monitoring activities focused on various ecosystem services such as C storage enhancement. Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, spatially extant estimates of forest C density were developed for the conterminous U.S. using the U.S.’s annual forest inventory. Results suggest that an existing forest inventory plot imputation approach can be readily modified to provide raster maps of C density across a range of pools (e.g., live tree to soil organic carbon and spatial scales (e.g., sub-county to biome. Comparisons among imputed maps indicate strong regional differences across C pools. The C density of pools closely related to detrital input (e.g., dead wood is often highest in forests suffering from recent mortality events such as those in the northern Rocky Mountains (e.g., beetle infestations. In contrast, live tree carbon density is often highest on the highest quality forest sites such as those found in the Pacific Northwest. Validation results suggest strong agreement between the estimates produced from the forest inventory plots and those from the imputed maps, particularly when the C pool is closely associated with the imputation model (e.g., aboveground live biomass and live tree basal area, with weaker agreement for detrital pools (e.g., standing dead trees. Forest inventory imputed plot maps provide an efficient and flexible approach to monitoring diverse C pools at national (e.g., UNFCCC and regional scales (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest

  17. Density variations and their influence on carbon stocks: case-study on two Biosphere Reserves in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Maaike; De Haulleville, Thalès; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that allometric equations for aboveground biomass and carbon stock estimates are improved significantly if density is included as a variable. However, not much attention is given to this variable in terms of exact, measured values and density profiles from pith to bark. Most published case-studies obtain density values from literature sources or databases, this way using large ranges of density values and possible causing significant errors in carbon stock estimates. The use of one single fixed value for density is also not recommended if carbon stock increments are estimated. Therefore, our objective is to measure and analyze a large number of tree species occurring in two Biosphere Reserves (Luki and Yangambi). Nevertheless, the diversity of tree species in these tropical forests is too high to perform this kind of detailed analysis on all tree species (> 200/ha). Therefore, we focus on the most frequently encountered tree species with high abundance (trees/ha) and dominance (basal area/ha) for this study. Increment cores were scanned with a helical X-ray protocol to obtain density profiles from pith to bark. This way, we aim at dividing the tree species with a distinct type of density profile into separate groups. If, e.g., slopes in density values from pith to bark remain stable over larger samples of one tree species, this slope could also be used to correct for errors in carbon (increment) estimates, caused by density values from simplified density measurements or density values from literature. In summary, this is most likely the first study in the Congo Basin that focuses on density patterns in order to check their influence on carbon stocks and differences in carbon stocking based on species composition (density profiles ~ temperament of tree species).

  18. Contribution of dead wood to biomass and carbon stocks in the Caribbean: St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Thomas J. Brandeis

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a substantial carbon stock in terrestrial forest ecosystems and hence a critical component of global carbon cycles. Given the limited amounts of dead wood biomass and carbon stock information for Caribbean forests, our objectives were to: (1) describe the relative contribution of down woody materials (DWM) to carbon stocks on the island of St. John; (2)...

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks and Humic Fractions in Brazilian Organosols

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    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite limited geographic expression of Organosols in Brazil, their high carbon storage capacity and natural environmental vulnerability justifies further studies on C and N stocks in these soils and their relationship to the nature of organic matter. Evaluation of physical and chemical properties of organic soils and their ability to store C is important so as to develop sustainable management practices for their preservation. The objectives of the study were to measure the total organic carbon stock (OCst, total nitrogen stock (Nst, and humic fractions in Organosols from different environments and regions of Brazil, and to correlate the data with soil chemical (pH, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, H+Al, CEC, V and physical properties (soil bulk density, Bd; organic matter density, OMd; total pore space, TPS; minimum residue, MinR; and proportion of mineral matter, MM, and degree of organic matter decomposition (rubbed fiber content; pyrophosphate index, PyI; and von Post index. For that purpose, 18 Organosol profiles, in a total of 49 horizons, were sampled under different land usage and plant coverage conditions. The profiles were located in the following Brazilian states - Alagoas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo. The OCst and Nst varied significantly among horizons and profiles. The Organosols exhibited, on average, 203.59 Mg ha-1 OCst and 8.30 Mg ha-1 Nst, and the highest values were found in profiles with pasture usage. The content of the humic fraction (humin, HUM; fulvic acid, FAF; and humic acid, HAF and C storage varied in the soil horizons and profiles according to the degree of decomposition and other factors of soil formation. The OCst, Nst, OMd and the C stocks in the humic fractions were positively correlated. The values of acidity were lower in the soils with higher contents of mineral material, and low p

  20. Quantifying the legacy of foliar winter injury on woody aboveground carbon sequestration of red spruce trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra M. Kosiba; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) decline has been quantitatively attributed to foliar winter injury caused by freezing damage. The results of this injury include foliar mortality, crown deterioration, and negative carbon (C) balances that can lead to tree health declines and eventual mortality. In 2003, a severe region-wide event damaged over 90% of...

  1. Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Silvania; van der Voort, Tessa S; Eglinton, Timothy I

    2017-12-01

    Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e., carbon held in living plant biomass and soils, and on potential changes in these stocks in response to anthropogenic activities. However, while the ocean and underlying sediments store substantial quantities of carbon, this pool is presently not considered in the context of national inventories. The ongoing disturbances to both terrestrial and marine ecosystems as a consequence of food production, pollution, climate change and other factors, as well as alteration of linkages and C-exchange between continental and oceanic realms, highlight the need for a better understanding of the quantity and vulnerability of carbon stocks in both systems. We present a preliminary comparison of the stocks of organic carbon held in continental margin sediments within the Exclusive Economic Zone of maritime nations with those in their soils. Our study focuses on Namibia, where there is a wealth of marine sediment data, and draws comparisons with sediment data from two other countries with different characteristics, which are Pakistan and the United Kingdom. Results indicate that marine sediment carbon stocks in maritime nations can be similar in magnitude to those of soils. Therefore, if human activities in these areas are managed, carbon stocks in the oceanic realm-particularly over continental margins-could be considered as part of national GHG inventories. This study shows that marine sediment organic carbon stocks can be equal in size or exceed terrestrial carbon stocks of maritime nations. This provides motivation both for improved assessment of sedimentary carbon inventories and for reevaluation of the way that carbon stocks are assessed and valued. The latter carries potential implications for the management of

  2. Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Avelar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e., carbon held in living plant biomass and soils, and on potential changes in these stocks in response to anthropogenic activities. However, while the ocean and underlying sediments store substantial quantities of carbon, this pool is presently not considered in the context of national inventories. The ongoing disturbances to both terrestrial and marine ecosystems as a consequence of food production, pollution, climate change and other factors, as well as alteration of linkages and C-exchange between continental and oceanic realms, highlight the need for a better understanding of the quantity and vulnerability of carbon stocks in both systems. We present a preliminary comparison of the stocks of organic carbon held in continental margin sediments within the Exclusive Economic Zone of maritime nations with those in their soils. Our study focuses on Namibia, where there is a wealth of marine sediment data, and draws comparisons with sediment data from two other countries with different characteristics, which are Pakistan and the United Kingdom. Results Results indicate that marine sediment carbon stocks in maritime nations can be similar in magnitude to those of soils. Therefore, if human activities in these areas are managed, carbon stocks in the oceanic realm—particularly over continental margins—could be considered as part of national GHG inventories. Conclusions This study shows that marine sediment organic carbon stocks can be equal in size or exceed terrestrial carbon stocks of maritime nations. This provides motivation both for improved assessment of sedimentary carbon inventories and for reevaluation of the way that carbon stocks are assessed and valued. The

  3. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

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    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  4. Altitudinal analysis of carbon stocks in the Antisana páramo, Ecuadorian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minaya Maldonado, Veronica; Corzo, Gerald; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Van Der Kwast, Johannes; Lantinga, Egbert; Galárraga-Sánchez, Remigio; Mynett, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The importance of quantifying carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems is crucial for determining climate change dynamics. However, the present regional assessments of carbon stocks in tropical grasslands are extrapolated to unsampled areas with a high degree of uncertainty and without

  5. Altitudinal analysis of carbon stocks in the Antisana páramo, Ecuadorian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minaya, Verónica; Corzo, Gerald; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Kwast, van der J.; Lantinga, E.A.; Galärraga-Sánchez, Remigio; Mynett, Arthur

    2016-01-01


    Aims The importance of quantifying carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems is crucial for determining climate change dynamics. However, the present regional assessments of carbon stocks in tropical grasslands are extrapolated to unsampled areas with a high degree of uncertainty and without

  6. Carbon stocks on forestland of the United States, with emphaisis on USDA Forest Service ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith; Christopher W. Woodall; Dave Azuma; Karen L. Waddell

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) manages one-fifth of the area of forestland in the United States. The Forest Service Roadmap for responding to climate change identified assessing and managing carbon stocks and change as a major element of its plan. This study presents methods and results of estimating current forest carbon stocks and change in...

  7. Carbon stocks on forestland of the United States, with emphasis on USDA Forest Service ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith; Christopher W. Woodall; David L. Azuma; Karen L. Waddell

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) manages one-fifth of the area of forestland in the United States. The Forest Service Roadmap for responding to climate change identified assessing and managing carbon stocks and change as a major element of its plan. This study presents methods and results of estimating current forest carbon stocks and change in...

  8. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks. PMID:20679194

  9. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-08-17

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks.

  10. Trade-offs between carbon stocks and timber recovery in tropical forests are mediated by logging intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopsind, Anand; Caughlin, T Trevor; van der Hout, Peter; Arets, Eric; Putz, Francis E

    2018-03-30

    Forest degradation accounts for ~ 70% of total carbon losses from tropical forests. Substantial emissions are from selective logging, a land-use activity that decreases forest carbon density. To maintain carbon values in selectively logged forests, climate change mitigation policies and government agencies promote the adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) practices. However, whether RIL will maintain both carbon and timber values in managed tropical forests over time remains uncertain. In this study, we quantify the recovery of timber stocks and aboveground carbon at an experimental site where forests were subjected to different intensities of RIL (4 trees ha -1 , 8 trees ha -1 , and 16 trees ha -1 ). Our census data spans 20 years post-logging and 17 years after the liberation of future crop trees from competition in a tropical forest on the Guiana Shield, a globally important forest carbon reservoir. We model recovery of timber and carbon with a breakpoint regression that allowed us to capture elevated tree mortality immediately after logging. Recovery rates of timber and carbon were governed by the presence of residual trees (i.e., trees that persisted through the first harvest). The liberation treatment stimulated faster recovery of timber albeit at a carbon cost. Model results suggest a threshold logging intensity beyond which forests managed for timber and carbon derive few benefits from RIL, with recruitment and residual growth not sufficient to offset losses. Inclusion of the breakpoint at which carbon and timber gains outpaced post-logging mortality led to high predictive accuracy, including out-of-sample R 2 values >90%, and enabled inference on demographic changes post-logging. Our modeling framework is broadly applicable to studies that aim to quantify impacts of logging on forest recovery. Overall, we demonstrate that initial mortality drives variation in recovery rates, that the second harvest depends on old growth wood, and that timber

  11. Global socioeconomic carbon stocks in long-lived products 1900-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauk, Christian; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-09-01

    A better understanding of the global carbon cycle as well as of climate change mitigation options such as carbon sequestration requires the quantification of natural and socioeconomic stocks and flows of carbon. A so-far under-researched aspect of the global carbon budget is the accumulation of carbon in long-lived products such as buildings and furniture. We present a comprehensive assessment of global socioeconomic carbon stocks and the corresponding in- and outflows during the period 1900-2008. These data allowed calculation of the annual carbon sink in socioeconomic stocks during this period. The study covers the most important socioeconomic carbon fractions, i.e. wood, bitumen, plastic and cereals. Our assessment was mainly based on production and consumption data for plastic, bitumen and wood products and the respective fractions remaining in stocks in any given year. Global socioeconomic carbon stocks were 2.3 GtC in 1900 and increased to 11.5 GtC in 2008. The share of wood in total C stocks fell from 97% in 1900 to 60% in 2008, while the shares of plastic and bitumen increased to 16% and 22%, respectively. The rate of gross carbon sequestration in socioeconomic stocks increased from 17 MtC yr-1 in 1900 to a maximum of 247 MtC yr-1 in 2007, corresponding to 2.2%-3.4% of global fossil-fuel-related carbon emissions. We conclude that while socioeconomic carbon stocks are not negligible, their growth over time is not a major climate change mitigation option and there is an only modest potential to mitigate climate change by the increase of socioeconomic carbon stocks.

  12. High-Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Biomass for Forest Carbon Monitoring - A Case Study in Three Mid-Atlantic States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Dolan, K. A.; Johnson, K. D.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate mapping of forest aboveground biomass is critical for reducing uncertainties in carbon monitoring and accounting systems. As part of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System program, we have developed a robust, replicable and scalable framework that quantifies forest structure and aboveground biomass over large areas at high resolution. Discrete return LiDAR data were collected over 150,000 square km area in three Mid-Atlantic States (Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania). A set of 30-m LiDAR metrics derived from LiDAR point clouds were extracted as co-variables for mapping forest aboveground biomass density. Machine learning Random Forest models for four Eco-Regions (i.e., Eastern Broadleaf, Northeastern Mixed, Outer Coastal Plain, and Central Appalachian) were calibrated by linking LiDAR metrics to estimates of biomass from FIA plot measurements that most closely matched the year of LiDAR acquisition. Independent field plot measurements over four eco-regions were used for validation, and spatial errors were estimated at the pixel level using Quantile Random Forests. Additionally, we conducted detailed map comparisons to national products at pixel-, county-, and state-level. Results show that the proposed framework can produce accurate estimates of biomass at fine spatial resolution. High-resolution LiDAR-derived biomass maps such as these, provide a valuable bottom-up reference to improve the analysis and interpretation of large-scale mapping efforts, and future development of a national carbon monitoring system.

  13. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.

    2016-03-16

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  14. Effects of multiple interacting disturbances and salvage logging on forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.; Fraver, S.; Milo, A.M.; D'Amato, A.W.; Palik, B.; Shinneman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to increase the frequency of disturbances, potentially impacting carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the implications of either multiple disturbances or post-disturbance forest management activities on ecosystem carbon stocks. This study quantified how forest carbon stocks responded to stand-replacing blowdown and wildfire, both individually and in combination with and without post-disturbance salvage operations, in a sub-boreal jack pine ecosystem. Individually, blowdown or fire caused similar decreases in live carbon and total ecosystem carbon. However, whereas blowdown increased carbon in down woody material and forest floor, fire increased carbon in standing snags, a difference that may have consequences for long-term carbon cycling patterns. Fire after the blowdown caused substantial additional reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, suggesting that potential increases in multiple disturbance events may represent a challenge for sustaining ecosystem carbon stocks. Salvage logging, as examined here, decreased carbon stored in snags and down woody material but had no significant effect on total ecosystem carbon stocks.

  15. Carbon Stock of Seagrass Community in Barranglompo Island, Makassar (Stok Karbon pada Komunitas Lamun di Pulau Barranglompo, Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-03-01

    seagrass biomass. Seagrass density was sampled using quadrat transect method with size of 50cm x 50cm. While for biomass was done by harvesting seagrass at transect of 20cm x 20cm in root penetration depth. Relationship between density, biomass and carbon content of seagrass were used to determine total carbon stock. Seagrass density was surveyed at 236 points, while for biomass sampling was conducted in 30 points. The results showed that seagrass community had total carbon stocks as much as 73.86 tonnes from overall 64.3 ha of seagrass bed areas.  Below ground carbon had 56.55 tonnes (76.3%, higher compared to that aboveground which only 17.57 tonnes (23.7%. Seagrass species Enhalus acoroides contributed more than 70% to the total carbon stocks, whereas, based on the carbon classes, the highest contribution was found at class 100-200 gC.m-2 i.e. 29.41 tonnes (39.7%. These results suggest that seagrass ecosystem plays an important role in maintaining the carbon stock in the ocean and should receive good attention for its conservation. Keywords: blue carbon concept, seagrass, Barranglompo

  16. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S.J.; Spies, Thomas A.; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J.; Olsen, Keith A.; Steel, E. Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  17. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  18. Carbon stocks across a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew D; Kolka, Randall K; Bradford, John B; Palik, Brian J; Fraver, Shawn; Jurgensen, Martin F

    2012-06-01

    Forests function as a major global C sink, and forest management strategies that maximize C stocks offer one possible means of mitigating the impacts of increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We studied the effects of thinning, a common management technique in many forest types, on age-related trends in C stocks using a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands ranging from 9 to 306 years old. Live tree C stocks increased with age to a maximum near the middle of the chronosequence in unmanaged stands, and increased across the entire chronosequence in thinned stands. C in live understory vegetation and C in the mineral soil each declined rapidly with age in young stands but changed relatively little in middle-aged to older stands regardless of management. Forest floor C stocks increased with age in unmanaged stands, but forest floor C decreased with age after the onset of thinning around age 40 in thinned stands. Deadwood C was highly variable, but decreased with age in thinned stands. Total ecosystem C increased with stand age until approaching an asymptote around age 150. The increase in total ecosystem C was paralleled by an age-related increase in total aboveground C, but relatively little change in total belowground C. Thinning had surprisingly little impact on total ecosystem C stocks, but it did modestly alter age-related trends in total ecosystem C allocation between aboveground and belowground pools. In addition to characterizing the subtle differences in C dynamics between thinned and unmanaged stands, these results suggest that C accrual in red pine stands continues well beyond the 60-100 year management rotations typical for this system. Management plans that incorporate longer rotations and thinning in some stands could play an important role in maximizing C stocks in red pine forests while meeting other objectives including timber extraction, biodiversity conservation, restoration, and fuel reduction goals.

  19. Carbon stocks across a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew D.; Kolka, Randall K.; Bradford, John B.; Palik, Brian J.; Fraver, Shawn; Jurgensen, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Forests function as a major global C sink, and forest management strategies that maximize C stocks offer one possible means of mitigating the impacts of increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We studied the effects of thinning, a common management technique in many forest types, on age-related trends in C stocks using a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands ranging from 9 to 306 years old. Live tree C stocks increased with age to a maximum near the middle of the chronosequence in unmanaged stands, and increased across the entire chronosequence in thinned stands. C in live understory vegetation and C in the mineral soil each declined rapidly with age in young stands but changed relatively little in middle-aged to older stands regardless of management. Forest floor C stocks increased with age in unmanaged stands, but forest floor C decreased with age after the onset of thinning around age 40 in thinned stands. Deadwood C was highly variable, but decreased with age in thinned stands. Total ecosystem C increased with stand age until approaching an asymptote around age 150. The increase in total ecosystem C was paralleled by an age-related increase in total aboveground C, but relatively little change in total belowground C. Thinning had surprisingly little impact on total ecosystem C stocks, but it did modestly alter age-related trends in total ecosystem C allocation between aboveground and belowground pools. In addition to characterizing the subtle differences in C dynamics between thinned and unmanaged stands, these results suggest that C accrual in red pine stands continues well beyond the 60–100 year management rotations typical for this system. Management plans that incorporate longer rotations and thinning in some stands could play an important role in maximizing C stocks in red pine forests while meeting other objectives including timber extraction, biodiversity conservation, restoration, and fuel reduction goals.

  20. Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Justine; Moors, Eddy; Kruijt, Bart; Speer, James H.; Vinya, Royd; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Leemans, Rik

    2018-02-01

    Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (southern Africa, will likely reduce the C storage potential of the Zambezi teak forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

  1. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  2. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: Implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Donato; J.B. Kauffman; R.A. Mackenzie; A. Ainsworth; A.Z. Pfleeger

    2012-01-01

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced...

  3. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Aboveground tree biomass statistics for Maine: 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Thomas S. Frieswyk; Anne M. Malley

    1985-01-01

    Traditional measures of volume inadequately describe the total aboveground wood resource. The 1980-82 inventory of Maine included estimates of aboveground tree biomass on timberland. There are nearly 1,504.4 million green tons of wood and bark in all trees above the ground level, or 88.2 green tons per acre of timberland. Most of the biomass is in growing stock, but 49...

  5. Inverted edge effects on carbon stocks in human-dominated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romitelli, I.; Keller, M.; Vieira, S. A.; Metzger, J. P.; Reverberi Tambosi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Although the importance of tropical forests to regulate greenhouse gases is well documented, little is known about what factors affect the ability of these forests to store carbon in human-dominated landscapes. Among those factors, the landscape structure, particularly the amount of forest cover, the type of matrix and edge effects, can have important roles. We tested how carbon stock is influenced by a combination of factors of landscape composition (pasture and forest cover), landscape configuration (edge effect) and relief factors (slope, elevation and aspect). To test those relationships, we performed a robust carbon stock estimation with inventory and LiDAR data in human-dominated landscapes from the Brazilian Atlantic forest region. The study area showed carbon stock mean 45.49 ± 9.34 Mg ha-1. The interaction between forest cover, edge effect and slope was the best combination explanatory of carbon stock. We observed an inverted edge effect pattern where carbon stock is higher close to the edges of the studied secondary forests. This inverted edge effect observed contradicts the usual pattern reported in the literature for mature forests. We suppose this pattern is related with a positive effect that edge conditions can have stimulating forest regeneration, but the underlying processes to explain the observed pattern should still be tested. Those results suggest that Carbon stocks in human-dominated and fragmented landscapes can be highly affected by the landscape structure, and particularly that edges conditions can favor carbon sequestration in regenerating tropical forests.

  6. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010-2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710-6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance.

  7. Changes in organic carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado: A review. Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle-Bayer, L.; Batjes, N.H.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on changes in carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado. First, we briefly characterize the savanna ecosystem and summarize the main published data on C stocks under natural conditions. The effects of increased land use pressure in the

  8. Spatial optimization of carbon-stocking projects across Africa integrating stocking potential with co-benefits and feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Reyers, Belinda; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) offset projects through forestation are employed within the emissions trading framework to store C. Yet, information about the potential of landscapes to stock C, essential to the design of offset projects, is often lacking. Based on data on vegetation C, climate and soil we quantified...... the potential for C storage in woody vegetation across tropical Africa. The ability for offset projects to produce co-benefits for ecosystems and local communities was also investigated. When co-benefits such as biodiversity conservation were considered, the top-ranked sites were often different to sites...... selected purely for their C stocking potential, but they still possessed 68% of the latter’s C stocking potential. This work provides the first continental-scale assessment of which areas may provide the greatest direct and indirect benefits from C storage reforestation projects at the smallest costs...

  9. Modeling soil organic carbon with Quantile Regression: Dissecting predictors' effects on carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2017-08-13

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) estimation is crucial to manage both natural and anthropic ecosystems and has recently been put under the magnifying glass after the Paris agreement 2016 due to its relationship with greenhouse gas. Statistical applications have dominated the SOC stock mapping at regional scale so far. However, the community has hardly ever attempted to implement Quantile Regression (QR) to spatially predict the SOC distribution. In this contribution, we test QR to estimate SOC stock (0-30 $cm$ depth) in the agricultural areas of a highly variable semi-arid region (Sicily, Italy, around 25,000 $km2$) by using topographic and remotely sensed predictors. We also compare the results with those from available SOC stock measurement. The QR models produced robust performances and allowed to recognize dominant effects among the predictors with respect to the considered quantile. This information, currently lacking, suggests that QR can discern predictor influences on SOC stock at specific sub-domains of each predictors. In this work, the predictive map generated at the median shows lower errors than those of the Joint Research Centre and International Soil Reference, and Information Centre benchmarks. The results suggest the use of QR as a comprehensive and effective method to map SOC using legacy data in agro-ecosystems. The R code scripted in this study for QR is included.

  10. Response of aboveground carbon balance to long-term, experimental shifts in precipitation seasonality is contingent on plant community type in cold-desert rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; McAbee, K.; Germino, M. J.; Bosworth, A.

    2016-12-01

    Semi-arid rangelands have been identified as potential carbon (C) sinks. However, the degree of net C storage or release in water-limited systems is a function of precipitation amount and timing, as well as plant community composition. In northern latitudes of western North America, climate models predict increases in wintertime precipitation and decreases in summertime precipitation. In theory, this should boost C storage in cold-desert ecosystems that have deep-rooted woody plants due to greater wintertime soil water storage that enhances summertime productivity. However, there are few long-term, manipulative field-based studies investigating how shrub- and grass-dominated rangelands will respond to changing precipitation patterns. We measured aboveground C pools and fluxes at leaf, soil, and ecosystem scales over the 2014 growing season on plots that had supplemental precipitation added in either winter or summer for 21 years, in shrub- and exotic-bunchgrass-dominated plots. We hypothesized that increased winter precipitation would stimulate aboveground C uptake and storage relative to ambient conditions, in our cold-desert-adapted plant species. We further hypothesized that long-term gains in aboveground C storage due to precipitation manipulations would be greater in plots containing shrubs. Our hypotheses were generally supported: ecosystem C uptake and long-term biomass accumulation were greater in winter- and summer-irrigated plots compared to control plots in both vegetation communities. However, substantial increases in aboveground biomass occurred only in winter-irrigated plots that contained shrubs. Our findings suggest that increases in winter precipitation will enhance C storage of this widespread ecosystem, provided that the ecosystems have resisted conversion to exotic grassland.

  11. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  12. Assessing soil carbon stocks under pastures through orbital remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gyula Julius Szakács

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of world food and energy supply increases the threat of global warming due to higher greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural activity. Therefore, it is widely admitted that agriculture must establish a new paradigm in terms of environmental sustainability that incorporate techniques for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This article addresses to the scientific demand to estimate in a fast and inexpensive manner current and potential soil organic carbon (SOC stocks in degraded pastures, using remote sensing techniques. Four pastures on sandy soils under Brazilian Cerrado vegetation in São Paulo state were chosen due to their SOC sequestration potential, which was characterized for the soil depth 0-50 cm. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was performed between SOC and Leaf Area Index (LAI measured in the field (LAIfield and derived by satellite (LAIsatellite as well as SOC and pasture reflectance in six spectra from 450 nm - 2350 nm, using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ sensor of satellite Landsat 7. A high correlation between SOC and LAIfield (R² = 0.9804 and LAIsatellite (R² = 0.9812 was verified. The suitability of satellite derived LAI for SOC determination leads to the assumption, that orbital remote sensing is a very promising SOC estimation technique from regional to global scale.

  13. Carbon stocks in a 50-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis stand in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon stocks in a 50-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis stand in Sicily, Italy. Riccardo Scalenghe, Luisella Celi, Giovanna Costa, V Armando Laudicina, Stefania Santoni, Dario Vespertino, Tommaso La Mantia ...

  14. Carbon Stock and Carbon Accumulation Rates in the Delaware Bay Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, B.; Nikitina, D.; Jennings, D.; Geyer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes provide numerous benefits and services that are essential for mitigation and adaptation to climate change and resilience along the coast. They are also large carbon (C)-storing ecosystems, sequestering significant amounts of C from the atmosphere and oceans and storing it in the below ground sediments (Murray et al., 2011). When these systems are degraded, either through natural or anthropogenic impacts, they become a potential source of C emissions. The Delaware Bay salt marshes, which been developing for 2000 years, are being lost at a rate of an acre/day (PDE, 2012). However, no studies have accurately estimated the amount of C stored in its salt marshes. Assessments of salt-marsh C pools and carbon accumulation rates (CAR) typically focus on the top meter of sediment. Sediments accumulated at depths CAR to be 191.8 gC/m2/yr, and 82.18 gC/m2/yr, respectively. This study documents variation in sediment and CAR through time due to changes in depositional environments, quantifies degradation in the depositional environments, and calculates C content through the entire sediment sequence. Estimates of C stock ranged from 0.0369 MgC/m2 (1 m depth) to 0.1147 MgC/m2 (3 m depth). The results show that the Delaware Bay salt marshes sequester significant amounts of C, suggesting that C stock assessments focused on the top 1 m of sediment underestimate the total C stock by more than three-fold.

  15. Forest wildfire, fuel reduction treatments, and landscape carbon stocks: a sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Alan A. Ager

    2013-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments prescribed in fire-suppressed forests of western North America pose an apparent paradox with respect to terrestrial carbon management. Such treatments have the immediate effect of reducing forest carbon stocks but likely reduce future carbon losses through the combustion and mortality caused by high-severity wildfires. Assessing the long-term...

  16. Tree age, disturbance history, and carbon stocks and fluxes in subalpine Rocky Mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Bradford; R.A. Birdsey; L.A. Joyce; M.G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks and fluxes vary with forest age, and relationships with forest age are often used to estimate fluxes for regional or national carbon inventories. Two methods are commonly used to estimate forest age: observed tree age or time since a known disturbance. To clarify the relationships between tree age, time since disturbance and forest carbon storage...

  17. Modeling carbon stocks in a secondary tropical dry forest in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Richard A. Birdsey; Kristofer D. Johnson; Juan Manuel Dupuy; Jose Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni; Karen. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    The carbon balance of secondary dry tropical forests of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula is sensitive to human and natural disturbances and climate change. The spatially explicit process model Forest-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) was used to estimate forest carbon dynamics in this region, including the effects of disturbance on carbon stocks. Model evaluation using...

  18. Fire suppression and fuels treatment effects on mixed-conifer carbon stocks and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North; M Hurteau; J Innes

    2009-01-01

    Depending on management, forests can be an important sink or source of carbon that if released as CO2 could contribute to global warming. Many forests in the western United States are being treated to reduce fuels, yet the effects of these treatments on forest carbon are not well understood. We compared the immediate effects of fuels treatments on carbon stocks and...

  19. Vulnerability of wetland soil carbon stocks to climate warming in the perhumid coastal temperate rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Fellman; David V. D’Amore; Eran Hood; Pat Cunningham

    2017-01-01

    The perhumid coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) of southeast Alaska has some of the densest soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in the world (>300 Mg C ha-1) but the fate of this SOC with continued warming remains largely unknown. We quantified dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) yields from four...

  20. Vegetation carbon stocks driven by canopy density and forest age in subtropical forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Shi, Yongjun; Fang, Huiyun; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yufeng; Tao, Jixing; Ji, Biyong; Xu, Jun; Li, Chong; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-10

    Subtropical forests play an important role in global carbon cycle and in mitigating climate change. Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic driving factors that affect vegetation carbon stocks in subtropical forest ecosystems is needed to take full advantage of the carbon sequestration potential. We used a large-scale database from national forest continuous inventory in Zhejiang Province, and combined the Random Forest analysis (RF) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the contribution of biotic and abiotic driving factors on vegetation carbon stocks, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the main driving factors. The RF model explained 50% of the variation in vegetation carbon stocks; canopy density accounted for 17.9%, and forest age accounted for 7.0%. Moreover, the SEM explained 52% of the variation in vegetation carbon stocks; the value of standardized total effects of canopy density and forest age were 0.469 and 0.327, respectively, suggesting that they were the most crucial driving factors of vegetation carbon stocks. Since the forests in our study were relatively young, the forests had a large potential for carbon sequestration. Overall, our study provided new insights into the sensitivity and potential response of subtropical forest ecosystems carbon cycle to climate change. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Changes of Carbon Stocks on Rejuvenation of Smallholder Rubber Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Supriadi, Handi; Ferry, Yulius

    2014-01-01

    Rejuvenation of rubber tree (Hevea Brasiliensis) can lead to a reduction of carbon stocks. Therefore, appropriate methods are needed to minimize such losses. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes on carbon stocks in the rejuvenation of rubber with logging system of 30%, 50%, 70%, and 100% and intercrops between the young rubber plantation (maize and peanuts). The research was conducted from January to December 2013 at smallholder rubber plantation in Way Tuba District, Way Ka...

  2. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiao; Ren, Hai; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Wenqing; Liao, Baowen; Cao, Qingxian

    2014-01-15

    Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, and play important roles in terrestrial and oceanic carbon (C) cycling. Although the C stocks or storage in terrestrial ecosystems in China have been frequently assessed, the C stocks in mangrove forests have often been overlooked. In this study, we estimated the C stocks and the potential C stocks in China's mangrove forests by combining our own field data with data from the National Mangrove Resource Inventory Report and from other published literature. The results indicate that mangrove forests in China store about 6.91 ± 0.57 Tg C, of which 81.74% is in the top 1 m soil, 18.12% in the biomass of mangrove trees, and 0.08% in the ground layer (i.e. mangrove litter and seedlings). The potential C stocks are as high as 28.81 ± 4.16 Tg C. On average, mangrove forests in China contain 355.25 ± 82.19 Mg C ha(-1), which is consistent with the global average of mangrove C density at similar latitudes, but higher than the average C density in terrestrial forests in China. Our results suggest that C storage in mangroves can be increased by selecting high C-density species for afforestation and stand improvement, and even more by increasing the mangrove area. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning the restoration of mangrove forests in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First Assessment of Carbon Stock in the Belowground Biomass of Brazilian Mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL M.C. SANTOS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on belowground roots biomass have increasingly reported the importance of the contribution of this compartment in carbon stock maintenance in mangrove forests. To date, there are no estimates of this contribution in Brazilian mangrove forests, although the country has the second largest area of mangroves worldwide. For this study, trenches dug in fringing forests in Guaratiba State Biological Reserve (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were used to evaluate the contribution of the different classes of roots and the vertical stratification of carbon stock. The total carbon stock average in belowground roots biomass in these forests was 104.41 ± 20.73 tC.ha−1. From that, an average of 84.13 ± 21.34 tC.ha−1 corresponded to the carbon stock only in fine roots, which have diameters smaller than 5 mm and are responsible for over 80% of the total belowground biomass. Most of the belowground carbon stock is concentrated in the first 40 cm below the surface (about 70%. The root:shoot ratio in this study is 1.14. These estimates demonstrate that the belowground roots biomass significantly contributes, more than 50%, to the carbon stock in mangrove forests. And the mangrove root biomass can be greater than that of other Brazilian ecosystems.

  4. The role of remnant trees in carbon sequestration, vegetation structure and tree diversity of early succession regrowing fallows in eastern Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuni Sanchez, Aida; Lindsell, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Remnant tree presence affects forest recovery after slash-and-burn agriculture. However, little is known about its effect on above-ground carbon stocks, especially in Africa. We focused our study on Sierra Leone, part of the Upper Guinean forests, an important centre of endemism threatened...... by encroachment and forest degradation. We studied 99 (20-m-radius) plots aged 2-10 years with and without remnant trees and compared their above-ground carbon stocks, vegetation structure (stem density, basal area) and tree diversity. Above-ground carbon stocks, stem density, basal area, species richness...... and tree diversity increased significantly with fallow age. Remnant tree presence affected significantly tree diversity, species dominance and above-ground carbon stocks, but not vegetation structure (stem density, basal area). Number of remnant trees and number of species of remnant trees were also...

  5. Effects of land use on soil inorganic carbon stocks in the Russian Chernozem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Elena A; Post, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about changes in soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks with depth and with land use in grassland ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine SIC stocks under different management regimes in the Mollisol, one of the typical soils in grasslands. Four sites were sampled: a native grassland field (not cultivated for at least 300 yr), an adjacent 50-yr continuous fallow field, a yearly cut hay field in the V.V. Alekhin Central-Chernozem Biosphere State Reserve in the Kursk region of Russia, and a continuously cropped field in the Experimental Station of the Kursk Institute of Agronomy and Soil Erosion Control. All sampled soils were classified as fine-silty, mixed, frigid Pachic Hapludolls. Significant differences occurred in SIC stocks between cultivated and grassland soil. The inorganic carbon stocks in the top 2 m were 107 Mg ha(-1) for the native grassland, 91 Mg ha(-1) for the yearly cut hay field, 242 Mg ha(-1) for the continuously cropped field, and 196 Mg ha(-1) for the 50-yr continuous fallow. The SIC was in the form of calcium carbonate and was mostly stored below the 1-m depth. The largest difference between inorganic carbon stocks was observed between the continuously cropped field and native grassland. The increase in inorganic carbon in the continuously cropped field and continuous fallow was attributed to initial cultivation and fertilization. Soil inorganic carbon in Mollisols is not accounted for in the current global carbon estimates.

  6. Quantifying the uncertainty of regional and national estimates of soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    At regional and national scales, carbon (C) stocks are frequently estimated by means of regression models. Such statistical models link measurements of carbons stocks, recorded for a set of soil profiles or soil cores, to covariates that characterize soil formation conditions and land management. A prerequisite is that these covariates are available for any location within a region of interest G because they are used along with the fitted regression coefficients to predict the carbon stocks at the nodes of a fine-meshed grid that is laid over G. The mean C stock in G is then estimated by the arithmetic mean of the stock predictions for the grid nodes. Apart from the mean stock, the precision of the estimate is often also of interest, for example to judge whether the mean C stock has changed significantly between two inventories. The standard error of the estimated mean stock in G can be computed from the regression results as well. Two issues are thereby important: (i) How large is the area of G relative to the support of the measurements? (ii) Are the residuals of the regression model spatially auto-correlated or is the assumption of statistical independence tenable? Both issues are correctly handled if one adopts a geostatistical block kriging approach for estimating the mean C stock within a region and its standard error. In the presentation I shall summarize the main ideas of external drift block kriging. To compute the standard error of the mean stock, one has in principle to sum the elements a potentially very large covariance matrix of point prediction errors, but I shall show that the required term can be approximated very well by Monte Carlo techniques. I shall further illustrated with a few examples how the standard error of the mean stock estimate changes with the size of G and with the strenght of the auto-correlation of the regression residuals. As an application a robust variant of block kriging is used to quantify the mean carbon stock stored in the

  7. Mapping soil organic carbon stock in the area of Neamtu Catchment, Northeastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaban, Ana-Ioana; Bobric, Elena-Diana; Breaban, Iuliana-Gabriela; Rusu, Eugen

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of soil organic carbon stocks and its spatial extent is directly influenced by the land cover. The aim of the study is to quantify both the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and stocks under different soil types and land uses in an area of 41.808,04 ha in northeastern part of Romania. It has been studied the evolution of carbon stocks over time, taking into account the change of land use between 1990-2012 under 5 classes: forests, pastures, arable land, orchard and built spaces. Common soils are Cambisols, Fluvisols, Phaezems, and Luvisols, forest being the predominant land use. The most important loss of soil organic carbon occurs as a result of changes in the supply of biomass supplying litter and therefore the process of bioaccumulation. The samples were collected from 100 representative soil profiles and analyzed with Analytik Jena multi N/C 2100 with HT 1300 solid module. Based on the soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and texture the values of those parameters varied from high values in Ao and Bv horizons to lower values in C horizon. In order to model soil organic carbon concentration were used different interpolation techniques (regression and ordinary -kriging, IDW) at different sampling densities for each depth to 100 cm, using a Gaussian approach to estimate the uncertainty. It is noticeable that soil organic carbon had a positive correlation with different types of land uses and a negative correlation with the elevation, being a decreasing trend of the carbon stocks sequestered in biomass, litter and soil. In the upper part of the profiles, the soil organic carbon stock considerably varied for forest land between 6.5-7.23 kg C/sqm) and agricultural land (3.67-4.65 kg C/sqm). The kriging regression evidenced a good variability of the calculated root mean square errors of the predicted soil organic carbon stocks.

  8. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  9. Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Holly K; Brown, Sandra; Niles, John O; Foley, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries is of central importance in efforts to combat climate change. Key scientific challenges must be addressed to prevent any policy roadblocks. Foremost among the challenges is quantifying nations' carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, which requires information on forest clearing and carbon storage. Here we review a range of methods available to estimate national-level forest carbon stocks in developing countries. While there are no practical methods to directly measure all forest carbon stocks across a country, both ground-based and remote-sensing measurements of forest attributes can be converted into estimates of national carbon stocks using allometric relationships. Here we synthesize, map and update prominent forest biomass carbon databases to create the first complete set of national-level forest carbon stock estimates. These forest carbon estimates expand on the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Guidelines and provide a range of globally consistent estimates

  10. The Role of Composition, Invasives, and Maintenance Emissions on Urban Forest Carbon Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Josh; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hinkle, Ross; Hostetler, Mark; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2015-02-01

    There are few field-based, empirical studies quantifying the effect of invasive trees and palms and maintenance-related carbon emissions on changes in urban forest carbon stocks. We estimated carbon (C) stock changes and tree maintenance-related C emissions in a subtropical urban forest by re-measuring a subsample of residential permanent plots during 2009 and 2011, using regional allometric biomass equations, and surveying residential homeowners near Orlando, FL, USA. The effect of native, non-native, invasive tree species and palms on C stocks and sequestration was also quantified. Findings show 17.8 tC/ha in stocks and 1.2 tC/ha/year of net sequestration. The most important species both by frequency of C stocks and sequestration were Quercus laurifolia Michx. and Quercus virginiana Mill., accounting for 20 % of all the trees measured; 60 % of carbon stocks and over 75 % of net C sequestration. Palms contributed to less than 1 % of the total C stocks. Natives comprised two-thirds of the tree population and sequestered 90 % of all C, while invasive trees and palms accounted for 5 % of net C sequestration. Overall, invasive and exotic trees had a limited contribution to total C stocks and sequestration. Annual tree-related maintenance C emissions were 0.1 % of total gross C sequestration. Plot-level tree, palm, and litter cover were correlated to C stocks and net sequestration. Findings can be used to complement existing urban forest C offset accounting and monitoring protocols and to better understand the role of invasive woody plants on urban ecosystem service provision.

  11. The role of composition, invasives, and maintenance emissions on urban forest carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Josh; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hinkle, Ross; Hostetler, Mark; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2015-02-01

    There are few field-based, empirical studies quantifying the effect of invasive trees and palms and maintenance-related carbon emissions on changes in urban forest carbon stocks. We estimated carbon (C) stock changes and tree maintenance-related C emissions in a subtropical urban forest by re-measuring a subsample of residential permanent plots during 2009 and 2011, using regional allometric biomass equations, and surveying residential homeowners near Orlando, FL, USA. The effect of native, non-native, invasive tree species and palms on C stocks and sequestration was also quantified. Findings show 17.8 tC/ha in stocks and 1.2 tC/ha/year of net sequestration. The most important species both by frequency of C stocks and sequestration were Quercus laurifolia Michx. and Quercus virginiana Mill., accounting for 20% of all the trees measured; 60% of carbon stocks and over 75% of net C sequestration. Palms contributed to less than 1% of the total C stocks. Natives comprised two-thirds of the tree population and sequestered 90% of all C, while invasive trees and palms accounted for 5 % of net C sequestration. Overall, invasive and exotic trees had a limited contribution to total C stocks and sequestration. Annual tree-related maintenance C emissions were 0.1% of total gross C sequestration. Plot-level tree, palm, and litter cover were correlated to C stocks and net sequestration. Findings can be used to complement existing urban forest C offset accounting and monitoring protocols and to better understand the role of invasive woody plants on urban ecosystem service provision.

  12. Above – Ground Standing Biomass and Carbon Stock Dynamics under a Varied Degree of Anthropogenic Pressure in Tropical Rain Forests of Uttara Kannada District, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bhat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Above-ground standing biomass and carbon-stock dynamics were monitored for 25 years (from 1984 to 2009 in six 1- ha permanent forest sites subjected to different levels of anthropogenic pressure in tropical rain forests of Uttara Kannada district,Western Ghats, south India. Over the years, total loss of trees ranged from 97 to 761 (23.95- 60 .7% trees/ha, removal of trees by people ranged from 42 to 559 (5.5-55.17% trees/ha and number of trees dead ranged from 55-370 (5.52-38.38% trees/ha, leading to reduction in basal area in two sites (-1.81 m2/ha, and -1.73 m2/ha. In four sites, basal area increased from 0.98 to 22.19 m2/ha, because of compensatory growth of surviving trees and added above-ground standing biomass ranging from 6.40 to 144.67 t/ha. Tree recruitment ranged from 214 to 1,840 trees/ha and it was more than the number of trees lost in four sites, indicating faster recovery of tree density. In the 25th year, recruits formed 28.34 - 85.06% of the stand tree density and shared 1.20-18.47% of the stand basal area and accounted for 1.0 -14.67% of the above- ground standing biomass and carbon stock, making all six sites as C-sinks. In general, the rate of carbon accumulation in forests of Uttara Kannada district was 1.13 t C /ha /yr , of which, 0.58 ± 1.18 t C /ha/year was contributed by surviving trees and 0.55 ± 0.33 t C/ha/year was added by recruits. With proper management strategies, the C-sequestration potential in the forests can be elevated and by reforesting degraded area, the carbon sink can be enhanced in the Western Ghats region. Role of recruits in forest dynamics must be considered while planning and management of forests to enhance carbon stocks.

  13. The contribution of trees outside forests to national tree biomass and carbon stocks--a comparative study across three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Sebastian; Altrell, Dan; Ståhl, Göran; Kleinn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to forest trees, trees outside forests (TOF) often are not included in the national monitoring of tree resources. Consequently, data about this particular resource is rare, and available information is typically fragmented across the different institutions and stakeholders that deal with one or more of the various TOF types. Thus, even if information is available, it is difficult to aggregate data into overall national statistics. However, the National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NFMA) programme of FAO offers a unique possibility to study TOF resources because TOF are integrated by default into the NFMA inventory design. We have analysed NFMA data from 11 countries across three continents. For six countries, we found that more than 10% of the national above-ground tree biomass was actually accumulated outside forests. The highest value (73%) was observed for Bangladesh (total forest cover 8.1%, average biomass per hectare in forest 33.4 t ha(-1)) and the lowest (3%) was observed for Zambia (total forest cover 63.9%, average biomass per hectare in forest 32 t ha(-1)). Average TOF biomass stocks were estimated to be smaller than 10 t ha(-1). However, given the large extent of non-forest areas, these stocks sum up to considerable quantities in many countries. There are good reasons to overcome sectoral boundaries and to extend national forest monitoring programmes on a more systematic basis that includes TOF. Such an approach, for example, would generate a more complete picture of the national tree biomass. In the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation, international climate mitigation programmes (e.g. Clean Development Mechanism and Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Degradation) focus on forest trees without considering the impact of TOF, a consideration this study finds crucial if accurate measurements of national tree biomass and carbon pools are required.

  14. Effects of Deforestation and Forest Degradation on Forest Carbon Stocks in Collaborative Forests, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some key drivers that favor deforestation and forest degradation. Consequently, levels of carbon stock are affected in different parts of same forest types. But the problem lies in exploring the extent of the effects on level of carbon stocking. This paper highlights the variations in levels of carbon stocks in three different collaborative forests of same forest type i.e. tropical sal (Shorea robusta forest in Mahottari district of the central Terai in Nepal. Three collaborative forests namely Gadhanta-Bardibas Collaborative Forest (CFM, Tuteshwarnath CFM and Banke- Maraha CFM were selected for research site. Interview and workshops were organized with the key informants that include staffs, members and representatives of CFMs to collect the socio-economic data and stratified random sampling was applied to collect the bio-physical data to calculate the carbon stocks. Analysis was carried out using statistical tools. It was found five major drivers namely grazing, fire, logging, growth of invasive species and encroachment. It was found highest carbon 269.36 ton per ha in Gadhanta- Bardibash CFM. The findings showed that the levels of carbon stocks in the three studied CFMs are different depending on how the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation influence over them.

  15. Effectiveness of management interventions on forest carbon stock in planted forests in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangal, Shambhu Prasad; Das, Abhoy Kumar; Paudel, Shyam Krishna

    2017-07-01

    Nepal has successfully established more than 370,000 ha of plantations, mostly with Pinus patula, in the last three and a half decades. However, intensive management of these planted forests is very limited. Despite the fact that the Kyoto Convention in 1997 recognized the role of plantations for forest-carbon sequestration, there is still limited knowledge on the effects of management practices and stand density on carbon-sequestration of popular plantation species (i.e. Pinus patula) in Nepal. We carried out case studies in four community forests planted between 1976 and 1990 to assess the impacts of management on forest carbon stocks. The study found that the average carbon stock in the pine plantations was 217 Mg C ha -1 , and was lower in forests with intensively managed plantations (214.3 Mg C ha -1 ) than in traditionally managed plantations (219 Mg C ha -1 ). However, it was the reverse in case of soil carbon, which was higher (78.65 Mg C ha -1 ) in the forests with intensive management. Though stand density was positively correlated with carbon stock, the proportionate increment in carbon stock was lower with increasing stand density, as carbon stock increased by less than 25% with a doubling of stand density (300-600). The total carbon stock was higher in plantations aged between 25 and 30 years compared to those aged between 30 and 35 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon Stock Assesment on Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Jorong Ujuang Labuang District Agam West Sumatera Province

    OpenAIRE

    Oktaviona, Silvi; Amin, Bintal; Ghalib, Musrifin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove is a tree that normally grows in the intertidal zone of marine coastal environments. This study aims to estimate the carbon content of mangrove forest ecosystems within a certain area, to analyze biomass differences, carbon stocks and CO2 uptake and to analyze the effect of mangrove density on biomass, carbon stock and CO2 uptake. This research held on February 2017 by survey method and used the data of mangrove species, it's number and diameter of breast height (DBH) on each sub plo...

  17. Determining forest carbon stock losses due to wildfire disturbance in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Zobel; John W. Coulston

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying carbon stock losses after wildfire events is challenging due to the lack of detailed information before and after the disturbance. We propose to use the extensive Western FIA database (including periodic and annual inventories) to recreate pre- and post-fire conditions to better estimate actual carbon losses. Methods include using remeasurement date where...

  18. Global carbon stocks and potential emissions due to mangrove deforestation from 2000 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove forests store high densitie of organic carbon, which, when coupled with high rates of deforestation, means that mangroves have the potential to contribute substantially to carbon emissions. Consequently, mangroves are strong candidates for inclusion in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and payments for ecosystem services (PES) programmes that financially incentivize the conservation of forested carbon stocks. This study quantifies annual mangrove carbon stocks from 2000 to 2012 at the global, national and sub-national levels, and global carbon emissions resulting from deforestation over the same time period. Globally, mangroves stored 4.19 Pg of carbon in 2012, with Indonesia, Brazil, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea accounting for more than 50% of the global stock. 2.96 Pg of the global carbon stock is contained within the soil and 1.23 Pg in the living biomass. Two percent of global mangrove carbon was lost between 2000 and 2012, equivalent to a maximum potential of 316,996,250 t of CO2 emissions.

  19. Improving national-scale carbon stock inventories using knowledge on land use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; Verburg, P.H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Nabuurs, G.J; Olivier, J.G.J.; de Vries, W.; Veldkamp, A.

    2013-01-01

    National-scale inventories of soil organic carbon (SOC) and forest floor carbon (FFC) stocks have a high uncertainty. Inventories are often based on the interpolation of sampled information, often using a number of covariables to help such interpolation. The rationale for the choice of these

  20. Decadal change of forest biomass carbon stocks and tree demography in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Arthur Johnson; Jason Cole; Richard Birdsey

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying forest biomass carbon (C) stock change is important for understanding forest dynamics and their feedbacks with climate change. Forests in the northeastern U.S. have been a net carbon sink in recent decades, but C accumulation in some northern hardwood forests has been halted due to the impact of emerging stresses such as invasive pests, land use change and...

  1. Spatial distribution of regional whole tree carbon stocks and fluxes of forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents carbon stocks and fluxes of the whole-tree biomass of European forests and other wooded land, distinguished into coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests. The results are presented at the European, the national and (where possible)the regional level. Results concerning carbon

  2. Forest Carbon Stocks in Woody Plants of Arba Minch Ground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of forests in mitigating the effect of climate change depends on the carbon sequestration potential and management. This study was conducted to estimate the carbon stock and its variation along environmental gradients in Arba Minch Ground Water Forest. The data was collected from the field by measuring plants ...

  3. Structural Break, Stock Prices of Clean Energy Firms and Carbon Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubao; Cai, Junyu

    2018-03-01

    This paper uses EU ETS carbon future price and Germany/UK clean energy firms stock indices to study the relationship between carbon market and clean energy market. By structural break test, it is found that the ‘non-stationary’ variables judged by classical unit root test do own unit roots and need taking first difference. After analysis of VAR and Granger causality test, no causal relationships are found between the two markets. However, when Hsiao’s version of causality test is employed, carbon market is found to have power in explaining the movement of stock prices of clean energy firms, and stock prices of clean energy firms also affect the carbon market.

  4. Past and prospective carbon stocks in forests of northern Wisconsin: a report from the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Climate Change Response Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Yude Pan; Maria Janowiak; Susan Stewart; Sarah Hines; Linda Parker; Stith Gower; Jeremy Lichstein; Kevin McCullough; Fangmin Zhang; Jing Chen; David Mladenoff; Craig Wayson; Chris. Swanston

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses past and prospective carbon stocks for 4.5 million ha of forest land in northern Wisconsin, including a baseline assessment and analysis of the impacts of disturbance and management on carbon stocks. Carbon density (amount of carbon stock per unit area) averages 237 megagrams (Mg) per ha, with the National Forest lands having slightly higher carbon...

  5. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km 2 and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m −2 , respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16%, respectively

  6. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  7. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  8. Estimating litter carbon stocks on forest land in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Grant M; Perry, Charles H; Walters, Brian F; Woodall, Christopher W; Russell, Matthew B; Smith, James E

    2016-07-01

    Forest ecosystems are the largest terrestrial carbon sink on earth, with more than half of their net primary production moving to the soil via the decomposition of litter biomass. Therefore, changes in the litter carbon (C) pool have important implications for global carbon budgets and carbon emissions reduction targets and negotiations. Litter accounts for an estimated 5% of all forest ecosystem carbon stocks worldwide. Given the cost and time required to measure litter attributes, many of the signatory nations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change report estimates of litter carbon stocks and stock changes using default values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or country-specific models. In the United States, the country-specific model used to predict litter C stocks is sensitive to attributes on each plot in the national forest inventory, but these predictions are not associated with the litter samples collected over the last decade in the national forest inventory. Here we present, for the first time, estimates of litter carbon obtained using more than 5000 field measurements from the national forest inventory of the United States. The field-based estimates mark a 44% reduction (2081±77Tg) in litter carbon stocks nationally when compared to country-specific model predictions reported in previous United Framework Convention on Climate Change submissions. Our work suggests that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change defaults and country-specific models used to estimate litter carbon in temperate forest ecosystems may grossly overestimate the contribution of this pool in national carbon budgets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Dynamics of sediment carbon stocks across intertidal wetland habitats of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew A; Jesse, Amber; Hawke, Bruce; Baldock, Jeff; Tabet, Basam; Lockington, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2017-10-01

    Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, is limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types. We used mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with analytical data and partial least squares regression to quantify the carbon content of ~2500 sediment samples and provide fine-scale spatial coverage of sediment OC stocks to 150 cm depth. We found sites in river deltas had larger OC stocks (175-504 Mg/ha) than those in nonriverine settings (44-271 Mg/ha). Variation in OC stocks among nonriverine sites was high in comparison with riverine and mixed geomorphic settings, with sites closer to riverine outflow from the east and south of Moreton Bay having higher stocks than those located on the sand islands in the northwest of the bay. Sediment OC stocks increased with elevation within nonriverine settings, but not in riverine geomorphic settings. Sediment OC stocks did not differ between mangrove and saltmarsh habitats. OC stocks did, however, differ between dominant species across the research area and within geomorphic settings. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of the South East Queensland catchments (17,792 ha) are comprised of approximately 4,100,000-5,200,000 Mg of sediment OC. Comparatively high variation in OC storage between riverine and nonriverine geomorphic settings indicates that the availability of mineral sediments and terrestrial derived OC may exert a strong influence over OC storage potential across

  10. Carbon stock estimates for forests in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. A GIS based method for evaluating spatial distribution of residual biomass for bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Maria Victoria; Blanco, Daniel; Carballo, Maria Teresa; Calvo, Luis Fernando [Chemical Engineering, Institute of Natural Resources, University of Leon, Avenida de Portugal, 41, 24071 Leon (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Analysis of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks (as equivalent CO{sub 2}) was performed in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. Data from the second and third Spanish Forest Inventories (1996 and 2006) were used. Total aboveground biomass was calculated using allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEF), the first method giving higher values. Forests of Castilla y Leon stored 77,051,308 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 8.18 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 1996 and 135,531,737 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 14.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 2006. The total equivalent CO{sub 2} in this region's forests increased 9,608,824 Mg year{sup -1} between 1996 and 2006. In relation to the Kyoto Protocol, the Castilla y Leon forests have sequestered 3 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year, which represents 6.4% of the total regional emission of CO{sub 2}. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based method was also used to assess the geographic distribution of residual forest biomass for bio-energy in the region. The forest statistics data on area of each species were used. The fraction of vegetation cover, land slope and protected areas were also considered. The residual forest biomass in Castilla y Leon was 1,464,991 Mg year{sup -1}, or 1.90% of the total aboveground biomass in 1996. The residual forest biomass was concentrated in specific zones of the Castilla y Leon region, suitable for the location of industries that utilize biomass as energy source. The energy potential of the residual forest biomass in the Castilla y Leon region is 7350 million MJ per year. (author)

  11. quantifying the stock of soil organic carbon using multiple regression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Depending on the changes in the level of soil organic matter, soils can act as sinks of carbon concentration in the atmosphere, thereby increasing the concentration of carbon in the soil. (Dey, 2005). Therefore, soils according to Lal,. (2005) are the largest carbon reservoir of the terrestrial carbon cycle, this is ...

  12. Assessment of soil organic carbon stocks under future climate and land cover changes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigini, Yusuf; Panagos, Panos

    2016-07-01

    Soil organic carbon plays an important role in the carbon cycling of terrestrial ecosystems, variations in soil organic carbon stocks are very important for the ecosystem. In this study, a geostatistical model was used for predicting current and future soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Europe. The first phase of the study predicts current soil organic carbon content by using stepwise multiple linear regression and ordinary kriging and the second phase of the study projects the soil organic carbon to the near future (2050) by using a set of environmental predictors. We demonstrate here an approach to predict present and future soil organic carbon stocks by using climate, land cover, terrain and soil data and their projections. The covariates were selected for their role in the carbon cycle and their availability for the future model. The regression-kriging as a base model is predicting current SOC stocks in Europe by using a set of covariates and dense SOC measurements coming from LUCAS Soil Database. The base model delivers coefficients for each of the covariates to the future model. The overall model produced soil organic carbon maps which reflect the present and the future predictions (2050) based on climate and land cover projections. The data of the present climate conditions (long-term average (1950-2000)) and the future projections for 2050 were obtained from WorldClim data portal. The future climate projections are the recent climate projections mentioned in the Fifth Assessment IPCC report. These projections were extracted from the global climate models (GCMs) for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The results suggest an overall increase in SOC stocks by 2050 in Europe (EU26) under all climate and land cover scenarios, but the extent of the increase varies between the climate model and emissions scenarios. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate Warming Can Increase Soil Carbon Fluxes Without Decreasing Soil Carbon Stocks in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, S. E.; Benner, R. H.; Billings, S. A.; Edwards, K. A.; Philben, M. J.; Zhu, X.; Laganiere, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem C fluxes respond positively to climate warming, however, the net impact of changing C fluxes on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over decadal scales remains unclear. Manipulative studies and global-scale observations have informed much of the existing knowledge of SOC responses to climate, providing insights on relatively short (e.g. days to years) and long (centuries to millennia) time scales, respectively. Natural climate gradient studies capture integrated ecosystem responses to climate on decadal time scales. Here we report the soil C reservoirs, fluxes into and out of those reservoirs, and the chemical composition of inputs and soil organic matter pools along a mesic boreal forest climate transect. The sites studied consist of similar forest composition, successional stage, and soil moisture but differ by 5.2°C mean annual temperature. Carbon fluxes through these boreal forest soils were greatest in the lowest latitude regions and indicate that enhanced C inputs can offset soil C losses with warming in these forests. Respiration rates increased by 55% and the flux of dissolved organic carbon from the organic to mineral soil horizons tripled across this climate gradient. The 2-fold increase in litterfall inputs to these soils coincided with a significant increase in the organic horizon C stock with warming, however, no significant difference in the surface mineral soil C stocks was observed. The younger mean age of the mineral soil C ( 70 versus 330 YBP) provided further evidence for the greater turnover of SOC in the warmer climate soils. In spite of these differences in mean radiocarbon age, mineral SOC exhibited chemical characteristics of highly decomposed material across all regions. In contrast with depth trends in soil OM diagenetic indices, diagenetic shifts with latitude were limited to increases in C:N and alkyl to O-alkyl ratios in the overlying organic horizons in the warmer relative to the colder regions. These data indicate that the

  14. Climate warming can accelerate carbon fluxes without changing soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susan E.; Benner, Ronald; Billings, Sharon A.; Edwards, Kate A.; Philben, Michael; Zhu, Xinbiao; Laganière, Jerome

    2017-02-01

    Climate warming enhances multiple ecosystem C fluxes, but the net impact of changing C fluxes on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over decadal to centennial time scales remains unclear. We investigated the effects of climate on C fluxes and soil C stocks using space-for-time substitution along a boreal forest climate gradient encompassing spatially replicated sites at each of three latitudes. All regions had similar SOC concentrations and stocks (5.6 to 6.7 kg C m-2). The three lowest latitude forests exhibited the highest productivity across the transect, with tree biomass:age ratios and litterfall rates 300% and 125% higher than those in the highest latitude forests, respectively. Likewise, higher soil respiration rates ( 55%) and dissolved organic C fluxes ( 300%) were observed in the lowest latitude forests compared to those in the highest latitude forests. The mid-latitude forests exhibited intermediate values for these indices and fluxes. The mean radiocarbon content (∆14C) of mineral-associated SOC (+9.6 ‰) was highest in the lowest latitude forests, indicating a more rapid turnover of soil C compared to the mid- and highest latitude soils (∆14C of -35 and -30 ‰, respectively). Indicators of the extent of soil organic matter decomposition, including C:N, δ13C, and amino acid and alkyl-C:O-alkyl-C indices, revealed highly decomposed material across all regions. These data indicate that the lowest latitude forests experience accelerated C fluxes that maintain relatively young but highly decomposed SOC. Collectively, these observations of within-biome soil C responses to climate demonstrate that the enhanced rates of SOC loss that typically occur with warming can be balanced by enhanced rates of C inputs.

  15. Carbon stock of oil palm plantations and tropical forests in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kho, Lip Khoon; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2015-01-01

    cultivation (fallow forests) and 3) oil palm plantations. The forest ecosystems are classified by successional stage and edaphic conditions and represent samples along a forest succession continuum spanning pioneer species in shifting cultivation fallows to climax vegetation in old-growth forests. Total......In Malaysia, the main land change process is the establishment of oil palm plantations on logged-over forests and areas used for shifting cultivation, which is the traditional farming system. While standing carbon stocks of old-growth forest have been the focus of many studies, this is less...... the case for Malaysian fallow systems and oil palm plantations. Here, we collate and analyse Malaysian datasets on total carbon stocks for both above- and below-ground biomass. We review the current knowledge on standing carbon stocks of 1) different forest ecosystems, 2) areas subject to shifting...

  16. Climate change mitigation by carbon stock - the case of semi-arid West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, A. M.; Barfod, A. S.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Greve, M.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2009-11-01

    Semi-arid West Africa has not been integrated into the afforestation/reforestation (AR) carbon market. Most projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have focused on carbon emission reductions from industry and energy consumption, whereas only few (only one in West Africa) have been certified for AR carbon sequestration. A proposed mechanism, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) to be discussed under COP15 aims to reduce emissions by conserving already existing forests. REDD has high potential for carbon stocking at low costs, but focuses primarily on rain forest countries and excludes semi-arid West Africa from the preliminary setup. African savannas have potential to store carbon in the present situation with degrading ecosystems and relatively low revenues from crops and cattle, especially if it is possible to combine carbon stocking with promotion of secondary crops such as food resources and traditional medicines harvested on a sustainable basis. Methods for modelling and mapping of potential carbon biomass are being developed, but are still in a preliminary state. Although economic benefits from the sale of carbon credits are likely to be limited, carbon stocking is an interesting option if additional benefits are considered such as improved food security and protection of biodiversity.

  17. Carbon stocks of tropical coastal wetlands within the karstic landscape of the Mexican Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Maria Fernanda; Kauffman, J Boone; Medina, Israel; Gamboa, Julieta N; Torres, Olmo; Caamal, Juan P; Reza, Miriam; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands can have exceptionally large carbon (C) stocks and their protection and restoration would constitute an effective mitigation strategy to climate change. Inclusion of coastal ecosystems in mitigation strategies requires quantification of carbon stocks in order to calculate emissions or sequestration through time. In this study, we quantified the ecosystem C stocks of coastal wetlands of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We stratified the SKBR into different vegetation types (tall, medium and dwarf mangroves, and marshes), and examined relationships of environmental variables with C stocks. At nine sites within SKBR, we quantified ecosystem C stocks through measurement of above and belowground biomass, downed wood, and soil C. Additionally, we measured nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the soil and interstitial salinity. Tall mangroves had the highest C stocks (987±338 Mg ha(-1)) followed by medium mangroves (623±41 Mg ha(-1)), dwarf mangroves (381±52 Mg ha(-1)) and marshes (177±73 Mg ha(-1)). At all sites, soil C comprised the majority of the ecosystem C stocks (78-99%). Highest C stocks were measured in soils that were relatively low in salinity, high in P and low in N∶P, suggesting that P limits C sequestration and accumulation potential. In this karstic area, coastal wetlands, especially mangroves, are important C stocks. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of Sian Ka'an covering ≈172,176 ha may store 43.2 to 58.0 million Mg of C.

  18. Correlation of Carbon Stock and Biodiversity Index at the Small Scale Agroforestry Landscape in Ciliwung Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choliq, M. B. S.; Kaswanto, R. L.

    2017-10-01

    Pekarangan is part of a complex of small-scale agroforestry landscape. Pekarangan have 3 functions i.e. ecological, economic, and social. ecological function, for providing landscape services such as carbon stock and biodiversity; economic function, can supplies foods and nutrition; and social function, for building low carbon communities and increasing the environmental awareness. Therefore, this research aims to correlate carbon stocks and biodiversity index of Pekarangan in Ciliwung Watershed. This study has measured 48 samples which were divided in three stream, namely upstream, midstream, and downstream. The samples were divided into four groups, G1 (pekarangan size less than 120 m2 and doesn’t have other agricultural land (no other agricultural land - OAL), G2 (<120 m2 with OAL < 1000 m2), G3 (120-400 m2 with no OAL) and G4 (120-400 m2 with OAL < 1000 m2). The results show that correlation between carbon stock and biodiversity index value is R2 = 0.05. The results showed no correlation between carbon stocks and biodiversity index could be due to the amount of Pekarangan owners who prefer potted plants than plant a tree, so that the carbon sequestered in the Pekarangan only slightly.

  19. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL AND CARBON STOCK ANALYSIS IN THE TREE LAYER OF A SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira Gaspar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814569The studies directed to quantify the carbon fixed stocks by natural forests are in ample evidence, as well as discussion about the effectiveness of the recovery of degraded areas as a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. In this sense, this study had two purposes: i quantify the carbon stocks present in the shoot biomass of a tropical semi-deciduous Montana fragment, which belongs to the Atlantic Forest biome in Minas Gerais state and; ii incorporate the variable carbon stock in the horizontal phytosociological analysis structure and compare the results to those obtained by the standard methodology without using the variable in the calculation of the species importance value. The results indicate that the carbon stock equals to the fragments found at the intermediate succession stage, and that the carbon variable use greatly influences the species importance value. This methodology serves as a support for the selection of species which present the greatest potential to sequester carbon and may support programs for the remnant restoration of the Atlantic Forest biome.

  20. The U.S. forest carbon accounting framework: stocks and stock change, 1990-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; John W. Coulston; Grant M. Domke; Brian F. Walters; David N. Wear; James E. Smith; Hans-Erik Andersen; Brian J. Clough; Warren B. Cohen; Douglas M. Griffith; Stephen C. Hagen; Ian S. Hanou; Michael C. Nichols; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Matthew B. Russell; Jim Westfall; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson

    2015-01-01

    As a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the United States annually prepares an inventory of carbon that has been emitted and sequestered among sectors (e.g., energy, agriculture, and forests). For many years, the United States developed an inventory of forest carbon by comparing contemporary forest inventories to inventories that...

  1. Sampling protocol recommendations for measuring soil organic carbon stocks in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Veldkamp, Edzo; Corre, Marife D.

    2013-04-01

    In the tropics, there is an urgent need for cost effective sampling approaches to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with land-use change given the lack of reliable data. The tropics are especially important considering the high deforestation rates, the huge belowground carbon pool and the fast soil carbon turnover rates. In the framework of a pan-tropic (Peru, Cameroon and Indonesia) land-use change study, some highly relevant recommendations on the SOC stocks sampling approaches have emerged. In this study, where we focused on deeply weathered mineral soils, we quantified changes in SOC stock following land-use change (deforestation and subsequent establishment of other land-uses). We used a space-for-time substitution sampling approach, measured SOC stocks in the top three meters of soil and compared recently converted land-uses with adjacent reference forest plots. In each respective region we investigated the most predominant land-use trajectories. In total 157 plots were established across the three countries, where soil samples were taken to a depth of three meters from a central soil pit and from the topsoil (to 0.5m) from 12 pooled composite samples. Finding 1 - soil depth: despite the fact that the majority of SOC stock from the three meter profile is found below one meter depth (50 to 60 percent of total SOC stock), the significant changes in SOC were only measured in the top meter of soil, while the subsoil carbon stock remained relatively unchanged by the land-use conversion. The only exception was for older (>50 yrs) cacao plantations in Cameroon where significant decreases were found below one meter. Finding 2 - pooled composite samples taken across the plot provided more spatially representative estimates of SOC stocks than samples taken from the central soil pit.

  2. Timber volume and aboveground live tree biomass estimations for landscape analyses in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2010-01-01

    Timber availability, aboveground tree biomass, and changes in aboveground carbon pools are important consequences of landscape management. There are several models available for calculating tree volume and aboveground tree biomass pools. This paper documents species-specific regional equations for tree volume and aboveground live tree biomass estimation that might be...

  3. Inference for lidar-assisted estimation of forest growing stock volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erik Næsset; Terje. Gobakken

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of growing stock volume are reported by the national forest inventories (NFI) of most countries and may serve as the basis for aboveground biomass and carbon estimates as required by an increasing number of international agreements. The probability-based (design-based) statistical estimators traditionally used by NFIs to calculate estimates are generally...

  4. Eelgrass Blue Carbon-Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Sequestration Rates in Zostera Marina Beds in the Salish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, M. D.; Rybczyk, J.; Poppe, K.; Johnson, C.; Kaminsky, M.; Lanphear, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide more than habitat, biodiversity support, wave abatement, and water quality improvement; they help mitigate climate change by taking up and storing (sequestering) carbon (C), reportedly at rates only surpassed worldwide by salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems. Now that their climate mitigation capacity has earned seagrass ecosystems a place in the Verified Carbon Standard voluntary greenhouse gas program, accurate ecosystem carbon accounting is essential. Though seagrasses vary in carbon storage and accumulation greatly across species and geography, the bulk of data included in calculating global averages involves tropical and subtropical seagrasses. We know little regarding carbon stocks nor sequestration rates for eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the Pacific Northwest. The intent of our study was to quantify carbon stocks and sequestration rates in the central Salish Sea of Washington State. We gathered sediment cores over three bays, as close to 1 m in depth as possible, both on foot and while scuba diving. We measured bulk density, carbon concentration, carbon stock, grain size, and carbon accumulation rate with depth. Results from our study show lower estimated Corg concentration (mean = 0.39% C, SE=0.01, range=0.11-1.75, SE=0.01), Corg stock (mean=24.46 Mg ha-1, SE=0.00, range=16.31-49.99.70), and C sequestration rates (mean=33.96 g m-2yr-1, range=11.4-49.5) than those reported in published studies from most other locations. Zostera marina is highly productive, yet does not seem to have the capacity to store C in its sediments like seagrasses in warmer climes. These data have implications in carbon market trading, when determining appropriate seagrass restoration site dimensions to offset emissions from transportation, industry, and seagrass habitat disturbance. Awareness of lower rates could prevent underestimating the area appropriate for mitigation or restoration.

  5. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknes Greg C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. This study used a nationwide inventory of coarse and fine woody debris in the United States to examine how these carbon stocks vary by climatic regions and variables. Results Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by Köppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature. Conclusion It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission. Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.

  6. Estimation of Forest Canopy Height and Aboveground Biomass from Spaceborne LiDAR and Landsat Imageries in Maryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjia Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the regional distribution of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass is worthwhile and necessary for estimating the carbon stocks on Earth and assessing the terrestrial carbon flux. In this study, we produced maps of forest canopy height and the aboveground biomass at a 30 m spatial resolution in Maryland by combining Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data and Landsat spectral imageries. The processes for calculating the forest biomass included the following: (i processing the GLAS waveform and calculating spatially discrete forest canopy heights; (ii developing canopy height models from Landsat imagery and extrapolating them to spatially contiguous canopy heights in Maryland; and, (iii estimating forest aboveground biomass according to the relationship between canopy height and biomass. In our study, we explore the ability to use the GLAS waveform to calculate canopy height without ground-measured forest metrics (R2 = 0.669, RMSE = 4.82 m, MRE = 15.4%. The machine learning models performed better than the principal component model when mapping the regional forest canopy height and aboveground biomass. The total forest aboveground biomass in Maryland reached approximately 160 Tg. When compared with the existing Biomass_CMS map, our biomass estimates presented a similar distribution where higher values were in the Western Shore Uplands region and Folded Application Mountain section, while lower values were located in the Delmarva Peninsula and Allegheny Mountain regions.

  7. Digital mapping of soil organic carbon contents and stocks in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Hartemink, Alfred E; Minasny, Budiman; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette B; Greve, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard soil depth intervals (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, wetness index, and multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness. The highest average SOC content of 20 g kg(-1) was reported for 0-5 cm soil, whereas there was on average 2.2 g SOC kg(-1) at 60-100 cm depth. For SOC and bulk density prediction precision decreased with soil depth, and a standard error of 2.8 g kg(-1) was found at 60-100 cm soil depth. Average SOC stock for 0-30 cm was 72 t ha(-1) and in the top 1 m there was 120 t SOC ha(-1). In total, the soils stored approximately 570 Tg C within the top 1 m. The soils under agriculture had the highest amount of carbon (444 Tg) followed by forest and semi-natural vegetation that contributed 11% of the total SOC stock. More than 60% of the total SOC stock was present in Podzols and Luvisols. Compared to previous estimates, our approach is more reliable as we adopted a robust quantification technique and mapped the spatial distribution of SOC stock and prediction uncertainty. The estimation was validated using common statistical indices and the data and high-resolution maps could be used for future soil carbon assessment and inventories.

  8. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  9. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  10. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Digital Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon Contents and Stocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Minasny, Budiman

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard...... soil depth intervals (025, 5215, 15230, 30260 and 602 100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, wetness index, and multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness. The highest average SOC content...

  12. Patterning between urban soil color and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Herrmann, D.; Shuster, W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban soils are extensively modified compared to their non-urban counterparts. These modifications are expected to affect the vertical distribution of total soil carbon as well as its constituent pools - soil organic carbon, black carbon, and inorganic carbon. Assigning color to soil horizons using the Munsell color system is a standard field method employed by soil scientists that can also reveal generalizable information about various environmental metrics. A new dataset on urban soils and their reference counterparts that cover 11 regions in the United States and advances in quantitative pedology allowed us to construct a log-linear model that relates Value, the lightness of a color hue, to the concentration of total carbon throughout a soil column of up to 450 cm depth. Overall, the relationship between 671 points resulted in an r2 of 0.23 with a p<0.001. As expected, organic carbon, shifted values to the lower end of the scale (darker), whereas inorganic carbon increased soil color values (lighter). These findings allow for a simplified understanding of shifts in carbon pools throughout a soil profile.

  13. Effects of vegetation's degradation on carbon stock, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ndema

    properties are highly disturbed due to vegetation degradation. Deforestation release not only carbon in atmosphere but has also negative effects on biodiversity, soils protection and local climate regulation. More also, use land for urbanization and agriculture activities contribute gradually to release soils and plants carbon.

  14. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  15. Increasing carbon sinks in European forests: effect of afforestation and changes in mean growing stock volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilén, T.; Cienciala, E.; Schelhaas, M.; Verkerk, P.J.; Lindner, M.; Peltola, H.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, both forest area and growing stock have increased since the 1950s, and European forests have acted as a carbon sink during the last six decades. However, the contribution of different factors affecting the sink is not yet clear. In this study, historical inventory data were combined with

  16. Trends in management of the world's forests and impacts on carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Yude. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Global forests are increasingly affected by land-use change, fragmentation, changing management objectives, and degradation. In this paper we broadly characterize trends in global forest area by intensity of management, and provide an overview of changes in global carbon stocks associated with managed forests. We discuss different interpretations of "management...

  17. Enhancing Carbon Stocks and Reducing CO2 Emissions in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Projects : Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    There is global interest in promoting mitigation and adaptation in agriculture, forest, and other land-use (AFOLU) sectors to address the twin goals of climate change and sustainable development. This guideline deals with how to enhance carbon stocks in general in all land-based projects and its specific relationship with agriculture productivity. It outlines specific steps and procedures ...

  18. Inventory-based estimates of forest biomass carbon stocks in China: A comparison of three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaodi Guo; Jingyun Fang; Yude Pan; Richard. Birdsey

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported different estimates for forest biomass carbon (C) stocks in China. The discrepancy among these estimates may be largely attributed to the methods used. In this study, we used three methods [mean biomass density method (MBM), mean ratio method (MRM), and continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method (abbreviated as CBM)] applied to...

  19. Biomasse et stocks de carbone des forêts tropicales africaines (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubota Panzou, GJ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and carbon stocks of tropical African forests. A review. Introduction. Quantifying the biomass and carbon stocks contained in tropical forests has become an international priority for the implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. Forest biomass is estimated at three successive levels: the tree, the stand and the region level. This paper reviews the state of the art regarding the estimation of biomass and carbon stocks in tropical African forests. Literature. This review highlights the fact that very few allometric equations, equations used for estimating the biomass of the tree using non-destructive measurements (diameter, height, have been established for tropical African forests. At the stand level, the review highlights the spatial and temporal variations in biomass between forest types in Central and Eastern Africa. While biomass recovery after a disturbance (logging, for instance is rather quick, a great deal of uncertainty still remains regarding the spatial variation in biomass, and there is no consensus on a regional biomass map. The quality of biomass mapping in tropical Africa strongly depends on the type of remotely-sensed data being used (optical, RADAR or LIDAR, and the allometric equation used to convert forest inventory data into biomass. Conclusions. Based on the lack of precision of the available allometric equations and forest inventory data and the large spatial scale involved, many uncertainties persist in relation to the estimation of the biomass and carbon stocks contained in African tropical forests.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks are presented for Central and Eastern Europe. The study uses the soil geographic and attribute data held in a 1:2 500 000 scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database, covering Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova,

  1. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This

  2. An empirical assessment of forest floor carbon stock components across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Charles H. Perry; James A. Westfall

    2012-01-01

    Despite its prevalent reporting in regional/national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGI), forest floor (FF) carbon (C) stocks (including litter, humus, and fine woody debris [FWD]) have not been empirically measured using a consistent approach across forests of the US. The goal of this study was to use the first national field inventory of litter and humic layer depths...

  3. High-severity wildfire effects on carbon stocks and emissions in fuels treated and untreated forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Matthew D. Hurteau

    2011-01-01

    Forests contain the world's largest terrestrial carbonstocks, but in seasonally dry environments stock stability can be compromised if burned by wildfire, emitting carbon back to the atmosphere. Treatments to reduce wildfireseverity can reduce emissions, but with an immediate cost of reducing carbonstocks. In this study we examine the tradeoffs in...

  4. Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Yo; Clifton-Brown, John; Sugiyama, Shinji; Nakaboh, Makoto; Hatano, Ryusuke; Fernández, Fabián G; Ryan Stewart, J; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and δ(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on δ(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests along a latitude gradient in the subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjie; Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao

    2018-01-01

    Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8.37 cm to 10.12 cm that well fitted by Weibull model, whereas the bamboo culm density decreased from 4722 culm ha-1 to 3400 culm ha-1 with increasing latitude. The bamboo biomass carbon decreased from 60.58 Mg C ha-1 to 48.31 Mg C ha-1 from north to south. The total carbon stock of Moso bamboo forests, which comprises soil and biomass carbon, ranged from 87.83 Mg C ha-1 to 119.5 Mg C ha-1 and linearly increased with latitude. As a fast-growing plant, Moso bamboo could be harvested amounts of 6.0 Mg C ha-1 to 7.6 Mg C ha-1 annually, which indicates a high potential of this species for carbon sequestration. Parameters obtained in this study can be used to accurately estimate the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest to establish models of the global carbon balance.

  6. Biophysical Controls over Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks in Desert Playa Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, O. P.; Sala, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    Playas are ephemeral desert wetlands situated at the bottom of closed catchments. Desert playas in the Southwestern US have not been intensively studied despite their potential importance for the functioning of desert ecosystems. We want to know which geomorphic and ecological variables control of the stock size of soil organic carbon, and soil total nitrogen in playas. We hypothesize that the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen stocks depends on: (a) catchment size, (b) catchment slope, (d) catchment vegetation cover, (e) bare-ground patch size, and (f) catchment soil texture. We chose thirty playas from across the Jornada Basin (Las Cruces, NM) ranging from 0.5-60ha in area and with varying catchment characteristics. We used the available 5m digital elevation map (DEM) to calculate the catchment size and catchment slope for these thirty playas. We measured percent cover, and patch size using the point-intercept method with three 10m transects in each catchment. We used the Bouyoucos-hydrometer soil particle analysis to determine catchment soil texture. Stocks of organic carbon and nitrogen were measured from soil samples at four depths (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm) using C/N combustion analysis. In terms of nitrogen and organic carbon storage, we found soil nitrogen values in the top 10cm ranging from 41.963-214.365 gN/m2, and soil organic carbon values in the top 10cm ranging from 594.339-2375.326 gC/m2. The results of a multiple regression analysis show a positive relationship between catchment slope and both organic carbon and nitrogen stock size (nitrogen: y= 56.801 +47.053, R2=0.621; organic carbon: y= 683.200 + 499.290x, R2= 0.536). These data support our hypothesis that catchment slope is one of factors controlling carbon and nitrogen stock in desert playas. We also applied our model to the 69 other playas of the Jornada Basin and estimated stock sizes (0-10cm) between 415.07-447.97 Mg for total soil nitrogen and 4627.99-5043.51 Mg for soil organic

  7. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock of Temperate Coniferous Forests in Northern Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood A. Dar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Soil organic carbon (SOC estimation in temperate forests of the Himalaya is important to estimate their contribution to regional, national and global carbon stocks. Physico chemical properties of soil were quantified to assess soil organic carbon density (SOC and SOC CO2 mitigation density at two soil depths (0-10 and 10-20 cms under temperate forest in the Northern region of Kashmir Himalayas India. The results indicate that conductance, moisture content, organic carbon and organic matter were significantly higher while as pH and bulk density were lower at Gulmarg forest site. SOC % was ranging from 2.31± 0.96 at Gulmarg meadow site to 2.31 ± 0.26 in Gulmarg forest site. SOC stocks in these temperate forests were from 36.39 ±15.40 to 50.09 ± 15.51 Mg C ha-1. The present study reveals that natural vegetation is the main contributor of soil quality as it maintained the soil organic carbon stock. In addition, organic matter is an important indicator of soil quality and environmental parameters such as soil moisture and soil biological activity change soil carbon sequestration potential in temperate forest ecosystems.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12186International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15; page: 161-178

  8. The Effectiveness of Ameliorant to Increase Carbon Stock of Oilpalm and Rubber Plantation on Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of peatland amelioration can improve soil quality, reduce GHG emissions, and increase carbon sequestration. The research aimed to study the effect of peatland amelioration on oil palm and rubber carbon stock improvement. Research was conducted from August 2013 until June 2014. The researches on oil palm were done in Arang-arang Village, Kumpeh Subdistrict, Muaro Jambi District, and in Lubuk Ogong Village, Bandar Seikijang Sub-district, Pelalawan District. Both sites are in Jambi and Riau Province. The research on rubber was done in Jabiren Village, Jabiren Raya Subdistrict, Pulang Pisau District, Central Kalimantan Province. The study used a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD, in four treatments and four replications. The treatments were pugam (peat fertilizer enriched by polyvalent cation, manure; empty fruit bunch compost, and control (no application. The measurement of C stock was performed 10 months after application using nondestructive methods. The results showed that peatland amelioration treatments had no significant effect to improve C stock on oil palm in 6 years old and 7 years old of rubber. After 10 months of amelioration application, the treatments increased C - stock of oil palm and rubber were 2.1-2.4 Mg ha-1 and 5-11 Mg ha-1, respectively. Longer time observation may be needed to study the effect of ameliorant on C-stock of annual crops.

  9. Ameliorant Application on Variation of Carbon Stock and Ash Content on Peatland South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurzakiah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon stock on peatlands are large and will be easily emitted if the land is opened or drained, therefore the measurements of carbon stocks and ash content are important to know the amount of emissions and agricultural sustainability in peatlands. This study aimed to determine carbon stock and ash content on peatlands in the Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF located in South Kalimantan on the geographic position S. 03°25’52" and E. 114°47’6.5". The experiment consisted of six treatments of ameliorant materials namely; mineral soil, peat fertilizer A, peat fertilizer T, manure, ash, and control. The results showed that the variation of peat soil properties was very high at this location. Peat thickness ranged from 36-338 cm, and this led to high variations in carbon stocks ranged between 161.8 – 1142.2 Mg ha-1. Besides ash contents of the soil were also highly varied ranged from 3.4 – 28.5%. This natural variation greatly affected the ICCTF study design. Mineral soil treatment had a mean carbon stock (961.3 ± 61.5 Mg ha-1 which was higher and different from other treatments. High ash content was obtained in the ash treatment (18.6 ± 2.5% and manure (15.7 ± 3.6%. It is recommended that the analysis of plant responses and greenhouse gas emissions using a single regression analysis and multiple regression with ash content as one of the independent variables are needed.

  10. Organic Carbon Stocks, Dynamics and Restoration in Relation to Soils of Agroecosystems in Ethiopia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getaneh Gebeyehu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils represent the largest carbon pool and play important roles for carbon storage for prolonged periods in agroecosystems. A number of studies were conducted to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC worldwide. The objective of this review was to evaluate organic carbon stocks, dynamics and restoration in soils of agroecosystems in Ethiopia. Soil data from 32 different observations, representing four different agroecosystems, were analysed. The mean SOC stocks in the four agroecosystems varied and ranged from 25.66 (sub-humid agroecosystem to 113.17 (humid mid-highland agroecosystems Mg C ha-1 up to one meter depth. The trend of mean SOC followed (in descending order: humid mid-highland (113.17 Mg C ha-1 > per-humid highland (57.14 Mg C ha-1 > semi-arid (25.77 Mg C ha-1 > sub-humid (25.66 Mg C ha-1. Compared with soils of tropical countries, those in Ethiopian agroecosystems contained low SOC storage potential. This might be associated with differences in measurement and analysis methods as 53.1% of the studies employed the Walkley-Black Method, which is known to underestimate carbon stocks in addition to ecological and management effects. However, shifts of land management from rain-fed to irrigation farming systems exhibited progress in the improvement of mean SOC storage potential. The analyses showed that farming systems involving irrigation sequestered more carbon than rain-fed farm systems. The mean SOC in the various agricultural land uses followed the following trend (in descending order: agroforestry (153.57 Mg C ha-1 > grazing land (34.61 Mg C ha-1 > cereal cultivation (24.18 Mg C ha-1. Therefore, the possible solutions for improvement of organic carbon stocks would be implementation of appropriate restoration strategies based on agroecosystems.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 1-22 

  11. A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M. W.; Kauffman, J. B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Anshari, G.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Kurnianto, S.; Purbopuspito, J.; Gusmayanti, E.; Afifudin, M.; Rahajoe, J.; Alhamd, L.; Limin, S.; Iswandi, A.

    2012-11-01

    Estimation of belowground carbon stocks in tropical wetland forests requires funding for laboratory analyses and suitable facilities, which are often lacking in developing nations where most tropical wetlands are found. It is therefore beneficial to develop simple analytical tools to assist belowground carbon estimation where financial and technical limitations are common. Here we use published and original data to describe soil carbon density (kgC m-3; Cd) as a function of bulk density (gC cm-3; Bd), which can be used to rapidly estimate belowground carbon storage using Bd measurements only. Predicted carbon densities and stocks are compared with those obtained from direct carbon analysis for ten peat swamp forest stands in three national parks of Indonesia. Analysis of soil carbon density and bulk density from the literature indicated a strong linear relationship (Cd = Bd × 495.14 + 5.41, R2 = 0.93, n = 151) for soils with organic C content > 40%. As organic C content decreases, the relationship between Cd and Bd becomes less predictable as soil texture becomes an important determinant of Cd. The equation predicted belowground C stocks to within 0.92% to 9.57% of observed values. Average bulk density of collected peat samples was 0.127 g cm-3, which is in the upper range of previous reports for Southeast Asian peatlands. When original data were included, the revised equation Cd = Bd × 468.76 + 5.82, with R2 = 0.95 and n = 712, was slightly below the lower 95% confidence interval of the original equation, and tended to decrease Cd estimates. We recommend this last equation for a rapid estimation of soil C stocks for well-developed peat soils where C content > 40%.

  12. Soil carbon stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Vesterdal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    of afforestation. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of SOC stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe. Response ratios were calculated for forest floors and mineral soils (0–10 cm and 0–20/30 cm layers) based on paired control (former land use) and afforested plots. We analyzed the influence...... was a major factor contributing to changes in SOC after afforestation. In former croplands, SOC change differed between soil layers and was significantly positive (20%) in the 0–10 cm layer. Afforestation of former grasslands had a small negative (nonsignificant) effect indicating limited SOC change following...... indicated that meta-estimates in former land-use, forest type, and soil textural class alone were either offset or enhanced when confounding effects among variable classes were considered. Furthermore, effect sizes were slightly overestimated if sample dependence was not accounted for and if no mass...

  13. Organic carbon stock modelling for the quantification of the carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Pilar; Algeet, Nur; Oyonarte, Cecilio

    2017-04-01

    Given the recent environmental policies derived from the serious threats caused by global change, practical measures to decrease net CO2 emissions have to be put in place. Regarding this, carbon sequestration is a major measure to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations within a short and medium term, where terrestrial ecosystems play a basic role as carbon sinks. Development of tools for quantification, assessment and management of organic carbon in ecosystems at different scales and management scenarios, it is essential to achieve these commitments. The aim of this study is to establish a methodological framework for the modeling of this tool, applied to a sustainable land use planning and management at spatial and temporal scale. The methodology for carbon stock estimation in ecosystems is based on merger techniques between carbon stored in soils and aerial biomass. For this purpose, both spatial variability map of soil organic carbon (SOC) and algorithms for calculation of forest species biomass will be created. For the modelling of the SOC spatial distribution at different map scales, it is necessary to fit in and screen the available information of soil database legacy. Subsequently, SOC modelling will be based on the SCORPAN model, a quantitative model use to assess the correlation among soil-forming factors measured at the same site location. These factors will be selected from both static (terrain morphometric variables) and dynamic variables (climatic variables and vegetation indexes -NDVI-), providing to the model the spatio-temporal characteristic. After the predictive model, spatial inference techniques will be used to achieve the final map and to extrapolate the data to unavailable information areas (automated random forest regression kriging). The estimated uncertainty will be calculated to assess the model performance at different scale approaches. Organic carbon modelling of aerial biomass will be estimate using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging

  14. Carbon stock and carbon turnover in boreal and temperate forests - Integration of remote sensing data and global vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Santoro, Maurizio; Tum, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vegetation dynamics are one of the key uncertainties of the carbon cycle. There are large differences in simulated vegetation carbon stocks and fluxes including productivity, respiration and carbon turnover between global vegetation models. Especially the implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current models and their importance at global scale is highly uncertain. These shortcomings have been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which cannot be provided by inventory data alone. Instead, we recently have been able to estimate northern boreal and temperate forest carbon stocks based on radar remote sensing data. Our spatially explicit product (0.01° resolution) shows strong agreement to inventory-based estimates at a regional scale and allows for a spatial evaluation of carbon stocks and dynamics simulated by global vegetation models. By combining this state-of-the-art biomass product and NPP datasets originating from remote sensing, we are able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests along spatial gradients. We observe an increasing turnover rate with colder winter temperatures and longer winters in boreal forests, suggesting frost damage and the trade-off between frost adaptation and growth being important mortality processes in this ecosystem. In contrast, turnover rate increases with climatic conditions favouring drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. Investigated global vegetation models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce observation-based spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well in terms of NPP, simulated

  15. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial Variability of Soil Carbon Stocks in a Subtropical Mangrove in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, D. Y. F.; Neogi, S.; Law, M. S. M.; Xu, J.; Glatzel, S.; Buczko, U.; Karstens, S.

    2015-12-01

    "Blue carbon", a term used for carbon (C) sequestered in vegetated coastal wetlands, has received increasing attention recently as a potential option for mitigating future climate change. While coastal mangrove is considered as one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems of the world, there is a need to better characterize and compare the magnitude of carbon storage among mangroves in different geographical regions. In this study, we quantified the spatial variability of soil carbon stocks in a subtropical mangrove wetland in Hong Kong, and examined the effects of land cover change on soil carbon storage. Bare mudflats contained significantly lower amount of carbon than mangroves in the top 1 m soils (94.7 vs. 130.7-163.8 Mg C ha-1), indicating the importance of vegetation in enhancing C sequestration. Moreover, we observed higher soil C storage in sites dominated by Avicennia marina than those dominated by Kandelia obovata. Conversion of natural mangroves into freshwater marshes and brackish ponds with shallow islands significantly reduced the amount of C stored in the top 30 cm soils by 24-58%, when compared to sites dominated by mangrove trees. Our findings suggest that consideration should be given to plant species and land cover type in determining the overall magnitude of carbon stocks in subtropical mangrove soils.

  17. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2) = 0.67, P = 0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle.

  18. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-09-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  19. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  20. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A; Meddens, Arjan J H; Kolden, Crystal A; Allen, Craig D

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984–2010, fires killed trees that contained 5–11 Tg C year −1 and during 1997–2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2–24 Tg C year −1 , with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5–10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States. (letter)

  1. Modelling soil carbon flows and stocks following a carbon balance approach at regional scale for the EU-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesschen, Jan Peter; Sikirica, Natasa; Bonten, Luc; Dibari, Camilla; Sanchez, Berta; Kuikman, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a key parameter to many soil functions and services. SOC is essential to support water retention and nutrient buffering and mineralization in the soil as well as to enhance soil biodiversity. Consequently, loss of SOC or low SOC levels might threaten soil productivity or even lead to a collapse of a farming system. Identification of areas in Europe with critically low SOC levels or with a negative carbon balance is a challenge in order to apply the appropriate strategies to restore these areas or prevent further SOC losses. The objective of this study is to assess current soil carbon flows and stocks at a regional scale; we follow a carbon balance approach which we developed within the MITERRA-Europe model. MITERRA-Europe is an environmental impact assessment model and calculates nitrogen and greenhouse emission on a deterministic and annual basis using emission and leaching factors at regional level (NUTS2, comparable to province level) in the EU27. The model already contained a soil carbon module based on the IPCC stock change approach. Within the EU FP7 SmartSoil project we developed a SOC balance approach, for which we quantified the input of carbon (manure, crop residues, other organic inputs) and the losses of carbon (decomposition, leaching and erosion). The calculations rules from the Roth-C model were used to estimate SOC decomposition. For the actual soil carbon stocks we used the data from the LUCAS soil sample survey. LUCAS collected soil samples in 2009 at about 22000 locations across the EU, which were analysed for a range of soil properties. Land management practices are accounted for, based on data from the EU wide Survey on Agricultural Production Methods in the 2010 Farm Structure Survey. The survey comprises data on the application of soil tillage, soil cover, crop rotation and irrigation. Based on the simulated soil carbon balance and the actual carbon stocks from LUCAS we now can identify regions within the EU that

  2. Quantifying the Stock of Soil Organic Carbon using Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stepwise multiple regression model was employed to identify ecological variables that explained significant variation of carbon in fallow soils. Using fallow genealogical cycles of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th generations, soil and vegetation variables from 30 sampling plots were collected and subjected to linear regression ...

  3. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

    KAUST Repository

    Arias-Ortiz, A.

    2018-03-29

    Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

  4. Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world's most carbon-dense forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Mackey, Brendan G.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2009-01-01

    From analysis of published global site biomass data (n = 136) from primary forests, we discovered (i) the world's highest known total biomass carbon density (living plus dead) of 1,867 tonnes carbon per ha (average value from 13 sites) occurs in Australian temperate moist Eucalyptus regnans forests, and (ii) average values of the global site biomass data were higher for sampled temperate moist forests (n = 44) than for sampled tropical (n = 36) and boreal (n = 52) forests (n is number of sites per forest biome). Spatially averaged Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change biome default values are lower than our average site values for temperate moist forests, because the temperate biome contains a diversity of forest ecosystem types that support a range of mature carbon stocks or have a long land-use history with reduced carbon stocks. We describe a framework for identifying forests important for carbon storage based on the factors that account for high biomass carbon densities, including (i) relatively cool temperatures and moderately high precipitation producing rates of fast growth but slow decomposition, and (ii) older forests that are often multiaged and multilayered and have experienced minimal human disturbance. Our results are relevant to negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change regarding forest conservation, management, and restoration. Conserving forests with large stocks of biomass from deforestation and degradation avoids significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere, irrespective of the source country, and should be among allowable mitigation activities. Similarly, management that allows restoration of a forest's carbon sequestration potential also should be recognized. PMID:19553199

  5. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mishra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m−2, 2–166 kg m−2, and 0–232 kg m−2, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were found to be land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth system models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high-resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the

  6. Relationships between plant community functioning and soil carbon stocks in permanent mowed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Solène; Tasseta, Elise; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Amiaud, Bernard; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard; Klumpp, Katja; Louault, Frédérique; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane

    2017-04-01

    Grasslands represent the most widespread ecosystems on the surface of the earth and provide many ecosystem services. They are managed by farmers in order to produce provisioning services through forage production. They also offer regulation services for the humankind such as carbon (C) storage. According to their management, grasslands may constitute a C source or a sink. Plants control both C input through photosynthesis and C output release directly via their own respiration and indirectly via soil microflora respiration through organic matter mineralization. Plants can thus be considered as a gas stream center. To better understand the role of vegetation on soil C stocks, the P2C "Plant Pilot Carbon" project aims at evaluate C stocks in mowed permanent grasslands characterized by various edaphic and climatic conditions and identify the drivers (vegetation composition, plant community functioning, management, history) of soil C stocks. We focused on 32 grasslands selected over two French Regional Natural Parks (Normandy-Maine / Lorraine) and an experimental farm (ACBB SOERE, Theix, Auvergne). We measured then their floristic composition as well as their functional composition through a trait based approach. Leaf traits (SLA, LDMC, LNC, LC/N) were measured at the plant community level (community weighed mean traits) and soil C stocks were analyzed in the top soil (0-10 cm) and in a deeper layer (10-30 cm). The grassland sampling has allowed to obtain a great variability of both soil C stocks and plant community functioning which give the opportunity to assess the relationships between C stocks and vegetation considering climatic, edaphic and management parameters

  7. Soil organic carbon pools and stocks in permafrost-affected soils on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörfer, Corina; Kühn, Peter; Baumann, Frank; He, Jin-Sheng; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau reacts particularly sensitively to possible effects of climate change. Approximately two thirds of the total area is affected by permafrost. To get a better understanding of the role of permafrost on soil organic carbon pools and stocks, investigations were carried out including both discontinuous (site Huashixia, HUA) and continuous permafrost (site Wudaoliang, WUD). Three organic carbon fractions were isolated using density separation combined with ultrasonic dispersion: the light fractions (1.6 g cm(-3)) of mineral associated organic matter (MOM). The fractions were analyzed for C, N, and their portion of organic C. FPOM contained an average SOC content of 252 g kg(-1). Higher SOC contents (320 g kg(-1)) were found in OPOM while MOM had the lowest SOC contents (29 g kg(-1)). Due to their lower density the easily decomposable fractions FPOM and OPOM contribute 27% (HUA) and 22% (WUD) to the total SOC stocks. In HUA mean SOC stocks (0-30 cm depth) account for 10.4 kg m(-2), compared to 3.4 kg m(-2) in WUD. 53% of the SOC is stored in the upper 10 cm in WUD, in HUA only 39%. Highest POM values of 36% occurred in profiles with high soil moisture content. SOC stocks, soil moisture and active layer thickness correlated strongly in discontinuous permafrost while no correlation between SOC stocks and active layer thickness and only a weak relation between soil moisture and SOC stocks could be found in continuous permafrost. Consequently, permafrost-affected soils in discontinuous permafrost environments are susceptible to soil moisture changes due to alterations in quantity and seasonal distribution of precipitation, increasing temperature and therefore evaporation.

  8. Soil organic carbon pools and stocks in permafrost-affected soils on the tibetan plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Dörfer

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau reacts particularly sensitively to possible effects of climate change. Approximately two thirds of the total area is affected by permafrost. To get a better understanding of the role of permafrost on soil organic carbon pools and stocks, investigations were carried out including both discontinuous (site Huashixia, HUA and continuous permafrost (site Wudaoliang, WUD. Three organic carbon fractions were isolated using density separation combined with ultrasonic dispersion: the light fractions (1.6 g cm(-3 of mineral associated organic matter (MOM. The fractions were analyzed for C, N, and their portion of organic C. FPOM contained an average SOC content of 252 g kg(-1. Higher SOC contents (320 g kg(-1 were found in OPOM while MOM had the lowest SOC contents (29 g kg(-1. Due to their lower density the easily decomposable fractions FPOM and OPOM contribute 27% (HUA and 22% (WUD to the total SOC stocks. In HUA mean SOC stocks (0-30 cm depth account for 10.4 kg m(-2, compared to 3.4 kg m(-2 in WUD. 53% of the SOC is stored in the upper 10 cm in WUD, in HUA only 39%. Highest POM values of 36% occurred in profiles with high soil moisture content. SOC stocks, soil moisture and active layer thickness correlated strongly in discontinuous permafrost while no correlation between SOC stocks and active layer thickness and only a weak relation between soil moisture and SOC stocks could be found in continuous permafrost. Consequently, permafrost-affected soils in discontinuous permafrost environments are susceptible to soil moisture changes due to alterations in quantity and seasonal distribution of precipitation, increasing temperature and therefore evaporation.

  9. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  10. Simulation of the Effect of Artificial Water Transfer on Carbon Stock ofPhragmites australisin the Baiyangdian Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyong; Wang, Fengyi; Lu, Jianjian; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    How to explain the effect of seasonal water transfer on the carbon stocks of Baiyangdian wetland is studied. The ecological model of the relationship between the carbon stocks and water depth fluctuation of the reed was established by using STELLA software. For the first time the Michaelis-Menten equation (1) introduced the relation function between the water depth and reed environmental carrying capacity, (2) introduced the concept of suitable growth water depth, and (3) simulated the variation rules of water and reed carbon stocks of artificial adjustment. The model could be used to carry out the research on the optimization design of the ecological service function of the damaged wetland.

  11. Pyrogenic Carbon Erosion: Implications for Stock and Persistence of Pyrogenic Carbon in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Abney

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC constitutes an important pool of soil organic matter (SOM, particularly for its reactivity and because of its assumed long residence times in soil. In the past, research on the dynamics of PyC in the soil system has focused on quantifying stock and mean residence time (MRT of PyC in soil, as well as determining both PyC stabilization mechanisms and loss pathways. Much of this research has focused on decomposition as the most important loss pathway for PyC from soil. However, the low density of PyC and its high concentration on the soil surface after fire indicates that a significant proportion of PyC formed or deposited on the soil surface is likely laterally transported away from the site of production by wind and water erosion. Here, we present a synthesis of available data and literature to compare the magnitude of the water-driven erosional PyC flux with other important loss pathways, including leaching and decomposition, of PyC from soil. Furthermore, we use a simple first-order kinetic model of soil PyC dynamics to assess the effect of erosion and deposition on residence time of PyC in eroding landscapes. Current reports of PyC MRT range from 250 to 660 years. Using a specific example-based model system, we find that ignoring the role of erosion may lead to the under- or over-estimation of PyC MRT on the centennial time scale. Furthermore, we find that, depending on the specific landform positions, timescales considered, and initial concentrations of PyC in soil, ignoring the role of erosion in distributing PyC across a landscape can lead to discrepancies in PyC concentrations on the order of several 100 g PyC m−2. Erosion is an important PyC flux that can act as a significant control on the stock and residence time of PyC in the soil system.

  12. Pyrogenic carbon erosion: implications for stock and persistence of pyrogenic carbon in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Rebecca B.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2018-03-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) constitutes an important pool of soil organic matter, particularly for its reactivity and because of its assumed long residence times in soil. In the past, research on the dynamics of PyC in the soil system has focused on quantifying stock and mean residence time of PyC in soil, as well as determining both PyC stabilization mechanisms and loss pathways. Much of this research has focused on decomposition as the most important loss pathway for PyC from soil. However, the low density of PyC and its high concentration on the soil surface after fire indicates that a significant proportion of PyC formed or deposited on the soil surface is likely laterally transported away from the site of production by wind and water erosion. Here, we present a synthesis of available data and literature to compare the magnitude of the water-driven erosional PyC flux with other important loss pathways, including leaching and decomposition, of PyC from soil. Furthermore, we use a simple first-order kinetic model of soil PyC dynamics to assess the effect of erosion and deposition on residence time of PyC in eroding landscapes. Current reports of PyC mean residence time (MRT) range from 250 to 660 years. Using a specific example-based model system, we find that ignoring the role of erosion may lead to the under- or over-estimation of PyC MRT on the centennial time scale. Furthermore, we find that, depending on the specific landform positions, timescales considered, and initial concentrations of PyC in soil, ignoring the role of erosion in distributing PyC across a landscape can lead to discrepancies in PyC concentrations on the order of several hundred g PyC m-2. Erosion is an important PyC flux that can act as a significant control on the stock and residence time of PyC in the soil system.

  13. The soil classification and the subsurface carbon stock estimation with a ground-penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, K.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems of the Kyoto Protocol is that we have no effective method to estimate the carbon stock of the subsurface. To solve this problem, we propose the application of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to the subsurface soil survey. As a result, it is shown that GPR can detect the soil horizons, stones and roots. The fluctuations of the soil horizons in the forest are cleanly indicated as the reflection pattern of the microwaves. Considering the fact that the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each soil layer is almost unique, GPR results can be used to estimate the carbon stock in soil by combining with the vertical soil sample survey at one site. Then as a trial, we demonstrate to estimate the carbon content fixed in soil layers based on the soil samples and GPR survey data. we also compare this result with the carbon stock for the flat horizon case. The advantages of GPR usage for this object are not only the reduction of uncertainty and the cost, but also the environmental friendliness of survey manner. Finally, we summarize the adaptabilities of various antennas having different predominant frequencies for the shallow subsurface zone. (author)

  14. The rapid measurement of soil carbon stock using near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumo, B. H.; Sukartono; Bustan

    2018-03-01

    As a soil pool stores carbon (C) three times higher than an atmospheric pool, the depletion of C stock in the soil will significantly increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, causing global warming. However, the monitoring or measurement of soil C stock using conventional procedures is time-consuming and expensive. So it requires a rapid and non-destructive technique that is simple and does not need chemical substances. This research is aimed at testing whether near-infrared (NIR) technology is able to rapidly measure C stock in the soil. Soil samples were collected from an agricultural land at the sub-district of Kayangan, North Lombok, Indonesia. The coordinates of the samples were recorded. Parts of the samples were analyzed using conventional procedure (Walkley and Black) and some other parts were scanned using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for soil spectral collection. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) was used to develop models from soil C data measured by conventional analysis and from spectral data scanned by NIRS. The best model was moderately successful to measure soil C stock in the study area in North Lombok. This indicates that the NIR technology can be further used to monitor the change of soil C stock in the soil.

  15. CONTRIBUTION OF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IN MAINTAINING CARBON STOCKS AND REDUCING EMISSION RATE AT JANGKOK WATERSHED, LOMBOK ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markum

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems under rules of community-based forest management support local livelihoods in the Jangkok watershed, Lombok Island. One of the conditions from the forest authoritiesfor allowing agroforestry system is that it should maintain forest conditions. Since 1995 the Jangkok watershed has undergone rapid land use change, especially in the forest area. These changes led to a reduction of carbon stocks and thus to emission of CO2. This research aimed to: (1 Measure the carbon stocks in several land use system within the Jangkok watershed, (2 Assess the contribution of agroforestry systems in maintaining carbon stocks and reducing emissions. The assesment was performed based on the RaCSA (Rapid Carbon Stock Appraisal method using three phases: (1 Classify land use change applying TM5 Landsat Satellite images for the period 1995-2009, (2 Measure carbon stock in the main land uses identified, (3 Quantify the contribution of agroforestry practices. Results showed that (1 The total amount of carbon stock at Jangkok watershed (19,088ha was 3.69 Mt (193 Mg ha-1; about 23% of this stock found in the agroforestry systems (32% of the area,(2 Gross CO2 emission from the Jangkok watershed was 8.41 Mg ha-1 yr-1, but due to the net gain in agroforestry of 2.55 Mg ha-1 yr-1 the net emission became 5.86 Mg ha-1 yr-1

  16. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  17. Pedogenic knowledge-aided modelling of soil inorganic carbon stocks in an alpine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren-Min; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Huang, Lai-Ming; Liu, Feng; Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Zhang, Gan-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of soil carbon is essential for accounting carbon cycling on the background of global environment change. However, previous studies made little contribution to the patterns and stocks of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in large scales. In this study, we defined the structure of the soil depth function to fit vertical distribution of SIC based on pedogenic knowledge across various landscapes. Soil depth functions were constructed from a dataset of 99 soil profiles in the alpine area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The parameters of depth functions were mapped from environmental covariates using random forest. Finally, SIC stocks at three depth intervals in the upper 1m depth were mapped across the entire study area by applying predicted soil depth functions at each location. The results showed that the soil depth functions were able to improve accuracy for fitting the vertical distribution of the SIC content, with a mean determination coefficient of R 2 =0.93. Overall accuracy for predicted SIC stocks was assessed on training samples. High Lin's concordance correlation coefficient values (0.84-0.86) indicate that predicted and observed values were in good agreement (RMSE: 1.52-1.67kgm -2 and ME: -0.33 to -0.29kgm -2 ). Variable importance showed that geographic position predictors (longitude, latitude) were key factors predicting the distribution of SIC. Terrain covariates were important variables influencing the three-dimensional distribution of SIC in mountain areas. By applying the proposed approach, the total SIC stock in this area is estimated at 75.41Tg in the upper 30cm, 113.15Tg in the upper 50cm and 190.30Tg in the upper 1m. We concluded that the methodology would be applicable for further prediction of SIC stocks in the Tibetan Plateau or other similar areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How can soil organic carbon stocks in agriculture be maintained or increased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Axel; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    CO2 emissions from soils are 10 times higher than anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil burning with around 60 Pg C a-1. At the same time around 60 Pg of carbon is added to the soils as litter from roots and leaves. Thus, the balance between both fluxes is supposed to be zero for the global earth system in steady state without human perturbations. However, the global carbon flux has been altered by humans since thousands of years by extracting biomass carbon as food, feed and fiber with global estimate of 40% of net primary productivity (NPP). This fraction is low in forests but agricultural systems, in particular croplands, are systems with a high net exported carbon fraction. Soils are mainly input driven systems. Agricultural soils depend on input to compensate directly for i) respiration losses, ii) extraction of carbon (and nitrogen) and depletion (e.g. via manure) or indirectly via enhances NPP (e.g. via fertilization management). In a literature review we examined the role of biomass extraction and carbon input via roots, crop residues and amendments (manure, slurry etc.) to agricultural soil's carbon stocks. Recalcitrance of biomass carbon was found to be of minor importance for long-term carbon storage. Thus, also the impact of crop type on soil carbon dynamics seems mainly driven by the amount of crop residuals of different crop types. However, we found distinct differences in the efficiency of C input to refill depleted soil C stocks between above ground C input or below ground root litter C input, with root-C being more efficient due to slower turnover rates. We discuss the role of different measures to decrease soil carbon turnover (e.g. decreased tillage intensity) as compared to measures that increase C input (e.g. cover crops) in the light of global developments in agricultural management with ongoing specialization and segregation between catch crop production and dairy farms.

  19. Changes in carbon stocks of Danish agricultural mineral soils between 1986 and 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Olesen, Jørgen E; Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    To establish a national inventory of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and their change over time, soil was sampled in 1986, 1997 and 2009 in a Danish nation-wide 7-km grid and analysed for SOC content. The average SOC stock in 0–100-cm depth soil was 142 t C ha−1, with 63, 41 and 38 t C ha−1 in t......, confirming that inventories based only on top-soils are incomplete. We found no significant effects in 50–100 cm. Our study indicates a small annual loss of 0.2 t C ha−1 from the 0–100 cm soil layer between 1986 and 2009.......To establish a national inventory of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and their change over time, soil was sampled in 1986, 1997 and 2009 in a Danish nation-wide 7-km grid and analysed for SOC content. The average SOC stock in 0–100-cm depth soil was 142 t C ha−1, with 63, 41 and 38 t C ha−1...... in the 0–25, 25–50 and 50–100 cm depths, respectively. Changes at 0–25 cm were small. During 1986–97, SOC in the 25–50-cm layer increased in sandy soils while SOC decreased in loam soils. In the subsequent period (1997–2009), most soils showed significant losses of SOC. From 1986 to 2009, SOC at 0–100 cm...

  20. Influence of the Tussock Growth Form on Arctic Ecosystem Carbon Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curasi, S.; Rocha, A. V.; Sonnentag, O.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Myers-Smith, I. H.; Fetcher, N.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Parker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of plant growth forms on ecosystem carbon (C) cycling has been under appreciated. In arctic tundra, environmental factors and plant traits of the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum cause the formation of mounds that are dense amalgamations of belowground C called tussocks. Tussocks have important implications for arctic ecosystem biogeochemistry and C stocks, but the environmental and biological factors controlling their size and distribution across the landscape are poorly understood. In order to better understand how landscape variation in tussock size and density impact ecosystem C stocks, we formed the Carbon in Arctic Tussock Tundra (CATT) network and recruited an international team to sample locations across the arctic. The CATT network provided a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient along which to improve our understanding of tussocks' influence on ecosystem structure and function. CATT data revealed important insights into tussock formation across the arctic. Tussock density generally declined with latitude, and tussock size exhibited substantial variation across sites. The relationship between height and diameter was similar across CATT sites indicating that both biological and environmental factors control tussock formation. At some sites, C in tussocks comprised a substantial percentage of ecosystem C stocks that may be vulnerable to climate change. It is concluded that the loss of this growth form would offset C gains from projected plant functional shifts from graminoid to shrub tundra. This work highlights the role of plant growth forms on the magnitude and retention of ecosystem C stocks.

  1. Soil carbon stocks along an altitudinal gradient in different land-use categories in Lesser Himalayan foothills of Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, H.; Saeed, Y.; Abbasi, M. K.; Khaliq, A.

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration potential of soils plays an important role in mitigating the effect of climate change, because soils serve as sinks for atmospheric carbon. The present study was conducted to estimate the carbon stocks and their variation with altitudinal gradient in the Lesser Himalayan foothills of Kashmir. The carbon stocks were estimated in different land use categories, namely: closed canopy forests, open forests, disturbed forests, and agricultural lands within the altitudinal range from 900 to 2500 m. The soil carbon content was determined by the Walkley-Black titration method. The average soil carbon stock was found to be 2.59 kg m-2. The average soil carbon stocks in closed canopy forests, open forests, and disturbed forests were 3.39, 2.06, and 2.86 kg m-2, respectively. The average soil carbon stock in the agricultural soils was 2.03 kg m-2. The carbon stocks showed a significant decreasing trend with the altitudinal gradient with maximum values of 4.13 kg m-2 at 900-1200 m a.s.l. and minimum value of 1.55 kg m-2 at 2100-2400 m a.s.l. The agricultural soil showed the least carbon content values indicating negative impacts of soil plowing, overgrazing, and soil degradation. Lower carbon values at higher altitudes attest to the immature character of forest stands, as well as to degradation due to immense fuel wood extraction, timber extraction, and harsh climatic conditions. The study indicates that immediate attention is required for the conservation of rapidly declining carbon stocks in agricultural soils, as well as in the soils of higher altitudes.

  2. From Models to Measurements: Comparing Downed Dead Wood Carbon Stock Estimates in the U.S. Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; James E. Smith

    2013-01-01

    The inventory and monitoring of coarse woody debris (CWD) carbon (C) stocks is an essential component of any comprehensive National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI). Due to the expense and difficulty associated with conducting field inventories of CWD pools, CWD C stocks are often modeled as a function of more commonly measured stand attributes such as live tree C...

  3. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  4. An Integrated, Observation-based System to Monitor Aboveground Forest Carbon Dynamics in Washington, Oregon, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. E.; Hughes, J.; Neeti, N.; Yang, Z.; Gregory, M.; Roberts, H.; Kane, V. R.; Powell, S. L.; Ohmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    Because carbon pools and fluxes on wooded landscapes are constrained by their type, age and health, understanding the causes and consequences of carbon change requires frequent observation of forest condition and of disturbance, mortality, and growth processes. As part of USDA and NASA funded efforts, we built empirical monitoring system that integrates time-series Landsat imagery, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data, small-footprint lidar data, and aerial photos to characterize key carbon dynamics in forested ecosystems of Washington, Oregon and California. Here we report yearly biomass estimates for every forested 30 by 30m pixel in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California from 1990 to 2010, including spatially explicit estimates of uncertainty in our yearly predictions. Total biomass at the ecoregion scale agrees well with estimates from FIA plot data alone, currently the only method for reliable monitoring in the forests of the region. Comparisons with estimates of biomass modeled from four small-footprint lidar acquisitions in overlapping portions of our study area show general patterns of agreement between the two types of estimation, but also reveal some disparities in spatial pattern potentially attributable to age and vegetation condition. Using machine-learning techniques based on both Landsat image time series and high resolution aerial photos, we then modeled the agent causing change in biomass for every change event in the region, and report the relative distribution of carbon loss attributable to natural disturbances (primarily fire and insect-related mortality) versus anthropogenic causes (forest management and development).

  5. Influence of aboveground tree biomass, home age, and yard maintenance on soil carbon levels in residential yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, research in urban soils has focused on the soil carbon (C) sequestration capacity in residential yards. We performed a case study to examine four potential drivers for soil C levels in residential yards. In 67 yards containing trees, we examined the relationship of soil C (kg m-2...

  6. Rapid tree carbon stock recovery in managed Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, Ervan; Hérault, Bruno; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Descroix, Laurent; Sotta, Eleneide Doff; Ferreira, Joice; Kanashiro, Milton; Mazzei, Lucas; d'Oliveira, Marcus V N; de Oliveira, Luis C; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E; Ruschel, Ademir R; Rodney, Ken; Roopsind, Anand; Shenkin, Alexander; da Silva, Katia E; de Souza, Cintia R; Toledo, Marisol; Vidal, Edson; West, Thales A P; Wortel, Verginia; Sist, Plinio

    2015-09-21

    While around 20% of the Amazonian forest has been cleared for pastures and agriculture, one fourth of the remaining forest is dedicated to wood production. Most of these production forests have been or will be selectively harvested for commercial timber, but recent studies show that even soon after logging, harvested stands retain much of their tree-biomass carbon and biodiversity. Comparing species richness of various animal taxa among logged and unlogged forests across the tropics, Burivalova et al. found that despite some variability among taxa, biodiversity loss was generally explained by logging intensity (the number of trees extracted). Here, we use a network of 79 permanent sample plots (376 ha total) located at 10 sites across the Amazon Basin to assess the main drivers of time-to-recovery of post-logging tree carbon (Table S1). Recovery time is of direct relevance to policies governing management practices (i.e., allowable volumes cut and cutting cycle lengths), and indirectly to forest-based climate change mitigation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of soil organic carbon stock in ancient and modern land use systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Elberling, Bo; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    . A comparison of the organic matter content in these mound cores and the plough layer in modern farmland offers an opportunity to compare the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in ancient and modern land use systems and to evaluate the long-term trends in carbon (C) sequestration in relation to modern farmland...... with varying inputs of manure and inorganic fertilizers. In the present paper we compare SOC stocks based on integrated horizon-specific densities and SOC contents in three 3300-year-old buried farmland soils, representing the land use system at that time, with results from soil surveys representing modern...... land use systems with low and high inputs of manure. Results show that, within the upper 0.28 m, which is the average depth of present day plough layers in Denmark, soils receiving manure from intensive pig or cattle production hold c. 60% more SOC than the ancient soils from the South Scandinavian...

  8. Forest biomass carbon stocks and variation in Tibet’s carbon-dense forests from 2001 to 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyang; Wang, Genxu; Huang, Mei; Chang, Ruiying; Ran, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Tibet’s forests, in contrast to China’s other forests, are characterized by primary forests, high carbon (C) density and less anthropogenic disturbance, and they function as an important carbon pool in China. Using the biomass C density data from 413 forest inventory sites and a spatial forest age map, we developed an allometric equation for the forest biomass C density and forest age to assess the spatial biomass C stocks and variation in Tibet’s forests from 2001 to 2050. The results indicated that the forest biomass C stock would increase from 831.1 Tg C in 2001 to 969.4 Tg C in 2050, with a net C gain of 3.6 Tg C yr−1 between 2001 and 2010 and a decrease of 1.9 Tg C yr−1 between 2040 and 2050. Carbon tends to allocate more in the roots of fir forests and less in the roots of spruce and pine forests with increasing stand age. The increase of the biomass carbon pool does not promote significant augmentation of the soil carbon pool. Our findings suggest that Tibet’s mature forests will remain a persistent C sink until 2050. However, afforestation or reforestation, especially with the larger carbon sink potential forest types, such as fir and spruce, should be carried out to maintain the high C sink capacity. PMID:27703215

  9. Influence of land use changes on soil carbon stock and soil carbon erosion in a Mediterranean catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boix-Fayos, C.; Martinez-Mena, M.; Vente, J. de; Albaladejo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of changing land uses on the organic soil carbon (C) stock and the soil C transported by water erosion and buried in depositions wedges behring check-dams was estimated in a Mediterranean catchment in SE Spin. the 57% decrease in agricultural areas and 1.5-fold increase of the total forest cover between 1956 and 1997 induced an accumulation rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in the soil of 10.73 g m - 2 yr - 1. The mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC) represented the 70% of the soil carbon pool, the particulate organic carbon (POC) represented a 30% of the soil carbon pool. The average sediments/soil enrichment ratio at the sub catchment scale (8-125 ha) was 0.59±0.43 g kg - 1. Eroded soil C accounted for between 2% to 78% of the soil c stock in the first 5 cm of the soil in the subcatchments. the C erosion rate varied between 0.008 and 0.2 t ha - 1 yr - 1. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Long term net gains in coastal blue carbon stocks: A search for terrestrial drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jessica; Austin, William; Smeaton, Craig; Winterton, Cathy; Bresnan, Eileen; Davidson, Keith; Lo Giudice Cappelli Lo Giudice Cappelli, Elena; Green, Jade

    2017-04-01

    Peat and Organic soils covers nearly 66% of Scotland, representing over 50% of the UK's soil carbon stocks. Natural processes such as peatland erosion are accelerated by human activities, such as land management and potentially by the impacts of climate change. We present evidence from the isle of Shetland's west coast voes (sea lochs or fjords) to suggest this process may have accelerated since medieval times. This work is supported by the analyses of short sediment Craib cores (triplicate coring) recovered from 17 sites. We present preliminary chronologies supported by radiocarbon dating and sediment characteristics that highlight both changes in the rate of accumulation and source of sedimentary organic carbon to the west coast Shetland voes during the late Holocene. Scottish coastal sediments contain a significant blue carbon stock, a significant proportion of which derives directly from terrestrial sources. The loss of peatland carbon represents a potentially important contribution (i.e. net gain) in refractory carbon within the marine environment and we present preliminary estimates to assess the significance of these large scale transfers and the subsidy of carbon to the coastal ocean.

  11. Urban soils as hotspots of anthropogenic carbon accumulation: Review of stocks, mechanisms and factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils and cultural layers accumulate carbon (C) over centuries and consequently large C stocks are sequestered below the cities. These C stocks as well as the full range of processes and mechanisms leading to high C accumulation in urban soils remain unknown. We collected data on organic (SOC), inorganic (SOC) and black (pyrogenic) (BC) C content in urban and natural soils from 100 papers based on Scopus and Web-of-Knowledge databases. The yielded database includes 770 values on SOC, SIC and BC stocks from 118 cities worldwide. The collected data were analyzed considering the effects of climatic conditions and urban-specific factors: city size, age and functional zoning. For the whole range of climatic conditions, the C contents in urban soils were 1.5-3 times higher than in respective natural soils. This higher C content and much deeper C accumulation in urban soils resulted in 3 to 5 times higher C stocks compared to natural soils. Urban SOC stocks were positively correlated with latitude, whereas SIC stocks were less affected by climate. The city size and age were the main factors controlling intra-city variability of C stocks with higher stocks in small cities compared to megapolises and in medieval compared to new cities. The inter-city variability of C stocks was dominated by functional zoning: large SOC and N stocks in residential areas and large SIC and BC stocks in industrial zones and roadsides were similar for all climates and for cities of different size and age. Substantial stocks of SOC, SIC and N were sequestered for long-term in the subsoils and cultural layers of the sealed soils, which underline the importance of these 'hidden' stocks for C assessments. Typical and specific for urban soils is that the anthropogenic factor overshadows the other five factors of soil formation. Substantial C stocks in urban soils and cultural layers result from specific mechanisms of C accumulation in cities: i) large and long-term C inputs from outside the

  12. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnes; Howe, John A.; Baxter, John M.

    2017-12-01

    Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C) and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  13. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smeaton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  14. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  15. Quantifying soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes in the sugarcane agrosystem: point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Galdos, Marcelo Valadares; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to mitigate climate change through the use of biofuels (such as ethanol) are associated not only to the increase in the amount of C stored in soils but also to the reduction of GHG emissions to the atmosphere.This report mainly aimed to propose appropriate methodologies for the determinations of soil organic carbon stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural phase of the sugarcane production. Therefore, the text is a piece of contribution that may help to obtain data not only ...

  16. Ground cover rice production system facilitates soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Dannenmann, M.; Lin, S.; Saiz, G.; Yan, G.; Yao, Z.; Pelster, D.; Tao, H.; Sippel, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zuo, Q.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-02-01

    Rice production is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, however covering paddy rice soils with films (ground cover rice production system: GCRPS) can significantly reduce water demand as well as overcome temperature limitations at the beginning of the vegetation period resulting in increased grain yields in colder regions of rice production with seasonal water shortages. It has been speculated that the increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may result in losses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks. Here we report on a regional scale experiment, conducted by sampling paired adjacent Paddy and GCRPS fields at 49 representative sites in the Shiyan region, which is typical for many mountainous areas across China. Parameters evaluated included soil C and N stocks, soil physical and chemical properties, potential carbon mineralization rates, fractions of soil organic carbon and stable carbon isotopic composition of plant leaves. Furthermore, root biomass was quantified at maximum tillering stage at one of our paired sites. Against expectations the study showed that: (1) GCRPS significantly increased soil organic C and N stocks 5-20 years following conversion of production systems, (2) there were no differences between GCRPS and Paddy in soil physical and chemical properties for the various soil depths with the exception of soil bulk density, (3) GCRPS had lower mineralization potential for soil organic C compared with Paddy over the incubation period, (4) GCRPS showed lower δ15N in the soils and plant leafs indicating less NH3 volatilization in GCRPS than in Paddy; and (5) GCRPS increased yields and root biomass in all soil layers down to 40 cm depth. Our results suggest that GCRPS is an innovative rice production technique that not only increases yields using less irrigation water, but that it also is environmentally beneficial due to increased soil C and N stocks at regional scale.

  17. Carbon Stock in Integrated Field Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa; Tika Mutiasari; Henrie Buchori; Muhajir Utomo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the amount of carbon stock and CO2 plant uptake in the Integrated Field Laboratory (IFL) Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung. The research was conducted from April to November 2015. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD), consisting of five land units as treatment with four replications for each treatment. Biomass of woody plants was estimated using allometric equation, biomass of understorey plants was estimate...

  18. Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Liu, Shuguang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Vogelmann, James E.; Li, Zhengpeng; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and greatly affecting global climate and socio-economic systems. Actively growing forests are generally considered to be a major carbon sink, but forest wildfires lead to large releases of biomass carbon into the atmosphere. Aboveground forest biomass carbon (AFBC), an important ecological indicator, and fire-induced carbon emissions at regional scales are highly relevant to forest sustainable management and climate change. It is challenging to accurately estimate the spatial distribution of AFBC across large areas because of the spatial heterogeneity of forest cover types and canopy structure. In this study, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, Landsat, and Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (LANDFIRE) data were integrated in a regression tree model for estimating AFBC at a 30-m resolution in the Utah High Plateaus. AFBC were calculated from 225 FIA field plots and used as the dependent variable in the model. Of these plots, 10% were held out for model evaluation with stratified random sampling, and the other 90% were used as training data to develop the regression tree model. Independent variable layers included Landsat imagery and the derived spectral indicators, digital elevation model (DEM) data and derivatives, biophysical gradient data, existing vegetation cover type and vegetation structure. The cross-validation correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.81 for the training model. Independent validation using withheld plot data was similar with r value of 0.82. This validated regression tree model was applied to map AFBC in the Utah High Plateaus and then combined with burn severity information to estimate loss of AFBC in the Longston fire of Zion National Park in 2001. The final dataset represented 24 forest cover types for a 4 million ha forested area. We estimated a total of 353 Tg AFBC with an average of 87 MgC/ha in the Utah High

  19. Carbon stock and humification index of organic matter affected by sugarcane straw and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Segnini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. straw on a soil surface increases the soil carbon (C stocks, but at lower rates than expected. This fact is probably associated with the soil management adopted during sugarcane replanting. This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the humification index of soil organic matter (SOM of adopting no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT for sugarcane replanting. A greater C content and stock was observed in the NT area, but only in the 0-5 cm soil layer (p < 0.05. Greater soil C stock (0-60 cm was found in soil under NT, when compared to CT and the baseline. While C stock of 116 Mg ha-1 was found in the baseline area, in areas under CT and NT systems the values ranged from 120 to 127 Mg ha-1. Carbon retention rates of 0.67 and 1.63 Mg C ha-1 year-1 were obtained in areas under CT and NT, respectively. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy showed that CT makes the soil surface (0-20 cm more homogeneous than the NT system due to the effect of soil disturbance, and that the SOM humification index (H LIF is larger in CT compared to NT conditions. In contrast, NT had a gradient of increasing H LIF, showing that the entry of labile organic material such as straw is also responsible for the accumulation of C in this system. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface and the adoption of NT during sugarcane planting are strategies that can increase soil C sequestration in the Brazilian sugarcane sector.

  20. Carbon stock and its responses to climate change in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Maisupova, Bagila; Madaminov, Abdullo A; Han, Qifei; Djenbaev, Bekmamat M

    2015-05-01

    Central Asia has a land area of 5.6 × 10(6) km(2) and contains 80-90% of the world's temperate deserts. Yet it is one of the least characterized areas in the estimation of the global carbon (C) stock/balance. This study assessed the sizes and spatiotemporal patterns of C pools in Central Asia using both inventory (based on 353 biomass and 284 soil samples) and process-based modeling approaches. The results showed that the C stock in Central Asia was 31.34-34.16 Pg in the top 1-m soil with another 10.42-11.43 Pg stored in deep soil (1-3 m) of the temperate deserts. They amounted to 18-24% of the global C stock in deserts and dry shrublands. The C stock was comparable to that of the neighboring regions in Eurasia or major drylands around the world (e.g. Australia). However, 90% of Central Asia C pool was stored in soil, and the fraction was much higher than in other regions. Compared to hot deserts of the world, the temperate deserts in Central Asia had relatively high soil organic carbon density. The C stock in Central Asia is under threat from dramatic climate change. During a decadal drought between 1998 and 2008, which was possibly related to protracted La Niña episodes, the dryland lost approximately 0.46 Pg C from 1979 to 2011. The largest C losses were found in northern Kazakhstan, where annual precipitation declined at a rate of 90 mm decade(-1) . The regional C dynamics were mainly determined by changes in the vegetation C pool, and the SOC pool was stable due to the balance between reduced plant-derived C influx and inhibited respiration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Modeling changes in organic carbon stocks for distinct soils in southeastern brazil after four eucalyptus rotations using the century model

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva; Jose Luis Stape; Eduardo Sá Mendonça; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Nairam Félix de Barros; Júlio César Lima Neves; Keryn Paul; Fernanda Schulthais; Phill Polglase; John Raison; Emanuelle Mercês Barros Soares

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in carbon (C) cycle and soil quality. Considering the complexity of factors that control SOM cycling and the long time it usually takes to observe changes in SOM stocks, modeling constitutes a very important tool to understand SOM cycling in forest soils. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks would be higher after several rotations of eucalyptus than in low-productivity pastures; (ii) SOC values simulated b...

  2. Simulation of the Effect of Artificial Water Transfer on Carbon Stock of Phragmites australis in the Baiyangdian Wetland, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinyong; Wang, Fengyi; Lu, Jianjian; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    How to explain the effect of seasonal water transfer on the carbon stocks of Baiyangdian wetland is studied. The ecological model of the relationship between the carbon stocks and water depth fluctuation of the reed was established by using STELLA software. For the first time the Michaelis-Menten equation (1) introduced the relation function between the water depth and reed environmental carrying capacity, (2) introduced the concept of suitable growth water depth, and (3) simulated the variat...

  3. Carbon stocks in Norwegian forested systems. Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyen BH.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2010 the projected emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway is assumed to increase 24%. As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, Norway is supposed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008–2012 to 1% above the 1990 level. Potentially, forestry activities may contribute as a means to achieve the set target of emission reductions. The initial Norwegian views and proposals for definitions and accounting framework for activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol was reported to the UNFCCC August 1 2000 by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment. There was also an annex to the submission with preliminary data and information on Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper is based on this annex, and focuses mainly on data for forests and other woodlands. Preliminary data indicate that approximately 85% of the carbon (C pool of forested systems is found in the soil. The major part of the annual C sequestration takes place in living biomass and soil, while sequestration in wood products and landfills etc. has been found to be of minor importance. It must be noted that the reported data are preliminary and contain large uncertainties.

  4. A preliminary assessment of the impact of landslide, earthflow, and gully erosion on soil carbon stocks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, Les; Betts, Harley; Lynn, Ian; Marden, Mike; McNeill, Stephen; Page, Mike; Rosser, Brenda

    2018-04-01

    In geomorphically active landscapes such as New Zealand, quantitative data on the relationship between erosion and soil carbon (C) are needed to establish the effect of erosion on past soil C stocks and future stock changes. The soil C model currently used in New Zealand for soil C stock reporting does not account for erosion. This study developed an approach to characterise the effect of erosion suitable for soil C stock reporting and provides an initial assessment of the magnitude of the effect of erosion. A series of case studies were used to establish the local effect of landslide, earthflow, and gully erosion on soil C stocks and to compare field measurements of soil C stocks with model estimates. Multitemporal erosion mapping from orthophotographs was used to characterise erosion history, identify soil sampling plot locations, and allow soil C stocks to be calculated accounting for erosion. All eroded plots had lower soil C stocks than uneroded (by mass movement and gully erosion) plots sampled at the same sites. Landsliding reduces soil C stocks at plot and landscape scale, largely as a result of individual large storms. After about 70 years, soil C stocks were still well below the value measured for uneroded plots (by 40% for scars and 20-30% for debris tails) indicating that the effect of erosion is very persistent. Earthflows have a small effect on estimates of baseline (1990) soil C stocks and reduce soil C stocks at landscape scale. Gullies have local influence on soil C stocks but because they cover a small proportion of the landscape have little influence at landscape scale. At many of the sites, the soil C model overestimates landscape-scale soil C stocks.

  5. Soil Carbon Stocks in Two Hybrid Poplar-Hay Crop Systems in Southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiara Winans

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree-based intercropping (TBI systems, consisting of a medium to fast-growing woody species planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, are a potential sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. TBI systems contribute to farm income in the long-term by improving soil quality, as indicated by soil carbon (C storage, generating profits from crop plus tree production and potentially through C credit trading. The objectives of the current study were: (1 to evaluate soil C and nitrogen (N stocks in soil depth increments in the 0–30 cm layer between tree rows of nine-year old hybrid poplar-hay intercropping systems, to compare these to C and N stocks in adjacent agricultural systems; and (2 to determine how hay yield, litterfall and percent total light transmittance (PTLT were related to soil C and N stocks between tree rows and in adjacent agricultural systems. The two TBI study sites (St. Edouard and St. Paulin had a hay intercrop with alternating rows of hybrid poplar clones and hardwoods and included an adjacent agricultural system with no trees (i.e., the control plots. Soil C and N stocks were greater in the 0–5 cm depth increment of the TBI system within 1 m of the hardwood row, to the west of the poplar row, compared to the sampling point 1 m east of poplar at St. Edouard (p = 0.02. However, the agricultural system stored more soil C than the nine-year old TBI system in the 20–30 cm and 0–30 cm depth increments. Accumulation of soil C in the 20–30 cm depth increment could be due to tillage-induced burial of non-harvested crop residues at the bottom of the plow-pan. Soil C and N stocks were similar at all depth increments in TBI and agricultural systems at St. Paulin. Soil C and N stocks were not related to hay yield, litterfall and PTLT at St. Paulin, but hay yield and PTLT were significantly correlated (R = 0.87, p < 0.05, n = 21, with lower hay yield in proximity to trees in the TBI system and similar hay

  6. A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Warren

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of belowground carbon stocks in tropical wetland forests requires funding for laboratory analyses and suitable facilities, which are often lacking in developing nations where most tropical wetlands are found. It is therefore beneficial to develop simple analytical tools to assist belowground carbon estimation where financial and technical limitations are common. Here we use published and original data to describe soil carbon density (kgC m−3; Cd as a function of bulk density (gC cm−3; Bd, which can be used to rapidly estimate belowground carbon storage using Bd measurements only. Predicted carbon densities and stocks are compared with those obtained from direct carbon analysis for ten peat swamp forest stands in three national parks of Indonesia. Analysis of soil carbon density and bulk density from the literature indicated a strong linear relationship (Cd = Bd × 495.14 + 5.41, R2 = 0.93, n = 151 for soils with organic C content > 40%. As organic C content decreases, the relationship between Cd and Bd becomes less predictable as soil texture becomes an important determinant of Cd. The equation predicted belowground C stocks to within 0.92% to 9.57% of observed values. Average bulk density of collected peat samples was 0.127 g cm−3, which is in the upper range of previous reports for Southeast Asian peatlands. When original data were included, the revised equation Cd = Bd × 468.76 + 5.82, with R2 = 0.95 and n = 712, was slightly below the lower 95% confidence interval of the original equation, and tended to decrease Cd estimates. We recommend this last equation for a rapid estimation of soil C stocks for well-developed peat soils where C content > 40%.

  7. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions and Stocks Respond to Restoration Measures in Degraded Lands by Water Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Xiao, Haibing; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which degraded soils can be recovered is essential for evaluating the effects of adopted restoration measures. The objective of this study was to determine the restoration of soil organic carbon under the impact of terracing and reforestation. A small watershed with four typical restored plots (terracing and reforestation (four different local plants)) and two reference plots (slope land with natural forest (carbon-depleted) and abandoned depositional land (carbon-enriched)) in subtropical China was studied. The results showed that soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon concentrations in the surface soil (10 cm) of restored lands were close to that in abandoned depositional land and higher than that in natural forest land. There was no significant difference in soil organic carbon content among different topographic positions of the restored lands. Furthermore, the soil organic carbon stocks in the upper 60 cm soils of restored lands, which were varied between 50.08 and 62.21 Mg C ha-1, were higher than 45.90 Mg C ha-1 in natural forest land. Our results indicated that the terracing and reforestation could greatly increase carbon sequestration and accumulation and decrease carbon loss induced by water erosion. And the combination measures can accelerate the restoration of degraded soils when compared to natural forest only. Forest species almost have no impact on the total amount of soil organic carbon during restoration processes, but can significantly influence the activity and stability of soil organic carbon. Combination measures which can provide suitable topography and continuous soil organic carbon supply could be considered in treating degraded soils caused by water erosion.

  8. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions and Stocks Respond to Restoration Measures in Degraded Lands by Water Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Xiao, Haibing; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which degraded soils can be recovered is essential for evaluating the effects of adopted restoration measures. The objective of this study was to determine the restoration of soil organic carbon under the impact of terracing and reforestation. A small watershed with four typical restored plots (terracing and reforestation (four different local plants)) and two reference plots (slope land with natural forest (carbon-depleted) and abandoned depositional land (carbon-enriched)) in subtropical China was studied. The results showed that soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon concentrations in the surface soil (10 cm) of restored lands were close to that in abandoned depositional land and higher than that in natural forest land. There was no significant difference in soil organic carbon content among different topographic positions of the restored lands. Furthermore, the soil organic carbon stocks in the upper 60 cm soils of restored lands, which were varied between 50.08 and 62.21 Mg C ha -1 , were higher than 45.90 Mg C ha -1 in natural forest land. Our results indicated that the terracing and reforestation could greatly increase carbon sequestration and accumulation and decrease carbon loss induced by water erosion. And the combination measures can accelerate the restoration of degraded soils when compared to natural forest only. Forest species almost have no impact on the total amount of soil organic carbon during restoration processes, but can significantly influence the activity and stability of soil organic carbon. Combination measures which can provide suitable topography and continuous soil organic carbon supply could be considered in treating degraded soils caused by water erosion.

  9. Detecting small-scale spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial (10-30 m) and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced in arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal dynamics as well as small-scale spatial differences of ΔSOC using measurements of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) as a proxy. To estimate the NECB, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) were used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. Soil resampling and AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of northeastern Germany. The measurement site is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity regarding SOC and nitrogen (Nt) stocks. Tendencies and magnitude of ΔSOC values derived by AC measurements and repeated soil inventories corresponded well. The period of maximum plant growth was identified as being most important for the development of spatial differences in annual ΔSOC. Hence, we were able to confirm that AC-based C budgets are able

  10. Decadal Change in Forest Carbon Stocks in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Plante, A. F.; Pan, Y.; Johnson, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Forest carbon dynamics at different scales are controlled by different factors, which may alter the forest structure and processes. Long-term measurements of biomass and soil carbon stocks in a nested watershed DRB provide good opportunity for monitoring forest carbon dynamics at multiple scale, calibrating a regional forest process model, and exploring the carbon-water interaction. The Delaware River Basin (DRB) is an ideal watershed for forest carbon cycle research because the basin features diverse forest types and land-use history, and includes physiographic provinces representative of the eastern US. In 2001-2003, the Delaware River Basin Monitoring and Research Initiative established 66 forest plots in three intensive monitoring research sites (nested sub-watersheds in DRB) using Forest Service inventory protocols and enhanced measurements. Mean biomass carbon density was 235.7 × 93.7 Mg C ha-1 in French Creek, 193.2 × 83.9 Mg C ha-1 in Delaware Water Gap, and 264.7 × 74.4 Mg C ha-1 in Neversink River Basin. Soil carbon density (including forest floor and mineral soil to depth of 20 cm) was 80.1 Mg C ha-1, 85.4 Mg C ha-1, and 88.6 Mg C ha-1, respectively. These plots were revisited and re-measured in 2012-2013. In French Creek, where the biomass remeasurement was conducted in fall 2012, results show that, the average biomass carbon density increased by 17.9 Mg C ha-1 over the past decade. Changes in live biomass (live tree, sapling, shrub, herb etc.) and dead biomass (dead tree, coarse woody debris, litter, duff etc.) contribute equally to the total biomass change. However, in a few plots total biomass carbon density decreased by 7.6 to 43.1 Mg C ha-1 due to disturbance from logging or invasive species. Based on the preliminary result, the different effects of climatic, topographic and geological factors on carbon stocks could be detected among the small watersheds. But within a watershed, changes in biomass and soil carbon stocks may depend mainly on

  11. ORGANIC CARBON AND CARBON STOCK: RELATIONS WITH PHYSICAL INDICATORS AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN AREAS CULTIVATED WITH SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tolentino de Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon and carbon stock influence, directly or indirectly, most of soil aggregate stability indicators. The objective of this study was to quantify the production of dry biomass (DB, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock (CStk in soil, and to evaluate their influence on some indicators of aggregation in an Oxisol at a Cerrado biome in Uberaba-MG, Brazil. The design was completely randomized blocks, in two evaluation periods: three and six cuts, at six depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5 and 0.5-0.6 m. It was evaluated: soil density (SD, volumetric humidity (VH, aggregate stability index (AEI, weighted mean diameter (WDA, mean diameter (GDA, index of aggregates with diameter greater than 2 mm (AI and sensitivity index (SI, replicated by 4. The best AEI of the soil and the highest TOC contents were found in the most superficial layers, 0 to 0.2 m, for both cuttings. The greater values of TOC and CStk, occurred at the sixth cut area, where there was a higher amount of DB on soil surface. The higher levels of organic matter did not provide higher AEI in the area of sixth cut, when compared to that of the third cut. The TOC and CStk levels in both areas generally had a positive influence on soil aggregation indicators for both cuts.

  12. Current and potential carbon stocks in Moso bamboo forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Lu, Dengsheng; Mo, Lufeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo forests provide important ecosystem services and play an important role in terrestrial carbon cycling. Of the approximately 500 bamboo species in China, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is the most important one in terms of distribution, timber value, and other economic values. In this study, we estimated current and potential carbon stocks in China's Moso bamboo forests and in their products. The results showed that Moso bamboo forests in China stored about 611.15 ± 142.31 Tg C, 75% of which was in the top 60 cm soil, 22% in the biomass of Moso bamboos, and 3% in the ground layer (i.e., bamboo litter, shrub, and herb layers). Moso bamboo products store 10.19 ± 2.54 Tg C per year. The potential carbon stocks reach 1331.4 ± 325.1 Tg C, while the potential C stored in products is 29.22 ± 7.31 Tg C a(-1). Our results indicate that Moso bamboo forests and products play a critical role in C sequestration. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning carbon sequestration and management of Moso bamboo forests in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon Stock in Integrated Field Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the amount of carbon stock and CO2 plant uptake in the Integrated Field Laboratory (IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung. The research was conducted from April to November 2015. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD, consisting of five land units as treatment with four replications for each treatment. Biomass of woody plants was estimated using allometric equation, biomass of understorey plants was estimated using plant dry weight equation, and organic C content in plants and soils were analyzed using a Walkey and Black method. The results showed that land unit consisting of densely woody plants significantly affects total biomass of woody plants, organic C content in woody plants and total carbon content (above and below ground. The highest amount of woody plant biomass was observed in land unit 5, i.e. 1,196.88 Mg ha-1, and above ground total carbon was 437.19 Mg ha-1. IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung has a total carbon stock of 2,051.90 Mg and capacity to take up total CO2 of 6,656.88 Mg.

  14. Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jérôme; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Búrquez, Alberto; Chidumayo, Emmanuel; Colgan, Matthew S; Delitti, Welington B C; Duque, Alvaro; Eid, Tron; Fearnside, Philip M; Goodman, Rosa C; Henry, Matieu; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Mugasha, Wilson A; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nelson, Bruce W; Ngomanda, Alfred; Nogueira, Euler M; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar; Pélissier, Raphaël; Ploton, Pierre; Ryan, Casey M; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Vieilledent, Ghislain

    2014-10-01

    Terrestrial carbon stock mapping is important for the successful implementation of climate change mitigation policies. Its accuracy depends on the availability of reliable allometric models to infer oven-dry aboveground biomass of trees from census data. The degree of uncertainty associated with previously published pantropical aboveground biomass allometries is large. We analyzed a global database of directly harvested trees at 58 sites, spanning a wide range of climatic conditions and vegetation types (4004 trees ≥ 5 cm trunk diameter). When trunk diameter, total tree height, and wood specific gravity were included in the aboveground biomass model as covariates, a single model was found to hold across tropical vegetation types, with no detectable effect of region or environmental factors. The mean percent bias and variance of this model was only slightly higher than that of locally fitted models. Wood specific gravity was an important predictor of aboveground biomass, especially when including a much broader range of vegetation types than previous studies. The generic tree diameter-height relationship depended linearly on a bioclimatic stress variable E, which compounds indices of temperature variability, precipitation variability, and drought intensity. For cases in which total tree height is unavailable for aboveground biomass estimation, a pantropical model incorporating wood density, trunk diameter, and the variable E outperformed previously published models without height. However, to minimize bias, the development of locally derived diameter-height relationships is advised whenever possible. Both new allometric models should contribute to improve the accuracy of biomass assessment protocols in tropical vegetation types, and to advancing our understanding of architectural and evolutionary constraints on woody plant development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Climatic and topographical factors affecting the vegetative carbon stock of rangelands in arid and semiarid regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengchao, Ren; Huazhong, Zhu; Shi, Hua; Xiaoni, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Rangeland systems play an important role in ecological stabilization and the terrestrial carbon cycle in arid and semiarid regions. However, little is known about the vegetative carbon dynamics and climatic and topographical factors that affect vegetative carbon stock in these rangelands. Our goal was to assess vegetative carbon stock by examining meteorological data in conjunction with NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series datasets from 2001–2012. An improved CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was then applied to simulate the spatiotemporal dynamic variation of vegetative carbon stock, and analyze its response to climatic and topographical factors. We estimated the vegetative carbon stock of rangeland in Gansu province, China to be 4.4× 1014 gC, increasing linearly at an annual rate of 9.8×1011 gC. The mean vegetative carbon density of the whole rangeland was 136.5 gC m-2. Vegetative carbon density and total carbon varied temporally and spatially and were highly associated with temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. Vegetative carbon density reached the maximal value on elevation at 2500–3500 m, a slope of >30°and easterly aspect. The effect of precipitation, temperature and solar radiation on the vegetative carbon density of five rangeland types (desert and salinized meadow, steppe, alpine meadow, shrub and tussock, and marginal grassland in the forest) depends on the acquired quantity of water and heat for rangeland plants at all spatial scales. The results of this study provide new evidence for explaining spatiotemporal heterogeneity in vegetative carbon dynamics and responses to global change for rangeland vegetative carbon stock, and offer a theoretical and practical basis for grassland agriculture management in arid and semiarid regions.

  16. Carbon stocks in mangroves, salt marshes, and salt barrens in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA: Vegetative and soil characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Radabaugh, K.; Chappel, A. R.; Powell, C.; Bociu, I.; Smoak, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    When compared to other terrestrial environments, coastal "blue carbon" habitats such as salt marshes and mangrove forests sequester disproportionately large amounts of carbon as standing plant biomass and sedimentary peat deposits. This study quantified total carbon stocks in vegetation and soil of 17 salt marshes, salt barrens, and mangrove forests in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. The sites included natural, restored, and created wetlands of varying ages and degrees of anthropogenic impacts. The average vegetative carbon stock in mangrove forests was 60.1 ± 2.7 Mg ha-1. Mangrove forests frequently consisted of a few large Avicennia germinans trees with smaller, abundant Rhizophora mangle and/or Laguncularia racemosa trees. The average vegetative carbon stock was 11.8 ± 3.7 Mg ha-1 for salt marshes and 2.0 ± 1.2 Mg ha-1 for salt barrens. Vegetative carbon did not significantly differ between natural and newly created salt marsh habitats, indicating that mature restored wetlands can be included with natural wetlands for the calculation of vegetative carbon in coastal blue carbon assessments. Peat deposits were generally less than 50 cm thick and organic content rapidly decreased with depth in all habitats. Soil in this study was analyzed in 1 cm intervals; the accuracy of subsampling or binning soil into depth intervals of 2-5 cm was also assessed. In most cases, carbon stock values obtained from these larger sampling intervals were not statistically different from values obtained from sampling at 1 cm intervals. In the first 15 cm, soil in mangrove forests contained an average of 15.1% organic carbon by weight, salt marshes contained 6.5%, and salt barrens contained 0.8%. Total carbon stock in mangroves was 187.1±17.3 Mg ha-1, with 68% of that carbon stored in soil. Salt marshes contained an average of 65.2±25.3 Mg ha-1 (82% soil carbon) and salt barrens had carbon stocks of 21.4±7.4 Mg ha-1 (89% soil carbon). These values were much lower than global averages for

  17. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  18. Urbanization has a positive net effect on soil carbon stocks: modelling outcomes for the Moscow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Leemans, Rik; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is responsible for large environmental changes worldwide. Urbanization was traditionally related to negative environmental impacts, but recent research highlights the potential to store soil carbon (C) in urban areas. The net effect of urbanization on soil C is, however, poorly understood. Negative influences of construction and soil sealing can be compensated by establishing of green areas. We explored possible net effects of future urbanization on soil C-stocks in the Moscow Region. Urbanization was modelled as a function of environmental, socio-economic and neighbourhood factors. This yielded three alternative scenarios: i) including neighbourhood factors; ii) excluding neighbourhood factors and focusing on environmental drivers; and iii) considering the New Moscow Project, establishing 1500km2 of new urbanized area following governmental regulation. All three scenarios showed substantial urbanization on 500 to 2000km2 former forests and arable lands. Our analysis shows a positive net effect on SOC stocks of 5 to 11 TgC. The highest increase occurred on the less fertile Orthic Podzols and Eutric Podzoluvisols, whereas C-storage in Orthic Luvisols, Luvic Chernozems, Dystric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisols increased less. Subsoil C-stocks were much more affected with an extra 4 to 10 TgC than those in the topsoils. The highest increase of both topsoil and subsoil C stocks occurred in the New Moscow scenario with the highest urbanization. Even when the relatively high uncertainties of the absolute C-values are considered, a clear positive net effect of urbanization on C-stocks is apparent. This highlights the potential of cities to enhance C-storage. This will progressively become more important in the future following the increasing world-wide urbanization.

  19. Assessment of Carbon Stocks in the Topsoil Using Random Forest and Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsung; Grunwald, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    Wetland soils are able to exhibit both consumption and production of greenhouse gases, and they play an important role in the regulation of the global carbon (C) cycle. Still, it is challenging to accurately evaluate the actual amount of C stored in wetlands. The incorporation of remote sensing data into digital soil models has great potential to assess C stocks in wetland soils. Our objectives were (i) to develop C stock prediction models utilizing remote sensing images and environmental ancillary data, (ii) to identify the prime environmental predictor variables that explain the spatial distribution of soil C, and (iii) to assess the amount of C stored in the top 20-cm soils of a prominent nutrient-enriched wetland. We collected a total of 108 soil cores at two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) in the Water Conservation Area 2A, FL. We developed random forest models to predict soil C stocks using field observation data, environmental ancillary data, and spectral data derived from remote sensing images, including Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (spatial resolution: 10 m), Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (30 m), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (250 m). The random forest models showed high performance to predict C stocks, and variable importance revealed that hydrology was the major environmental factor explaining the spatial distribution of soil C stocks in Water Conservation Area 2A. Our results showed that this area stores about 4.2 Tg (4.2 Mt) of C in the top 20-cm soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Fire severity alters the distribution of pyrogenic carbon stocks across ecosystem pools in a Californian mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Bernardo; Alvey, Erin C.; Hurteau, Matthew D.; Safford, Hugh; Miesel, Jessica R.

    2017-09-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is hypothesized to play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle due to its resistance to decomposition; however, much uncertainty still exists regarding the stocks of PyC that persist on-site after the initial erosion in postfire forests. Therefore, understanding how fire characteristics influence PyC stocks is vital, particularly in the context of California forests for which an increase of high-severity fires is predicted over the next decades. We measured forest C and persistent PyC stocks in areas burned by low-to-moderate and high-severity fire, as well as in adjacent unburned areas in a California mixed-conifer forest, 2 to 3 years after wildfire. We measured C and PyC stocks in the following compartments: standing trees, downed wood, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-5 cm), and we identified PyC using the weak nitric acid digestion method. We found that the total stock of PyC did not differ among fire severity classes (overall mean 248 ± 30 g C m-2); however, fire severity influenced the distribution of PyC in the individual compartments. Areas burned by high-severity fire had 2.5 times more PyC stocked in the coarse woody debris (p stocked in standing trees (p stock in the forest floor (-22%, p losses through erosion.

  1. Estimating soil organic carbon stocks and spatial patterns with statistical and GIS-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Junjun; Jing, Changwei; Lin, Shengpan; Zhang, Cao; Liu, Qiankun; DeGloria, Stephen D; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered fundamental to studying soil quality, modeling the global carbon cycle, and assessing global climate change. This study evaluated the uncertainties caused by up-scaling of soil properties from the county scale to the provincial scale and from lower-level classification of Soil Species to Soil Group, using four methods: the mean, median, Soil Profile Statistics (SPS), and pedological professional knowledge based (PKB) methods. For the SPS method, SOC stock is calculated at the county scale by multiplying the mean SOC density value of each soil type in a county by its corresponding area. For the mean or median method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated using provincial arithmetic mean or median. For the PKB method, SOC density value of each soil type is calculated at the county scale considering soil parent materials and spatial locations of all soil profiles. A newly constructed 1∶50,000 soil survey geographic database of Zhejiang Province, China, was used for evaluation. Results indicated that with soil classification levels up-scaling from Soil Species to Soil Group, the variation of estimated SOC stocks among different soil classification levels was obviously lower than that among different methods. The difference in the estimated SOC stocks among the four methods was lowest at the Soil Species level. The differences in SOC stocks among the mean, median, and PKB methods for different Soil Groups resulted from the differences in the procedure of aggregating soil profile properties to represent the attributes of one soil type. Compared with the other three estimation methods (i.e., the SPS, mean and median methods), the PKB method holds significant promise for characterizing spatial differences in SOC distribution because spatial locations of all soil profiles are considered during the aggregation procedure.

  2. Clay content drives carbon stocks in soils under a plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon accumulation is largely dependent on net primary productivity. To our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the dynamics of carbon accumulation in weathered subtropical soils, especially in managed eucalyptus plantations. We quantified the seasonal input of leaf litter, the leaf decomposition rate and soil carbon stocks in an commercial plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate, through multiple linear regression, the influence that certain chemical characteristics of litter, as well as chemical and physical characteristics of soil, have on carbon accumulation in soil organic matter fractions. Variables related to the chemical composition of litter were not associated with the soil carbon stock in the particulate and mineral fractions. However, certain soil characteristics were significantly associated with the carbon stock in both fractions. The concentrations of nutrients associated with plant growth and productivity, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper and zinc, were associated with variations in the labile carbon pool (particulate fraction. Clay content was strongly associated with the carbon stock in the mineral fraction. The carbon accumulation and stabilization in weathered subtropical Ultisol seems to be mainly associated with the intrinsic characteristics of the soil, particularly clay content, rather than with the quantity, chemical composition or decomposition rate of the litter.

  3. Rationally Managed Pastures Stock More Carbon than No-Tillage Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi L. S. Seó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant share of Greenhouse Gases (GHG produced from agriculture comes from cattle farming. The reduction in GHG emissions from ruminants fed with grains has led some researchers to recommend such a diet as a means of mitigating emissions in the sector. A more accurate balance of emissions, however, must include the carbon (C stocked by feed crops. Within the grain production system, no-tillage (NT cultivation systems have a greater capacity to increase and store soil organic carbon (SOC. Within grazing management systems, the rotation used in Voisin's Rational Grazing (VRG allows the accumulation of SOC through root growth. The objective of this study was to assess the C stock of pasture under VRG and compare soil C stock between VRG pasture and fields under no-tillage management, in two seasons over a period of 1 year. The study included five dairy farms in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In each property, we collected soil to quantify SOC from VRG pasture and NT fields, in summer and winter. In the pasture, to determine the total stock, we also collected samples from the aerial parts of plants and the roots. Further, we estimated how efficient would be producing milk from those pastures or from those crops. The VRG pasture showed a greater capacity to stock C in the soil than the no-tillage fields (VRG = 115.0 Mg C ha−1; NT = 92.5 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00009, with the greatest difference at a depth of 0–10 cm (VRG = 41 Mg C ha−1; NT = 32 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00008. In VRG, 95% of C was in the soil, 1% in the aerial part of plants, and 4% in the roots. On pasture was produced 0.15 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored, and on NT system 0.13 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored. In this study, we conclude that independent of season, the soil in well managed pastures had a greater stock of C, produced more milk and produced more milk.kg−1 of stored C than fields under NT management. Therefore, when comparing GHG emissions of ruminants with different

  4. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  5. Improved model calculation of atmospheric CO2 increment in affecting carbon stock of tropical mangrove forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghab Ray

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of the difficulties in setting up arrangements in the intertidal zone for free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experimentation, the responses to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide in mangrove forests are poorly studied. This study applied box model to overcome this limitation, and the relative changes in present level of reservoirs organic carbon contents in response to the future increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide were examined in the Avicennia-dominated mangrove forest at the land–ocean boundary of the northeast coast of the Bay of Bengal. The above- and below-ground biomass (AGB+BGB and sediment held different carbon stock (53.20±2.87Mg C ha−1 (mega gram carbon per hectare versus 18.52±2.77Mg C ha−1. Carbon uptake (0.348mg C m−2s−1 is more than offset by losses from plant emission (0.257mg C m−2s−1, and litter fall (13.52µg C m−2s−1 was more than soil CO2 and CH4 emission (8.36 and 1.39µg C m−2s−1, respectively. Across inventory plots, Sundarban mangrove forest carbon storage in above- and below-ground live trees and soil increased by 18.89 and 5.94Mg C ha−1 between June 2009 and December 2011. Box model well predicted the dynamics of above- and below-ground biomass and soil organic carbon, and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations could be the cause of 1.1- and 1.57-fold increases in carbon storage in live biomass and soil, respectively, across Sundarban mangrove forest rather than recovery from past disturbances.

  6. Aquatic export of young dissolved and gaseous carbon from a pristine boreal fen: Implications for peat carbon stock stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, Audrey; Bishop, Kevin H; Billett, Michael F; Garnett, Mark H; Laudon, Hjalmar; Leach, Jason A; Nilsson, Mats B; Öquist, Mats G; Wallin, Marcus B

    2017-12-01

    The stability of northern peatland's carbon (C) store under changing climate is of major concern for the global C cycle. The aquatic export of C from boreal peatlands is recognized as both a critical pathway for the remobilization of peat C stocks as well as a major component of the net ecosystem C balance (NECB). Here, we present a full year characterization of radiocarbon content ( 14 C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and methane (CH 4 ) exported from a boreal peatland catchment coupled with 14 C characterization of the catchment's peat profile of the same C species. The age of aquatic C in runoff varied little throughout the year and appeared to be sustained by recently fixed C from the atmosphere (export to forecasted hydroclimatic changes. © 2017 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Vegetation Structure and Carbon Stocks of Two Protected Areas within the South-Sudanian Savannas of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Savannas and adjacent vegetation types like gallery forests are highly valuable ecosystems contributing to several ecosystem services including carbon budgeting. Financial mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation can provide an opportunity for developing countries to alleviate poverty through conservation of its forestry resources. However, for availing such opportunities carbon stock assessments are essential. Therefore, a research study for this purpose was conducted at two protected areas (Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature Reserve in Burkina Faso. Similarly, analysis of various vegetation parameters was also conducted to understand the overall vegetation structure of these two protected areas. For estimating above ground biomass, existing allometric equations for dry tropical woody vegetation types were used. Compositional structure was described by applying tree species and family importance indices. The results show that both sites collectively contain a mean carbon stock of 3.41 ± 4.98 Mg·C·ha−1. Among different savanna vegetation types, gallery forests recorded the highest mean carbon stock of 9.38 ± 6.90 Mg·C·ha−1. This study was an attempt at addressing the knowledge gap particularly on carbon stocks of protected savannas—it can serve as a baseline for carbon stocks for future initiatives such as REDD+ within these areas.

  8. Trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and harvests in a steady state - A multi-criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingoud, Kim; Ekholm, Tommi; Sievänen, Risto; Huuskonen, Saija; Hynynen, Jari

    2018-03-15

    This paper provides a perspective for comparing trade-offs between harvested wood flows and forest carbon stocks with different forest management regimes. A constant management regime applied to a forest area with an even age-class distribution leads to a steady state, in which the annual harvest and carbon stocks remain constant over time. As both are desirable - carbon stocks for mitigating climate change and harvests for the economic use of wood and displacing fossil fuels - an ideal strategy should be chosen from a set of management regimes that are Pareto-optimal in the sense of multi-criteria decision-making. When choosing between Pareto-optimal alternatives, the trade-off between carbon stock and harvests is unavoidable. This trade-off can be described e.g. in terms of carbon payback times or carbon returns. As numerical examples, we present steady-state harvest levels and carbon stocks in a Finnish boreal forest region for different rotation periods, thinning intensities and collection patterns for harvest residues. In the set of simulated management practices, harvest residue collection presents the most favorable trade-off with payback times around 30-40 years; while Pareto-optimal changes in rotation or thinnings exhibited payback times over 100 years, or alternatively carbon returns below 1%. By extending the rotation period and using less-intensive thinnings compared to current practices, the steady-state carbon stocks could be increased by half while maintaining current harvest levels. Additional cases with longer rotation periods should be also considered, but were here excluded due to the lack of reliable data on older forest stands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A meta-analysis of soil carbon stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Teresa G.; Vesterdal, Lars; Kiær, Lars P.; Marta Stefánsdóttir, Helena; Gundersen, Per; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.

    2013-04-01

    Studies of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock change after afforestation have shown different patterns in terms of magnitude, direction (gain, loss or no change) and duration. Due to data shortage at regional or national scales, global datasets have commonly been evaluated by meta-analysis to address the effects of land-use changes on SOCs. Few syntheses on afforestation effects have been conducted at more constrained spatial scales where the influence of site-specific factors is smaller. Here, we present a meta-analysis of relative change in SOC within the Northern European region (including 123 observations), which has not been well represented in previous syntheses. Effect sizes were determined by log response ratios (RR) for each control-afforested pair. The first objective was to quantify effects of afforestation on SOC stocks in forest floors and mineral soils (0-10 cm and 0-20/30 cm). We tested the influence of different former land use classes, such as croplands and grasslands, forest age and forest type on the estimated SOC stock changes. The second objective was to address the influence of study design. SOC stock estimates from control/afforested plots have an implicit spatial dependency according to the experimental approach used (e.g. paired site studies, chronosequences sharing a common control site and repeated sampling design), however, this has not been accounted for in meta-analyses of afforested soils. In addition, changes in SOC stocks (in 0-10 cm) were expressed on equivalent soil mass and equivalent soil volume to estimate possible differences in effect size originating from these two SOC accounting methods. Preliminary results indicate an overall positive effect of afforestation on SOC accumulation with age, supported by the oldest age classes (>30 years). This effect was enhanced when the forest floor was included in the total SOC stock, in particular for coniferous forests, highlighting the importance of this layer in soil C sequestration

  10. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to global warming. Part II: sensitivity of permafrost carbon stock to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvorostyanov, D.V.; Ciais, G. (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l' Environnement, Saclay (France)); Krinner, G. (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, St Martin d' Heres (France)). e-mail: Dimitry.Khvorostiyanov@lsce.ipsl.fr; Zimov, S.A. (Northeast Science Station, Cherskii (RU)); Corradi, C. (UNITUS, Univ. of Tuscia, Veterbo (Italy)); Guggenberger, G. (Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (DE))

    2008-07-01

    In the companion paper (Part I), we presented a model of permafrost carbon cycle to study the sensitivity of frozen carbon stocks to future climate warming. The mobilization of deep carbon stock of the frozen Pleistocene soil in the case of rapid stepwise increase of atmospheric temperature was considered. In this work, we adapted the model to be used also for floodplain tundra sites and to account for the processes in the soil active layer. The new processes taken into account are litter input and decomposition, plant-mediated transport of methane, and leaching of exudates from plant roots. The SRES-A2 transient climate warming scenario of the IPSL CM4 climate model is used to study the carbon fluxes from the carbon-rich Pleistocene soil with seasonal active-layer carbon cycling on top of it. For a point to the southwest from the western branch of Yedoma Ice Complex, where the climate warming is strong enough to trigger self-sustainable decomposition processes, about 256 kg C/m2, or 70% of the initial soil carbon stock under present-day climate conditions, are emitted to the atmosphere in about 120 yr, including 20 kg C/m2 released as methane. The total average flux of CO{sub 2} and methane emissions to the atmosphere during this time is of 2.1 kg C/m2/yr. Within the Yedoma, whose most part of the territory remains relatively cold, the emissions are much smaller: 0.2 kg C/m2/yr between 2050 and 2100 for Yakutsk area. In a test case with saturated upper-soil meter, when the runoff is insufficient to evacuate the meltwater, 0.05 kg CH{sub 4}/m2/yr on average are emitted as methane during 250 yr starting from 2050. The latter can translate to the upper bound of 1 GtC/yr in CO{sub 2} equivalent from the 1 million km2 area of the Yedoma

  11. Spatial variability of aggregate stability and carbon stock in Cambisol and Argisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Coutinho Alho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of agricultural activities without considering the soil structural conditions ceases at the expense of those environments. This study aimed at evaluating the spatial variability of aggregate stability, bulk density, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock in areas of natural grassland and forest, in the region of Humaitá, Amazonas State, Brazil. The soils were sampled at the crossing points of a grid with 70 m x 70 m, at regular intervals of 10 m, at the depths of 0.0-0.05 m, 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m, totaling 64 samples per depth. The results of the geostatistical analysis showed spatial dependence of attributes. The smaller ranges resulted from the constant variations in the relief of the natural grassland area. The mean values for mean weight diameter (MWD and TOC were respectively around 3.0 mm and 29.0 g kg-1 of the surface layer, similarly to natural grassland and forest areas, confirming the proportional correlation between TOC and MWD. However, the bulk density greater than 1.40 kg dm-3 expresses the inefficiency of soil structural functions in the natural grassland area. The carbon stock contents at the different depths were more favored by TOC than by the different densification levels of the soils evaluated.

  12. Towards understanding of carbon stocks and stabilization in volcanic ash soils in natural Andean ecosystems of northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, F.H.; Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Sevink, J.; de Lange, L.

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic ash soils contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute potential sources or sinks for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Whether soils become a net carbon source or sink with climate and/or land-use change depends on the stability of

  13. Consequences of alternative tree-level biomass estimation procedures on U.S. forest carbon stock estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith; James A. Westfall; Ronald E. McRoberts

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are the largest terrestrial carbon sink on earth and their management has been recognized as a relatively cost-effective strategy for offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. Forest carbon stocks in the U.S. are estimated using data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. In an attempt to balance accuracy with...

  14. Modeling climate and fuel reduction impacts on mixed-conifer forest carbon stocks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Timothy A. Robards; Donald Stevens; David Saah; Malcolm North; George W. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the impacts of changing climatic conditions on forest growth is integral to estimating future forest carbon balance. We used a growth-and-yield model, modified for climate sensitivity, to quantify the effects of altered climate on mixed-conifer forest growth in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Estimates of forest growth and live tree carbon stocks were...

  15. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detecting small-scale spatial differences and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced on arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal as well as small-scale spatial dynamics of ΔSOC. Therefore, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) was used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 under a silage maize/winter fodder rye/sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid/alfalfa crop rotation at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE Germany. Widespread in large areas of the formerly glaciated Northern Hemisphere, this depression type is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, such as SOC and nitrogen (Nt). After monitoring the initial stage during 2010, soil erosion was experimentally simulated by incorporating topsoil material from an eroded midslope soil into the plough layer of the colluvial depression. SOC stocks were quantified before and after soil manipulation and at the end

  17. Sources of errors and uncertainties in the assessment of forest soil carbon stocks at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanguelova, E. I.; Bonifacio, E.; De Vos, B.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially explicit knowledge of recent and past soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in forests will improve our understanding of the effect of human- and non-human-induced changes on forest C fluxes. For SOC accounting, a minimum detectable difference must be defined in order to adequately determine...... and temporal distribution (such as soil type, topography, climate and vegetation) are needed to optimise sampling depths and numbers of samples, thereby ensuring that samples accurately reflect the distribution of SOC at a site. Furthermore, the appropriate scales related to the research question need...

  18. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  19. Simulation of salinity effects on past, present, and future soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Gottschalk, Pia; Baldock, Jeff; Verma, Vipan; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2012-02-07

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) models are used to predict changes in SOC stocks and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions from soils, and have been successfully validated for non-saline soils. However, SOC models have not been developed to simulate SOC turnover in saline soils. Due to the large extent of salt-affected areas in the world, it is important to correctly predict SOC dynamics in salt-affected soils. To close this knowledge gap, we modified the Rothamsted Carbon Model (RothC) to simulate SOC turnover in salt-affected soils, using data from non-salt-affected and salt-affected soils in two agricultural regions in India (120 soils) and in Australia (160 soils). Recently we developed a decomposition rate modifier based on an incubation study of a subset of these soils. In the present study, we introduce a new method to estimate the past losses of SOC due to salinity and show how salinity affects future SOC stocks on a regional scale. Because salinity decreases decomposition rates, simulations using the decomposition rate modifier for salinity suggest an accumulation of SOC. However, if the plant inputs are also adjusted to reflect reduced plant growth under saline conditions, the simulations show a significant loss of soil carbon in the past due to salinization, with a higher average loss of SOC in Australian soils (55 t C ha(-1)) than in Indian soils (31 t C ha(-1)). There was a significant negative correlation (p saline than in non-saline soils under future climate. The simulations of past losses of SOC due to salinity were repeated using either measured charcoal-C or the inert organic matter predicted by the Falloon et al. equation to determine how much deviation from the Falloon et al. equation affects the amount of plant inputs generated by the model for the soils used in this study. Both sets of results suggest that saline soils have lost carbon and will continue to lose carbon under future climate. This demonstrates the importance of both reduced decomposition

  20. Modelling carbon stocks and fluxes in the wood product sector: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet-Navarro, Pau; Jochheim, Hubert; Muys, Bart

    2016-07-01

    In addition to forest ecosystems, wood products are carbon pools that can be strategically managed to mitigate climate change. Wood product models (WPMs) simulating the carbon balance of wood production, use and end of life can complement forest growth models to evaluate the mitigation potential of the forest sector as a whole. WPMs can be used to compare scenarios of product use and explore mitigation strategies. A considerable number of WPMs have been developed in the last three decades, but there is no review available analysing their functionality and performance. This study analyses and compares 41 WPMs. One surprising initial result was that we discovered the erroneous implementation of a few concepts and assumptions in some of the models. We further described and compared the models using six model characteristics (bucking allocation, industrial processes, carbon pools, product removal, recycling and substitution effects) and three model-use characteristics (system boundaries, model initialization and evaluation of results). Using a set of indicators based on the model characteristics, we classified models using a hierarchical clustering technique and differentiated them according to their increasing degrees of complexity and varying levels of user support. For purposes of simulating carbon stock in wood products, models with a simple structure may be sufficient, but to compare climate change mitigation options, complex models are needed. The number of models has increased substantially over the last ten years, introducing more diversity and accuracy. Calculation of substitution effects and recycling has also become more prominent. However, the lack of data is still an important constraint for a more realistic estimation of carbon stocks and fluxes. Therefore, if the sector wants to demonstrate the environmental quality of its products, it should make it a priority to provide reliable life cycle inventory data, particularly regarding aspects of time and

  1. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  2. Impact of a Historical Fire Event on Pyrogenic Carbon Stocks and Dissolved Pyrogenic Carbon in Spodosols in Northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inventories of fire-derived (pyrogenic C (PyC stocks in soils remain incomplete for many parts of the world, yet are critical to reduce uncertainties in global PyC estimates. Additionally, PyC dynamics in soils remain poorly understood. For example, dissolved PyC (DPyC fluxes from soil horizons, as well as the influence of historical fire events on these fluxes and soil PyC stocks remain poorly quantified. In this study, we examined stock and concentration differences in soil PyC and leached DPyC, respectively, between two forest types in the Great Lakes region (USA: (1 a red pine (Pinus resinosa forest planted after the site had experienced post-logging slash burning in the late nineteenth century (100 year-burned site, and (2 a sugar maple (Acer saccharum forest that showed no evidence of burning in the past 250 years (unburned site. We hypothesized that the 100 year-burned site would have greater PyC stocks and concentrations of DPyC compared to the unburned site. We measured PyC in soil, as well as DPyC in soil water leaching from O and E horizons following a spring snowmelt event in both 100 year-burned and unburned sites. Additionally, we measured DPyC drained from B horizons in 100 year-burned site. In organic horizons, PyC stocks were 1.8 (Oi and 2.3 (Oe times greater in the 100 year-burned site than in the unburned site. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, DPyC concentrations did not differ between sites. On average, DPyC leached from all sites contributed 3.11 ± 0.27% of the total dissolved organic carbon pool. In the 100 year-burned site, a significant decline in concentrations of DPyC leaving the B horizon was attributed to the immobilization of this C pool in the Al and Fe oxides-rich subsoil. Even though PyC stock in O horizons was higher in 100 year-burned than in unburned site, our results did not support our initial hypothesis that the 100 year-burned site would have greater DPyC concentrations than the unburned site

  3. Impacts of land use on Indian mangrove forest carbon stocks: Implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomia, R K; MacKenzie, R A; Murdiyarso, D; Sasmito, S D; Purbopuspito, J

    2016-07-01

    Globally, mangrove forests represents only 0.7% of world's tropical forested area but are highly threatened due to susceptibility to climate change, sea level rise, and increasing pressures from human population growth in coastal regions. Our study was carried out in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (BCA), the second-largest mangrove area in eastern India. We assessed total ecosystem carbon (C) stocks at four land use types representing varying degree of disturbances. Ranked in order of increasing impacts, these sites included dense mangrove forests, scrub mangroves, restored/planted mangroves, and abandoned aquaculture ponds. These impacts include both natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances causing stress, degradation, and destruction of mangroves. Mean vegetation C stocks (including both above- and belowground pools; mean ± standard error) in aquaculture, planted, scrub, and dense mangroves were 0, 7 ± 4, 65 ± 11 and 100 ± 11 Mg C/ha, respectively. Average soil C pools for aquaculture, planted, scrub, and dense mangroves were 61 ± 8, 92 ± 20, 177 ± 14, and 134 ± 17 Mg C/ha, respectively. Mangrove soils constituted largest fraction of total ecosystem C stocks at all sampled sites (aquaculture [100%], planted [90%], scrub [72%], and dense mangrove [57%]). Within BCA, the four studied land use types covered an area of ~167 km 2 and the total ecosystem C stocks were 0.07 Tg C for aquaculture (~12 km 2 ), 0.25 Tg C for planted/ restored mangrove (~24 km 2 ), 2.29 teragrams (Tg) Tg C for scrub (~93 km 2 ), and 0.89 Tg C for dense mangroves (~38 km 2 ). Although BCA is protected under Indian wildlife protection and conservation laws, ~150 000 people inhabit this area and are directly or indirectly dependent on mangrove resources for sustenance. Estimates of C stocks of Bhitarkanika mangroves and recognition of their role as a C repository could provide an additional reason to support conservation and restoration of Bhitarkanika

  4. Estimating temporal changes in soil carbon stocks at ecoregional scale in Madagascar using remote-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinand, C.; Maire, G. Le; Vieilledent, G.; Razakamanarivo, H.; Razafimbelo, T.; Bernoux, M.

    2017-02-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in climate change regulation notably through release of CO2 following land use change such a deforestation, but data on stock change levels are lacking. This study aims to empirically assess SOC stocks change between 1991 and 2011 at the landscape scale using easy-to-access spatially-explicit environmental factors. The study area was located in southeast Madagascar, in a region that exhibits very high rate of deforestation and which is characterized by both humid and dry climates. We estimated SOC stock on 0.1 ha plots for 95 different locations in a 43,000 ha reference area covering both dry and humid conditions and representing different land cover including natural forest, cropland, pasture and fallows. We used the Random Forest algorithm to find out the environmental factors explaining the spatial distribution of SOC. We then predicted SOC stocks for two soil layers at 30 cm and 100 cm over a wider area of 395,000 ha. By changing the soil and vegetation indices derived from remote sensing images we were able to produce SOC maps for 1991 and 2011. Those estimates and their related uncertainties where combined in a post-processing step to map estimates of significant SOC variations and we finally compared the SOC change map with published deforestation maps. Results show that the geologic variables, precipitation, temperature, and soil-vegetation status were strong predictors of SOC distribution at regional scale. We estimated an average net loss of 10.7% and 5.2% for the 30 cm and the 100 cm layers respectively for deforested areas in the humid area. Our results also suggest that these losses occur within the first five years following deforestation. No significant variations were observed for the dry region. This study provides new solutions and knowledge for a better integration of soil threats and opportunities in land management policies.

  5. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  6. Allometric models for estimating the aboveground biomass of the mangrove Rhizophora mangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Vanessa Souza Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of species-specific allometric models is critical to the improvement of aboveground biomass estimates, as well as to the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration in mangrove forests. This study developed allometric equations for estimating aboveground biomass of Rhizophora mangle in the mangroves of the estuary of the São Francisco River, in northeastern Brazil. Using a sample of 74 trees, simple linear regression analysis was used to test the dependence of biomass (total and per plant part on size, considering both transformed (ln and not-transformed data. Best equations were considered as those with the lowest standard error of estimation (SEE and highest adjusted coefficient of determination (R2a. The ln-transformed equations showed better results, with R2a near 0.99 in most cases. The equations for reproductive parts presented low R2a values, probably attributed to the seasonal nature of this compartment. "Basal Area2 × Height" showed to be the best predictor, present in most of the best-fitted equations. The models presented here can be considered reliable predictors of the aboveground biomass of R. mangle in the NE-Brazilian mangroves as well as in any site were this widely distributed species present similar architecture to the trees used in the present study.

  7. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks along topographic transects under climate change scenarios using CarboSOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jordán, Antonio; Anaya-Romero, María; de la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is a land evaluation model for soil organic carbon (SOC) accounting under global change scenarios (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013a; 2013b) and is a new component of the MicroLEIS Decision Support System. MicroLEIS is a tool for decision-makers dealing with specific agro-ecological problems as, for example, soil contamination risks (Abd-Elmabod et al., 2010; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2012)which has been designed as a knowledge-based approach incorporating a set of interlinked data bases. Global change and land use changes in recent decades have caused relevant impacts in vegetation carbon stocks (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2011) and soil organic carbon stocks, especially in sensible areas as the Mediterranean region (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b). This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, climate, land use and soil factors on SOC stocks by the application of CarboSOIL in a representative area of the Mediterranean region (Seville, Spain). Two topographic transects (S-N and W-E oriented) were considered, including 63 points separated 4 km each. These points are associated to 41 soil profiles extracted from the SDBm soil data base (De la Rosa et al., 2001) and climatic information (average minimum temperature, average maximum temperature and average rainfall per month) extracted from raster data bases (Andalusian Environmental Information Network, REDIAM). CarboSOIL has been applied along topographic transects at different soil depths and under different climate change scenarios. Climate scenarios have been calculated according to the global climate model (CNRMCM3) by extracting spatial climate data under IPCC A1B scenario for the current period (average data from 1960-2000), 2040, 2070 and 2100. In the current scenario, results show that the highest SOC stock values located on Typic Haploxeralfs under olive groves for soil sections 0-25 cm and for 25-50 cm, but the highest values were determined on fruit-cropped Rendolic Xerothent in the 50-75cm

  8. Where did the US forest biomass/carbon go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher William. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    In Apr. 2012, with the submission of the 1990-2010 US Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the official estimates of aboveground live tree carbon stocks within managed forests of the United States will drop by approximately 14%, compared with last year's inventory. It does not stop there, dead wood...

  9. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Hudak, Andrew Thomas; Klauberg, Carine; Vierling, Lee Alexandre; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos; de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Samuel; Rodriguez, Luiz Carlos Estraviz; Cardil, Adrián

    2017-12-01

    LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. We used the Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to model AGC using LiDAR-derived metrics from LiDAR collections of 5 and 10 pulses m -2 (RF5 and RF10) and grid cell sizes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The results show that LiDAR pulse density of 5 pulses m -2 provides metrics with similar prediction accuracy for AGC as when using a dataset with 10 pulses m -2 in these fast-growing plantations. Relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the RF5 and RF10 were 6.14 and 6.01%, respectively. Equivalence tests showed that the predicted AGC from the training and validation models were equivalent to the observed AGC measurements. The grid cell sizes for mapping ranging from 5 to 20 also did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy of AGC at stand level in this system. LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m -2 and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations and assist in decision making towards more cost effective and efficient forest inventory.

  10. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J.

    2015-01-01

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands’ contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency’s land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  11. Ecosystem carbon stocks and sequestration potential of federal lands across the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Wu, Yiping; Young, Claudia J

    2015-10-13

    Federal lands across the conterminous United States (CONUS) account for 23.5% of the CONUS terrestrial area but have received no systematic studies on their ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics and contribution to the national C budgets. The methodology for US Congress-mandated national biological C sequestration potential assessment was used to evaluate ecosystem C dynamics in CONUS federal lands at present and in the future under three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A1B, A2, and B1. The total ecosystem C stock was estimated as 11,613 Tg C in 2005 and projected to be 13,965 Tg C in 2050, an average increase of 19.4% from the baseline. The projected annual C sequestration rate (in kilograms of carbon per hectare per year) from 2006 to 2050 would be sinks of 620 and 228 for forests and grasslands, respectively, and C sources of 13 for shrublands. The federal lands' contribution to the national ecosystem C budget could decrease from 23.3% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2050. The C sequestration potential in the future depends not only on the footprint of individual ecosystems but also on each federal agency's land use and management. The results presented here update our current knowledge about the baseline ecosystem C stock and sequestration potential of federal lands, which would be useful for federal agencies to decide management practices to achieve the national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation goal.

  12. Changes of Organic Carbon Quantity and Quality in Temperate Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Anna; Satwika Lestari, Annisa; Schubert, Alfred; Wiesmeier, Martin; Spörlein, Peter; Schilling, Bernd; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will have profound impacts on organic matter stocks and thus on the functionality of soils. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is mainly regulated by the fluxes of organic matter which are highly associated with the aboveground and root litter production and their decompositions into CO2 by soil microorganism. The predicted rising temperatures in Bavaria might lead to an increased decomposition and release of soil carbon into the atmosphere, which would deteriorate a number of important soil functions. Here, we present an assessment of SOC stocks in three temperate forest sites over the last 30 years. Soil to a depth of 30 cm was analysed with density fractionation to evaluate SOC stocks and distribution in different pools. Additionally, tree-aboveground organic carbon (OC) stocks were measured to assess their influence on SOC. SOC stocks decreased between 1988 and 2004 and increased between 2004 and 2016. OC changes of litter + O layer and mineral soil differed. Highest changes of SOC occurred in the light fractions, followed by the mineral fractions. Tree-aboveground biomass, stand composition, and changing climate had an influence on SOC stocks. Precipitation change was correlated with the litter + O layer OC stocks. Further studies on the changes of each SOC fraction and the influence of other edaphic factors are needed to better understand the changes in SOC stocks and quality.

  13. Carbon neutral? No change in mineral soil carbon stock under oil palm plantations derived from forest or non-forest in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.; Rahayu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability criteria for palm oil production guide new planting toward non-forest land cover on mineral soil, avoiding carbon debts caused by forest and peat conversion. Effects on soil carbon stock (soil Cstock) of land use change trajectories from forest and non-forest to oil palm on mineral

  14. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaifeng Li

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C and soil organic carbon (SOC stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m. The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1 with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  15. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Su, Jianrong; Liu, Wande; Lang, Xuedong; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Chengxinzhuo; Zhang, Zhijun; Tong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF) in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m). The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1) with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m) contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  16. Comparison of regression coefficient and GIS-based methodologies for regional estimates of forest soil carbon stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott Campbell, J.; Moen, Jeremie C.; Ney, Richard A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of forest soil organic carbon (SOC) have applications in carbon science, soil quality studies, carbon sequestration technologies, and carbon trading. Forest SOC has been modeled using a regression coefficient methodology that applies mean SOC densities (mass/area) to broad forest regions. A higher resolution model is based on an approach that employs a geographic information system (GIS) with soil databases and satellite-derived landcover images. Despite this advancement, the regression approach remains the basis of current state and federal level greenhouse gas inventories. Both approaches are analyzed in detail for Wisconsin forest soils from 1983 to 2001, applying rigorous error-fixing algorithms to soil databases. Resulting SOC stock estimates are 20% larger when determined using the GIS method rather than the regression approach. Average annual rates of increase in SOC stocks are 3.6 and 1.0 million metric tons of carbon per year for the GIS and regression approaches respectively. - Large differences in estimates of soil organic carbon stocks and annual changes in stocks for Wisconsin forestlands indicate a need for validation from forthcoming forest surveys

  17. Soil organic carbon stocks in estuarine and marine mangrove ecosystems are driven by nutrient colimitation of P and N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Christian; Weiss, Joanna; Boy, Jens; Iskandar, Issi; Mikutta, Robert; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-07-01

    Mangroves play an important role in carbon sequestration, but soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks differ between marine and estuarine mangroves, suggesting differing processes and drivers of SOC accumulation. Here, we compared undegraded and degraded marine and estuarine mangroves in a regional approach across the Indonesian archipelago for their SOC stocks and evaluated possible drivers imposed by nutrient limitations along the land-to-sea gradients. SOC stocks in natural marine mangroves (271-572 Mg ha(-1) m(-1)) were much higher than under estuarine mangroves (100-315 Mg ha(-1) m(-1)) with a further decrease caused by degradation to 80-132 Mg ha(-1) m(-1). Soils differed in C/N ratio (marine: 29-64; estuarine: 9-28), δ (15)N (marine: -0.6 to 0.7‰; estuarine: 2.5 to 7.2‰), and plant-available P (marine: 2.3-6.3 mg kg(-1); estuarine: 0.16-1.8 mg kg(-1)). We found N and P supply of sea-oriented mangroves primarily met by dominating symbiotic N2 fixation from air and P import from sea, while mangroves on the landward gradient increasingly covered their demand in N and P from allochthonous sources and SOM recycling. Pioneer plants favored by degradation further increased nutrient recycling from soil resulting in smaller SOC stocks in the topsoil. These processes explained the differences in SOC stocks along the land-to-sea gradient in each mangrove type as well as the SOC stock differences observed between estuarine and marine mangrove ecosystems. This first large-scale evaluation of drivers of SOC stocks under mangroves thus suggests a continuum in mangrove functioning across scales and ecotypes and additionally provides viable proxies for carbon stock estimations in PES or REDD schemes.

  18. Relationships between forest fine and coarse woody debris carbon stocks across latitudinal gradients in the United States as an indicator of climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; G.C. Liknes

    2008-01-01

    Coarse and fine woody materials (CWD and FWD) are substantial forest ecosystem carbon (C) stocks. There is a lack of understanding how these detritus C stocks may respond to climate change. This study used a nation-wide inventory of CWD and FWD in the United States to examine how these C stocks vary by latitude. Results indicate that the highest CWD and FWD C stocks...

  19. Comparison of regression coefficient and GIS-based methodologies for regional estimates of forest soil carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J Elliott; Moen, Jeremie C; Ney, Richard A; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2008-03-01

    Estimates of forest soil organic carbon (SOC) have applications in carbon science, soil quality studies, carbon sequestration technologies, and carbon trading. Forest SOC has been modeled using a regression coefficient methodology that applies mean SOC densities (mass/area) to broad forest regions. A higher resolution model is based on an approach that employs a geographic information system (GIS) with soil databases and satellite-derived landcover images. Despite this advancement, the regression approach remains the basis of current state and federal level greenhouse gas inventories. Both approaches are analyzed in detail for Wisconsin forest soils from 1983 to 2001, applying rigorous error-fixing algorithms to soil databases. Resulting SOC stock estimates are 20% larger when determined using the GIS method rather than the regression approach. Average annual rates of increase in SOC stocks are 3.6 and 1.0 million metric tons of carbon per year for the GIS and regression approaches respectively.

  20. Ecological Variability and Carbon Stock Estimates of Mangrove Ecosystems in Northwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Despite their value, world-wide, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested. Madagascar contains approximately 2% of the world’s mangroves, >20% of which has been deforested since 1990 from increased extraction for charcoal and timber and conversion to small to large-scale agriculture and aquaculture. Loss is particularly prominent in the northwestern Ambaro and Ambanja bays. Here, we focus on Ambaro and Ambanja bays, presenting dynamics calculated using United States Geological Survey (USGS national-level mangrove maps and the first localized satellite imagery derived map of dominant land-cover types. The analysis of USGS data indicated a loss of 7659 ha (23.7% and a gain of 995 ha (3.1% from 1990–2010. Contemporary mapping results were 93.4% accurate overall (Kappa 0.9, with producer’s and user’s accuracies ≥85%. Classification results allowed partitioning mangroves in to ecologically meaningful, spectrally distinct strata, wherein field measurements facilitated estimating the first total carbon stocks for mangroves in Madagascar. Estimates suggest that higher stature closed-canopy mangroves have average total vegetation carbon values of 146.8 Mg/ha (±10.2 and soil organic carbon of 446.2 (±36.9, supporting a growing body of studies that mangroves are amongst the most carbon-dense tropical forests.

  1. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  2. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

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    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  3. Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes

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    H. Portner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Models of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems contain formulations for the dependence of respiration on temperature, but the sensitivity of predicted carbon pools and fluxes to these formulations and their parameterization is not well understood. Thus, we performed an uncertainty analysis of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to its temperature dependency using the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS.

    We used five temperature response functions (Exponential, Arrhenius, Lloyd-Taylor, Gaussian, Van't Hoff. We determined the parameter confidence ranges of the formulations by nonlinear regression analysis based on eight experimental datasets from Northern Hemisphere ecosystems. We sampled over the confidence ranges of the parameters and ran simulations for each pair of temperature response function and calibration site. We analyzed both the long-term and the short-term heterotrophic soil carbon dynamics over a virtual elevation gradient in southern Switzerland.

    The temperature relationship of Lloyd-Taylor fitted the overall data set best as the other functions either resulted in poor fits (Exponential, Arrhenius or were not applicable for all datasets (Gaussian, Van't Hoff. There were two main sources of uncertainty for model simulations: (1 the lack of confidence in the parameter estimates of the temperature response, which increased with increasing temperature, and (2 the size of the simulated soil carbon pools, which increased with elevation, as slower turn-over times lead to higher carbon stocks and higher associated uncertainties. Our results therefore indicate that such projections are more uncertain for higher elevations and hence also higher latitudes, which are of key importance for the global terrestrial carbon budget.

  4. Spatial distribution of whole-tree carbon stocks and fluxes across the forests of Europe: where are the options for bio-energy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents carbon stocks and fluxes of the whole-tree biomass of European forests and other wooded land, distinguished by coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests. The results are presented at the European, national and (where possible) regional level. Results concerning carbon stocks, and

  5. Quantifying Tree and Soil Carbon Stocks in a Temperate Urban Forest in Northeast China

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    Hailiang Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured various tree and soil parameters by sampling 219 plots in the urban forest of the Harbin city region. Averaged tree and soil C stock density (C stocks per unit tree cover for Harbin city were 7.71 (±7.69 kg C·m−2 and 5.48 (±2.86 kg C·m−2, respectively. They were higher than those of other Chinese cities (Shenyang and Changchun, but were much lower than local natural forests. The tree C stock densities varied 2.3- to 3.2-fold among forest types, administrative districts, and ring road-based urban-rural gradients. In comparison, soil organic C (SOC densities varied by much less (1.4–1.5-fold. We found these to be urbanization-dependent processes, which were closely related to the urban-rural gradient data based on ring-roads and settlement history patterns. We estimated that SOC accumulation during the 100-year urbanization of Harbin was very large (5 to 14 thousand tons, accounting for over one quarter of the stored C in trees. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of above- and below-ground C (especially in soil during the urbanization process, and that a city’s ability to provide C-related ecosystem services increases as it ages. Our findings highlight that urbanization effects should be incorporated into calculations of soil C budgets in regions subject to rapid urban expansion, such as China.

  6. GRANULOMETRIC AND HUMIC FRACTIONS CARBON STOCKS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN UBERABA, BRAZIL

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    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cover plant use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different cover plant, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented cover crops were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage. After cover crop removal, the areas were subdivided for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF, fulvic acids (C-FAF and humin (C-HUM were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM and mineral organic matter (MOM. Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the 0.0-0.20 m layer, TOC had the highest stocks for the millet area. The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m. In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical (palisade grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m. The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass (0.025-0.05 m and areas with tropical grass and sunn hemp (0.10-0.20 m, when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean. The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0

  7. Estimation of Carbon Stock Stands using EVI and NDVI Vegetation Index in Production Forest of Lembah Seulawah Sub-District, Aceh Indonesia

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    Jhon Pandapotan Situmorang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation indexes to estimate the carbon stocks of forest stands in the Production Forest of Lembah Seulawah sub-district. Aceh Province, Indonesia. A non-destructive method using allometric equations and landscape scale method were applied, where in carbon stocks at the points of samples are correlated with the index values of each transformation of the vegetation indexes; EVI and NDVI.  Results show that EVI values of study area from 0.05 to 0.90 and NDVI values from 0.17 to 0.85. The regression analysis between EVI with carbon stock value of sample locations equation is Y = 151.7X-39.76. with the coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.83. From this calculation, the total carbon stocks in the Production Forest area of Lembah Seulawah sub-district using EVI is estimated 790.344.41 tonnes, and the average value of carbon stocks in average is 51.48 tons per hectare.  Regression analysis between NDVI values at the research locations for the carbon stack measured samples is Y = 204.Xx-102.1 with coefficient of determination (R2 is 0.728. Total carbon stocks in production forest of Lembah Seulawah sub-district using NDVI is estimated 711.061.81 tones. and the average value of carbon stocks is 46.32 tons per hectare. From the above results it can be concluded that the vegetation indexes: EVI and NDVI are vegetation indexed that have a very close correlation with carbon stocks stands estimation. The correlation between EVI with carbon stock and the correlation between NDVI with carbon stock is not significantly different

  8. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo Jr. de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  9. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  10. Altitudinal variation in soil organic carbon stock in coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests in Garhwal Himalaya

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    Kumar Munesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Himalayan zones, with dense forest vegetation, cover a fifth part of India and store a third part of the country reserves of soil organic carbon (SOC. However, the details of altitudinal distribution of these carbon stocks, which are vulnerable to forest management and climate change impacts, are not well known. Results This article reports the results of measuring the stocks of SOC along altitudinal gradients. The study was carried out in the coniferous subtropical and broadleaf temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. The stocks of SOC were found to be decreasing with altitude: from 185.6 to 160.8 t C ha-1 and from 141.6 to 124.8 t C ha-1 in temperature (Quercus leucotrichophora and subtropical (Pinus roxburghii forests, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study lead to conclusion that the ability of soil to stabilize soil organic matter depends negatively on altitude and call for comprehensive theoretical explanation

  11. Carbon stocks and fluxes in the high latitudes: using site-level data to evaluate Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadburn, Sarah E.; Krinner, Gerhard; Porada, Philipp; Bartsch, Annett; Beer, Christian; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Boike, Julia; Ekici, Altug; Elberling, Bo; Friborg, Thomas; Hugelius, Gustaf; Johansson, Margareta; Kuhry, Peter; Kutzbach, Lars; Langer, Moritz; Lund, Magnus; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Peng, Shushi; Van Huissteden, Ko; Wang, Tao; Westermann, Sebastian; Zhu, Dan; Burke, Eleanor J.

    2017-11-01

    It is important that climate models can accurately simulate the terrestrial carbon cycle in the Arctic due to the large and potentially labile carbon stocks found in permafrost-affected environments, which can lead to a positive climate feedback, along with the possibility of future carbon sinks from northward expansion of vegetation under climate warming. Here we evaluate the simulation of tundra carbon stocks and fluxes in three land surface schemes that each form part of major Earth system models (JSBACH, Germany; JULES, UK; ORCHIDEE, France). We use a site-level approach in which comprehensive, high-frequency datasets allow us to disentangle the importance of different processes. The models have improved physical permafrost processes and there is a reasonable correspondence between the simulated and measured physical variables, including soil temperature, soil moisture and snow. We show that if the models simulate the correct leaf area index (LAI), the standard C3 photosynthesis schemes produce the correct order of magnitude of carbon fluxes. Therefore, simulating the correct LAI is one of the first priorities. LAI depends quite strongly on climatic variables alone, as we see by the fact that the dynamic vegetation model can simulate most of the differences in LAI between sites, based almost entirely on climate inputs. However, we also identify an influence from nutrient limitation as the LAI becomes too large at some of the more nutrient-limited sites. We conclude that including moss as well as vascular plants is of primary importance to the carbon budget, as moss contributes a large fraction to the seasonal CO2 flux in nutrient-limited conditions. Moss photosynthetic activity can be strongly influenced by the moisture content of moss, and the carbon uptake can be significantly different from vascular plants with a similar LAI. The soil carbon stocks depend strongly on the rate of input of carbon from the vegetation to the soil, and our analysis suggests that

  12. Climate and land use changes effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a Mediterranean semi-natural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the effects of climate and land use changes on the soil carbon pool is critical to planning effective strategies for adaptation and mitigation in future scenarios of global climate and land use change. In this study, we used CarboSOIL model to predict changes in soil organic carbon stocks in a semi-natural area of Southern Spain in three different time horizons (2040, 2070, 2100), considering two general circulation models (BCM2 and ECHAM5) and three IPCC scenarios (A1b, A2, B2). The effects of potential land use changes from natural vegetation (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland) to agricultural land (olive grove and cereal) on soil organic carbon stocks were also evaluated. Predicted values of SOC contents correlated well those measured (R2 ranging from 0.71 at 0-25cm to 0.97 at 50-75cm) showing the efficiency of the model. Results showed substantial differences among time horizons, climate and land use scenarios and soil depth with larger decreases of soil organic carbon stocks in the long term (2100 time horizon) and particularly in olive groves. The combination of climate and land use scenarios (in particular conversion from current 'dehesa' to olive groves) resulted in yet higher losses of soil organic carbon stocks, e.g. -30, -15 and -33% in the 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75cm sections respectively. This study shows the importance of soil organic carbon stocks assessment under both climate and land use scenarios at different soil sections and point towards possible directions for appropriate land use management in Mediterranean semi natural areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil Carbon Stocks in a Shifting Ecosystem; Climate Induced Migration of Mangroves into Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, L.; Osborne, T.; Feller, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, coastal wetland vegetation distributions are changing in response to climate change. The increase in global average surface temperature has already caused shifts in the structure and distribution of many ecological communities. In parts of the southeastern United States, increased winter temperatures have resulted in the poleward range expansion of mangroves at the expense of salt marsh habitat. Our work aims to document carbon storage in the salt marsh - mangrove ecotone and any potential changes in this reservoir that may ensue due to the shifting range of this habitat. Differences in SOM and C stocks along a latitudinal gradient on the east coast of Florida will be presented. The gradient studied spans 342 km and includes pure mangrove habitat, the salt marsh - mangrove ecotone, and pure salt marsh habitat.This latitudinal gradient gives us an exceptional opportunity to document and investigate ecosystem soil C modifications as mangroves transgress into salt marsh habitat due to climatic change.

  14. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  15. Deforestation impacts on soil organic carbon stocks in the Semiarid Chaco Region, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Sebastián Horacio; Studdert, Guillermo Alberto; Baldassini, Pablo; Cendoya, María Gabriela; Ciuffoli, Lucía; Mastrángelo, Matias; Piñeiro, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    Land use change affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and generates CO 2 emissions. Moreover, SOC depletion entails degradation of soil functions that support ecosystem services. Large areas covered by dry forests have been cleared in the Semiarid Chaco Region of Argentina for cropping expansion. However, deforestation impacts on the SOC stock and its distribution in the soil profile have been scarcely reported. We assessed these impacts based on the analysis of field data along a time-since-deforestation-for-cropping chronosequence, and remote sensing indices. Soil organic C was determined up to 100cm depth and physically fractionated into mineral associated organic carbon (MAOC) and particulate organic C (POC). Models describing vertical distribution of SOC were fitted. Total SOC, POC and MAOC stocks decreased markedly with increasing cropping age. Particulate organic C was the most sensitive fraction to cultivation. After 10yr of cropping SOC loss was around 30%, with greater POC loss (near 60%) and smaller MAOC loss (near 15%), at 0-30cm depth. Similar relative SOC losses were observed in deeper soil layers (30-60 and 60-100cm). Deforestation and subsequent cropping also modified SOC vertical distribution. Soil organic C loss was negatively associated with the proportion of maize in the rotation and total crop biomass inputs, but positively associated with the proportion of soybean in the rotation. Without effective land use polices, deforestation and agricultural expansion can lead to rapid soil degradation and reductions in the provision of important ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward an integrated monitoring framework to assess the effects of tropical forest degradation and recovery on carbon stocks and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes M. C. Bustamante; Iris Roitman; T. Mitchell Aide; Ane Alencar; Liana O. Anderson; Luiz Aragao; Gregory P. Asner; Jos Barlow; Erika Berenguer; Jeffrey Chambers; Marcos H. Costa; Thierry Fanin; Laerte G. Ferreira; Joice Ferreira; Michael Keller; William E. Magnusson; Lucia Morales-Barquero; Douglas Morton; Jean P. H. B. Ometto; Michael Palace; Carlos A. Peres; Divino Silverio; Susan Trumbore; Ima C. G. Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor a significant portion of global biodiversity and are a critical component of the climate system. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation contributes to global climate-change mitigation efforts, yet emissions and removals from forest dynamics are still poorly quantified. We reviewed the main challenges to estimate changes in carbon stocks...

  17. Recent changes in the estimation of standing dead tree biomass and carbon stocks in the U.S. forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; James E. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, standing dead tree biomass and carbon (C) has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. Traditional estimates of standing dead tree biomass/C attributes were based on merchantability standards that did not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to...

  18. Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, H.; Wolf, A.; Bugmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    function of Lloyd&Taylor therefore is an adequate choice to model the temperature dependency of soil organic matter decomposition. The Ticino catchment (300-2300m) in Southern Switzerland was used to study the sensitivity of long-term changes (100 years) in the prediction of carbon storage. The uncertainty in temperature response introduced into the model lead to high uncertainties in long-term soil carbon stocks. Interestingly, the uncertainty increased with decreasing temperature and increasing elevation. The carbon pools in lower elevations (mean annual temperature > 15 °C) turned over faster and little carbon accumulated in the soil. The carbon pools in higher elevations and hence in higher latitudes experiencing colder temperature (mean annual temperature < 15 °C) turned over slower and therefore accumulated more carbon over the simulation period. Therefore, the high elevation soils stored more carbon, but the prediction of the carbon pool size had a much higher uncertainty than the low elevation soils. We concluded that with our model, the predictions of the potential loss of soil carbon in cold temperature regimes is more uncertain than the carbon loss in warmer regions, both due to the higher soil carbon pools, but also due to the higher uncertainty found in our simulations.

  19. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century forests accounted for only 1% of the total Irish land cover (Pilcher & Mac an tSaoir, 1995). However, due to the efforts of successive governments there has been rapid afforestation since the 1960s resulting in a 10.0% forest land cover as of 2007 (The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, 2007). A large proportion of this afforestation took place after the mid-1980s and was fueled by government grant incentive schemes targeted at private landowners (Renou & Farrell 2005). Consequently, 54% of forests are less than 20 years old (Byrne, 2006). This specific land use change provides an opportunity for Ireland to meet international obligations set forth by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992). These obligations include the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions to 13% above 1990 levels. In order to promote accountability for these commitments, the UNFCCC treaty and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997) mandate signatories to publish greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories for both greenhouse gas sources and removals by sinks. Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol allows changes in C stocks due to afforestation, reforestation, and deforestation since 1990 to be used to offset inventory emissions. Therefore, due to the rapid rate of afforestation and its increased carbon sequestration since 1990, Ireland has the potential to significantly offset GHG emissions. There is little known as to the impacts of afforestation on the carbon stocks in soils over time, and even less known about the impact on Irish soils. The FORESTC project aims to analyse this impact by undertaking a nationwide study using a method similar to that of the paired plot method in Davis and Condron, 2002. The study will examine 42 forest sites across Ireland selected randomly from the National Forest Inventory (National Forest Inventory, 2007). These 42 sites will be grouped based on the forest type which includes

  20. Holocene carbon stocks and carbon accumulation rates altered in soils undergoing permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caitlin E. Hicks Pries; Edward A.G. Schuur; K. Grace Crummer

    2012-01-01

    Permafrost soils are a significant global store of carbon (C) with the potential to become a large C source to the atmosphere. Climate change is causing permafrost to thaw, which can affect primary production and decomposition, therefore affecting ecosystem C balance. We modeled decadal and millennial soil C inputs, decomposition constants, and C accumulation rates by...

  1. Effects of bark beetle outbreaks and wildfire in the western US on carbon stocks during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Meddens, A. J.; Allen, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires are significant forest disturbances that respond strongly to climate and affect future climate through carbon cycling. Extensive tree mortality has occurred in western North America as a result of these disturbances. Here we present an analysis that quantifies impacts of these two disturbances to tree carbon stocks. Mortality area from bark beetles was derived from aerial surveys in 1997-2010 in the western US and 2001-2010 in British Columbia that were converted to mortality area by multiplying by species-specific crown areas and, in the case of the US, adjusted for underestimation. We summed moderate- and high-severity burned areas in forests from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database from 1984-2009 to estimate mortality area from forest fires. Mortality area was then combined with spatially explicit maps of carbon stocks to estimate the amount of carbon in killed trees. Notable findings include that the mortality area from bark beetle outbreaks in the western US was comparable to the mortality area in British Columbia during the last few decades. In the western US, mortality area from bark beetles was similar to or exceeded that from forest fires. Carbon stocks in trees killed by these two disturbance types (beetles and fire) had similar spatial and temporal patterns as tree mortality, illustrating the importance of each of these disturbances in governing regional forest carbon fluxes.

  2. ForC: a global database of forest carbon stocks and fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Wang, Maria M H; McGarvey, Jennifer C; Herrmann, Valentine; Tepley, Alan J; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; LeBauer, David S

    2018-03-30

    Forests play an influential role in the global carbon (C) cycle, storing roughly half of terrestrial C and annually exchanging with the atmosphere more than five times the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, scaling up from field-based measurements of forest C stocks and fluxes to understand global scale C cycling and its climate sensitivity remains an important challenge. Tens of thousands of forest C measurements have been made, but these data have yet to be integrated into a single database that makes them accessible for integrated analyses. Here we present an open-access global Forest Carbon database (ForC) containing previously published records of field-based measurements of ecosystem-level C stocks and annual fluxes, along with disturbance history and methodological information. ForC expands upon the previously published tropical portion of this database, TropForC (https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.t516f), now including 17,367 records (previously 3,568) representing 2,731 plots (previously 845) in 826 geographically distinct areas. The database covers all forested biogeographic and climate zones, represents forest stands of all ages, and currently includes data collected between 1934 and 2015. We expect that ForC will prove useful for macroecological analyses of forest C cycling, for evaluation of model predictions or remote sensing products, for quantifying the contribution of forests to the global C cycle, and for supporting international efforts to inventory forest carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. A dynamic version of ForC is maintained at on GitHub (https://GitHub.com/forc-db), and we encourage the research community to collaborate in updating, correcting, expanding, and utilizing this database. ForC is an open access database, and we encourage use of the data for scientific research and education purposes. Data may not be used for commercial purposes without written permission of the database PI. Any publications using For

  3. Conservation tillage versus conventional tillage on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is essential for making appropriate land management decisions, as soils can affect the carbon content from the atmosphere, emitting large quantities of CO2 or storing carbon. This property is essential for climate change mitigation strategies as agriculture and forestry soil management can affect the carbon cycle. The dehesa is a Mediterranean silvopastoral system formed by grasslands with scattered oaks (Quercus ilex or Q. suber). The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. In addition, the dehesa is a practice dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork, as well as hunting. The dehesa is characterized by the preservation of forest oaks. In this work, we compared two management practices such as organic farming (OF) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil organic carbon stocks (SOC-S) in Cambisols (CM) and Leptosols (LP), and we analyzed the quality of these soils based on stratification ratio (SR) in a Mediterranean dehesa. MATERIAL AND METHODS An analysis of 85 soil profiles was performed in 2009 in Los Pedroches Valley (Cordoba, southern Spain). Two soil management practices were selected: OF (isolated trees of variable densities —15-25— trees ha-1, mostly holm and cork oaks, and patches of shrubs — cistaceae, fabaceae and lamiaceae— with a herbaceous pasture layer mostly composed of therophytic species and livestock are introduced to provide organic fertilizer to the soil, without ploughing and animal manure from the farms may be incorporated) for 20 years and CT (similar to OF, with ploughing —annual passes with a disc harrow and/or cultivator— is aimed at growing grain for livestock or at clearing the encroaching shrubs) in CM and LP. The dehesas studied were silvopastoral systems without cropping. Soil properties

  4. Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Liu, Guo-Bin; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage (5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  6. Content and carbon stocks in labile and recalcitrant organic matter of the soil under crop-livestock integration in Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaynara Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of organic matter and its compartments and their relationship with management, aims to develop strategies for increasing their levels in soils and better understanding of its dynamics. This work aimed to evaluate the fractions of soil organic matter and their carbon stocks in different soil cover system in crop-livestock integration and native Cerrado vegetation. The study was conducted at the farm Cabeceira, Maracajú – MS, sample area have the following history: soybean/corn + brachiaria/cotton/oat + pasture/soybean/formation of pasture/grazing, sampling was carried out in two seasons, dry (May/2009 and rainy (March 2010, in the dry season, crops present were: pasture, corn and cotton + brachiaria and in the rainy season were corn, cotton and soybeans, so the areas in the two evaluation periods were: pasture / maize + brachiaria / cotton, cotton / soybean area and a native of Savanna. Was performed to determine the exchangeable cations, particle size analysis, bulk density, organic carbon, particle size fractionation of organic matter of the soil with the quantification of particulate organic carbon (POC and organic carbon associated with minerals (OCam. Was also quantified the carbon stock and size fractions. The area of pasture / maize showed higher carbon stock in the particulate fraction in the topsoil. The area of cotton / soy due to its lower clay, showed the greatest loss of carbon. Because of the areas have the same history, the stock of more recalcitrant fraction was not sensitive to variations in coverage. The POC fraction appears more sensitive to different soil covers and seasonality.

  7. Exploring the ecosystem engineering ability of Red Sea shallow benthic habitats using stocks and fluxes in carbon biogeochemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-12-01

    The coastal ocean is a marginal region of the global ocean, but is home to metabolically intense ecosystems which increase the structural complexity of the benthos. These ecosystems have the ability to alter the carbon chemistry of surrounding waters through their metabolism, mainly through processes which directly release or consume carbon dioxide. In this way, coastal habitats can engineer their environment by acting as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide and altering their environmental chemistry from the regional norm. In most coastal water masses, it is difficult to resolve the ecosystem effect on coastal carbon biogeochemistry due to the mixing of multiple offshore end members, complex geography or the influence of variable freshwater inputs. The Red Sea provides a simple environment for the study of