WorldWideScience

Sample records for above-ground dry matter

  1. Long-term changes in above ground biomass after disturbance in a neotropical dry forest, Hellshire Hills, Jamaica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño, Milena; McLaren, Kurt P.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We used data from experimental plots (control, partially cut and clear-cut) established in 1998, in a tropical dry forest (TDF) in Jamaica, to assess changes in above ground biomass (AGB) 10 years after disturbance. The treatments reduced AGB significantly in 1999 (partially cut: 37.6 %, clear-cu...

  2. Results on MeV-scale dark matter from a gram-scale cryogenic calorimeter operated above ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angloher, G.; Bauer, P.; Bento, A.; Iachellini, N.F.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Mancuso, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Reindl, F.; Rothe, J.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Wuestrich, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Gorla, P.; Pagliarone, C.; Schaeffner, K. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy); Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Langenkaemper, A.; Mondragon, E.; Muenster, A.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Thi, H.H.T.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Puig, R.; Schieck, J.; Stahlberg, M.; Tuerkoglu, C. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Strandhagen, C.; Uffinger, M.; Usherov, I. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Collaboration: CRESST Collaboration

    2017-09-15

    Models for light dark matter particles with masses below 1 GeV/c{sup 2} are a natural and well-motivated alternative to so-far unobserved weakly interacting massive particles. Gram-scale cryogenic calorimeters provide the required detector performance to detect these particles and extend the direct dark matter search program of CRESST. A prototype 0.5 g sapphire detector developed for the ν-cleus experiment has achieved an energy threshold of E{sub th} = (19.7 ± 0.9)eV. This is one order of magnitude lower than for previous devices and independent of the type of particle interaction. The result presented here is obtained in a setup above ground without significant shielding against ambient and cosmogenic radiation. Although operated in a high-background environment, the detector probes a new range of light-mass dark matter particles previously not accessible by direct searches. We report the first limit on the spin-independent dark matter particle-nucleon cross section for masses between 140 and 500 MeV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  3. Results on MeV-scale dark matter from a gram-scale cryogenic calorimeter operated above ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angloher, G.; Bauer, P.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Iachellini, N. Ferreiro; Gorla, P.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kluck, H.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Langenkämper, A.; Loebell, J.; Mancuso, M.; Mondragon, E.; Münster, A.; Oberauer, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Puig, R.; Reindl, F.; Rothe, J.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stahlberg, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Thi, H. H. Trinh; Türkoǧlu, C.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2017-09-01

    Models for light dark matter particles with masses below 1 GeV/c^2 are a natural and well-motivated alternative to so-far unobserved weakly interacting massive particles. Gram-scale cryogenic calorimeters provide the required detector performance to detect these particles and extend the direct dark matter search program of CRESST. A prototype 0.5 g sapphire detector developed for the ν -cleus experiment has achieved an energy threshold of E_{th}=(19.7± 0.9) eV. This is one order of magnitude lower than for previous devices and independent of the type of particle interaction. The result presented here is obtained in a setup above ground without significant shielding against ambient and cosmogenic radiation. Although operated in a high-background environment, the detector probes a new range of light-mass dark matter particles previously not accessible by direct searches. We report the first limit on the spin-independent dark matter particle-nucleon cross section for masses between 140 and 500 MeV/c^2.

  4. Data from: Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van S.H.; Putten, van der W.H.; Kleijn, D.

    2016-01-01

    Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure, and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop yield. We

  5. Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Stijn; van der Putten, Wim H; Kleijn, David

    2016-01-01

    1.Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure, and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop

  6. Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van S.H.; Putten, van der W.H.; Kleijn, D.

    2016-01-01

    1.Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop

  7. Efeito do alumínio sobre o crescimento de raízes, peso seco da parte aérea e raízes de diferentes cultivares de soja Effect of aluminum on root growth, dry matter weight of the above ground parts and roots of soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipolito Assunção Antonio Mascarenhas

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados dois experimentos preliminares, em solução nutritiva, para avaliar a tolerância da soja ao alumínio. No primeiro, foram testados os cultivares Cristalina e UFV-1, utilizando-se os teores 0, 5, 10 e 20mg/litro de Al. Esses níveis foram muito altos e reduziram drasticamente o comprimento das raízes primarias das plântulas após sete dias de crescimento. Com base nesses dados, outro experimento foi instalado, testando os cultivares Lee, Bragg, Cristalina e UFV-1. a 0, 1, 2 e 4mg/litro de Al. Os resultados mostraram que o comprimento das raízes primárias das plântulas foi melhor parâmetro do que o peso seco da parte aérea ou das raízes, para avaliar tolerância de soja ao alumínio. O nível de 1mg/litro na solução foi suficiente para separar os cultivares susceptíveis e tolerantes, enquanto os níveis de 2 e 4mg/litro causaram drástica redução do comprimento de raiz primária das plântulas de todos os cultivares. Nessas condições, 'Lee' e 'Cristalina' mostraram ser tolerantes enquanto o 'Bragg' se apresentou intermediário e o 'UFV-1' foi o mais susceptível entre eles. Os cultivares tolerantes revelaram tendência de acumular menores teores de Al na parte aérea, em comparação com os demais.Two experiments were conducted in nutrient solution to study the level of Al necessary to separate tolerant cultivars from the susceptible. In the first experiment the levels of Al were 0, 5, 10 and 20mg/l and two cultivars Cristalina and UFV-1 were studied. These levels were found to be too high as they had drastic effect on the primary roots after 7 days of transplanting. Based on this data another experiment was conducted using 0, 1, 2 and 4mg/l of Al and using cultivars Lee, Bragg, Cristalina and UFV-1. The results showed that the length of the primary root was the best parameter as compared with dry weight of the above ground parts and roots to evaluate tolerance of soybeans to Al. The level of 1mg/l was adequate to

  8. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  9. ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS MICRONUTRIENTS IN A SEASONAL SUBTROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the above ground biomass of a native forest or plantation are stored large quantities of nutrients, with few studies in the literature, especially concerning micronutrients. The present work aimed to quantify the micronutrients in above ground biomass in a Seasonal Subtropical forest in Itaara-RS, Brazil. For the above ground biomass evaluation, 20 trees of five different diameter classes were felled. The above ground biomass was separated in the following compartments: stem wood, stem bark, branches and leaves. The contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the biomass samples were determined. The stock of micronutrients in the biomass for each component was obtained based on the estimated dry biomass, multiplied by the nutrient content. The total production of above ground biomass was estimated at 210.0 Mg.ha-1. The branches, stem wood, stem bark and leaves corresponded to 48.8, 43.3, 5.4 and 2.4% of the above ground biomass. The lower levels of B, Cu, Fe and Mn are in stem wood, except for Zn; in the branches and trunk wood are the largest stocks of B, Cu, Fe and Mn. In the branches, leaves and trunk bark are stored most micronutrients, pointing to the importance of these to remain on the soil.

  10. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  11. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifen; Chen Xueliu; Yu Meiyan

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32 P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32 P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively

  12. EnviroAtlas - Above Ground Live Biomass Carbon Storage for the Conterminous United States- Forested

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the average above ground live dry biomass estimate for the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in kg/m...

  13. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W c ; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W a ) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha -1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha -1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  14. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  15. Above-ground tree outside forest (TOF) phytomass and carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to classify TOF, to estimate above-ground TOF phytomass and the carbon content ... eral, trees outside forests (TOF) mean the trees ..... have been used to stratify the area, based on the ... The optimum plot size and num- .... population centres.

  16. Underside corrosion of above ground storage tanks (ASTs) | Rim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... above statutory safe limits. The results showed that the physico-chemical characteristics of the water sample have diagnostic and predictive values to implicate and promote underside corrosion of the studied above ground storage tank. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 9(1) 2005: 161-163.

  17. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  18. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  19. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  20. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  1. Well drilling by rotary percussive drill above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Originally, the Well Drilling Section of Cogema used only the diamond core drilling technique. The appearance of independent rotation for compressed air rock drills has led to the use and to the development of this drilling system, as a drill core is not indispensable, when the material of the search is radioactive. During the last few years, hydraulic drills have replaced the compressed air drills and have resulted in a very marked improvement: - of the penetration rates; - of the depth achieved. The Well Drilling Section of Cogema has to drill about 400 km per year with rock drills above ground and holds also the record for depth achieved with this technique, i.e. 400 m in granite. In France, the costs of these types of drilling are for the same depth of the order of one-quarter of the core drilling and half of the drilling with a down-the-hole drill. Cogema has greatly developed the types of well logging which now permits the extension of this type of drilling to the search for other materials than uranium [fr

  2. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  3. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...... include chemical variations between potato tuber samples. The added dry material content was predicted with a RMSE of 0.94 percentage points in agar gels with added dried material extracted from separate potato tubers. The local dry matter content from a region within 2 cm of the center location...

  4. Effect of oversowing leguminous species on dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven years after oversowing, forage dry matter yield and chemical composition were estimated both in the dryand wet seasons. Mean values of forage dry matter yieid in the dry season were 1.75, 1.69, 1.62, 1.51 and, 0.94 t/ha for the plots oversown, with, S. hamata, M atropurpureum, C. ternatea and C. pubescence and ...

  5. Extraction and textural characterization of above-ground areas from aerial stereo pairs: a quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillard, C.; Dissard, O.; Jamet, O.; Maître, H.

    Above-ground analysis is a key point to the reconstruction of urban scenes, but it is a difficult task because of the diversity of the involved objects. We propose a new method to above-ground extraction from an aerial stereo pair, which does not require any assumption about object shape or nature. A Digital Surface Model is first produced by a stereoscopic matching stage preserving discontinuities, and then processed by a region-based Markovian classification algorithm. The produced above-ground areas are finally characterized as man-made or natural according to the grey level information. The quality of the results is assessed and discussed.

  6. Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Justine; Moors, Eddy; Kruijt, Bart; Speer, James H.; Vinya, Royd; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Leemans, Rik

    2018-02-01

    Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

  7. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad tracks...

  8. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  9. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: i - plant nutrition and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable-rate nitrogen fertilization (VRF based on optical spectrometry sensors of crops is a technological innovation capable of improving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and mitigate environmental impacts. However, studies addressing fertilization based on crop sensors are still scarce in Brazilian agriculture. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of an optical crop sensor to assess the nutritional status of corn and compare VRF with the standard strategy of traditional single-rate N fertilization (TSF used by farmers. With this purpose, three experiments were conducted at different locations in Southern Brazil, in the growing seasons 2008/09 and 2010/11. The following crop properties were evaluated: above-ground dry matter production, nitrogen (N content, N uptake, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD reading, and a vegetation index measured by the optical sensor N-Sensor® ALS. The plants were evaluated in the stages V4, V6, V8, V10, V12 and at corn flowering. The experiments had a completely randomized design at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The vegetation index was directly related to above-ground dry matter production (R² = 0.91; p<0.0001, total N uptake (R² = 0.87; p<0.0001 and SPAD reading (R² = 0.63; p<0.0001 and inversely related to plant N content (R² = 0.53; p<0.0001. The efficiency of VRF for plant nutrition was influenced by the specific climatic conditions of each site. Therefore, the efficiency of the VRF strategy was similar to that of the standard farmer fertilizer strategy at sites 1 and 2. However, at site 3 where the climatic conditions were favorable for corn growth, the use of optical sensors to determine VRF resulted in a 12 % increase in N plant uptake in relation to the standard fertilization, indicating the potential of this technology to improve NUE.

  10. ERC hazard classification matrices for above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the status of the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) process for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities currently underway for planned for fiscal year (FY) 1997. This classification process is based on current US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) guidance for the classification of facilities and activities containing radionuclide and nonradiological hazardous material inventories. The above ground structures presented in the matrices were drawn from the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project Facility List (DOE 1996), which identifies the facilities in the RL-Environmental Restoration baseline contract in 1997. This document contains the following two appendices: (1) Appendix A, which consists of a matrix identifying PHC documents that have been issued for BHI's above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997, and (2) Appendix B, which consists of a matrix showing anticipated PHCs for above ground structures, and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997. Appendix B also shows the schedule for finalization of PHCs for above ground structures with an anticipated classification of Nuclear

  11. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  12. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean IVDMD of maize residues obtained by means of a whole plant maize harvester was found to be relatively high (IVDMD = 55.6±7.0%) while the crude protein (CP) (46±10 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and phosphorus (P) (1.2±0.5 g/kg DM) concentrations were below the maintenance requirement for dry gestating beef ...

  13. Above-ground biomass models for Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia) in Mustang District, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajchal, Rajesh; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    weight of fruit and oven-dry weight of wood (stem and branches) and leaves were measured and used as a basis for developing biomass models. Diameters of the trees were measured at 30 cm above ground whereas the heights were measured in terms of the total tree height (m). Among several models tested......, the models suggested for local use were: ln(woody biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -3.083 + 2.436 ln(diameter, cm), ln (fruit biomass, fresh, kg) = -3.237 + 1.346 ln(diameter, cm) and ln(leaf biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -4.013 + 1.403 ln(Diameter, cm) with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99, 0.73 and 0.......91 for wood, fruit, and leaves, respectively. The models suggested for a slightly broader range of environmental conditions were: ln (woody biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -3.277 + 0.924 ln(diameter2 × height), ln(Fruit biomass, fresh, kg) = -3.146 + 0.485 ln(diameter2 × height) and ln(leaf biomass, oven-dry, kg...

  14. Below- and above-ground effects of deadwood and termites in plantation forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard Shefferson; Scott Horn; Melanie K. Taylor; Bryana Bush; Cavell Brownie; Sebastian Seibold; Michael S. Strickland

    2017-01-01

    Deadwood is an important legacy structure in managed forests, providing continuity in shelter and resource availability for many organisms and acting as a vehicle by which nutrients can be passed from one stand to the next following a harvest. Despite existing at the interface between below- and above-ground systems, however, much remains unknown about the role woody...

  15. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  16. Long-term above-ground biomass production in a red oak-pecan agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems have widely been recognized for their potential to foster long-term carbon sequestration in woody perennials. This study aims to determine the above-ground biomass in a 16-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra) - pecan (Carya illinoinensis) silvopastoral planting (141 and 53 trees ha-...

  17. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy

    2014-01-01

    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  18. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caecal inoculum of rabbit on in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility of Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Aspilia africana leaf meals at different levels of 0%, 15% and 30%. Leave samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), lignin (ADL), acid (ADF) and neutral (NDF) detergent fibres.

  20. Standing crop dry matter accumulation and quality patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine-week production curves and quality values of eight subtropical pasture species were studied under supplemental spray irrigation to characterize their productive capacity, periodicity and quality.All species exhibited a slow dry matter regrowth rate for two to three weeks after defoliation to 7,5 or 10 cm height. Thereafter ...

  1. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  2. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  3. Growth and dry matter accumulation in drought resistant maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth, dry matter accumulation and yield characters of maize planted under the same environmental conditions. The trial was conducted during the 2010 wet season at Bagauda the Kano University of Technology (KUST) temporary research farm (11° 39° N, 08° 20° E).The treatments consisted of three sowing dates ...

  4. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  5. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  6. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  7. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  8. Cathodic Protection for Above Ground Storage Tank Bottom Using Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Abbood Issa Al Haboubi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impressed current cathodic protection controlled by computer gives the ideal solution to the changes in environmental factors and long term coating degradation. The protection potential distribution achieved and the current demand on the anode can be regulated to protection criteria, to achieve the effective protection for the system. In this paper, cathodic protection problem of above ground steel storage tank was investigated by an impressed current of cathodic protection with controlled potential of electrical system to manage the variation in soil resistivity. Corrosion controller has been implemented for above ground tank in LabView where tank's bottom potential to soil was manipulated to the desired set point (protection criterion 850 mV. National Instruments Data Acquisition (NI-DAQ and PC controllers for tank corrosion control system provides quick response to achieve steady state condition for any kind of disturbances.

  9. Above-ground biomass equations for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Canga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to develop a model for above-ground biomass estimation for Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias.Area of study: Asturias (NE of Spain.Material and methods: Different models were fitted for the different above-ground components and weighted regression was used to correct heteroscedasticity. Finally, all the models were refitted simultaneously by use of Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (NSUR to ensure the additivity of biomass equations.Research highlights: A system of four biomass equations (wood, bark, crown and total biomass was develop, such that the sum of the estimations of the three biomass components is equal to the estimate of total biomass. Total and stem biomass equations explained more than 92% of observed variability, while crown and bark biomass equations explained 77% and 89% respectively.Keywords: radiata pine; plantations; biomass.

  10. Modelling the pressurization induced by solar radiation on above ground installations of LPG pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporini, M.; Terenzi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giacchetta, G.; Polonara, F.; Corvaro, F.; Cocci Grifoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Pipelining Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a mode of LPG transportation more environmentally-friendly than others due to the lower energy consumption and exhaust emissions. Worldwide, there are over 20000 kilometers of LPG pipelines. There are a number of codes that industry follows for the design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid LPG pipelines. However, no standards exist to modelling particular critical phenomena which can occur on these lines due to external environmental conditions like the solar radiation pressurization. In fact, the solar radiation can expose above ground pipeline sections at pressure values above the maximum Design Pressure with resulting risks and problems. The present work presents an innovative practice suitable for the Oil & Gas industry to modelling the pressurization induced by the solar radiation on above ground LPG pipeline sections with the application to a real case.

  11. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  12. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  13. Above Ground Biomass-carbon Partitioning, Storage and Sequestration in a Rehabilitated Forest, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueh, J.H.R.; Majid, N.M.A.; Seca, G.; Ahmed, O.H.

    2013-01-01

    Forest degradation and deforestation are some of the major global concerns as it can reduce forest carbon storage and sequestration capacity. Forest rehabilitation on degraded forest areas has the potential to improve carbon stock, hence mitigate greenhouse gases emission. However, the carbon storage and sequestration potential in a rehabilitated tropical forest remains unclear due to the lack of information. This paper reports an initiative to estimate biomass-carbon partitioning, storage and sequestration in a rehabilitated forest. The study site was at the UPM-Mitsubishi Corporation Forest Rehabilitation Project, UPM Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Bintulu, Sarawak. A plot of 20 x 20 m 2 was established each in site 1991 (Plot 1991), 1999 (Plot 1999) and 2008 (Plot 2008). An adjacent natural regenerating secondary forest plot (Plot NF) was also established for comparison purposes. The results showed that the contribution of tree component biomass/ carbon to total biomass/ carbon was in the order of main stem > branch > leaf. As most of the trees were concentrated in diameter size class = 10 cm for younger rehabilitated forests, the total above ground biomass/ carbon was from this class. These observations suggest that the forests are in the early successional stage. The total above ground biomass obtained for the rehabilitated forest ranged from 4.3 to 4,192.3 kg compared to natural regenerating secondary forest of 3,942.3 kg while total above ground carbon ranged from 1.9 to 1,927.9 kg and 1,820.4 kg, respectively. The mean total above ground biomass accumulated ranged from 1.3 x 10 -2 to 20.5 kg/ 0.04 ha and mean total carbon storage ranged from 5.9 x 10 -3 to 9.4 kg/ 0.04 ha. The total CO 2 sequestrated in rehabilitated forest ranged from 6.9 to 7,069.1 kg CO 2 / 0.04 ha. After 19 years, the rehabilitated forest had total above ground biomass and carbon storage comparable to the natural regeneration secondary forest. The forest rehabilitated activities have the

  14. Local above-ground persistence of vascular plants : Life-history trade-offs and environmental constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, Wim A.; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Schaminee, Joop H. J.; Smits, Nina A. C.; Bekker, Renee M.; Roemermann, Christine; Klimes, Leos; Bakker, Jan P.; van Groenendael, Jan M.

    Questions: 1. Which plant traits and habitat characteristics best explain local above-ground persistence of vascular plant species and 2. Is there a trade-off between local above-ground persistence and the ability for seed dispersal and below-ground persistence in the soil seed bank? Locations: 845

  15. Above-ground biomass investments and light interception of tropical forest trees and lianas early in succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selaya, N.G.; Anten, N.P.R.; Oomen, R.J.; Matthies, M.; Werger, M.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crown structure and above-ground biomass investment was studied in relation to light interception of trees and lianas growing in a 6-month-old regenerating forest. Methods The vertical distribution of total above-ground biomass, height, diameter, stem density, leaf angles and

  16. Effects of above-ground plant species composition and diversity on the diversity of soil-borne microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Buma, D.S; De Boer, W.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    A coupling of above-ground plant diversity and below-ground microbial diversity has been implied in studies dedicated to assessing the role of macrophyte diversity on the stability, resilience, and functioning of ecosystems. Indeed, above-ground plant communities have long been assumed to drive

  17. Evaluation of Sentinel-1A Data For Above Ground Biomass Estimation in Different Forests in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Use of remote sensing data for mapping and monitoring of forest biomass across large spatial scales can aid in addressing uncertainties in carbon cycle. Earlier, several researchers reported on the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for characterizing forest structural parameters and the above ground biomass estimation. However, these studies cannot be generalized and the algorithms cannot be applied to all types of forests without additional information on the forest physiognomy, stand structure and biomass characteristics. The radar backscatter signal also saturates as forest parameters such as biomass and the tree height increase. It is also not clear how different polarizations (VV versus VH) impact the backscatter retrievals in different forested regions. Thus, it is important to evaluate the potential of SAR data in different landscapes for characterizing forest structural parameters. In this study, the SAR data from Sentinel-1A has been used to characterize forest structural parameters including the above ground biomass from tropical forests of India. Ground based data on tree density, basal area and above ground biomass data from thirty-eight different forested sites has been collected to relate to SAR data. After the pre-processing of Sentinel 1-A data for radiometric calibration, geo-correction, terrain correction and speckle filtering, the variability in the backscatter signal in relation tree density, basal area and above biomass density has been investigated. Results from the curve fitting approach suggested exponential model between the Sentinel-1A backscatter versus tree density and above ground biomass whereas the relationship was almost linear with the basal area in the VV polarization mode. Of the different parameters, tree density could explain most of the variations in backscatter. Both VV and VH backscatter signals could explain only thirty and thirty three percent of variation in above biomass in different forest sites of India

  18. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  19. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  20. A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccini, A; Laporte, N; Goetz, S J; Sun, M; Dong, H

    2008-01-01

    Observations from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used in combination with a large data set of field measurements to map woody above-ground biomass (AGB) across tropical Africa. We generated a best-quality cloud-free mosaic of MODIS satellite reflectance observations for the period 2000-2003 and used a regression tree model to predict AGB at 1 km resolution. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model explained 82% of the variance in AGB, with a root mean square error of 50.5 Mg ha -1 for a range of biomass between 0 and 454 Mg ha -1 . Analysis of lidar metrics from the Geoscience Laser Altimetry System (GLAS), which are sensitive to vegetation structure, indicate that the model successfully captured the regional distribution of AGB. The results showed a strong positive correlation (R 2 = 0.90) between the GLAS height metrics and predicted AGB.

  1. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  2. Terrestrial laser scanning to quantify above-ground biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Christopher J.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-05-01

    Above-ground biomass represents a small yet significant contributor to carbon storage in coastal wetlands. Despite this, above-ground biomass is often poorly quantified, particularly in areas where vegetation structure is complex. Traditional methods for providing accurate estimates involve harvesting vegetation to develop mangrove allometric equations and quantify saltmarsh biomass in quadrats. However broad scale application of these methods may not capture structural variability in vegetation resulting in a loss of detail and estimates with considerable uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) collects high resolution three-dimensional point clouds capable of providing detailed structural morphology of vegetation. This study demonstrates that TLS is a suitable non-destructive method for estimating biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation. We compare volumetric models, 3-D surface reconstruction and rasterised volume, and point cloud elevation histogram modelling techniques to estimate biomass. Our results show that current volumetric modelling approaches for estimating TLS-derived biomass are comparable to traditional mangrove allometrics and saltmarsh harvesting. However, volumetric modelling approaches oversimplify vegetation structure by under-utilising the large amount of structural information provided by the point cloud. The point cloud elevation histogram model presented in this study, as an alternative to volumetric modelling, utilises all of the information within the point cloud, as opposed to sub-sampling based on specific criteria. This method is simple but highly effective for both mangrove (r2 = 0.95) and saltmarsh (r2 > 0.92) vegetation. Our results provide evidence that application of TLS in coastal wetlands is an effective non-destructive method to accurately quantify biomass for structurally complex vegetation.

  3. Diffusion of dust particles from a point-source above ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1998-10-01

    A pollutant of small particles is emitted by a point source at a height h above ground level in an atmosphere in which a uni-directional wind speed, U, is prevailing. The pollutant is subjected to diffusion in all directions in the presence of advection and settling due to gravity. The equation governing the concentration of the pollutant is studied with the wind speed and the different components of diffusion tensor are proportional to the distance above ground level and the source has a uniform strength. Adopting a Cartesian system of coordinates in which the x-axis lies along the direction of the wind velocity, the z-axis is vertically upwards and the y-axis completes the right-hand triad, the solution for the concentration c(x,y,z) is obtained in closed form. The relative importance of the components of diffusion along the three axes is discussed. It is found that for any plane y=constant (=A), c(x,y,z) is concentrated along a curve of ''extensive pollution''. In the plane A=0, the concentration decreases along the line of extensive pollution as we move away from the source. However, for planes A≅0, the line of extensive pollution possesses a point of accumulation, which lies at a nonzero value of x. As we move away from the plane A=0, the point of accumulation moves laterally away from the plane x=0 and towards the plane z=0. The presence of the point of accumulation is entirely due to the presence of lateral diffusion. (author)

  4. Height-diameter allometry and above ground biomass in tropical montane forests: Insights from the Albertine Rift in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Gérard; Boyemba, Faustin; Lewis, Simon; Nabahungu, Nsharwasi Léon; Calders, Kim; Zapfack, Louis; Riera, Bernard; Balegamire, Clarisse; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Tropical montane forests provide an important natural laboratory to test ecological theory. While it is well-known that some aspects of forest structure change with altitude, little is known on the effects of altitude on above ground biomass (AGB), particularly with regard to changing height-diameter allometry. To address this we investigate (1) the effects of altitude on height-diameter allometry, (2) how different height-diameter allometric models affect above ground biomass estimates; and (3) how other forest structural, taxonomic and environmental attributes affect above ground biomass using 30 permanent sample plots (1-ha; all trees ≥ 10 cm diameter measured) established between 1250 and 2600 m asl in Kahuzi Biega National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Forest structure and species composition differed with increasing altitude, with four forest types identified. Different height-diameter allometric models performed better with the different forest types, as trees got smaller with increasing altitude. Above ground biomass ranged from 168 to 290 Mg ha-1, but there were no significant differences in AGB between forests types, as tree size decreased but stem density increased with increasing altitude. Forest structure had greater effects on above ground biomass than forest diversity. Soil attributes (K and acidity, pH) also significantly affected above ground biomass. Results show how forest structural, taxonomic and environmental attributes affect above ground biomass in African tropical montane forests. They particularly highlight that the use of regional height-diameter models introduces significant biases in above ground biomass estimates, and that different height-diameter models might be preferred for different forest types, and these should be considered in future studies.

  5. A terrestrial biosphere model optimized to atmospheric CO2 concentration and above ground woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Ito, A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    This study documents an optimization of a prognostic biosphere model (VISIT; Vegetation Integrative Similator for Trace gases) to observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration and above ground woody biomass by using a Bayesian inversion method combined with an atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM; National Institute for Environmental Studies / Frontier Research Center for Global Change (NIES/FRCGC) off-line global atmospheric tracer transport model). The assimilated observations include 74 station records of surface atmospheric CO2 concentration and aggregated grid data sets of above ground woody biomass (AGB) and net primary productivity (NPP) over the globe. Both the biosphere model and the atmospheric transport model are used at a horizontal resolution of 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg grid with temporal resolutions of a day and an hour, respectively. The atmospheric transport model simulates atmospheric CO2 concentration with nine vertical levels using daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange rate (NEE) from the biosphere model, oceanic CO2 flux, and fossil fuel emission inventory. The models are driven by meteorological data from JRA-25 (Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis) and JCDAS (JMA Climate Data Assimilation System). Statistically optimum physiological parameters in the biosphere model are found by iterative minimization of the corresponding Bayesian cost function. We select thirteen physiological parameter with high sensitivity to NEE, NPP, and AGB for the minimization. Given the optimized physiological parameters, the model shows error reductions in seasonal variation of the CO2 concentrations especially in the northern hemisphere due to abundant observation stations, while errors remain at a few stations that are located in coastal coastal area and stations in the southern hemisphere. The model also produces moderate estimates of the mean magnitudes and probability distributions in AGB and NPP for each biome. However, the model fails in the simulation of the terrestrial

  6. Remediation and recycling of oil-contaminated soil beneath a large above-ground storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1994-01-01

    While retrofitting a large 30-year-old, above-ground petroleum storage tank, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) discovered that soil beneath the fixed-roof, single-bottom tank was contaminated with 40,000 gallons of number-sign 6 fuel oil. The steel tank was left in place during the excavation and remediation of the contaminated soil to retain the operating permit. The resulting 2,000 tons of contaminated aggregate was recycled to make asphalt concrete for paving the tank basin and the remaining 5,600 tons of oily soil was thermally treated on site for use as engineered fill at another location. This successful operation provided an economical cleanup solution for a common leakage problem of single-lined tanks and eliminated the long-term liability of Class 1 landfill disposal. As a pro-active environmental effort, this paper shares SCE's site assessment procedure, reveals the engineering method developed to stabilize the tank, discusses the soil treatment technologies used, describes the problems encountered and lessons learned during the cleanup, discloses the costs of the operation, and offers guidelines and recommendations for similar tank remediation. This paper does not describe the work or costs for removing or replacing the tank bottom

  7. Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelkes, Tim; Morriën, Elly; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen; Harvey, Jeffrey A; McIntyre, Lauren M; Tamis, Wil L M; van der Putten, Wim H

    2008-12-18

    Many species are currently moving to higher latitudes and altitudes. However, little is known about the factors that influence the future performance of range-expanding species in their new habitats. Here we show that range-expanding plant species from a riverine area were better defended against shoot and root enemies than were related native plant species growing in the same area. We grew fifteen plant species with and without non-coevolved polyphagous locusts and cosmopolitan, polyphagous aphids. Contrary to our expectations, the locusts performed more poorly on the range-expanding plant species than on the congeneric native plant species, whereas the aphids showed no difference. The shoot herbivores reduced the biomass of the native plants more than they did that of the congeneric range expanders. Also, the range-expanding plants developed fewer pathogenic effects in their root-zone soil than did the related native species. Current predictions forecast biodiversity loss due to limitations in the ability of species to adjust to climate warming conditions in their range. Our results strongly suggest that the plants that shift ranges towards higher latitudes and altitudes may include potential invaders, as the successful range expanders may experience less control by above-ground or below-ground enemies than the natives.

  8. Landsat Imagery-Based Above Ground Biomass Estimation and Change Investigation Related to Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is a significant indicator for substance accumulation and forest succession, and a spatiotemporal biomass map would provide valuable information for forest management and scientific planning. In this study, Landsat imagery and field data cooperated with a random forest regression approach were used to estimate spatiotemporal Above Ground Biomass (AGB in Fuyang County, Zhejiang Province of East China. As a result, the AGB retrieval showed an increasing trend for the past decade, from 74.24 ton/ha in 2004 to 99.63 ton/ha in 2013. Topography and forest management were investigated to find their relationships with the spatial distribution change of biomass. In general, the simulated AGB increases with higher elevation, especially in the range of 80–200 m, wherein AGB acquires the highest increase rate. Moreover, the forest policy of ecological forest has a positive effect on the AGB increase, particularly within the national level ecological forest. The result in this study demonstrates that human activities have a great impact on biomass distribution and change tendency. Furthermore, Landsat image-based biomass estimates would provide illuminating information for forest policy-making and sustainable development.

  9. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

  10. Tundra plant above-ground biomass and shrub dominance mapped across the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Jantz, Patrick; Tape, Ken D.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2018-03-01

    Arctic tundra is becoming greener and shrubbier due to recent warming. This is impacting climate feedbacks and wildlife, yet the spatial distribution of plant biomass in tundra ecosystems is uncertain. In this study, we mapped plant and shrub above-ground biomass (AGB; kg m-2) and shrub dominance (%; shrub AGB/plant AGB) across the North Slope of Alaska by linking biomass harvests at 28 field sites with 30 m resolution Landsat satellite imagery. We first developed regression models (p plant AGB (r 2 = 0.79) and shrub AGB (r 2 = 0.82) based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from imagery acquired by Landsat 5 and 7. We then predicted regional plant and shrub AGB by combining these regression models with a regional Landsat NDVI mosaic built from 1721 summer scenes acquired between 2007 and 2016. Our approach employed a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis that propagated sampling and sensor calibration errors. We estimated that plant AGB averaged 0.74 (0.60, 0.88) kg m-2 (95% CI) and totaled 112 (91, 135) Tg across the region, with shrub AGB accounting for ~43% of regional plant AGB. The new maps capture landscape variation in plant AGB visible in high resolution satellite and aerial imagery, notably shrubby riparian corridors. Modeled shrub AGB was strongly correlated with field measurements of shrub canopy height at 25 sites (rs  = 0.88) and with a regional map of shrub cover (rs  = 0.76). Modeled plant AGB and shrub dominance were higher in shrub tundra than graminoid tundra and increased between areas with the coldest and warmest summer air temperatures, underscoring the fact that future warming has the potential to greatly increase plant AGB and shrub dominance in this region. These new biomass maps provide a unique source of ecological information for a region undergoing rapid environmental change.

  11. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-07-31

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  12. Modelling above Ground Biomass of Mangrove Forest Using SENTINEL-1 Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadisos Argamosa, Reginald Jay; Conferido Blanco, Ariel; Balidoy Baloloy, Alvin; Gumbao Candido, Christian; Lovern Caboboy Dumalag, John Bart; Carandang Dimapilis, Lee, , Lady; Camero Paringit, Enrico

    2018-04-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the estimation of forest above ground biomass (AGB) using features from synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Specifically, L-band ALOS/PALSAR (wavelength 23 cm) data is often used. However, few studies have been made on the use of shorter wavelengths (e.g., C-band, 3.75 cm to 7.5 cm) for forest mapping especially in tropical forests since higher attenuation is observed for volumetric objects where energy propagated is absorbed. This study aims to model AGB estimates of mangrove forest using information derived from Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data. Combinations of polarisations (VV, VH), its derivatives, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and its principal components were used as features for modelling AGB. Five models were tested with varying combinations of features; a) sigma nought polarisations and its derivatives; b) GLCM textures; c) the first five principal components; d) combination of models a-c; and e) the identified important features by Random Forest variable importance algorithm. Random Forest was used as regressor to compute for the AGB estimates to avoid over fitting caused by the introduction of too many features in the model. Model e obtained the highest r2 of 0.79 and an RMSE of 0.44 Mg using only four features, namely, σ°VH GLCM variance, σ°VH GLCM contrast, PC1, and PC2. This study shows that Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data could be used to produce acceptable AGB estimates in mangrove forest to compensate for the unavailability of longer wavelength SAR.

  13. Estimating above-ground biomass on mountain meadows and pastures through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, M.; Cristóbal, J.; Tulla, A. F.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive stock-breeding systems developed in mountain areas like the Pyrenees are crucial for local farming economies and depend largely on above-ground biomass (AGB) in the form of grass produced on meadows and pastureland. In this study, a multiple linear regression analysis technique based on in-situ biomass collection and vegetation and wetness indices derived from Landsat-5 TM data is successfully applied in a mountainous Pyrenees area to model AGB. Temporal thoroughness of the data is ensured by using a large series of images. Results of on-site AGB collection show the importance for AGB models to capture the high interannual and intraseasonal variability that results from both meteorological conditions and farming practices. AGB models yield best results at midsummer and end of summer before mowing operations by farmers, with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 midsummer of 0.76, 95 g m-2 and 27%, respectively; and with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 end of summer of 0.74, 128 g m-2 and 36%, respectively. Although vegetation indices are a priori more related with biomass production, wetness indices play an important role in modeling AGB, being statistically selected more frequently (more than 50%) than other traditional vegetation indexes (around 27%) such as NDVI. This suggests that middle infrared bands are crucial descriptors of AGB. The methodology applied in this work compares favorably with other works in the literature, yielding better results than those works in mountain areas, owing to the ability of the proposed methodology to capture natural and anthropogenic variations in AGB which are the key to increasing AGB modeling accuracy.

  14. [Tree above-ground biomass allometries for carbon stocks estimation in the Caribbean mangroves in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana; Zapata, Mauricio; Bolivar, Jhoanata; Monsalve, Alejandra; Espinosa, Sandra Milena; Sierra-Correa, Paula Cristina; Sierra, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The distribution of carbon in “Blue Carbon” ecosystems such as mangroves is little known, when compared with the highly known terrestrial forests, despite its particular and recognized high productivity and carbon storage capacity. The objective of this study was to analyze the above ground biomass (AGB) of the species Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans from the Marine Protected Area of Distrito de Manejo Integrado (DMI), Cispatá-Tinajones-La Balsa, Caribbean Colombian coast. With official authorization, we harvested and studied 30 individuals of each species, and built allometric models in order to estimate AGB. Our AGB results indicated that the studied mangrove forests of the DMI Colombian Caribbean was of 129.69 ± 20.24 Mg/ha, equivalent to 64.85 ± 10.12 MgC/ha. The DMI has an area of 8 570.9 ha in mangrove forests, and we estimated that the total carbon potential stored was about 555 795.93 Mg C. The equations generated in this study can be considered as an alternative for the assessment of carbon stocks in AGB of mangrove forests in Colombia; as other available AGB allometric models do not discriminate mangrove forests, despite being particular ecosystems. They can be used for analysis at a more detailed scale and are considered useful to determine the carbon storage potential of mangrove forests, as a country alternative to support forest conservation and emission reduction strategies. In general, the potential of carbon storage from Colombian Caribbean mangrove forests is important and could promote the country leadership of the “blue carbon” stored.

  15. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine whether rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability in calves aged 8-10 weeks differs from that in mature cows. Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude ...

  16. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to assess dry matter production and partitioning in relation to root yield was conducted in 3 positions along inland valley toposequence using 4 x 4 Latin square design. Dry matter partitioning differed among cultivars, ...

  17. Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Eftekhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01. Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep.

  18. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  19. Evaluation of Above Ground Biomass Estimation Accuracy for Alpine Meadow Based on MODIS Vegetation Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is the main agricultural type over the Tibetan Plateau, above ground biomass (AGB is very important to monitor the productivity for administration of grassland resources and grazing balance. The MODIS vegetation indices have been successfully used in numerous studies on grassland AGB estimation in the Tibetan Plateau area. However, there are considerable differences of AGB estimation models both in the form of the models and the accuracy of estimation. In this study, field measurements of AGB data at Sangke Town, Gansu Province, China in four years (2013-2016 and MODIS indices (NDVI and EVI are combined to construct AGB estimation models of alpine meadow grassland. The field measured AGB are also used to evaluate feasibility of models developed for large scale in applying to small area. The results show that (1 the differences in biomass were relatively large among the 5 sample areas of alpine meadow grassland in the study area during 2013-2016, with the maximum and minimum biomass values of 3,963 kg DW/ha and 745.5 kg DW/ha, respectively, and mean value of 1,907.7 kg DW/ha; the mean of EVI value range (0.42-0.60 are slightly smaller than the NDVI’s (0.59-0.75; (2 the optimum estimation model of grassland AGB in the study area is the exponential model based on MODIS EVI, with root mean square error of 656.6 kg DW/ha and relative estimation errors (REE of 36.3%; (3 the estimation errors of grassland AGB models previously constructed at different spatial scales (the Tibetan Plateau, the Gannan Prefecture, and Xiahe County are higher than those directly constructed based on the small area of this study by 9.5%–31.7%, with the increase of the modeling study area scales, the REE increasing as well. This study presents an improved monitoring algorithm of alpine natural grassland AGB estimation and provides a clear direction for future improvement of the grassland AGB estimation and grassland productivity from remote sensing

  20. Effect of nitrogen addition and drought on above-ground biomass of expanding tall grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2011), s. 275-281 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nitrogen * drought * above-ground biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  1. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Ridderstolpe, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  2. The effect of cassava-based bioethanol production on above-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Southern Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Kristensen, Søren B.P.; Traoré, Oumar

    2012-01-01

    Increasing energy use and the need to mitigate climate change make production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests and grassland into biofuel crops, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to biofuel crops. This paper reports the results of a study on cassava-based bioethanol production undertaken in the Sikasso region in Southern Mali. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase cassava production. The results show that expansion of cassava production for bioethanol will most likely lead to the conversion of fallow areas to cassava. A land use change from fallow to cassava creates a reduction in the above-ground carbon stocks in the order of 4–13 Mg C ha −1 , depending on (a) the age of the fallow, (b) the allometric equation used and (c) whether all trees are removed or the larger, useful trees are preserved. This ‘carbon debt’ associated with the above-ground biomass loss would take 8–25 years to repay if fossil fuels are replaced with cassava-based bioethanol. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of cassava-based bioethanol a priority. ► Farmers in Southern Mali are likely to convert fallow areas to cassava production. ► Converting fallow to cassava creates reductions in above-ground carbon stocks. ► Estimates of carbon stock reductions include that farmers preserve useful trees. ► The carbon debt associated with above-ground biomass loss takes 8–25 years to repay.

  3. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  4. Effects of shading on dry matter partitioning and yield of field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.; Soriano, A.; Fereres, E.

    1992-01-01

    Crop simulation models require quantitative descriptions of the effects of irradiance on dry matter partition and yield. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of reduced radiation intensity during different phenological stages on the growth, dry matter partitioning and grain numbers of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.). A field experiment was carried out in 1990 with 50 per cent shading treatments. The earliest treatment began at crop emergence while the latest ended at first anthesis. Shading had little effect on plant leaf area growth but reduced biomass and yield. The dry matter: radiation quotient and specific leaf area increased with shading. Grain number per head was decreased by shading, with the greatest effect occurring when shading was applied prior to anthesis. All shading treatments increased dry matter partitioning to stems, decreased assimilate partitioning to the heads and had no effect on the partitioning to leaves. (author)

  5. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    grains on rumen fermentation characteristics using the in vitro gas ..... Effect of chemical content and physical characteristics on nutritional value ... properties and in vitro dry matter on starch digestion of eight sorghum grain hybrids and maize.

  6. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  7. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  8. Estimation of above ground biomass by using multispectral data for Evergreen Forest in Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanprasit, C.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forest is the most important and largest source for stocking CO 2 from the atmosphere which might be one of the main sources of carbon emission, global warming and climate change in recent decades. There are two main objectives of this study. The first one is to establish a relationship between above ground biomass and vegetation indices and the other is to evaluate above ground biomass and carbon sequestration for evergreen forest areas in Phu Hin Rong Kla National park, Thailand. Random sampling design based was applied for calculating the above ground biomass at stand level in the selected area by using Brown and Tsutsumi allometric equations. Landsat 7 ETM+ data in February 2009 was used. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was applied for identifying evergreen forest area. Forty-three of vegetation indices and image transformations were used for finding the best correlation with forest stand biomass. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the biomass volume at stand level and digital data from the satellite image. TM51 which derived from Tsutsumi allometric equation was the highest correlation with stand biomass. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was not the best correlation in this study. The best biomass estimation model was from TM51 and ND71 (R2 =0.658). The totals of above ground biomass and carbon sequestration were 112,062,010 ton and 56,031,005 ton respectively. The application of this study would be quite useful for understanding the terrestrial carbon dynamics and global climate change. (author)

  9. Physical Characterisation and Quantification of Total Above Ground Biomass Derived from First Thinnings for Wood Fuel Consumption in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mockler, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of wood fuel properties assists in the optimisation of operations concerned with the harvesting, seasoning, processing and conversion of wood to energy. This study investigated the physical properties of wood fuel. These properties included moisture content and basic density. The field work also allowed for the quantification of above ground biomass partitions. The species investigated were alder (Alnus glutinosa), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), birch (Betula spp.), lodg...

  10. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. I. Effects on crop growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and kernel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhart, S.A.; Andrade, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in N availability affect growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) and may lead to changes in crop physiological conditions at flowering and in kernel set. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish the effect of N availability on crop development, crop radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning; and (ii) to study the relationship between kernel number and crop growth at flowering and between kernel number and crop N accumulation at flowering. Three experiments with a commercial hybrid (DK636) were carried out under field conditions at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina, without water limitations. The treatments consisted of different radiation levels, obtained by shading, combined with different levels of N availability obtained by the addition of N fertilizer or organic matter to immobilize N. Nitrogen deficiencies delayed both vegetative and reproductive phenological development, slightly reduced leaf emergence rate, and strongly diminished leaf expansion rate and leaf area duration. Nitrogen deficiencies reduced radiation interception as much as radiation use efficiency and their effects on the ear dry mater/total dry matter ratio at harvest were associated with crop growth rate reductions at flowering. Dry matter partitioning to reproductive sinks at flowering and the ear dry matter/total dry matter ratio at harvest were reduced by N shortages. Significant relationships between kernel number and N accumulation rate or crop growth rate at flowering were fitted by linear + plateau functions with thresholds above which kernel number and grain yield did not increase

  11. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  12. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  13. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  14. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... important to understand how crops with different root architecture would ... while in soils rich in organic matter, it is present as organic ... Plants take up most of the required nutrient elements ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  15. Below- and above-ground controls on tree water use in lowland tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, F. C.; Woodruff, D.; McCulloh, K.; Domec, J.

    2012-12-01

    Even in moist tropical forests, fluctuations in soil water availability and atmospheric evaporative demand can constrain tree water use. Our research in three lowland tropical forest sites in Panama over the past two decades has identified a series of tree biophysical and functional traits related to daily and seasonal patterns of uptake, transport and loss of water. Studies combining measurements of sap flow and natural abundance of hydrogen isotopes in soil and xylem water during the dry season show considerable variation in depth of soil water uptake among co-occurring species. Trees able to exploit progressively deeper sources of soil water during the dry season, as indicated by increasingly negative xylem water hydrogen isotope ratios, were also able to maintain constant or even increased rates of water use. Injections of a stable isotope tracer (deuterated water) into tree trunks revealed a considerable range of water transit and residence times among co-occurring, similarly-sized trees. Components of tree hydraulic architecture were also strong determinants of patterns of water use. Sapwood hydraulic capacitance, the amount of water released per unit change in tissue water potential, was a strong predictor of several tree water use and water relations traits, including sap velocity, water residence time, daily maximum branch xylem tension, and the time of day at which stomata began to increasingly restrict transpiration. Among early and late successional species, hydraulic traits such as trunk-to-branch tapering of xylem vessels, branch sap flux, branch sapwood specific conductivity and whole-tree leaf area-specific hydraulic conductance scaled uniformly with branch wood density. Consistent with differences in trunk-to-branch tapering of vessels between early and late successional species, the ratio of branch to trunk sap flux was substantially greater in early successional species. Among species, stomatal conductance and transpiration per unit leaf area

  16. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leendert Snynan

    Crop residues in the summer rainfall area of South Africa fulfill a strategic role in the fodder flow program ... This value is high when compared with in vitro organic matter digestibility values reported for wheat straw. (38.9%) ... Sunflower-cob residues seem to be a forage with a high energy value that might be suitable for use.

  17. Influence of the environmental heterogeneity on the tree species richness –above ground biomass relationship in the Colombian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Posada Hernández , Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, we aimed to identify the shape and environmental drivers of the species richness (SR) –rarefied above ground biomass (RAGB) relationship across and within tree communities in the Colombian Amazon. We used a series of 130 0.1 ha plots to answer the next questions: 1) what is the shape of the SR - RAGB relationship both across and within tree communities in the Colombian Amazon? 2) At what extent does environmental heterogeneity drives the shape of the SR - RAGB relatio...

  18. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  19. Evaluation and summary of seismic response of above ground nuclear power plant piping to strong motion earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the observations and experience which has been developed relative to the seismic behavior of above-ground, building-supported, industrial type piping (similar to piping used in nuclear power plants) in strong motion earthquakes. The paper also contains observations regarding the response of piping in experimental tests which attempted to excite the piping to failure. Appropriate conclusions regarding the behavior of such piping in large earthquakes and recommendations as to future design of such piping to resist earthquake motion damage are presented based on observed behavior in large earthquakes and simulated shake table testing

  20. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  1. Ruminal degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pinto Monção

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of dry matter degradation and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone. The banana peel has been acquired from a candy manufacturer that after washing with chlorinated water to 1% and pulp removal was discarded. The banana peel in nature was treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% of limestone in the natural matter, homogenized and pre-dried in the sun for 120 hours. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 4% inclusion of limestone with 3 repetitions. The dry matter potential degradability, showed no difference (P>0.05 in the levels compared to the control with an average of 67.58%. The insoluble degradation fraction rate of dry matter and the fiber fraction did not differ (P> 0.05 between levels and control. In relation to effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber, there was an increase of 3.47% for each percentage unit increased limestone. In relation to the ruminal degradation parameters of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber is not recommended the utilization of limestone as an additive in the treatment of banana peel.

  2. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  3. Examining spectral properties of Landsat 8 OLI for predicting above-ground carbon of Labanan Forest, Berau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardiman, A.; Tampubolon, B. A.; Sumaryono, M.

    2018-04-01

    Many studies revealed significant correlation between satellite image properties and forest data attributes such as stand volume, biomass or carbon stock. However, further study is still relevant due to advancement of remote sensing technology as well as improvement on methods of data analysis. In this study, the properties of three vegetation indices derived from Landsat 8 OLI were tested upon above-ground carbon stock data from 50 circular sample plots (30-meter radius) from ground survey in PT. Inhutani I forest concession in Labanan, Berau, East Kalimantan. Correlation analysis using Pearson method exhibited a promising results when the coefficient of correlation (r-value) was higher than 0.5. Further regression analysis was carried out to develop mathematical model describing the correlation between sample plots data and vegetation index image using various mathematical models.Power and exponential model were demonstrated a good result for all vegetation indices. In order to choose the most adequate mathematical model for predicting Above-ground Carbon (AGC), the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was applied. The lowest BIC value (i.e. -376.41) shown by Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI) indicates this formula, AGC = 9.608*TVI21.54, is the best predictor of AGC of study area.

  4. Impact of deforestation and climate on the Amazon Basin's above-ground biomass during 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Liu, Yi Y; Williams, Mathew

    2017-11-15

    Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO 2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions. Here, we address these points of uncertainty with a machine-learning approach that combines satellite observations of AGB with climate data across the Amazon Basin to reconstruct annual maps of potential AGB during 1993-2012, the above-ground C storage potential of the undisturbed landscape. We derive a 2.2 Pg C loss of AGB over the study period, and, for the regions where these losses occur, we estimate a 0.7 Pg C reduction in potential AGB. Thus, climate change has led to a decline of ~1/3 in the capacity of these disturbed forests to recover and recapture the C lost in disturbances during 1993-2012. Our approach further shows that annual variations in land use change mask the natural relationship between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and AGB stocks in disturbed regions.

  5. Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1984-06-01

    The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension of particles and how the mechanics depend on particle size. The effect of rough surfaces is discussed. It is concluded that knowledge on the subject, at relevant large Reynolds numbers, is indeed lacking. Various methods for measurements of deposition is mentioned and further the report gives some general ideas on how a suitable full scale experiment should be laid out in order to produce some data on the problems of dry deposition to city surfaces. (author)

  6. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... on radiation use efficiency (RUE) when comparing inter-annual variation in dry matter production. The loss of tuber dry matter was c. 10% per °C, which is higher than estimated in previous studies. Specifically, compared to mean air temperature from end of tuber initiation to maturity, mean air temperature...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  7. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luick, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  9. Feasibility of DEXA prediction of dry matter and mass for horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.; West, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the DEXA system used in this research has been deployed commercially in meat processing plants with the objective of accurately determining the fat content of bulk and packaged meat, through a JV with ANZCO Foods and a partnership with Smiths Detection. This present research is aimed at demonstrating an ability to measure the dry matter distribution and in turn the net dry matter for individual horticultural products using DEXA. The DEXA images are obtained while scanning the products on a conveyor belt running at speeds representative of production grading situations. The products reported on here are primarily potatoes (because of a direct commercial interest), but also a butternut pumpkin and two rock melons. The grading and dry matter measurement capability is based on detecting change in the effective atomic number (EAN) with change in the elemental proportions within the product and there being effectively a binary mixture (e.g dry matter and water) present. Grading of fruit and vegetables on this basis is expected to be challenging. The commercial meat/fat grading already commercialised as a DEXA system is associated with 1.8 EAN units difference between fat (carbon rich Z eff =5.8) and fully-lean meat (oxygen rich Z eff =7.6) but this range is large compared to what is expected for horticultural products. The dry matter in horticultural products is primarily starch (plus minerals) and the EAN difference between starch (and minerals) and water is unknown here but calculations give the difference as little as 0.2 EAN units, dependant on the mineral content in the product. In this work we show that the dry matter sensitivities of the DEXA technology for horticultural products is discernable allowing measurement of dry matter distributions, and net dry matter values. The EAN range is indeed much smaller than for fat/meat mixtures, and consistent differences are yet to be demonstrated for an assembly of product, except for potatoes where consistency

  10. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  11. Ultraviolet-B radiation and nitrogen affect nutrient concentrations and the amount of nutrients acquired by above-ground organs of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos M; Coutinho, João F; Bacelar, Eunice A; Gonçalves, Berta M; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  12. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Correia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn concentrations in stems and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE were higher in N-starved plants. UV-B and N effects on shoot dry biomass were more pronounced than on nutrient concentrations. Nutrient uptake decreased under high UV-B and increased with increasing N application, mainly at maturity harvest. Significant interactions UV-B x N were observed for NUE and for concentration and mass of some elements. For instance, under enhanced UV-B, N, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations decreased in leaves, except on N-stressed plants, whereas they were less affected by N nutrition. In order to minimize nutritional, economical, and environmental negative consequences, fertiliser recommendations based on element concentration or yield goals may need to be adjusted.

  13. Mechanical pressure and momentum conservation in dry active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fily, Y.; Kafri, Y.; Solon, A. P.; Tailleur, J.; Turner, A.

    2018-01-01

    We relate the breakdown of equations of states (EOS) for the mechanical pressure of generic dry active systems to the lack of momentum conservation in such systems. We show how net sources and sinks of momentum arise generically close to confining walls. These typically depend on the interactions of the container with the particles, which makes the mechanical pressure a container-dependent quantity. We show that an EOS is recovered if the dynamics of the propulsive forces of the particles are decoupled from other degrees of freedom and lead to an apolar bulk steady-state. This recovery of an EOS stems from the mean steady-state active force density being the divergence of the flux of ‘active impulse’, an observable which measures the mean momentum particles will receive from the substrate in the future. ), which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. A. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Julien Tailleur was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. A as an Emerging Talent.

  14. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  15. Genomic predictions for dry matter intake using the international reference population of gDMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Hulsegge, B.; Spurlock, D.M.; Berry, D.P.; Wall, E.; Lovendahl, P.; Weigel, K.; MacDonald, K.; Miglior, F.; Krattenmacher, N.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated that using dry matter intake (DMI) phenotypes from multiplecountries increases the accuracy of genomic breeding values for this important trait, provided a multi-trait approach is used. Data from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands,New

  16. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  17. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to ... high dry matter also produce high leaf area index and root yield ..... Proportion (%) of DM accumulated in root stock.

  18. Effect of N, P and K Humates on Dry Matter of Zea mays and Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharjeel Ahmad

    may only be applicable to similar acid soils. The outcome of this study may contribute to the improvement of urea N use efficiency as well as reducing environmental pollution. Key words: Humic acids, fulvic acids, triple superphosphate, muriate of potash, soil exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, Zea mays, dry matter.

  19. Comparison between in situ dry matter degradation and in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry matter (DM) degradation of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Juniperus communis, and Pistica lentiscus was determined using two different techniques: (i) the in vitro gas production and (ii) the in situ nylon bag degradability technique. Samples were incubated in situ and in vitro for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

  20. Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of pinapple propagules (Ananas comosus) in the acid sands of cross river. W Ubi, M W Ubi, VE Osedeke. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  1. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  2. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    The rate and extent of fermentation of dry matter (DM) in the rumen are very important determinants ... kinetics of forages obtained by the in situ nylon bag technique and the in vitro gas production technique. (Blummel & Ørskov ..... not find any correlation between these parameters in barley and wheat straw. Beuvinik et al.

  3. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  4. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  5. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  6. Potential of ALOS2 and NDVI to Estimate Forest Above-Ground Biomass, and Comparison with Lidar-Derived Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vaglio Laurin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing supports carbon estimation, allowing the upscaling of field measurements to large extents. Lidar is considered the premier instrument to estimate above ground biomass, but data are expensive and collected on-demand, with limited spatial and temporal coverage. The previous JERS and ALOS SAR satellites data were extensively employed to model forest biomass, with literature suggesting signal saturation at low-moderate biomass values, and an influence of plot size on estimates accuracy. The ALOS2 continuity mission since May 2014 produces data with improved features with respect to the former ALOS, such as increased spatial resolution and reduced revisit time. We used ALOS2 backscatter data, testing also the integration with additional features (SAR textures and NDVI from Landsat 8 data together with ground truth, to model and map above ground biomass in two mixed forest sites: Tahoe (California and Asiago (Alps. While texture was useful to improve the model performance, the best model was obtained using joined SAR and NDVI (R2 equal to 0.66. In this model, only a slight saturation was observed, at higher levels than what usually reported in literature for SAR; the trend requires further investigation but the model confirmed the complementarity of optical and SAR datatypes. For comparison purposes, we also generated a biomass map for Asiago using lidar data, and considered a previous lidar-based study for Tahoe; in these areas, the observed R2 were 0.92 for Tahoe and 0.75 for Asiago, respectively. The quantitative comparison of the carbon stocks obtained with the two methods allows discussion of sensor suitability. The range of local variation captured by lidar is higher than those by SAR and NDVI, with the latter showing overestimation. However, this overestimation is very limited for one of the study areas, suggesting that when the purpose is the overall quantification of the stored carbon, especially in areas with high carbon

  7. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  8. The role of above-ground competition and nitrogen vs. phosphorus enrichment in seedling survival of common European plant species of semi-natural grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ceulemans

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have severely altered fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in ecosystems worldwide. In grasslands, subsequent negative effects are commonly attributed to competitive exclusion of plant species following increased above-ground biomass production. However, some studies have shown that this does not fully account for nutrient enrichment effects, questioning whether lowering competition by reducing grassland productivity through mowing or herbivory can mitigate the environmental impact of nutrient pollution. Furthermore, few studies so far discriminate between nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. We performed a full factorial experiment in greenhouse mesocosms combining nitrogen and phosphorus addition with two clipping regimes designed to relax above-ground competition. Next, we studied the survival and growth of seedlings of eight common European grassland species and found that five out of eight species showed higher survival under the clipping regime with the lowest above-ground competition. Phosphorus addition negatively affected seven plant species and nitrogen addition negatively affected four plant species. Importantly, the negative effects of nutrient addition and higher above-ground competition were independent of each other for all but one species. Our results suggest that at any given level of soil nutrients, relaxation of above-ground competition allows for higher seedling survival in grasslands. At the same time, even at low levels of above-ground competition, nutrient enrichment negatively affects survival as compared to nutrient-poor conditions. Therefore, although maintaining low above-ground competition appears essential for species' recruitment, for instance through mowing or herbivory, these management efforts are likely to be insufficient and we conclude that environmental policies aimed to reduce both excess nitrogen and particularly phosphorus inputs are also necessary.

  9. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass in a Tropical Forest in Cambodia Using Canopy Textures Derived from Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a modelling framework for utilizing very high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery for monitoring stocks of above-ground biomass (AGB in a tropical forest in Southeast Asia. Three different texture-based methods (grey level co-occurrence metric (GLCM, Gabor wavelets and Fourier-based textural ordination (FOTO were used in conjunction with two different machine learning (ML-based regression techniques (support vector regression (SVR and random forest (RF regression. These methods were implemented on both 50-cm resolution Digital Globe data extracted from Google Earth™ (GE and 8-cm commercially obtained VHR imagery. This study further examines the role of forest biophysical parameters, such as ground-measured canopy cover and vertical canopy height, in explaining AGB distribution. Three models were developed using: (i horizontal canopy variables (i.e., canopy cover and texture variables plus vertical canopy height; (ii horizontal variables only; and (iii texture variables only. AGB was variable across the site, ranging from 51.02 Mg/ha to 356.34 Mg/ha. GE-based AGB estimates were comparable to those derived from commercial aerial imagery. The findings demonstrate that novel use of this array of texture-based techniques with GE imagery can help promote the wider use of freely available imagery for low-cost, fine-resolution monitoring of forests parameters at the landscape scale.

  10. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host–parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D.; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D.; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2015-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host–parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host–parasite systems. PMID:26468247

  12. Polarimetric scattering model for estimation of above ground biomass of multilayer vegetation using ALOS-PALSAR quad-pol data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Bharadwaj, P.; Kumar, Shashi; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Bijker, Wietske

    Forests are important biomes covering a major part of the vegetation on the Earth, and as such account for seventy percent of the carbon present in living beings. The value of a forest's above ground biomass (AGB) is considered as an important parameter for the estimation of global carbon content. In the present study, the quad-pol ALOS-PALSAR data was used for the estimation of AGB for the Dudhwa National Park, India. For this purpose, polarimetric decomposition components and an Extended Water Cloud Model (EWCM) were used. The PolSAR data orientation angle shifts were compensated for before the polarimetric decomposition. The scattering components obtained from the polarimetric decomposition were used in the Water Cloud Model (WCM). The WCM was extended for higher order interactions like double bounce scattering. The parameters of the EWCM were retrieved using the field measurements and the decomposition components. Finally, the relationship between the estimated AGB and measured AGB was assessed. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.4341 and 119 t/ha respectively.

  13. Nitrogen mediates above-ground effects of ozone but not below-ground effects in a rhizomatous sedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.L.M.; Hodges, G.; Mills, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone and atmospheric nitrogen are co-occurring pollutants with adverse effects on natural grassland vegetation. Plants of the rhizomatous sedge Carex arenaria were exposed to four ozone regimes representing increasing background concentrations (background-peak): 10-30, 35-55, 60-80 and 85-105 ppb ozone at two nitrogen levels: 12 and 100 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Ozone increased the number and proportion of senesced leaves, but not overall leaf number. There was a clear nitrogen x ozone interaction with high nitrogen reducing proportional senescence in each treatment and increasing the ozone dose (AOT40) at which enhanced senescence occurred. Ozone reduced total biomass due to significant effects on root biomass. There were no interactive effects on shoot:root ratio. Rhizome tissue N content was increased by both nitrogen and ozone. Results suggest that nitrogen mediates above-ground impacts of ozone but not impacts on below-ground resource translocation. This may lead to complex interactive effects between the two pollutants on natural vegetation. - Nitrogen alters threshold of ozone-induced senescence, but not below-ground resource allocation.

  14. Safety assessment for the above ground storage of Cadmium Safety and Control Rods at the Solid Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    The mission of the Savannah River Site is changing from radioisotope production to waste management and environmental restoration. As such, Reactor Engineering has recently developed a plan to transfer the safety and control rods from the C, K, L, and P reactor disassembly basin areas to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads for long-term, retrievable storage. The TRU pads are located within the Solid Waste Management Facilities at the Savannah River Site. An Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Safety Evaluation has been performed for the proposed disassembly basin operations phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project. The USQ screening identified a required change to the authorization basis; however, the Proposed Activity does not involve a positive USQ Safety Evaluation. A Hazard Assessment for the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project determined that the above-ground storage of the cadmium rods results in no change in hazard level at the TRU pads. A Safety Assessment that specifically addresses the storage (at the TRU pads) phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project has been performed. Results of the Safety Assessment support the conclusion that a positive USQ is not involved as a result of the Proposed Activity

  15. An alternative approach for estimating above ground biomass using Resourcesat-2 satellite data and artificial neural network in Bundelkhand region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Dibyendu; Singh, J P; Deb, Shovik; Datta, Debajit; Ghosh, Arunava; Chaurasia, R S

    2017-10-20

    Determination of above ground biomass (AGB) of any forest is a longstanding scientific endeavor, which helps to estimate net primary productivity, carbon stock and other biophysical parameters of that forest. With advancement of geospatial technology in last few decades, AGB estimation now can be done using space-borne and airborne remotely sensed data. It is a well-established, time saving and cost effective technique with high precision and is frequently applied by the scientific community. It involves development of allometric equations based on correlations of ground-based forest biomass measurements with vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed data. However, selection of the best-fit and explanatory models of biomass estimation often becomes a difficult proposition with respect to the image data resolution (spatial and spectral) as well as the sensor platform position in space. Using Resourcesat-2 satellite data and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), this pilot scale study compared traditional linear and nonlinear models with an artificial intelligence-based non-parametric technique, i.e. artificial neural network (ANN) for formulation of the best-fit model to determine AGB of forest of the Bundelkhand region of India. The results confirmed the superiority of ANN over other models in terms of several statistical significance and reliability assessment measures. Accordingly, this study proposed the use of ANN instead of traditional models for determination of AGB and other bio-physical parameters of any dry deciduous forest of tropical sub-humid or semi-arid area. In addition, large numbers of sampling sites with different quadrant sizes for trees, shrubs, and herbs as well as application of LiDAR data as predictor variable were recommended for very high precision modelling in ANN for a large scale study.

  16. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  17. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A.; Ene, L S.O. [Plant Breeding Div., National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia (Nigeria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV{sub 2} propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs.

  18. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV 2 propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  20. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  1. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch yield of five local accessions of cassava, “Ankrah”, “AW/17, “Tomfa”, “Dagarti” and “Tuaka” was evaluated. Tomfa showed the highest (95%) incidence of the disease, index of severity of symptoms for all plants (ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased plants ...

  2. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pampana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  3. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  4. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  5. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  6. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  7. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-05-01

    The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI). The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb) with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%). There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60%) between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in Lambir. We conclude that the spaceborne remote sensing techniques have the potential to

  8. Detection of large above-ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jubanski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest above-ground biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed, and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square metre of about 4 resulted in the best cost / benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site-specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 43%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong greenhouse gas (GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  9. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  10. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  11. Modelling above Ground Biomass in Tanzanian Miombo Woodlands Using TanDEM-X WorldDEM and Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Puliti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data has great potential for monitoring large scale forest above ground biomass (AGB in the tropics due to the increased ability to retrieve 3D information even under cloud cover. To date; results in tropical forests have been inconsistent and further knowledge on the accuracy of models linking AGB and InSAR height data is crucial for the development of large scale forest monitoring programs. This study provides an example of the use of TanDEM-X WorldDEM data to model AGB in Tanzanian woodlands. The primary objective was to assess the accuracy of a model linking AGB with InSAR height from WorldDEM after the subtraction of ground heights. The secondary objective was to assess the possibility of obtaining InSAR height for field plots when the terrain heights were derived from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS; i.e., as an alternative to using airborne laser scanning (ALS. The results revealed that the AGB model using InSAR height had a predictive accuracy of R M S E = 24.1 t·ha−1; or 38.8% of the mean AGB when terrain heights were derived from ALS. The results were similar when using terrain heights from GNSS. The accuracy of the predicted AGB was improved when compared to a previous study using TanDEM-X for a sub-area of the area of interest and was of similar magnitude to what was achieved in the same sub-area using ALS data. Overall; this study sheds new light on the opportunities that arise from the use of InSAR data for large scale AGB modelling in tropical woodlands.

  12. Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Sub-Tropical Buffer Zone Community Forests, Nepal, Using Sentinel 2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Pandit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of above-ground biomass (AGB is important for the sustainable management of forests, especially buffer zone (areas within the protected area, where restrictions are placed upon resource use and special measure are undertaken to intensify the conservation value of protected area areas with a high dependence on forest products. This study presents a new AGB estimation method and demonstrates the potential of medium-resolution Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI data application as an alternative to hyperspectral data in inaccessible regions. Sentinel-2 performance was evaluated for a buffer zone community forest in Parsa National Park, Nepal, using field-based AGB as a dependent variable, as well as spectral band values and spectral-derived vegetation indices as independent variables in the Random Forest (RF algorithm. The 10-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate model effectiveness. The effect of the input variable number on AGB prediction was also investigated. The model using all extracted spectral information plus all derived spectral vegetation indices provided better AGB estimates (R2 = 0.81 and RMSE = 25.57 t ha−1. Incorporating the optimal subset of key variables did not improve model variance but reduced the error slightly. This result is explained by the technically-advanced nature of Sentinel-2, which includes fine spatial resolution (10, 20 m and strategically-positioned bands (red-edge, conducted in flat topography with an advanced machine learning algorithm. However, assessing its transferability to other forest types with varying altitude would enable future performance and interpretability assessments of Sentinel-2.

  13. Quantitative Estimation of Above Ground Crop Biomass using Ground-based, Airborne and Spaceborne Low Frequency Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, C.; Watanabe, M.; Shimada, M.

    2016-12-01

    Estimation of crop biomass is one of the important challenges in environmental remote sensing related to agricultural as well as hydrological and meteorological applications. Usually passive optical data (photographs, spectral data) operating in the visible and near-infrared bands is used for such purposes. The virtue of optical remote sensing for yield estimation, however, is rather limited as the visible light can only provide information about the chemical characteristics of the canopy surface. Low frequency microwave signals with wavelength longer 20 cm have the potential to penetrate through the canopy and provide information about the whole vertical structure of vegetation from the top of the canopy down to the very soil surface. This phenomenon has been well known and exploited to detect targets under vegetation in the military radar application known as FOPEN (foliage penetration). With the availability of polarimetric interferometric SAR data the use PolInSAR techniques to retrieve vertical vegetation structures has become an attractive tool. However, PolInSAR is still highly experimental and suitable data is not yet widely available. In this study we focus on the use of operational dual-polarization L-band (1.27 GHz) SAR which is since the launch of Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, 2006-2011) available worldwide. Since 2014 ALOS-2 continues to deliver such kind of partial polarimetric data for the entire land surface. In addition to these spaceborne data sets we use airborne L-band SAR data acquired by the Japanese Pi-SAR-L2 as well as ultra-wideband (UWB) ground based SAR data operating in the frequency range from 1-4 GHz. By exploiting the complex dual-polarization [C2] Covariance matrix information, the scattering contributions from the canopy can be well separated from the ground reflections allowing for the establishment of semi-empirical relationships between measured radar reflectivity and the amount of fresh-weight above-ground

  14. A Comparison of Regression Techniques for Estimation of Above-Ground Winter Wheat Biomass Using Near-Surface Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibo Yue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Above-ground biomass (AGB provides a vital link between solar energy consumption and yield, so its correct estimation is crucial to accurately monitor crop growth and predict yield. In this work, we estimate AGB by using 54 vegetation indexes (e.g., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index and eight statistical regression techniques: artificial neural network (ANN, multivariable linear regression (MLR, decision-tree regression (DT, boosted binary regression tree (BBRT, partial least squares regression (PLSR, random forest regression (RF, support vector machine regression (SVM, and principal component regression (PCR, which are used to analyze hyperspectral data acquired by using a field spectrophotometer. The vegetation indexes (VIs determined from the spectra were first used to train regression techniques for modeling and validation to select the best VI input, and then summed with white Gaussian noise to study how remote sensing errors affect the regression techniques. Next, the VIs were divided into groups of different sizes by using various sampling methods for modeling and validation to test the stability of the techniques. Finally, the AGB was estimated by using a leave-one-out cross validation with these powerful techniques. The results of the study demonstrate that, of the eight techniques investigated, PLSR and MLR perform best in terms of stability and are most suitable when high-accuracy and stable estimates are required from relatively few samples. In addition, RF is extremely robust against noise and is best suited to deal with repeated observations involving remote-sensing data (i.e., data affected by atmosphere, clouds, observation times, and/or sensor noise. Finally, the leave-one-out cross-validation method indicates that PLSR provides the highest accuracy (R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 1.20 t/ha, MAE = 0.90 t/ha, NRMSE = 0.07, CV (RMSE = 0.18; thus, PLSR is best suited for works requiring high

  15. Estimation of Above Ground Biomass in a Tropical Mountain Forest in Southern Ecuador Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor González-Jaramillo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A reliable estimation of Above Ground Biomass (AGB in Tropical Mountain Forest (TMF is still complicated, due to fast-changing climate and topographic conditions, which modifies the forest structure within fine scales. The variations in vertical and horizontal forest structure are hardly detectable by small field plots, especially in natural TMF due to the high tree diversity and the inaccessibility of remote areas. Therefore, the present approach used remotely sensed data from a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR sensor in combination with field measurements to estimate AGB accurately for a catchment in the Andes of south-eastern Ecuador. From the LiDAR data, information about horizontal and vertical structure of the TMF could be derived and the vegetation at tree level classified, differentiated between the prevailing forest types (ravine forest, ridge forest and Elfin Forest. Furthermore, topographical variables (Topographic Position Index, TPI; Morphometric Protection Index, MPI were calculated by means of the high-resolution LiDAR data to analyse the AGB distribution within the catchment. The field measurements included different tree parameters of the species present in the plots, which were used to determine the local mean Wood Density (WD as well as the specific height-diameter relationship to calculate AGB, applying regional scale modelling at tree level. The results confirmed that field plot measurements alone cannot capture completely the forest structure in TMF but in combination with high resolution LiDAR data, applying a classification at tree level, the AGB amount (Mg ha−1 and its distribution in the entire catchment could be estimated adequately (model accuracy at tree level: R2 > 0.91. It was found that the AGB distribution is strongly related to ridges and depressions (TPI and to the protection of the site (MPI, because high AGB was also detected at higher elevations (up to 196.6 Mg ha−1, above 2700 m, if the site is

  16. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were <1% if generalized models were used in place of species-specific models. Furthermore, application of generalized multispecies models did not introduce significant bias in biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species

  17. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  18. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  19. Evaluation of drought and UV radiation impacts on above-ground biomass of mountain grassland by spectral reflectance and thermal imaging techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Kateřina; Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Rapantová, Barbora; Urban, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, 1-2 (2016), s. 21-30 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : above-ground biomass * drought stress * grassland * UV radiation * precipitation * spectral reflectance * thermal imaging Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Luxury consumption of soil nutrients: a possible competitive strategy in above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology for slow-growing arctic vegetation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S.E.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    1 A field-experiment was used to determine how plant species might retain dominance in an arctic ecosystem receiving added nutrients. We both measured and modelled the above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology of non-acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, after 4

  1. Estimation of crown biomass of Pinus pinaster stands and shrubland above-ground biomass using forest inventory data, remotely sensed imagery and spatial prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; J. Aranha; D. Lopes; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Spatially crown biomass of Pinus pinaster stands and shrubland above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation was carried-out in a region located in Centre-North Portugal, by means of different approaches including forest inventory data, remotely sensed imagery and spatial prediction models. Two cover types (pine stands and shrubland) were inventoried and...

  2. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  3. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  4. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  5. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  6. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  7. Study of radial distribution of 239,240Pu and 90Sr in annual tree rings and trunk bark of a 103 years old Norway spruce at four different heights above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.; Schlesingerova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radial distribution of 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr originating from atmospheric nuclear tests in tree rings and trunk bark at heights of 1.3, 10, 18 and 22 m above ground was studied. 239,240 Pu activity concentrations in air dried tree ring samples (each containing 10 annual rings) at all heights were under detection limit of the used method. 90 Sr activity concentrations in tree ring samples ranged from 0.54 to 2.81 Bq kg -1 . 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr were present in the trunk bark. The paper presents data for 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr aggregated transfer factors to tree trunk. (author)

  8. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  9. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  10. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  11. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

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    Jeerasak Chobtang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin. The results showed that while the yields of available forage and leaves increased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05, the stem yield increased linearly (p<0.05 over sampling dates. The highest biomass accumulation rate was numerically observed between 40-60 days of regrowth. The concentrations of crude protein, ash, calcium and phosphorus decreased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05 with advancing maturity and reached the lowest flat after 60 days of regrowth. The cell wall components, i.e. NDF, ADF and ADL, increased over the experimental period and reached the highest plateau at 40 days of regrowth. It was concluded that Humidicola grass should be grazed or preserved at the regrowth age of not over 60 days to maximise the utilisation of the grass.

  12. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  13. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  14. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  15. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  17. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping the spatial pattern of temperate forest above ground biomass by integrating airborne lidar with Radarsat-2 imagery via geostatistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Gao, Shuai; Wang, Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are two competitive active remote sensing techniques in forest above ground biomass estimation, which is important for forest management and global climate change study. This study aims to further explore their capabilities in temperate forest above ground biomass (AGB) estimation by emphasizing the spatial auto-correlation of variables obtained from these two remote sensing tools, which is a usually overlooked aspect in remote sensing applications to vegetation studies. Remote sensing variables including airborne LiDAR metrics, backscattering coefficient for different SAR polarizations and their ratio variables for Radarsat-2 imagery were calculated. First, simple linear regression models (SLR) was established between the field-estimated above ground biomass and the remote sensing variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient (R2) was used to find which LiDAR metric showed the most significant correlation with the regression residuals and could be selected as co-variable in regression co-kriging (RCoKrig). Second, regression co-kriging was conducted by choosing the regression residuals as dependent variable and the LiDAR metric (Hmean) with highest R2 as co-variable. Third, above ground biomass over the study area was estimated using SLR model and RCoKrig model, respectively. The results for these two models were validated using the same ground points. Results showed that both of these two methods achieved satisfactory prediction accuracy, while regression co-kriging showed the lower estimation error. It is proved that regression co-kriging model is feasible and effective in mapping the spatial pattern of AGB in the temperate forest using Radarsat-2 data calibrated by airborne LiDAR metrics.

  19. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    Full Text Available Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the

  20. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  1. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  2. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  3. Dry matter production and chemical composition of Massai grass submitted to nitrogen rates and cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abadia Campos Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in a greenhouse with a 4X4 factorial arrangement randomized block design in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3 associated with cutting heights (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm on dry matter production and the chemical composition of Massai grass. The seeding was done in pots with 11 kg of soil. 10 plants were kept per pot, and there were two cuts every 35 days. Nitrogen fertilization was split between the two cuts, where the first N application occurred after the uniformity cut and the second after the first cut. In each cut the plants were separated and weighed for botanical component evaluation: leaf blade and stem + sheath. After this, the samples were homogenized and analysed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fibre (NDF content. In the first cut, the N fertilization caused a linear increase in DM production of 0.058 g pot-1 per each 1 mg dm-3 of N applied, as well as causing an increase of 0.549% in CP percentage, a 0.0124 pot-1 g increase in CP production and a reduction of 0.055% in NDF. In the second cut, N rates promoted a quadratic effect on DM production. A maximum DM production of 16.48 g pot-1 with 107.27 mg dm-3 of N was observed while CP production content was increased by 0.0092 g pot-1 for each 1 mg dm-3 N applied. In terms of linear responses to DM and PB, as well as the use efficiency calculated for Massai grass, recommended N doses range between 50 and 100 g dm-3.

  4. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  6. Dry matter yield and Carbon partitioning in the aboveground part of switchgrass ( panicum virgatum l.) germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkutė, B.; Lemežien ė, N.; Cesevičienė, J.; Liaudanskienė, I., E-mail: brone@lzi.lt [Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr. (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon (C) accumulated in biomass can be converted into usable forms of energy like methane, bioethanol or solid fuel. Understanding the partitioning of aboveground biomass and C plays an important role in optimizing its pre-treatment technologies. Our objectives were to determine dry matter yield (DMY) and C partitioning in switch grass germplasm. Plants were sampled at heading (HS) and seed filling (SFS) stages. The biomass of the SFS-sampled plants was separated into leaves (blades+sheaths), stems, and panicles. C content was determined by dry combustion. C yield per plant (CY) at HS ranged from 25.9 to 171 g (37.3 g on average for plants in the first harvest year, and 147 for those in the second harvest year), at SFS CY varied within a range of 79.8 ‒ 295g and averaged 119 and 252g depending on the year of growth. DMY was a weighted factor for such results. At SFS, DMY of stems accounted on average for 46.3%, leaves for 40.5%, and panicles for 13.2% of the aboveground biomass of whole plant with respective C concentrations of 462, 439 and 459 g kg -1 DM. (author)

  7. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  8. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  9. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Wound healing and dry matter content of orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as influenced by curing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuna Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Curing in sweetpotato is a crucial pre- or postharvest practice that could guarantee improved shelf life,but rarely practised by sweetpotato farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, principally due to lack of knowledge. Wound healing ability of cultivars has been associated with good root storability. In this study, two orange fleshed sweetpotato cultivars (Apomuden and Nane were either cured in-ground by dehaulming prior to harvest or field-piled over a seven-day period to study their responses to wound healing and changes in dry matter content. Apomuden is a low dry matter content(19% variety in Ghana while Nane is a high dry matter content (27% farmer cultivar under evaluation for formal release. A potato peeler was used to deliberately create the wounds on 21 storage roots. The curing treatment was applied and the subsequent post-treatment quality status of the storage roots was monitored daily over a seven-day period. Wound healing ability was scored as follows: 0 = no lignification, 0.5 = patchy lignification and1= complete lignification. Wound healing ability score was not significantly different for Apomuden and Nane (0.83,0.78, respectively; p = 0.120. However, storage roots curedby field-piled curing method resulted in significantly better wound healing ability than dehaulming (0.86, 0.75,respectively, p = 0.001. Over the seven-day curing period,Nane had a significantly higher and stable dry mattercontent compared with Apomuden (p = 0.008, whose dry matter content was lower and fluctuating. The field-piled curing resulted in higher (p = 0.020 dry matter content,24%, compared with in-ground curing (22%. The field piled curing method, which can easily be adopted by sweetpotato farmers, increased the dry matter content of the storage roots; therefore, it could potentially reduce the post-harvest losses in sweetpotato. The high dry matter content of Nane is a desirable root quality attribute for orange-fleshed cultivars and could augment existing

  11. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  12. Using ground-based spectral reflectance sensors and photography to estimate shoot N concentration and dry matter of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Jabloun, Mohamed; Plauborg, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Two years experiments were set up to evaluate the performance of different vegetation indices (VI) to estimate shoot N concentration (Nc) and shoot dry matter (DM) for a potato crop grown under different nitrogen (N) treatments. Possibilities to improve the performance of VI using normalization b...

  13. Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the relationship between dry matter intake (DMI) and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion in order to develop equations to predict DMI, and 2) to determine the endogenous excretion of PD for beef and dairy cattle using a meta-analytic approac...

  14. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  15. Effects of canopy structural variables on retrieval of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area from remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Duren, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) are two important traits in measuring biodiversity. To use remote sensing for the estimation of these traits, it is essential to understand the underlying factors that influence their relationships with canopy reflectance. The effect of

  16. Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding

  17. Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Nitrogen Affect Nutrient Concentrations and the Amount of Nutrients Acquired by Above-Ground Organs of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Carlos M.; Coutinho, João F.; Bacelar, Eunice A.; Gonçalves, Berta M.; Björn, Lars Olof; Moutinho Pereira, José

    2012-01-01

    UV-B radiation effects on nutrient concentrations in above-ground organs of maize were investigated at silking and maturity at different levels of applied nitrogen under field conditions. The experiment simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion over Portugal. At silking, UV-B increased N, K, Ca, and Zn concentrations, whereas at maturity Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu increased and N, P and Mn decreased in some plant organs. Generally, at maturity, N, Ca, Cu, and Mn were lower, while P, K, and Zn con...

  18. Impacts of Woody Invader Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff. Martelli on Physio-chemical Properties of Soil and, Below and Above Ground Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.K. Wickramathilake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dillenia suffruticosa (Griffith Martelli, that spreads fast in low-lying areas in wet zone of Sri Lanka is currently listed as a nationally important Invasive Alien Species that deserves attention in ecological studies. Thus, impact of this woody invader on physical, chemical properties of soil and below and above ground flora was investigated. Five sampling sites were identified along a distance of 46km from Avissawella to Ratnapura. At each site, two adjacent plots [1m x10m each for D. suffruticosa present (D+ and absent (D-] were outlined. Physical and chemical soil parameters, microbial biomass and number of bacterial colonies in soil were determined using standard procedures and compared between D+ and D- by ANOVA using SPSS. Rate of decomposition of D. suffruticosa leaves was also determined using the litter bag technique at 35% and 50% moisture levels. Above ground plant species richness in sample stands was compared using Jaccard and Sorenson diversity indices.  Decomposition of D. suffruticosa leaves was slow, but occurred at a more or less similar rate irrespective of moisture content of soil. Particle size distribution in D+ soil showed a much higher percentage of large soil particles.  Higher % porosity in D+ sites was a clear indication that the soil was aerated.  The pH was significantly lower for D+ than D- thus developing acidic soils whereas conductivity has been significantly high making soil further stressed. The significant drop in Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC in D+ soil was a remarkable finding to be concerned with as it correlated with fertility of soil. Significantly higher values of phosphates reported in D+ soil support the idea that plant invaders are capable to increase phosphates in soil. Higher biomass values recorded for D+ sites together with higher number of bacterial colonies could be related to the unexpectedly recorded higher Organic Carbon. Both  the  Jaccard  and  Sorenson   indices indicated  that

  19. [Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr and their chemical analogues in the components of an above-ground part of a pine in a quasi-equilibrium condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikhin, S V; Manakhov, D V; Shcheglov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The additional study of the distribution of radioactive isotopes of caesium and strontium and their chemical analogues in the above-ground components of pine in the remote from the accident period was carried out. The results of the research confirmed the existence of analogy in the distribution of these elements on the components of this type of wood vegetation in the quasi-equilibrium (relatively radionuclides) condition. Also shown is the selective possibility of using the data on the ash content of the components of forest stands of pine and oak as an information analogue.

  20. [Effects of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Lin; Sun, Shi Jun; Chen, Zhi Jun; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Xu Dong; Chi, Dao Cai

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm -2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99). The results showed that, compared with the other mulching treatments, the black plastic film mulching treatment significantly increased the maize dry matter accumulation and maize biomass by 3.2%-8.2%. In mature stage, the biomass increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing plant density. When planting density was 82500 plants·hm -2 , the biomass was the highest, which was 5.2%-28.3% higher than that of other plant density treatments. The mean soil temperature in prophase of transparent plastic film mulching treatment was 0.4-2.7 ℃ higher than that of other treatments, which accelerated the maize growth process and augmented the dry matter transportation amount (T), dry matter transportation efficiency (TE) and contribution rate of dry matter transportation to the grain yield (TC) of maize stalk and leaf. The T, TE, TC of leaf and leaf-stalk under 60000 plants·hm -2 treatment were the highest. The highest T, TE, TC of stalk were observed under 75000 plants·hm -2 treatment. In heading period, the water consumption and daily water consumption intensity of maize under the treatment of black film mulching were the largest, which were 9.4%-10.6% and 10.6%-24.5% higher than that of other mulching treatments, respectively. The highest water consumption and daily water consumption intensity were both obtained under 90000 plants·hm -2 treatment, which increased by 6.8%-15.7% and 7.0%-20.0% compared with other

  1. Effect of defoliation frequency and height of cutting on growth, dry matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.; Mihret, J.; Solomon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth characteristics, dry-matter (DM) yield, chemical components and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Napier grass were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The treatments were three defoliation frequencies (60, 90 and

  2. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate. Part I. Regional suitability of earth-tempering practices: summary and conclusions. Part II. Bioclimatic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labs, K.

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate-control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above-ground climate-control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dewpoint ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation, from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically. While the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above-ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate-control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above- and below-ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and a detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States. 3 references, 12 figures, 14 tables.

  3. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  5. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  6. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation in three millet species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behnam kamkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A factorial arrangement of three millets species (Panicum miliaceum, Pennisetum glaucum, and Setaria italica and two sowing dates with three replications were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation. Leaf area index was used in daily intervals to calculate daily intercepted radiation. Light extinction coefficient was calculated as the slope of regression line between log transformed fraction of intercepted radiation and leaf area index during growing season. Radiation use efficiency was calculated as the slope of linear regression between cumulative intercepted radiation and cumulative biomass during growing season. Results showed that light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency for proso, pearl and foxtail millets were 0.75, 0.66, 0.57 and 1.43, 1.83, 1.74 g/MJ in terms of total radiation, respectively. Differences in biomass production were not significant between proso and pearl millets. Proso millet had higher intercepted radiation, but lower radiation use efficiency in comparison with pearl millet. Foxtail millet had lower intercepted radiation than proso and pearl millets, but its radiation use efficiency was higher than pearl millet. Total biomass of foxtail millet was lower than other species. Results indicated that proso and pearl millets can produce more biomass than foxtail millet.

  7. Proportional relationship between intercepted solar radiation and dry matter production in a mulberry [Morus] field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueel, S.A.; Ito, D.; Naoi, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between dry matter production (DMP) and the amount of intercepted solar radiation (S), and to analyze the fluctuations in the radiation conversion efficiency (DMP/S), summer-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) trees under a standard planting density were subjected to a shading treatment using a cheesecloth. Then, using a non-destructive method, DMP was examined for 5 plants from each plot every 15 days from July to September. DMP was also examined for mulberry trees under a high planting density. Rates of radiation that penetrated onto the ground and beneath the cheesecloth were measured to calculate S from the incoming solar radiation. In the shading plots, DMP decreased depending on the degree of shading throughout the experimental period. Compared with the control plot, 70 and 60 % DMP were produced finally under 71 and 53 % S. Therefore, DMP was considered to be almost proportional to S even in a broad-leaf population like mulberry. Radiation conversion efficiency gradually decreased with growth regardless of the planting density. At the late growth stage, radiation conversion efficiency was lower in the densely planted field than in the standard density field

  8. Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E; Schmidt, R J; Holmes, B J; Muck, R E

    2018-05-01

    An overview was made of dry matter (DM) and quality losses that occur during the ensiling process from the field through the feeding phase. The aim was to review the relevant published literature of the last 15 yr focusing on developments achieved after the publication of the book Silage Science and Technology. This review discusses the factors affecting DM and quality losses in terms of field and pre-ensiling conditions, respiration and temperature at ensiling, fermentation patterns, methods of covering and weighting the silage cover, and management of aerobic deterioration. The possibility of reducing DM and quality losses during the ensiling process requires knowledge of how to measure losses on farm and establish the status of the silage during the feed-out phase, implementing the most effective management practices to avoid air exposure during conservation and reduce silage aerobic deterioration during feeding. The paper concludes with future perspectives and recommended management practices to reduce losses and increase efficiency over the whole ensiling process in view of increasing sustainability of the livestock production chain. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  9. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  10. Genetic variation of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of double haploid wheat lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Milkova, V.; Ivanov, P.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study considers the genotype peculiarities in the dynamics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in plant parts during the different stages of 10 DH wheat lines characterized as initial breeding material of high quality. These were obtained from 2 crosses - 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-4 and 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-24. Considerable genotype variations were established both between the lines and the parental forms, and in comparison to the standard quality variety Slavyanka-196. Lines 41-191 and 41-344 are of special interest because of their high grain yield and high intensity of biomass accumulation (kg/dka/day) and high intensity of nitrogen uptake (g/dka/day) mainly in the second half of the grain filling period. These fines stand out among the new DH fines with their high protein yields. In line 41-181 the ratio NHI/GHI changes positively with a high degree of certainty in both phases of grain maturity. This line is characterized with the highest value of nitrogen (mg) in vegetation mass per unit mature grain. A positive correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio and protein content in grain. Line 41-344 is the most economic one with regard to nitrogen formation per 100 kg grain with the lowest expense for formation of the respective quantity of straw. Refs. 5 (author)

  11. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  12. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  13. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  14. Jerusalem artichoke above ground biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, C.; Pageau, D.; Dubuc, J-P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ste. Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The possibility of using Jerusalem artichoke in an ethanol production scheme was discussed. A study was conducted to determine the yield stability, competitive ability and weed control requirements of this member of the sunflower family under the climatic conditions in eastern Canada. Two cultivars, the sunroot and fusil, were planted at four experimental sites in which three weed control treatments were tested (two arrowings, one arrowing, and no control). During the establishment, there was little difference between one and two arrowings, but the no weed control treatment was harmful to crop growth. It was concluded that Jerusalem artichoke is very competitive, and if it were included in an ethanol production scheme, weed control would only be necessary in the establishment year. After that, a single arrowing three to four weeks after planting would be sufficient to ensure proper establishment of the plant stand. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Ismael Cortes-Salazar; Braulio Valles-De la Mora; Eliazar Ocaña-Zavaleta

    2012-01-01

    The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum) dry matter (DMD %) were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc) and bags (Vb) per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE) of mean DMD. The ...

  16. Estimation and mapping of above-ground biomass of mangrove forests and their replacement land uses in the Philippines using Sentinel imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose Alan A.; Apan, Armando A.; Maraseni, Tek N.; Salmo, Severino G.

    2017-12-01

    The recent launch of the Sentinel-1 (SAR) and Sentinel-2 (multispectral) missions offers a new opportunity for land-based biomass mapping and monitoring especially in the tropics where deforestation is highest. Yet, unlike in agriculture and inland land uses, the use of Sentinel imagery has not been evaluated for biomass retrieval in mangrove forest and the non-forest land uses that replaced mangroves. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sentinel imagery for the retrieval and predictive mapping of above-ground biomass of mangroves and their replacement land uses. We used Sentinel SAR and multispectral imagery to develop biomass prediction models through the conventional linear regression and novel Machine Learning algorithms. We developed models each from SAR raw polarisation backscatter data, multispectral bands, vegetation indices, and canopy biophysical variables. The results show that the model based on biophysical variable Leaf Area Index (LAI) derived from Sentinel-2 was more accurate in predicting the overall above-ground biomass. In contrast, the model which utilised optical bands had the lowest accuracy. However, the SAR-based model was more accurate in predicting the biomass in the usually deficient to low vegetation cover non-forest replacement land uses such as abandoned aquaculture pond, cleared mangrove and abandoned salt pond. These models had 0.82-0.83 correlation/agreement of observed and predicted value, and root mean square error of 27.8-28.5 Mg ha-1. Among the Sentinel-2 multispectral bands, the red and red edge bands (bands 4, 5 and 7), combined with elevation data, were the best variable set combination for biomass prediction. The red edge-based Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index had the highest prediction accuracy among the vegetation indices. Overall, Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery can provide satisfactory results in the retrieval and predictive mapping of the above-ground biomass of mangroves and the replacement

  17. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. I. Dynamics of dry matter accumulation. Grain yield and structural elements of yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadin, K.; Nonkova, M.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The genotype peculiarities in the translocation dynamics of dry matter in relation to wheat yield were studied under vegetation-laboratory and field conditions. The new wheat varieties Enola, Karat and Svilena created at the Institute for Wheat and Sunflower 'Dobroudja' have a high production potential due to their high intensity of dry matter accumulation in grain during the second half of maturation. It was established that in the standard variety Pliska the intensity of dry matter accumulation in reproductive parts was higher during heading-grain filling and then sharply decreased during maturation. This variety was characterized with high translocation of vegetation mass eventually leading to grain yield decrease. Significant genotype variations were established in the vegetation mass translocation in the respective parts during the stages of development. The contribution of the individual organs concerning carbohydrate reutilization to grain was mainly due to stems. An especially important peculiarity of the leaves of cv. Svilena was established: they ensured over 30 of grain yield at optimal nutrition. The complex evaluation of the new varieties revealed their high plasticity, the cultivar Karat showing the best characteristics. Refs. 13 (author)

  18. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  19. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  1. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  2. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  3. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding...... grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  4. A comparative analysis of extended water cloud model and backscatter modelling for above-ground biomass assessment in Corbett Tiger Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, Sarnam; Chatterjee, R. S.; Trivedi, Mukul

    2016-04-01

    Forest biomass acts as a backbone in regulating the climate by storing carbon within itself. Thus the assessment of forest biomass is crucial in understanding the dynamics of the environment. Traditionally the destructive methods were adopted for the assessment of biomass which were further advanced to the non-destructive methods. The allometric equations developed by destructive methods were further used in non-destructive methods for the assessment, but they were mostly applied for woody/commercial timber species. However now days Remote Sensing data are primarily used for the biomass geospatial pattern assessment. The Optical Remote Sensing data (Landsat8, LISS III, etc.) are being used very successfully for the estimation of above ground biomass (AGB). However optical data is not suitable for all atmospheric/environmental conditions, because it can't penetrate through clouds and haze. Thus Radar data is one of the alternate possible ways to acquire data in all-weather conditions irrespective of weather and light. The paper examines the potential of ALOS PALSAR L-band dual polarisation data for the estimation of AGB in the Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR) covering an area of 889 km2. The main focus of this study is to explore the accuracy of Polarimetric Scattering Model (Extended Water Cloud Model (EWCM) with respect to Backscatter model in the assessment of AGB. The parameters of the EWCM were estimated using the decomposition components (Raney Decomposition) and the plot level information. The above ground biomass in the CTR ranges from 9.6 t/ha to 322.6 t/ha.

  5. Responses of young tea (Camellia sinensis) clones to drought and temperature. II. Dry matter production and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.; Carr, M.K.V.

    1996-01-01

    The physiological basis for differences in yields from well-watered and draughted plants of four contrasting clones of tea was studied in terms of light interception, dry matter production and partitioning at a high altitude site in Southern Tanzania where there are marked seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature. The plant dry weights, including roots, were measured eight months after field planting and subsequently at intervals of three to four months, corresponding to the different seasons, during the following two years. Fully irrigated plants of one clone (S15/10) were also harvested after four years in the field. Clones differed in the rates of canopy spread and hence in their capacity to intercept solar radiation. The ‘radiation use efficiency’ (the net total dry matter production per unit of intercepted short-wave radiation) was similar for the four well-watered clones and ranged from 0.40 to 0.66 g MJ −1 , which corresponds closely to values reported for other woody tropical plants. A 16-week drought treatment imposed two years after planting reduced the mean light interception of the four clones by about 25% and the mean radiation use efficiency by 78% to 0.09 g MJ −1 . Clone S15/10, a cultivar from Kenya which produces large yields, partitioned a greater proportion of dry matter to leaves and harvested shoots than the other clones, and correspondingly less to large structural roots. This resulted in a maximum harvest index of 24%, substantially greater than other values reported in the literature. There were seasonal differences in partitioning, with more dry matter being diverted to roots and less to shoots during the cool season. Although the drought treatments had no significant effect on root growth, the amount of dry matter partitioned to leaves, stems and harvested shoots declined by 80–95%. The roots of all four clones extended in depth at similar rates (about 2 mm d −1 ), those of Clone S15/10 reaching 2.8m after four years

  6. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  7. Dry Matter Yield And Competitiveness Of Alang-alang (Imperata Cylindrica) And Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) In Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...

  8. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  9. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  10. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  11. Tenor of macro nutrients and dry matter productivity of covering crops in function of the potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the system of direct sowing it is necessary the formation of a straw layer in the surface of the soils. In this sense, some species of grass can be used for that goal, besides; those plants can act in the recycling for the accumulation of nutrients in the aerial part, and its readiness for the subsequent culture. The potassium is one of the most accumulated nutrients for many of those plants. The objective of this work was to quantify the macronutrients tenor and the productivity of dry matter of Penisetum glaucum L. and Panicum miliaceum L. under different potassium doses. A blocks at random design, with the treatments disposed in factorial 3x2, was used, being the factors: covering cultures (P.glaucum and P. miliaceum and potassium doses (0; 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2 O, with four repetitions. The matter dries was evaluated and the tenors of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in them, at 50 days after sowing covering cultures. P.glaucum produced larger dry matter content and tenor of N, K and Mg in the aerial part, independently of the K dose applied, while the tenor of P decreased with the application of high dose of K in the soil. The application of K influenced on the tenors of Ca and S in the two covering cultures, nevertheless P.glaucum accumulated higher tenor of those macronutrients in the absence of application of K.

  12. A simple enzyme assay for dry matter digestibility and its value in studying food selection by generalist herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Gillian M; Waterman, Peter G; McKey, Doyle B; Gartlan, J Stephen

    1981-05-01

    The dry matter digestibility of 94 species of leaf was assayed by a simple method involving sequential treatment with pepsin and fungal cellulase enzymes. It was demonstrated that for foliage from rainforest trees of a wide range of dicotyledonous plant families the assay showed high positive correlation with estimates of dry matter digestibility obtained using rumenliquor from a fistulated steer. Both assays were found to reflect negative correlates of digestibility, notably fibre and condensed tannin, rather than the nutritional value of an item. The higher dry matter digestibility of immature leaves relative to mature leaves appeared to be accounted for by their lower fibre content. It is suggested that the pepsin/cellulase assay offers a cheap, quick, routine method of gaining information on the effects of some types of plant secondary compounds (digestibility reducers) on the 'food potential' of different kinds of foliage to herbivores. Its use in studies of herbivory in rainforest areas in relation to analyses for plant secondary compounds and food selection by herbivores is discussed.

  13. Analysis and modeling of dry matter production rate by soybean [Glycine max] community: Curvilinear response to radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameshima, R.

    1996-01-01

    The linear relationship between the amount of absorbed radiation and dry matter production by crop communities has long been known, and the proportionality constant between them is known as the radiation use efficiency (RUE). To analyze and predict crop production using RUE, the assumption is often made that RUE is not sensitive to radiation intensity and that dry matter production rate (DMPR) is a linear function of radiation intensity.However, there is evidence in opposition to this assumption, including reports of increasing RUE in shade tests, and hyperbolic response of photosynthetic rate to radiation intensity. The following model was developed and used to analyze the response of DMPR and RUE to daily radiation R S : DMPR = DMPR max (R S ) * g(α) where DMPR max (R S ) is the DMPR of a hypothetical soybean community absorbing all radiation, and g(α) represents the effect of radiation absorptivity (α). A hyperbolic curve and a straight line were employed for DMPR max (R S ) and g(α), respectively. Field experimental data including shade tests were used to determine the parameters for the model. Two sets of parameters were required to cover the entire experimental period. DMPR max (R S ) had an apparent curvilinear relationship with R S . The model successfully described dry matter production under successive low radiation conditions, which could not be estimated by a model with RUE insensitive to radiation. (author)

  14. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  15. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  16. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  17. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  18. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on stem dry matter in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim

    Full Text Available Plant analysis is a very promising diagnostic tool for assessment of crop nitrogen (N requirements in perspectives of cost effective and environment friendly agriculture. Diagnosing N nutritional status of rice crop through plant analysis will give insights into optimizing N requirements of future crops. The present study was aimed to develop a new methodology for determining the critical nitrogen (Nc dilution curve based on stem dry matter (SDM and to assess its suitability to estimate the level of N nutrition for rice (Oryza sativa L. in east China. Three field experiments with varied N rates (0-360 kg N ha(-1 using three Japonica rice hybrids, Lingxiangyou-18, Wuxiangjing-14 and Wuyunjing were conducted in Jiangsu province of east China. SDM and stem N concentration (SNC were determined during vegetative stage for growth analysis. A Nc dilution curve based on SDM was described by the equation (Nc = 2.17W(-0.27 with W being SDM in t ha(-1, when SDM ranged from 0.88 to 7.94 t ha(-1. However, for SDM < 0.88 t ha(-1, the constant critical value Nc = 1.76% SDM was applied. The curve was dually validated for N-limiting and non-N-limiting growth conditions. The N nutrition index (NNI and accumulated N deficit (Nand of stem ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 and 51.1 to -7.07 kg N ha(-1, respectively, during key growth stages under varied N rates in 2010 and 2011. The values of ΔN derived from either NNI or Nand could be used as references for N dressing management during rice growth. Our results demonstrated that the present curve well differentiated the conditions of limiting and non-limiting N nutrition in rice crop. The SDM based Nc dilution curve can be adopted as an alternate and novel approach for evaluating plant N status to support N fertilization decision during the vegetative growth of Japonica rice in east China.

  19. Adjusting for heterogeneity of experimental data in genetic evaluation of dry matter intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M E; Meuwissen, T; Veerkamp, R F

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were (i) to find the best fitted model for repeatedly measured daily dry matter intake (DMI) data obtained from different herds and experiments across lactations and (ii) to get better estimates of the genetic parameters and better genetic evaluations. After editing, there were 572,512 daily DMI records of 3,495 animals (Holstein cows) from 11 different herds across 13 lactations and the animals were under 110 different nutritional experiments. The fitted model for this data set was a univariate repeated-measure animal model (called model 1) in which additive genetic and permanent environmental (within and across lactations) effects were fitted as random. Model 1 was fitted as two distinct models (called models 2 and 3) based on alternative fixed effect corrections. For unscaled data, each model (models 2 and 3) was fitted as a homoscedastic (HOM) model first and then as a heteroscedastic (HET) model. Then, data were scaled by multiplying with particular herd-scaling factors, which were calculated by accounting for heterogeneity of phenotypic within-herd variances. Models were selected based on cross-validation and prediction accuracy results. Scaling factors were re-estimated to determine the effectiveness of accounting for herd heterogeneity. Variance components and respective heritability and repeatability were estimated based on a pedigree-based relationship matrix. Results indicated that the model fitted for scaled data showed better fit than the models (HOM or HET) fitted for unscaled data. The heritability estimates of the models 2 and 3 fitted for scaled data were 0.30 and 0.08, respectively. The repeatability estimates of the model fitted for scaled data ranged from 0.51 to 0.63. The re-estimated scaling factor after accounting for heterogeneity of residual variances was close to 1.0, indicating the stabilization of residual variances and herd accounted for most of the heterogeneity. The rank correlation of EBVs between

  20. Determining consumer purchase intentions: the importance of dry matter, size, and price of kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Harker, Roger; Triggs, Chris M; Gunson, Anne; Campbell, Rachel L; Jackman, Richard; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the relative importance of food quality attributes in determining consumer purchase intention is critical for robust assessment of economic opportunities for industry growth. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how conjoint analysis methodology that incorporates tasting of fruit can be used to collect such information. Three hundred Japanese consumers took part in research designed to measure the importance of dry matter (DM), size, and price of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa "Hayward" and Actinidia chinensis "Hort16A") for purchase intention. Measurement of consumer liking for kiwifruit of different DM content was a key first step. Liking increased as DM increased and was accompanied by increased purchase likelihood/choice probability for kiwifruit. The size of kiwifruit presented to consumers varied from "small" to "extra large." Consumers liked "mid-sized" kiwifruit over "small" or "extra-large" kiwifruit. Despite these differences in liking, size was of little importance in determining purchase likelihood/choice probability for kiwifruit. Price was a very important factor in determining purchase likelihood/choice probability but was less important than DM content. As price increased, purchase likelihood/choice probability decreased. Beneath these general findings, heterogeneity existed. Some consumers placed more/less importance on the focal purchase drivers than suggested by the aggregate model. Overall, the results suggest that incentive schemes already implemented by industry should consider rewarding high-DM fruit more than fruit size.   This research has contributed to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry gaining a better understanding of the relative importance consumers place on DM, size, and price of kiwifruit and has resulted in changes to grower incentive schemes. The research approach presented forces consumer to tradeoff attributes of kiwifruit against each other and decide on how important two key quality attributes-DM and

  1. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  2. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  3. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna–forest transition zones on three continents – how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related to tree canopy cover in a similar way for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the relative contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation. Herbaceous layer cover declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs progressively replaced by shrubs as the canopy closes over was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna–forest-species discontinuum is observed compared to that inferred when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1 m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy-cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater amount of above-ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much above-ground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna–forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, consistent across all three

  5. Above-ground woody biomass allocation and within tree carbon and nutrient distribution of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Morhart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global search for new ways to sequester carbon has already reached agricultural lands. Such land constitutes a major potential carbon sink. The production of high value timber within agroforestry systems can facilitate an in-situ carbon storage function. This is followed by a potential long term ex- situ carbon sinkwithin long lasting products such as veneer and furniture. For this purpose wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is an interesting option for middle Europe, yielding high prices on the timber market. Methods: A total number of 39 wild cherry were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to assess the leafless above ground biomass. The complete trees including stem and branches were separated into 1 cm diameter classes. Wood and bark from sub-samples were analysed separately and nutrient content was derived. Models for biomass estimation were constructed for all tree compartments. Results: The smallest diameter classes possess the highest proportion of bark due to smaller cross sectional area. Tree boles with a greater amount of stem wood above 10 cm in diameter will have a more constant bark proportion. Total branch bark proportion also remains relatively constant above d1.3m measurements of 8 cm. A balance is evident between the production of new branches with a low diameter and high bark proportion offset by the thickening and a relative reduction in bark proportion in larger branches. The results show that a single tree with an age of 17 and 18 years can store up to 85 kg of carbon within the aboveground biomass portion, an amount that will increase as the tree matures. Branches display greater nutrient content than stem sections per volume unit which can be attributed to a greater bark proportion. Conclusions: Using the derived models the carbon and the nutrient content of above-ground woody biomass of whole trees can be calculated. Suggested values for carbon with other major and minor nutrients held within relatively immature trees

  6. Shoot growth, radiation interception and dry matter production and partitioning during the establishment phase of Miscanthus sinensis 'Giganteus' grown at two densities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, M.J.; Heath, M.C.; Nixon, P.M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Photosynthetic area index (PAI), radiation interception (I) and dry matter partitioning between shoots and roots were measured for Miscanthus sinensis‘Giganteus' grown from micro-propagated transplants on a fertile peaty loam soil in eastern England. In the establishment year, Miscanthus plants produced 35 and 70 shoots plant -1 at densities of 4.0 and 1.8 plants m -2 respectively. At the higher density, there were 140 shoots m -2 with the largest reaching a height of 1.8 m; these canopies attained a maximum PAI of 5.45, intercepting 94% of incident radiation. Leaf lamina contributed c. 90% of total photosynthetic area with stems contributing the remainder. At the lower density, maximum PAI and I values were 2.88 and 86% respectively. PAI was related to I by calculating attenuation coefficients (k); these indicated that Miscanthus canopies were more effective at intercepting radiation per unit PAI at the lower density (k= -0.31) compared with the higher density (k= -0.20). Radiation interception was related to dry matter accumulated by calculating conversion efficiencies (e). At 4 plants m -2 , × for shoot dry matter production was 1.17g MJ -1 . Miscanthus partitioned a relatively large amount of total dry matter into below-ground biomass. By plant senescence, c. 30% of total dry matter had been partitioned into root and rhizome; rhizome biomass contributed 80% of below-ground dry matter, × increased to 1.62 g MJ -1 when calculated on a total dry matter basis (shoot + root + rhizome). Total dry matter production was increased 68% by a 2.2-fold increase in plant density. (author)

  7. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  8. Nodulation, dry matter production and N2 fixation by fababean and chickpea as affected by soil moisture and potassium fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Ahamma, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of three rates of K-fertilizer (0, 75, and 150 kg K 2 O/ha)on nodulation, dry matter production and N 2 fixation by fababean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cirer arietinum L.) was evaluated in a pot experiment. The plants were subjected to three soil moisture regimes (low, 45-50%; moderate, 55-60% and high 75-80% of field capacity). 15 N-isotope dilution method was employed to evaluate N 2 fixation using a non-fixing chickpea genotype as a reference crop. Water restriction drastically affected dry matter production, nodulation and N 2 fixation by both plant species. The negative effect of water stress on %N 2 fixed was more prominent in chickpea (11-58%) than in fababean (68-81%) under low and high % of field capacity, respectively. Plant species differed in their response to K-fertilizer as a mean to enhance growth and overcome the stress conditions. The higher level of K fertilizer increased both dry matter production and total N 2 fixed in fababean, but did not have any impact on chickpea. %N 2 fixed, however, appeared to be unaffected by K fertilizer as a mean of alleviating drought stress in both plant species. Therefore, it appears that, under the experimental conditions, the beneficial effect of potassium on water-stressed fababean resulted from stimulation the growth rather than improving the N 2 -fixation efficiency. However, under well-watered plants, a high requirement of the symbiotic system to potassium is needed to ensure and optimal growth and N 2 -fixation. (author)

  9. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  10. Height, leaf nymber, chemical composition and dry matter production of Stylosanthes Campo Grande at different levels of potassium and zinco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Mara Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine plant height, total number of leaves, number of live leaves, chemical composition and dry mass production of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande at first cut and after 21 days of regrowth at different levels of potassium (K2O with and without zinc (Zn. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme consisting of four repetitions. Four levels of K2O (0, 120, 240 and 360 mg/dm3 with and without Zn (0 and 6 mg/dm3 were used. There was no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on the structural characteristics of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed. The mean plant height, total number of leaves and number of live leaves were 21.2 cm, 30.2 and 27.2, respectively. Dry mass production did not differ between K2O and Zn levels, with a mean production of 3.7 g/pot. There was also no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on dry matter and neutral detergent fiber content, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed, with mean values of 29.3% and 46.9% dry matter, respectively. However, an effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels was observed for crude protein content, which exhibited a quadratic response. Re2growth increased linearly with increasing K2O levels. Although the highest crude protein content was obtained at zero levels of potassium and zinc, potassium fertilization is advantageous since it increases the regrowth of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande in 21 days.

  11. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  12. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF......) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was tested by using the in situ technique. The grass samples were harvested at three different stages, early vegetative growth, early reproductive growth and late reproductive growth. Degradability...

  13. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    was applied on-line in a re-circulating loop configuration operating identically as a full-scale setup. Ammonium could be modelled in the industrially relevant range 2.42 – 8.52 g L-1 with an excellent accuracy and precision, slope ~1.0, r2 = 0.97, corresponding toa relative Root Mean Square Error......Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  15. Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein of legume and grass species during the spring growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS The estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3...... for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend...

  16. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  17. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  18. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was increased by 0.32% per hour increase in day length. This is in agreement with the increase found in reviewed literature when photoperiod was manipulated artificially. Practical application of the results for monitoring purposes are exemplified and discussed....

  19. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanche, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Allison, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total...... components, such as cellulose, pectin, lignin, cutin, and suberin, but also with nonstructural carbohydrates and certain active compounds. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy could be considered a low-cost alternative to in situ measurements in feed evaluation....

  20. Evaluation of manure drying tunnels to serve as dust filters in the exhaust of laying hen houses: Emissions of particulate matter, ammonia, and odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Aarnink, André J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    IAgrE Poultry houses are important emission sources of ammonia, odour, and particulate matter (PM). Manure drying tunnels (MDTs) might act as ‘end of pipe’ PM filters, but might also emit additional ammonia and odour. This study aimed to gain insight into this matter (parts A and B) and into the

  1. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  2. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-08-01

    The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI) and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb) with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91%) if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60%) between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot (PSP) data from the same region and with the

  3. Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle O; Galbraith, David; Gloor, Manuel; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Verbeeck, Hans; von Randow, Celso; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W; Feldpausch, Ted R; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Fauset, Sophie; Quesada, Carlos A; Christoffersen, Bradley; Ciais, Philippe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Kruijt, Bart; Meir, Patrick; Moorcroft, Paul; Zhang, Ke; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban; Alves de Oliveira, Atila; Amaral, Ieda; Andrade, Ana; Aragao, Luiz E O C; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo A; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jocely; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene; Camargo, Jose; Chave, Jerome; Cogollo, Alvaro; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando; Lola da Costa, Antonio C; Di Fiore, Anthony; Ferreira, Leandro; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Euridice N; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Licona, Juan; Lovejoy, Thomas; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Bia; Marimon, Ben Hur; Matos, Darley C L; Mendoza, Casimiro; Neill, David A; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Roopsind, Anand; Rudas, Agustin; Salomao, Rafael P; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Baker, Timothy R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the processes that determine above-ground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity [woody net primary productivity (NPP)] and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biomass loss and the rate of stem mortality) and/or woody NPP, control variation in AGB among 167 plots in intact forest across Amazonia. We then compare these relationships and the observed variation in AGB and woody NPP with the predictions of four DGVMs. The observations show that stem mortality rates, rather than absolute rates of woody biomass loss, are the most important predictor of AGB, which is consistent with the importance of stand size structure for determining spatial variation in AGB. The relationship between stem mortality rates and AGB varies among different regions of Amazonia, indicating that variation in wood density and height/diameter relationships also influences AGB. In contrast to previous findings, we find that woody NPP is not correlated with stem mortality rates and is weakly positively correlated with AGB. Across the four models, basin-wide average AGB is similar to the mean of the observations. However, the models consistently overestimate woody NPP and poorly represent the spatial patterns of both AGB and woody NPP estimated using plot data. In marked contrast to the observations, DGVMs typically show strong positive relationships between woody NPP and AGB. Resolving these differences will require incorporating forest size structure, mechanistic models of stem mortality and variation in functional composition in DGVMs. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessment of Above-Ground Biomass of Borneo Forests through a New Data-Fusion Approach Combining Two Pan-Tropical Biomass Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how two existing pan-tropical above-ground biomass (AGB maps (Saatchi 2011, Baccini 2012 can be combined to derive forest ecosystem specific carbon estimates. Several data-fusion models which combine these AGB maps according to their local correlations with independent datasets such as the spectral bands of SPOT VEGETATION imagery are analyzed. Indeed these spectral bands convey information about vegetation type and structure which can be related to biomass values. Our study area is the island of Borneo. The data-fusion models are evaluated against a reference AGB map available for two forest concessions in Sabah. The highest accuracy was achieved by a model which combines the AGB maps according to the mean of the local correlation coefficients calculated over different kernel sizes. Combining the resulting AGB map with a new Borneo land cover map (whose overall accuracy has been estimated at 86.5% leads to average AGB estimates of 279.8 t/ha and 233.1 t/ha for forests and degraded forests respectively. Lowland dipterocarp and mangrove forests have the highest and lowest AGB values (305.8 t/ha and 136.5 t/ha respectively. The AGB of all natural forests amounts to 10.8 Gt mainly stemming from lowland dipterocarp (66.4%, upper dipterocarp (10.9% and peat swamp forests (10.2%. Degraded forests account for another 2.1 Gt of AGB. One main advantage of our approach is that, once the best fitting data-fusion model is selected, no further AGB reference dataset is required for implementing the data-fusion process. Furthermore, the local harmonization of AGB datasets leads to more spatially precise maps. This approach can easily be extended to other areas in Southeast Asia which are dominated by lowland dipterocarp forest, and can be repeated when newer or more accurate AGB maps become available.

  5. Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass in Miombo Savanna Woodlands (Mozambique, East Africa Using L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vasconcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of forest above-ground biomass (AGB is important for such broader applications as decision making, forest management, carbon (C stock change assessment and scientific applications, such as C cycle modeling. However, there is a great uncertainty related to the estimation of forest AGB, especially in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to test a combination of field data and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR backscatter intensity data to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of forest AGB in the Miombo savanna woodlands of Mozambique (East Africa. A machine learning algorithm, based on bagging stochastic gradient boosting (BagSGB, was used to model forest AGB as a function of ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual (FBD backscatter intensity metrics. The application of this method resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R between observed and predicted (10-fold cross-validation forest AGB values of 0.95 and a root mean square error of 5.03 Mg·ha−1. However, as a consequence of using bootstrap samples in combination with a cross validation procedure, some bias may have been introduced, and the reported cross validation statistics could be overoptimistic. Therefore and as a consequence of the BagSGB model, a measure of prediction variability (coefficient of variation on a pixel-by-pixel basis was also produced, with values ranging from 10 to 119% (mean = 25% across the study area. It provides additional and complementary information regarding the spatial distribution of the error resulting from the application of the fitted model to new observations.

  6. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  7. Organic matter transformation and detoxification in dry olive mill residue by the saprophytic fungus Paecilomyces farinosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Grego, S.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 216-225 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Phenols * Paecilomyces farinosus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2009

  8. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  9. The endogenous plant hormones and ratios regulate sugar and dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke in salt-soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Shao, Tianyun; Yang, Hui; Chen, Manxia; Gao, Xiumei; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2017-02-01

    The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA 3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA 3 content and GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios. Throughout the tuber formation, ZT content was higher in NY-1 than QY-2 tubers, whereas ABA content was higher in QY-2 than NY-1 tubers. The content ratios GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA were greater in NY-1 than QY-2 before tuber initiation, but QY-2 surpassed NY-1 during the tuber growth stage. The GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios declined during tuber growth. The results suggested that a dynamic balance of endogenous hormones played an important role in tuber development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-07-06

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  11. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  12. Development of a data driven process-based model for remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and above-ground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masri, Bassil

    2011-12-01

    Modeling terrestrial ecosystem functions and structure has been a subject of increasing interest because of the importance of the terrestrial carbon cycle in global carbon budget and climate change. In this study, satellite data were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET) for two deciduous forests: Morgan Monroe State forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard forest in Massachusetts. Also, above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the MMSF and the Howland forest (mixed forest) in Maine. Surface reflectance and temperature, vegetation indices, soil moisture, tree height and canopy area derived from the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMRS-E), LIDAR, and aerial imagery respectively, were used for this purpose. These variables along with others derived from remotely sensed data were used as inputs variables to process-based models which estimated GPP and ET and to a regression model which estimated AGB. The process-based models were BIOME-BGC and the Penman-Monteith equation. Measured values for the carbon and water fluxes obtained from the Eddy covariance flux tower were compared to the modeled GPP and ET. The data driven methods produced good estimation of GPP and ET with an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 molC/m2 and 0.40 mm/day, respectively for the MMSF and the Harvard forest. In addition, allometric data for the MMSF were used to develop the regression model relating AGB with stem volume. The performance of the AGB regression model was compared to site measurements using remotely sensed data for the MMSF and the Howland forest where the model AGB RMSE ranged between 2.92--3.30 Kg C/m2. Sensitivity analysis revealed that improvement in maintenance respiration estimation and remotely sensed maximum photosynthetic activity as well as accurate estimate of canopy resistance will result in improved GPP and ET predictions. Moreover, AGB estimates were

  13. The impact of forest structure and spatial scale on the relationship between ground plot above ground biomass and GEDI lidar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Marselis, S.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Tang, H.; Kellner, J. R.; Calders, K.; Disney, M.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) will place a multi-beam waveform lidar instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide measurements of forest vertical structure globally. These measurements of structure will underpin empirical modelling of above ground biomass density (AGBD) at the scale of individual GEDI lidar footprints (25m diameter). The GEDI pre-launch calibration strategy for footprint level models relies on linking AGBD estimates from ground plots with GEDI lidar waveforms simulated from coincident discrete return airborne laser scanning data. Currently available ground plot data have variable and often large uncertainty at the spatial resolution of GEDI footprints due to poor colocation, allometric model error, sample size and plot edge effects. The relative importance of these sources of uncertainty partly depends on the quality of ground measurements and region. It is usually difficult to know the magnitude of these uncertainties a priori so a common approach to mitigate their influence on model training is to aggregate ground plot and waveform lidar data to a coarser spatial scale (0.25-1ha). Here we examine the impacts of these principal sources of uncertainty using a 3D simulation approach. Sets of realistic tree models generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data or parametric modelling matched to tree inventory data were assembled from four contrasting forest plots across tropical rainforest, deciduous temperate forest, and sclerophyll eucalypt woodland sites. These tree models were used to simulate geometrically explicit 3D scenes with variable tree density, size class and spatial distribution. GEDI lidar waveforms are simulated over ground plots within these scenes using monte carlo ray tracing, allowing the impact of varying ground plot and waveform colocation error, forest structure and edge effects on the relationship between ground plot AGBD and GEDI lidar waveforms to be directly assessed. We

  14. Estimation of the Above Ground Biomass of Tropical Forests using Polarimetric and Tomographic SAR Data Acquired at P Band and 3-D Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Famil, L.; El Hajj Chehade, B.; Ho Tong Minh, D.; Tebaldini, S.; LE Toan, T.

    2016-12-01

    Developing and improving methods to monitor forest biomass in space and time is a timely challenge, especially for tropical forests, for which SAR imaging at larger wavelength presents an interesting potential. Nevertheless, directly estimating tropical forest biomass from classical 2-D SAR images may reveal a very complex and ill-conditioned problem, since a SAR echo is composed of numerous contributions, whose features and importance depend on many geophysical parameters, such has ground humidity, roughness, topography… that are not related to biomass. Recent studies showed that SAR modes of diversity, i.e. polarimetric intensity ratios or interferometric phase centers, do not fully resolve this under-determined problem, whereas Pol-InSAR tree height estimates may be related to biomass through allometric relationships, with, in general over tropical forests, significant levels of uncertainty and lack of robustness. In this context, 3-D imaging using SAR tomography represents an appealing solution at larger wavelengths, for which wave penetration properties ensures a high quality mapping of a tropical forest reflectivity in the vertical direction. This paper presents a series of studies led, in the frame of the preparation of the next ESA mission BIOMASS, on the estimation of biomass over a tropical forest in French Guiana, using Polarimetric SAR Tomographic (Pol-TomSAR) data acquired at P band by ONERA. It is then shown that Pol-TomoSAR significantly improves the retrieval of forest above ground biomass (AGB) in a high biomass forest (200 up to 500 t/ha), with an error of only 10% at 1.5-ha resolution using a reflectivity estimates sampled at a predetermined elevation. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying the same approach over another site, and results show a similar relationship between AGB and tomographic reflectivity over both sites. The excellent ability of Pol-TomSAR to retrieve both canopy top heights and ground topography with an error

  15. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  16. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del II). Slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle: Vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [EmpTec (Sweden); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden); Ridderstolpe, Peter [WRS Uppsala AB (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  17. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  18. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  19. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  20. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...... of hemicellulose C5 sugars was found for WEx pretreatment condition O2-A (160°C, 15 min, and 6 bar O2) which means that the highest potential ethanol yield was found at this moderate pretreatment condition with oxygen added. Increasing the pretreatment temperature to 180–190°C with addition of oxygen or dilute...... was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...

  1. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  2. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  3. Effect of Varieties and Plant Population Densities on Dry Matter Production, Radiation Interception and Radiation Energy Conversion in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus suprapto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The solar radiation is one of the major criteria to obtaining advantages on peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.. Although various combinations of crops have been reported, but variety association and plant population densities (PPD during the periodically stage of growth on peanuts have yet to be analyzed. Dry matter production (DM, radiation energy interception, and radiation energy conversions were monitored over the growth period of two varieties of peanut. An experiment was conducted in Jambegede Research Farm, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, from July until October 2011. The experiment was arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. Peanut varieties, as the main plot consisted of two treatments: Kelinci andKancil variety. In addition, five PPD variations as sub plot consisted of 8.1, 11.1, 16.0, 25.0 and 44.4 plant m-2 were arranged in a square spacing. The results showed that DM production from high PPD increased gradually to lower PPD in all varieties. Interception efficiency (IE increased in all varieties from early sowing. A plant population density of 25.0 m-2 and 44.4 plants m-2 intercepted more radiation over 11.1 or 16.0 plants m-2. Conversion efficiency of radiation energy (CE to total dry matter production on Kelinci variety (1.52% indicated a slight higher percentage than on Kancil variety (1.41%. Moreover, the CE and IE values indicated a decrease as the PPD increased on maximum DM.

  4. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  5. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  6. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Megha; Shri Ram; Joshi, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65 Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T 2 found to be higher. However, treatment T 6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65 Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  7. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  8. Development of decontamination system for radioactive matter on paved road using dry ice blast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Haruo; Wakayama, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    As a decontamination method for paved road surface, the 'Dry Ice Blast Decontamination System' has been developed. This decontamination system has characteristic as follows; 1) Generation of decontamination waste is extremely small, 2) not using water, 3) not damaging the pavement surface. In actual decontamination work, more than 60% average (maximum 84%) reduction rate of the radiation counting rate has been achieved. In addition to these features, this system prevent the diffusion into the surrounding and the radiation exposure of workers by sucking waste quickly using attached dust collecting function. This system is also characterized in that it does not cause a difference in skill by the operator because of faceted decontamination using repetitive motion by concatenating three pellet injection nozzle and self-propelled decontamination machine. (author)

  9. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  10. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  11. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  12. Accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of high protein mutant lines of Triticum Aestivum (L.) produced by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Nabulsi, I.

    1993-03-01

    Accumulation patterns of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of nine mutant lines produced by the IAEA and their mother Triticum Aestivum (L.) line were studied. The experiments lasted 2 years under rain fed conditions. Significant differences were found among the lines in dry matter and nitrogen rates, and periods of accumulation, whereas no significant differences were found in the final seed weight of the lines. The highest rates of accumulation for dry matter and nitrogen were accompanied with the shortest period of accumulation in two late flowering mutant lines. However, these two lines were the lowest in their yield per plot. The other mutant lines achieved the high nitrogen percentage in their seeds through the relative reduction in dry matter accumulation rate compared to their mother line rather than through higher rate of nitrogen accumulation. This study revealed some of the potential reasons behind the higher percentage of protein in the seeds of the mutant lines under investigation. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  14. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  15. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  16. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum dry matter (DMD % were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc and bags (Vb per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE of mean DMD. The adequate number of bags to be used was the one that produced a value of 1 % (SE of the study. Precision increased as the number of cows increased, with mean SE of 1.66, 1.18 and 0.96 % for one, two and three cows, respectively. Precision remained more or less constant for incubation times of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 48 h, with respective values of 0.93, 0.81, 1.05, 0.92 and 1.08 %. The SE values doubled at 24 (2.15 and 72 (1.92 h. The EE diminished as the number of bags increased, being the values higher for one cow than for two or three cows, but these differences were slight when 10 bags were used. The use of two cows seems reasonable, since the increase in precision from one to two cows was greater than from two to three cows. Three bags were the minimum necessary to estimate the SE value of 1%.

  17. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and dry matter digestibility of stylo ( stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of stylo. Methods The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Conclusion Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  18. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of crude glycerines originated from palm oil using fed rooster assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiari Tia Legawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the dry matter digestibility, gross energy (GE, the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, and the nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn of two crude glycerine from two different sources. The first crude glycerine (CG1 was from a large scale biodiesel producer with high content of glycerol (89.49% and low content of crude fat (1.73%, meanwhile the second crude glycerine (CG2 was from a medium scale biodiesel producer with lower content of glycerol than CG1 (38.36% and high content of crude fat (23.63%. Fed rooster assay based on Sibbald (1976 was used in the experiment. The experimental feed consisted of ground corn and three levels of crude glycerine (0, 10, and 20%. Twenty four Hisex brown roosters were housed in metabolic cages. Roosters were force fed with 30 g experimental feed, after 24 hours of fasting. Excreta collection was performed for two days while the roosters were fasting again. The content values of GE, AMEn, and TMEn of CG1 were 4065.18, 2926.59, and 3068.73 kcal kg-1 and for CG2 were 5928.09, 4010.11, and 4054.52 kcal kg, respectively.

  19. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  20. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.B.; Edrich, J.A.; Ford, M.A.; Blackwell, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m - 2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m -2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m -2 . The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m -2 ; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  2. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  3. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  4. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  5. Relationship between environmental factors, dry matter loss and mycotoxin levels in stored wheat and maize infected with Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Kalliopi; Sulyok, Michael; Magan, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between storage environmental factors (water activity (a(w)) (0.89-0.97) and temperature (15°C-30°C)), colonisation of wheat and maize by Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides respectively and the dry matter losses (DMLs) caused and quantified by contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUMs) during storage. Fungal growth was assessed by the amount of CO(2) produced under different interacting conditions of a(w) and temperature. DMLs were quantified using the cumulative CO(2) data, and these were shown to increase as temperature and a(w) increased. The amount of DON, ZEA (wheat for human consumption) and FUMs (feed maize) produced was significantly affected by the storage conditions. The three toxins however showed different patterns of production. Optimum for DON was at the wettest conditions (0.97a(w)) and the highest temperature assessed (30°C), whereas for ZEA this shifted to 25°C. FUMs were produced in higher amounts in maize at 30°C and 0.97a(w); however, at intermediate a(w) levels (0.955a(w)), the highest production occurred at 25°C followed by 20°C. Polynomial models were developed for the effect of the storage factors on DMLs and toxin production. DMLs under different environmental conditions were significantly correlated with DON and FUMs. DON contamination was above the EU limits in at least 80% of the wheat samples with DMLs >1%, whereas at least 70% of the same samples contained ZEA above the respective EU legislative limits. Similarly, at least 75% of the maize samples with DMLs ≥ 0.9% exceeded the EU limits for the sum of FUMs in feed. These results show that it may be possible to use temporal CO(2) production during storage of grains as an indicator of the level of contamination of the grain with mycotoxins.

  6. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics: dry matter digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry; Laerke, Helle N; Jensen, Søren K

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the use of white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) contents of 451 g kg -1 and 530 g kg -1 DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively, and a pulp with CP contents of 313 and 374 g kg -1 DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g per 16 g of nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82-2.6 g per 16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66-5.24 g per 16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein varied from 0.81 to 0.88, whereas DM digestibility was in the range 0.72-0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions, regardless of the reference group used. A high digestibility of white clover protein was found irrespective of the physical fractionation. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white clover a promising protein source for monogastrics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of curing methods, packaging and gamma irradiation on the weight loss and dry matter percent of garlic during curing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.; Farag, S.E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Egyptian garlic plants, showed higher percent of weight loss at 17 or 27 days from curing compared to those of Chinese plants. The curing period of 17 days seemed satisfactory for the Egyptian cultivar, whereas, 27 days seemed to be enough for the Chinese garlic. No significant differences were observed between common and shaded curing methods in weight loss per cent. The Chinese garlic contained higher dry matter percentage than those of the Egyptian cultivar. Shaded cured plants of the two cultivars contained higher dry matter percent than those subjected to the common curing methods. Irradiation of garlic bulbs, shaded curing method and sack packaging decreased, in general the weight loss during storage in comparison with other treatments

  9. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  10. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the initial period of growth of four varieties of the "stay-green"type of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, P.; Michalski, T.; Bocianowski, J.; Nowosad, K.; Zajac, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of "stay-green"Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of "stay-green"in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including "stay-green") are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

  11. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  12. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  13. Accuracies of breeding values for dry matter intake using nongenotyped animals and predictor traits in different lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Calus, M P L; Ten Napel, J

    2017-11-01

    Given the interest of including dry matter intake (DMI) in the breeding goal, accurate estimated breeding values (EBV) for DMI are needed, preferably for separate lactations. Due to the limited amount of records available on DMI, 2 main approaches have been suggested to compute those EBV: (1) the inclusion of predictor traits, such as fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight (LW), and (2) the addition of genomic information of animals using what is called genomic prediction. Recently, several methodologies to estimate EBV utilizing genomic information (EBV) have become available. In this study, a new method known as single-step ridge-regression BLUP (SSRR-BLUP) is suggested. The SSRR-BLUP method does not have an imposed limit on the number of genotyped animals, as the commonly used methods do. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters using a relatively large data set with DMI records, as well as compare the accuracies of the EBV for DMI. These accuracies were obtained using 4 different methods: BLUP (using pedigree for all animals with phenotypes), genomic BLUP (GBLUP; only for genotyped animals), single-step GBLUP (SS-GBLUP), and SSRR-BLUP (for genotyped and nongenotyped animals). Records from different lactations, with or without predictor traits (FPCM and LW), were used in the model. Accuracies of EBV for DMI (defined as the correlation between the EBV and pre-adjusted DMI phenotypes divided by the average accuracy of those phenotypes) ranged between 0.21 and 0.38 across methods and scenarios. Accuracies of EBV for DMI using BLUP were the lowest accuracies obtained across methods. Meanwhile, accuracies of EBV for DMI were similar in SS-GBLUP and SSRR-BLUP, and lower for the GBLUP method. Hence, SSRR-BLUP could be used when the number of genotyped animals is large, avoiding the construction of the inverse genomic relationship matrix. Adding information on DMI from different lactations in the reference population gave higher

  14. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  15. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  16. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  17. Regulation of above-ground oil and waste containers. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, January 26, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Representatives from the petroleum industry, US EPA, National Bureau of Standards and Congress were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss one of the worst inland environmental disasters in this Nation's history. The January 2 collapse of the Ashland Oil Co.'s storage tank in Floreffe, Pennsylvania resulted in the release of some 4 million gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately a million gallons escaped the containment structures and spilled over into the Monongahela River. This spill has contaminated the drinking water sources for millions of people downstream, from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati to Louisville, and beyond. Attention is focused on the causes of this tank's collapse, the response measures taken by Ashland Oil, the Coast Guard, the EPA, and the need for tighter federal regulations of above-ground tanks used for the storage of petroleum and hazardous substances.

  18. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  19. Anti-nutritional Factors and Ruminal Dry Matter and Crude Protein Degradability of Gamma and Microwave Irradiated Native Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sayyed roohollah ebrahimimahmoudabad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Native rapeseed (NRS is planted in some parts of Iran because of climatic condition. The consumption of NRS in animal nutrition is limited by anti-nutritional such as phytic acid and glucosinolate. Moreover, the protein of NRS is highly degraded by rumen microorganisms. Several processing methods have been used to enhance the nutritive value of whole oilseeds, including extrusion, roasting, toasting and Jet-Sploding. However, most heat processing methods adversely affect protein digestibility in the small intestine. Recently, other processing methods such as processing by gamma and microwave irradiation have been noticed. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (15, 30 and 45 kGy and microwave irradiation (800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min on ruminal dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability, in vitro CP digestibility, anti-nutritional factors (glucosinolate and phytic acid and chemical composition of NRS. Materials and Methods Chemical composition (DM, CP, EE and Ash of untreated and irradiated NRS was determined by AOAC methods. Then, sufficient water was added to the sample to increase the moisture content to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was completed by using a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 ºC. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.36 Gy/s. Another three samples (500 g each were subjected to microwave irradiation at a power of 800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min. Phytic acid and glucosinolate contents of untreated and irradiated samples were determined by standard methods. Degradation kinetics of DM or CP were determined according to in situ procedure. Six grams of untreated or irradiated NRS were incubated in the rumen of three ruminally fistulated Taleshi bulls for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Bags were placed in the rumen just before the bulls were offered their first meal. After retrieval from the rumen, bags were thoroughly washed with tap water until the rinsing water was clear

  20. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husain; Tajuddin Osman; Mohd Sukri Mahmood; Norihan Zainal; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmod; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan

    1995-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  1. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  2. Influência da temperatura e do teor de humidade do solo na área foliar e acumulação de matéria seca durante o estabelecimento da ervilha, do milho e do girassol Influence of temperature and soil moisture on leaf area and dry matter accumulation during establishment of pea, maize and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Andrade

    2007-07-01

    L., var. Florasol were studied at different temperatures and soil moisture contents in a Vertisol (Lisboaand a Luvisol (Évora from June 1995 to November 1996. Measurements were made of soil temperature at 2 and 4 cm depth, air temperature and soil water content. Leaf area per plant was estimated from measurements of the length and width of each leaf. Above ground seedling dry matter was weighed after oven drying. Data analysis was based on the thermal time concept. For water contents above 50% of the available capacity of each soil, leaf area of pea and maize increased linearly with accumulated temperature while that of sunflower increased exponentially. Dry matter of all crops increased exponentially with accumulated temperature. Significant differences between the two types of soil were found on the “initiation of leaf area expansion” of pea and sunflower, on the “thermal-rate for leaf area expansion” of maize and on the dry matter accumulation of pea and maize seedlings. The “initiation of leaf expansion” of pea occurred earlier in soil Cb while that of sunflower occurred earlier in soil Pmg. Leaf area expansion of maize was faster in soil Pmg. Dry matter accumulation of pea was faster in soil Cb while that of sunflower was faster in soil Pmg. In both soils, low soil water contents reduced leaf area expansion and dry matter accumulation of the crops.

  3. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  4. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  5. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  6. Effects of canopy light distribution characteristics and leaf nitrogen content on efficiency of radiation use in dry matter accumulation of soybean [Glycine max] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, T.; Hashikawa, U.; Taka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of dry matter produced per photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by the canopy (EPAR) and factors which might affect EPAR were determined for various soybean cultivars, and their relationships were also analyzed in two field experiments. In 1989 and 1990, 11 cultivars and 27 cultivars respectively, were grown on an experimental field in shiga Prefectural Junior College. Changes of intercepted PAR, top dry matter weight, light extinction coefficient (KPAR), nitrogen content per leaf area (SLN) and nitrogen accumulation in the top (1990 only) were measured. EPAR averaged for all the cultivars was 2.48g MJ(-1) in both years and its coefficient of variance among cultivars was +- 9% in 1989 and +- 17% in 1990. In general, recent cultivars showed greater EPAR than older ones. The correlation coefficients between SLN and EPAR were 0.548 in 1989 and 0.651-- in 1990, while there was no correlation between KPAR and EPAR. Since SLN showed close correlation with SLW (r = 0.954 in 1989, r = 0.170-- in 1990), the difference in EPAR between old and new cultivars was considered to be attributable mainly to the improved leaf morphological trait and consequently greater leaf photosynthesis of newer cultivars. SLN further correlated with total top nitrogen content (r = 0.736-- in 1990) thus seemed to be limited by nitrogen accumulation

  7. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  8. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  9. Efeito do corte da parte aérea na sobrevivência do marmeleiro (Croton Sonderianus Muell.Arg. Effects of the cutting of above ground parts on marmeleiro (Croton sonderianus Muell. Arg. survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianno Cavalcante de Carvalho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Caprinos, em Sobral, Ceará, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do corte da parte aérea em relação à altura da rebrota na sobrevivência, persistência e no vigor da rebrota do marmeleiro e produção subseqüente de fitomassa do estrato herbáceo. O corte das plantas foi realizado a 10,0 cm de altura, quando suas rebrotas alcançaram quatro diferentes alturas (25, 50, 75 e 100 cm. Os tratamentos de corte foram aplicados em parcelas de 5 m x 30 m. A avaliação da mortalidade das plantas foi realizada mediante a contagem de todas as plantas mortas e vivas dentro das parcelas experimentais. Os dados foram analisados por intermédio do teste não-paramétrico do qui-quadrado. Verificou-se que houve dependência entre a mortalidade das plantas e o corte das rebrotas e que todos os tratamentos foram diferentes entre si. O melhor resultado foi alcançado quando as rebrotas foram cortadas à altura média de 75 cm, diminuindo a densidade do marmeleiro em até 96%. A redução da densidade proporcionou aumentos significativos na produção de fitomassa herbácea, em relação à área não tratada.The research was conducted at the EMBRAPA - National Center for Goat Research, in Sobral, Ceara, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of cutting of the above ground parts in relation at regrowth height of marmeleiro on its survival, persistence, regrowth vigor and subsequent production of herbaceous understory phytomass. The plants were cut at 10.0 cm above ground, when the regrowth reached four different heights (25, 50, 75 and 100 cm. The cutting treatments were applied on plots of 5 m x 30 m. The evaluation of the mortality of the plants was accomplished by the count of the total number of dead and alive plants of the experimental plots. Data were analyzed by means of the chi-square nonparametric test. It was observed dependence between mortality of the plants and regrowth cutting, where all treatments were different

  10. Changes in root morphology and dry matter production in Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen accessions in response to excessive zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BERNARDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.

  11. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  12. Development of a Regional Lidar-Derived Above-Ground Biomass Model with Bayesian Model Averaging for Use in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests in Arizona and New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karis Tenneson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical forest management practices in the southwestern US have left forests prone to high-severity, stand-replacement fires. Reducing the cost of forest-fire management and reintroducing fire to the landscape without negative impact depends on detailed knowledge of stand composition, in particular, above-ground biomass (AGB. Lidar-based modeling techniques provide opportunities to increase ability of managers to monitor AGB and other forest metrics at reduced cost. We developed a regional lidar-based statistical model to estimate AGB for Ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forest systems of the southwestern USA, using previously collected field data. Model selection was performed using Bayesian model averaging (BMA to reduce researcher bias, fully explore the model space, and avoid overfitting. The selected model includes measures of canopy height, canopy density, and height distribution. The model selected with BMA explains 71% of the variability in field-estimates of AGB, and the RMSE of the two independent validation data sets are 23.25 and 32.82 Mg/ha. The regional model is structured in accordance with previously described local models, and performs equivalently to these smaller scale models. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of lidar for developing cost-effective, robust regional AGB models for monitoring and planning adaptively at the landscape scale.

  13. The effects of temperature, organic matter and time-dependency on rheological properties of dry anaerobic digested swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang-Jin; Liu, Yi; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yun-Hui; Chen, Zi-Ai; Deng, Liang-Wei

    2015-04-01

    An efficient way to avoid the pollution of swine wastewater is the application of dry anaerobic digestion, which needs rheological parameter for stirring and pipe designing. The rheological properties of this kind of sludge have been studied for many decades, yet their effects only solid concentration has been investigated widely. In this paper, the influences of temperature, organic and time-dependency on the efficiency of anaerobic digested swine manure were studied. The viscosity decreased with temperature arranged from 10 to 60 °C which caused increase in protein from 7.18 to 8.49 g/kg. 60 °C can make the digested swine manure with TS from 16.6% to 21.5% reach to the same rheology state. The added peptone decreased the viscosity because of its function of water-reducing admixture and air entraining mixture. Time-dependent experiment showed the decrease of shear stress over time. The first and the second yield stress of dry anaerobic digested swine manure were evaluated through time-dependent model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, G.; Ekern, A.

    1974-01-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 μVi 51 Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate fumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker 51 Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of 51 Cr-EDTA through faeces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days. (author)

  15. Effects of climate and lifeform on dry matter yield (epsilon) from simulations using BIOME BGC. [ecosystem process model for vegetation biomass production using daily absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    An ecosystem process simulation model, BIOME-BGC, is used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the factors that may cause the dry matter yield (epsilon) and annual net primary production to vary for different ecosystems. At continental scales, epsilon is strongly correlated with annual precipitation. At a single location, year-to-year variation in net primary production (NPP) and epsilon is correlated with either annual precipitation or minimum air temperatures. Simulations indicate that forests have lower epsilon than grasslands. The most sensitive parameter affecting forest epsilon is the total amount of living woody biomass, which affects NPP by increasing carbon loss by maintenance respiration. A global map of woody biomass should significantly improve estimates of global NPP using remote sensing.

  16. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  17. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using /sup 51/Cr-labelled EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, G; Ekern, A [Agricultural University of Norway. Dept. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-06-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 ..mu..Vi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate rumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA through feces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days.

  18. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  19. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  20. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  1. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  2. The effect of wildfire and clear-cutting on above-ground biomass, foliar C to N ratios and fiber content throughout succession: Implications for forage quality in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, E. E.; Turetsky, M.; Thompson, I.; Noland, T. L.; Wiebe, P.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance is known to play an important role in maintaining the productivity and biodiversity of boreal forest ecosystems. Moderate to low frequency disturbance is responsible for regeneration opportunities creating a mosaic of habitats and successional trajectories. However, large-scale deforestation and increasing wildfire frequencies exacerbate habitat loss and influence biogeochemical cycles. This has raised concern about the quality of the under-story vegetation post-disturbance and whether this may impact herbivores, especially those vulnerable to change. Forest-dwelling caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are declining in several regions of Canada and are currently listed as a species at risk by COSEWIC. Predation and landscape alteration are viewed as the two main threats to woodland caribou. This has resulted in caribou utilizing low productivity peatlands as refuge and the impact of this habitat selection on their diet quality is not well understood. Therefore there are two themes in the study, 1) Forage quantity: above-ground biomass and productivity and 2) Forage quality: foliar N and C to N ratios and % fiber. The themes are addressed in three questions: 1) How does forage quantity and quality vary between upland forests and peatlands? 2) How does wildfire affect the availability and nutritional quality of forage items? 3) How does forage quality vary between sites recovering from wildfire versus timber harvest? Research sites were located in the Auden region north of Geraldton, ON. This landscape was chosen because it is known woodland caribou habitat and has thorough wildfire and silviculture data from the past 7 decades. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass, vascular green area and seasonal foliar fiber and C to N ratios were collected across a matrix of sites representing a chronosequence of time since disturbance in upland forests and peatlands. Preliminary findings revealed productivity peaked in early age stands (0-30 yrs) and biomass peaked

  3. Dry matter production and nutrient accumulation after successive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogongrass in a substrate with zeolite Produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes após cultivos sucessivos com alface, tomate, arroz e capim andropogon em substrato com zeólita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. de Campos Bernardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are hydrated crystalline aluminosilicate minerals of natural occurrence, structured in rigid third dimension net that can be used as slow release plant-nutrient source. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth substrate under zeolite application, enriched with N, P and K, on dry matter yield and on nutrient contents in consecutive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with 3 kg pots with an inert substrate, evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four types of enrichment of concentrated natural zeolite: concentrated zeolite (Z only, zeolite + KNO3 (ZNK, zeolite + K2HPO4 (ZPK and zeolite + H3PO4 + apatite (ZP, and a control grown in substrate fertilized with a zeolite-free nutrient solution. Four levels of enriched zeolite were tested: 20, 40, 80, and 160 g/pot. Four successive crops were grown on the same substrate in each pot: lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. Results indicated that N, P and K enriched zeolite was an adequate slow-release nutrient source for plants. The total dry matter production of above-ground biomass of four successive crops followed a descending order: ZP > ZPK > ZNK > Z.Zeólitas são minerais aluminossilicatos cristalinos hidratados de ocorrência natural, estruturados em redes cristalinas tridimensionais rígidas que podem ser usados como fonte de liberação lenta de nutrientes para as plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de zeólita enriquecida com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre a produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes pelas culturas sucessivas de alface, de tomate, de arroz e de capim-andropogon. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 kg de substrato inerte. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A zeólita natural

  4. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - removal of groundwater and water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle - bortledande av grundvatten samt vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) below and above ground associated with construction, operation, and decommissioning of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn. SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository, and the report hence describes a non-chosen alternative. The report provides a comprehensive description of how the water operations would be executed, their hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the resulting consequences. The description is a background material for comparisons between the two sites in terms of water operations. The underground part of a repository in Laxemar would, among other things, consist of an access ramp and a repository area at a depth of approximately 500 metres. The construction, operation, and decommissioning phases would in total comprise a time period of 60-70 years. Inflowing groundwater would be diverted during construction and operation. The modelling tool MIKE SHE has been used to assess the effects of the groundwater diversion, for instance in terms of groundwater levels and stream discharges. According to MIKE SHE calculations for a hypothetical case with a fully open repository, the total groundwater inflow would be in the order of 55-90 litres per second depending on the permeability of the grouted zone around ramp, shafts and tunnels. In reality, the whole repository would not be open simultaneously, and the inflow would therefore be less. The groundwater diversion would cause groundwater- level drawdown in the rock, which in turn would lead to drawdown of the groundwater table in relatively large areas above and around the repository. According to model calculations, there would be an insignificant drawdown of the water level in Lake Frisksjoen, the largest lake in the area. The discharge in the most important stream of the area (Laxemaraan) would be reduced by less than ten percent

  5. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  6. The effect of feeding bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal on their feed consumption and dried organic matter digestability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, S.; Sobang, Y. U. L.; Samba, F. D.; Hartati, E.; Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding bull Bali Cattle kept in extensive husbnadry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal in their feed consumptions and dried organic matter digestibility. Three bull Bali cattle aged 1 - 2 years old with an initial body weight of 135.5 kg - 168.0 kg were used in this study. The three treatments used were T0 = local feeds (consisted of Leucaena leucocephala, Acasia leochophloea, and Ficus sp. leaves as commonly used by local farmers); T1 = T0 + 1 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal); T2 = T1 +2 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal). The results showed that the dry matter intake were: 2.40, 3.52, and 4.14; organic matter intake were: 2.17, 3.32, and 3.62; dry matter digestible was 64.63%, 72.45%, 77.28% and organic matter digestible was 66.79%, 74.66%, 79.33% for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatments on the three parameters observed on bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system and fed with concentrates contained leaf gliricidia sepium meal and banana starch tuber meal.

  7. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  8. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII, and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP. The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars.

  9. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongling; Yu, Weiwu; Hänninen, Heikki; Song, Lili; Du, Xuhua; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jiasheng

    2018-01-01

    Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP). The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b)) and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars. PMID:29375592

  10. Dry matter intake, body condition score, and grazing behavior of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed kale or grass once versus twice daily during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugoho, I; Edwards, G R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg DM of barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency. Forage DM utilization was higher for kale-fed (97%) than grass-fed cows (76%), leading to higher estimated dry matter intake (DMI) in kale-fed (10.7 kg of DM/cow per day) than grass-fed cows (7.7 kg of DM/cow per day). Forage DM utilization and estimated DMI were not affected by feeding frequency. Prehension bite rate was greater for grass-fed (37.3 bites/min) than kale-fed cows (7.6 bites/min), but more mastication bites were required for kale-fed cows. Cumulative DMI after 2, 3, and 6 h was greater in cows allocated forage once than twice a day and for kale than grass after 3 and 6 h. Mean eating time was greater for cows offered forage once (477 min) than twice (414 min) per day. In conclusion, increasing feeding frequency from once to twice per day decreased the intake rate within the first 6 h after allocation, but did not affect total daily DMI, DM utilization or BCS gain. Thus, moving cows more frequently would not have any significant advantage. It may increase labor requirements, thereby creating a more challenging wintering management than feeding once per day. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf and shoot water content and leaf dry matter content of Mediterranean woody species with different post-fire regenerative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2007-03-01

    Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to determine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities.

  12. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  13. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xuejuan; Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Tang, Jun; Cai, Yimin

    2017-12-01

    The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stylo. The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP) content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  14. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  15. Consumo e digestibilidade de subprodutos do processamento de frutas em ovinos Intake and dry matter digestibility of by-products of fruit processer in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edilton Lousada Junior

    2005-04-01

    of 34.5 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized design with five treatments (byproducts and four replications. Dry matter intakes (DMI of byproducts of guava, passion fruit and melon by the animals were similar but higher than WIC byproduct. The highest crude protein intake (CPI (g/animal/day, g/BW0.75 was observed in passion fruit and melon byproducts, while WIC byproduct the lowest CPI. Guava byproduct showed the higher intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF and passion fruit byproduct showed the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM coefficient. Guava and WIC byproducts showed ADMS lower than the others. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP of passion fruit and melon byproducts were higher than the others byproducts. As for, the coefficients of apparent digestibility of NDF (ADNDF and ADF (ADADF, WIC and guava byproducts were lower while passion fruit byproduct showed ADNDF and ADADF higher than the others. No difference among evaluates byproducts for nitrogen balance was observed. Results showed that; pineapple, passion fruit and melon byproducts could be used in ruminant diets. However, WIC and guava byproducts showed low nutrient digestibility coefficients, restricting their use in ruminant diets.

  16. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of field-sown meadow fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Field-sown meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis, cv. Kalevi stands were exposed to elevated temperatures (+3°C and elevated CO2, (700 ppm levels in two experiments conducted in 1992-1993 (experiment 1 and in 1994-1995 (experiment 2. Total aboveground yield was, on average, 38% higher at elevated than at ambient temperatures. At ambient temperatures elevated CO2 increased the number of tillers by 63% in 1992, 24% in 1993, 90% in 1994 and 14% in 1995. At elevated temperatures, the increase in tiller number in elevated CO2 was seen only in the first growing seasons after sowing. The total yield in a growing season was about 10% higher in elevated CO2 in experiment 1. In experiment 2 the yield was more than 20% higher in elevated CO2 at elevated temperatures, whereas at ambient temperatures the rise in CO2 level had no effect on the yield; the root biomass, however, increased by more than 30%. In elevated CO2 at ambient temperatures the root biomass also increased in experiment I, but at elevated temperatures there was no consistent change. The soluble carbohydrate content of above-ground biomass was 5-48% higher in elevated CO2 at most of the measuring times during the growing season, but the nitrogen content did not show a clear decrease. The reasons for the lack of a marked increase in biomass in elevated CO2 despite a 40-60% increase in photosynthesis are discussed.

  17. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  18. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  19. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  20. External validation of the GrazeIn model of pasture dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for cows managed at different calving dates and stocking rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca-Fernández, A.I.; González-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the prediction accuracy of pasture dry matter intake (PDMI) and milk yield (MY) predicted by the GrazeIn model using a database representing 124 PDMI measurements at paddock level and 2232 MY measurements at cow level. External validation of the model was conducted using data collected from a trial carried out with Holstein-Friesian cows (n=72) while grazed 28 paddocks and were managed in a 2×2 factorial design by considering two calving dates (CD), with different number of days in milk (DIM), early (E, 29 DIM) vs. middle (M, 167 DIM), and two stocking rates (SR), medium (M, 3.9 cows ha-1) vs. high (H, 4.8 cows ha-1), under a rotational grazing system. Cows were randomly assigned to four grazing scenarios (EM, EH, MM and MH). The mean observed PDMI of the total database was 14.2 kg DM cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a mean PDMI for the database of 13.8 kg DM cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was −0.4 kg DM cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted PDMI for the total database with a relative prediction error (RPE) of 10.0% at paddock level. The mean observed MY of the database was 23.2 kg cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a MY for the database of 23.1 kg cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was –0.1 kg cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted MY for the total database with a mean RPE of 17.3% at cow level. For the scenarios investigated, GrazeIn predicted PDMI and MY with a low level of error which made it a suitable tool for decision support systems.

  1. External validation of the GrazeIn model of pasture dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for cows managed at different calving dates and stocking rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernández, A.I.; González-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the prediction accuracy of pasture dry matter intake (PDMI) and milk yield (MY) predicted by the GrazeIn model using a database representing 124 PDMI measurements at paddock level and 2232 MY measurements at cow level. External validation of the model was conducted using data collected from a trial carried out with Holstein-Friesian cows (n=72) while grazed 28 paddocks and were managed in a 2×2 factorial design by considering two calving dates (CD), with different number of days in milk (DIM), early (E, 29 DIM) vs. middle (M, 167 DIM), and two stocking rates (SR), medium (M, 3.9 cows ha-1) vs. high (H, 4.8 cows ha-1), under a rotational grazing system. Cows were randomly assigned to four grazing scenarios (EM, EH, MM and MH). The mean observed PDMI of the total database was 14.2 kg DM cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a mean PDMI for the database of 13.8 kg DM cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was −0.4 kg DM cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted PDMI for the total database with a relative prediction error (RPE) of 10.0% at paddock level. The mean observed MY of the database was 23.2 kg cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a MY for the database of 23.1 kg cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was –0.1 kg cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted MY for the total database with a mean RPE of 17.3% at cow level. For the scenarios investigated, GrazeIn predicted PDMI and MY with a low level of error which made it a suitable tool for decision support systems.

  2. Estimating leaf functional traits by inversion of PROSPECT: Assessing leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area in mixed mountainous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abebe Mohammed; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Duren, Iris van; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of ecosystem functioning rely heavily on quantification of vegetation properties. The search is on for methods that produce reliable and accurate baseline information on plant functional traits. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate two functional leaf traits: leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA). Inversion of PROSPECT usually aims at quantifying its direct input parameters. This is the first time the technique has been used to indirectly model LDMC and SLA. Biophysical parameters of 137 leaf samples were measured in July 2013 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. PROSPECT was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach. The LUTs were generated with and without using prior information. The effect of incorporating prior information on the retrieval accuracy was studied before and after stratifying the samples into broadleaf and conifer categories. The estimated values were evaluated using R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE). Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered in the pooled samples. The use of prior information improved accuracy of the retrieved traits. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy level by using remotely sensed data.

  3. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Acúmulo de massa seca em três cultivares de arroz irrigado com diferentes arquiteturas de plantas Dry matter accumulation by three flooded rice cultivars with different plant canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Terezinha Paranhos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Planossolo da Unidade de Mapeamento Vacacaí, com o ohjetivo de estudar o acúmulo de massa seca nos diversos órgãos da planta de três cultivares de arroz irrigado (EEA 406, Bluebelle e BR-IRGA 409, utilizando-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A massa seca foi obtida em sete estádios fenológicos da cultura. Desconsiderando os grãos e panículas, a EEA 406 possui maior capacidade produtiva de fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos produtiva. Na maturação, a cultivar BR-IRGA 409 apresentou maior massa seca total, demonstrando maior capacidade de alocar assimilados nos grãos e maior eficiência de conversão de energia solar em fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos eficiente. Para as três cultivares, até a floração, o colmo acumulou a maior percentagem de massa seca sendo, a partir daí, substituído pelas panículas e grãos. O máximo acúmulo de massa seca nas raízes ocorreu por ocasião da floração, cerca de 80 dias após a emergência.This experiment was carried out in an Halbaqualf soil to study the dry matter accumulation of three flooded rice cultivars. A complete randomized block design was used, with tive replication. Plant dry matter was measured in seven different growth stages. The cultivar EEA 406 had a higherdry matter accumulation than the cultivar Bluebelle without including grain and panicle. At maturity, the BR-IRGA 409 cultivar showed higher total dry matter. This demonstrate a better capacity of this variety in alocating assimilates into grains a higher effíciency in converting solar energy into plant biomass. The Bluebelle had lower efficiency. The dry matter accumulation increased for the three varieties from seeding to flowering into colm and, from flowering to harvest into panicles and grain. The maximum dry matter accumulation in roots was observed at flowering, eighty days after emergency.

  5. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  6. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  7. Relationships between dry matter content, ensiling, ammonia-nitrogen, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in high-moisture corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Taysom, K; Taysom, D M; Shaver, R D; Hoffman, P C

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to determine relationships between high-moisture corn (HMC) dry matter (DM), ammonia-N [% of crude protein (CP)], and soluble CP concentrations, and pH, with 7-h ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivStarchD), and (2) to evaluate the effect of ensiling on pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD measurements in HMC. A data set comprising 6,131 HMC samples (55 to 80% DM) obtained from a commercial feed analysis laboratory was used for this study. Month of sample submittal was assumed to be associated with length of the ensiling period. Data for month of sample submittal were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with month as a fixed effect. Regressions to determine linear and quadratic relationships between ivStarchD and ammonia-N, soluble CP, pH, and DM content were performed using Proc Mixed. The ivStarchD increased by 9 percentage units from October to August of the following year. Similar results were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP with increases from 1.8 to 4.6% of CP and 31.3 to 46.4% of CP, respectively, from October to August of the following year. Ammonia-N was positively related to ivStarchD (R(2)=0.61). The DM content of HMC at silo removal was negatively related (R(2)=0.47) to ivStarchD with a decrease of 1.6 percentage units in ivStarchD per 1-percentage-unit increase in DM content. The pH of HMC was negatively related to ammonia-N (R(2)=0.53), soluble CP (R(2)=0.57), and ivStarchD (R(2)=0.51). Combined, ammonia-N, DM, soluble CP, and pH provided a good prediction of ivStarchD (adjusted R(2)=0.70). Increasing pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD values indicate that HMC may need up to 10 mo of ensiling to reach maximum starch digestibility. Ammonia-N, DM content, soluble CP concentration, and pH are good indicators of ruminal in vitro starch digestibility for high-moisture corn. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  9. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  10. Acúmulo de matéria seca e de macronutrientes em cultivares de bananeira irrigada Accumulation of dry matter and macronutrient in cultivars of irrigated banana tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bezerra Hoffmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das quantidades de matéria seca e de nutrientes acumulados e exportados por cultivares de bananeira é importante para o desenvolvimento de uma recomendação de adubação para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as quantidades de matéria seca e de macronutrientes acumuladas e exportadas por seis cultivares de bananeiras irrigadas. Foram amostradas plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha e Gross Michel, em uma área de plantio comercial de bananeira irrigada, no município de Limoeiro do Norte - CE. Na colheita, foram escolhidas quatro famílias de cada cultivar para amostragem. A "planta-mãe" foi dividida em rizoma, pseudocaule, pecíolo, limbo, engaço e frutos. Na matéria seca dessas partes das plantas, determinaram-se os teores dos macronutrientes. As cultivares Pacovan, Prata-Anã e Pacovan-Apodi que, de modo geral, extraíram do solo as maiores quantidades de macronutrientes, foram as que acumularam quantidades mais elevadas de matéria seca. O potássio e o nitrogênio foram os macronutrientes mais acumulados e exportados pelas seis cultivares de bananeira irrigada, seguidos pelo enxofre, cálcio, magnésio e fósforo.The knowledge about the quantity of dry matter and nutrients accumulated and exported by banana is important for the development of fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of dry matter and macronutrients by six cultivars of irrigated banana crop. Plants of Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha and Gross Michel cultivars were sampled in a commercial plantation in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, state of Ceará, Brazil. At harvest, four plants of each cultivar were selected for sampling. The "mother-plant" was divided into rhizome, pseudo stem, petiole, leaf blade, stalk and fruits. In the dry matter of these parts, the contents of macronutrients were determined. The

  11. Determinação da matéria seca e teores de macronutrientes em folhas de frutíferas usando diferentes métodos de secagem Determination of dry matter and macronutrient content in leaves of fruit trees using different drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nericlenes Chaves Marcante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar diferentes métodos de secagem de folhas para três diferentes frutíferas (maracujá, pêssego e abacate, com relação à determinação da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas recém expandida de três culturas, do pomar da fazenda de ensino e pesquisa da FCAV-UNESP, câmpus de Jaboticabal, no mês de janeiro de 2010, coletando-se para cada cultura 12 amostras com 25 folhas cada. Os tratamentos constituíram-se por dois métodos de secagem, estufa de circulação de ar forçada regulada a uma temperatura de 70°C e o forno microondas (FMO. Avaliou-se a massa da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Os resultados sugerem que os dois métodos de secagem testados se assemelham na determinação de matéria seca e nos teores foliares de macronutrientes para as culturas análisadas, exceto os teores de cálcio na cultura do pêssego.The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods of drying of leaves for three different fruit (passion fruit, peach and avocado, with respect to the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients. Samples were collected from recently expanded leaves of three crops orchard Farm education and research FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal campus, in January 2010, by collecting 12 samples for each culture with 25 leaves. The treatments consisted of two drying methods, greenhouse circulation of air regulated to a temperature of 70°C and FMO. We evaluated the mass of dry matter and foliar nutrients. The results suggest that the two drying methods tested did not interfere in the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients to crops analyzed, except the calcium levels in peach.

  12. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet.

  13. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  14. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  15. Effects of nitrogen fertilization strategies on nitrogen use efficiency in physiology, recovery, and agronomy and redistribution of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen accumulation in two typical rice cultivars in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-xia; Wang, Guang-huo; Zhang, Qi-chun; Guo, Hai-chao

    2007-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. This study aimed mainly at identifying the possible causes of poor fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) of rice in Zhejiang by comparing farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) with advanced site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and real-time N management (RTNM). The results showed that compared to FFP, SSNM and RTNM reduced DMA and NA before panicle initiation and increased DMA and NA at post-flowering. There is no significant difference between SSNM and FFP in post-flowering dry matter redistribution (post-DMR) and post-flowering nitrogen redistribution (post-NR). These results suggest that high input rate of fertilizer N and improper fertilizer N timing are the main factors causing low NUE of irrigated rice in the farmer's routine practice of Zhejiang. With SSNM, about 15% of the current total N input in direct-seeding early rice and 45% in single rice could be reduced without yield loss in Zhejiang, China.

  16. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  17. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  18. Estimation and mapping of above ground biomass and carbon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 ... Biomass is an important parameter for bioenergy modelling, food security, ... –Kyoto climate change agreement on reducing emissions from deforestation and ... the nature of terrain can also affect the amounts of biomass and carbon ...

  19. Above-ground biomass and nutrient accumulation in the tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that the impact of logging in the Ebom rainforest remains low. However, additional research is needed on nutrient input in the forest from outside as well as on the impact of logging on nutrient leaching in order to get a complete picture of the nutrient cycles. Key-words: phytomass, nutrient pools, logging, ...

  20. Estimation and mapping of above ground biomass and carbon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, field data from 35 sample plots comprising of the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), co-ordinates of centroids and angles to the top and bottom of the individual trees was used for the analysis. The relationship between biomass and radar backscatter for selected sample plots was established using pairwise ...

  1. Measurement protocol for radon measurements in workplaces above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, has established a measurement protocol for measurements of radon in workplaces. The result from a measurement according to the protocol can be compared to the limit for indoor radon at workplaces, 400 Bq/m 3 issued by the Swedish Work Environment Authority and also to the action level for schools, preschools and public buildings, 400 Bq/m 3 , issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare. The protocol recommends measurements to be done in two steps. The first measurement, called the preliminary measurement, will be done with an integrating measurement method over a period of at least two months. Track etch detectors or electret devices can be used. Since the preliminary measurements often overestimates the radon levels the workers are actually exposed to during working hours, a follow-up measurement has to be done if the preliminary measurement gives a result that exceeds 400 Bq/m 3 . In case there is need for an annual mean for comparison to the action level for schools a long-term measurement has to be done. Otherwise a method for follow-up measurements can be used at once. The follow-up measurement has to show the radon level during working hours. Two measurement strategies can be used depending on the function of the ventilation system. With the ventilation system running constantly, measurements can be done with track etch detectors for ten days or electret devices for five days. If the ventilation system is closed down at night electrets can be used for five days if the devise is open only during working hours or a continuous measurement device can be used for two days. Measurements have to be performed during the heating season, i.e. when the 24-hour average temperature is below +10 deg C, usually between October 1 and April 31. Most importantly the difference between interior and exterior temperatures must be big enough to allow natural draught ventilation system to activate. The result from a measurement made during the warmer part of the year is likely to show radon levels that are not representative for the whole year. Measurements have to cover at least 20 % of the rooms used for work places situated on the ground floor, in upper floors one measurement per floor has to be made and at least one per 500 m 2 . More measurements are recommended for buildings constructed from material with enhanced uranium and radium levels, such as blue lightweight concrete. Rooms in upper floors with vertical piping or other vertical openings through the building or rooms adjacent to rooms with piping should be measured. The detectors should not be moved during the measurement period and they should be placed so that the result is representative for the work place. Measurement devises must be calibrated every 12 months. This can be done at SSI or another laboratory recommended by SSI. Laboratories, consulting firms etc responsible for radon measurements have to guarantee that the results are correct. A quality system is required in order to perform measurements. The measurement protocol describes every method that can be used for radon measurements in detail as far as calibration and control systems are concerned. (author)

  2. In situ dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of the Mineirão stylos=Degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca e fração fibrosa do estilosantes Mineirão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingas Cruvinel Batista de Siqueira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated, using the in situ technique, the dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of the Mineirão stylo (Stylozanthes guianensis. The nylon bag method was used for the degradability assay, with two incubations in rumen-cannulated adult female cows. In each incubation, 25 samples of 7.0 g each were used. The samples were collected at 0, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The experiment was conducted according to a randomized blocks design and data were submitted to analysis of variance. The maximum effective degradability was obtained in the 2% passage rate. For the 5% passage rate the Mineirão stylo showed effective degradation of 75.70% for dry matter, 59.01% for neutral detergent fiber and 76.81% for acid detergent fiber. The digestibility achieved by the dry matter and fibrous fraction from Mineirão was considered high. These results, coupled with the low lag time found reveal the forage potential of the cultivar.Neste trabalho avaliou-se, por meio da técnica in situ, a degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da leguminosa estilosantes Mineirão (Stylozanthes guianensis, leguminosa nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. Para o ensaio da degradabilidade, usou-se o método dos sacos de náilon, com duas incubações em fêmea bovina adulta canulada no rúmen. Em cada incubação, foram utilizadas 25 amostras de 7,0 g cada. As amostras foram retiradas nos tempos 0, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 e 96h. O experimento foi conduzido segundo o delineamento de blocos ao acaso e os dados submetidos à analise de variância. As máximas degradabilidades efetivas foram atingidas na taxa de passagem 2%. Para a taxa de passagem de 5%, o estilosantes Mineirão apresentou degradabilidade efetiva de 75,70% para a matéria seca, 59,01% para a fibra em detergente neutro e 76,81% para a fibra em detergente ácido. A digestibilidade alcançada tanto pela matéria seca quanto pela fração fibrosa estilosantes Mineirão foi considerada

  3. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and

  4. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  5. Dry matter digestibility of roughages and concentrates determined “in vitro” procedures Digestibilidade da matéria seca de alimentos volumosos e concentrados determinada por procedimentos "in vitro"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui da Silva Verneque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the values of in vitro dry matter digestibility of six classes of concentrates and roughages feeds, determined by the two-stage technique carried in individual digestion tubes or using an automatized equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique, FBT. In the second digestion stage of the technique it was also evaluated the effect of pepsin acid solution and the reflux with neutral detergent solution on the in vitro dry matter digestibility. For both studies the experimental design was completely randomized with a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were close to those found by others authors and lower than those obtained by the filter bag technique. Standard deviation of in vitro dry matter digestibility means were, in general, lower when the individual tubes method were used. The procedure using reflux with neutral detergent was less expensive and time-consuming, and yield similar results when compared to those using the acidified pepsin digestion methodology. The apparent overestimated values of in vitro dry matter digestibility observed in the filter bag technique suggests that the recommendation of the automatized equipment will be dependent of new studies, with emphasis to the material used to make the incubation bags.Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de seis classes de alimentos concentrados e volumosos, determinados pelo método de dois estágios, realizado em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação (incubadora in vitro. No segundo estágio da análise foi adicionalmente avaliado o efeito sobre a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca da utilização de solução ácida de pepsina ou do refluxo em solução de detergente neutro. Para ambos os estudos utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (procedimentos in vitro x

  6. Influences of the alternation of wet-dry periods on the variability of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Dingyong; Wei, Shiqiang; Yan, Jinlong; Liang, Jian; Chen, Xueshuang; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Qilei; Lu, Song; Gao, Jie; Li, Lulu; Guo, Nian; Zhao, Zheng

    2018-04-26

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a crucial driver of various biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. Thus, many lakes and streams have been investigated in the past several decades. However, fewer studies have sought to understand the changes in DOM characteristics in the waters of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) areas, which are the largest artificial reservoir areas in the world. Thus, a field investigation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) properties was conducted from 2013 to 2015 to track the spatial-temporal variability of DOM properties in the TGR areas. The results showed that the alternations of wet and dry periods due to hydrological management have a substantial effect on the quantity and quality of aquatic DOM in TGR areas. Increases in DOC concentrations in the wet period show an apparent "dilution effect" that decreases CDOM compounds with relatively lower aromaticity (i.e., SUVA 254 ) and molecular weight (i.e., S R ). In contrast to the obvious temporal variations of DOM, significant spatial variability was not observed in this study. Additionally, DOM showed more terrigenous characteristics in the dry period but weak terrigenous characteristics in the wet period. Furthermore, the positive correlation between SUVA 254 and CDOM suggests that the aromatic component controls the CDOM dynamics in TGR areas. The first attempt to investigate the DOM dynamics in TGR areas since the Three Gorges Dam was conducted in 2012, and the unique patterns of spatial-temporal variations in DOM that are highlighted in this study might provide a new insight for understanding the role of DOM in the fates of contaminants and may help in the further management of flow loads and water quality in the TGR area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of particulate matter from Primary/Secondary Marine Aerosol and anthropogenic sources collected by a self-made passive sampler for the evaluation of the dry deposition impact on built heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; García-Florentino, Cristina; Marcaida, Iker; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-04-15

    Dry deposition is one of the most dangerous processes that can take place in the environment where the compounds that are suspended in the atmosphere can react directly on different surrounding materials, promoting decay processes. Usually this process is related with industrial/urban fog and/or marine aerosol in the coastal areas. Particularly, marine aerosol transports different types of salts which can be deposited on building materials and by dry deposition promotes different decay pathways. A new analytical methodology based on the combined use of Raman Spectroscopy and SEM-EDS (point-by-point and imaging) was applied. For that purpose, firstly evaporated seawater (presence of Primary Marine Aerosol (PMA)) was analyzed. After that, using a self-made passive sampler (SMPS), different suspended particles coming from marine aerosol (transformed particles in the atmosphere (Secondary Marine Aerosol (SMA)) and metallic airborne particulate matter coming from anthropogenic sources, were analyzed. Finally in order to observe if SMA and metallic particles identified in the SMPS can be deposited on a building, sandstone samples from La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) located in front of the sea and in the place where the passive sampler was mounted were analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  9. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  10. Consumption and apparent digestibility of the dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of the Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth for ovinesConsumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta da Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth por ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was realized in the Animal Research Unit "Senator Alvaro Adolpho" in the Embrapa Eastern Amazon, in Belem, Para State, to evaluate the effect of four levels (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the leguminous Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth, on substitution to the Brachiaria humidicola, on the voluntary consumption and apparent digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP. It was realized a metabolic assay, of 21 days having been 14 days of adaptation to experimental dietary and seven days of collected, was used sixteen sheep, of ten months and 28 (± 2.44 average of kg, in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments and four repetitions. The data was analyzed by software SAS. The use of the Pueraria phaseoloides leguminous, provides to greater availability of dry substance in the fodder plant and rise of the nutritional value, mainly, protein in the diet, promoting increase of the animal productivity. Levels of substitution of P. Phaseoloides, around 100%, make possible greater consumption of the dry matter, organic matter, CP.O trabalho foi realizado na Unidade de Pesquisa Animal “Senador Álvaro Adolpho” na Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém, Pará, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis (100%, 75%, 50% e 25% da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth, em substituição ao quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola, sobre o consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e proteína bruta (PB. Foi realizado um ensaio metabólico de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais e sete dias de coleta. Foram utilizados dezesseis ovinos, de dez meses e média de 28 (± 2,44 kg de peso vivo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados pelo software SAS. A utilização da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides, proporciona maior

  11. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el hábitat natural de la uchuva en Colombia (de 1.600 a 2.800 msnm la temperatura edáfica varía de acuerdo con los
    factores climatológicos determinados por la altitud y por el manejo que se le de al suelo y al cultivo. Para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura en la rizosfera sobre la distribución
    de la materia seca en la uchuva y encontrar mecanismos de adaptación al altiplano colombiano, se cultivaron durante 11 semanas los ecotipos 'Colombia' y 'Sudáfrica' con temperaturas edáficas de 8, 15, 22 y 29°C bajo invernadero en Berlín, Alemania. Se utilizaron macetas plásticas de 2,5 L de capacidad y arena de cuarzo como substrato. Con el
    aumento de la temperatura en la rizosfera creció la producción de biomasa hasta un máximo a 22 y 29°C dependiendo del órgano de la planta y del ecotipo. La mayor acumulación de materia seca la obtuvo 'Colombia' a 29°C y 'Sudáfrica' a 22°C. Con 8°C de temperatura radical las plantas produjeron poca masa seca radical y foliar, mientras la materia de los frutos disminuyó en menor proporción, debido posiblemente a mecanismos de adaptación a los suelos fríos del altiplano. Los 22°C fomentaron más el crecimiento de las ramas principales, mientras las laterales tuvieron su óptimo a 29°C, posiblemente debido a un efecto hormonal. La mayor acumulación de materia seca en raíces,
    hojas y frutos del ecotipo 'Colombia' a 29°C se puede interpretar como una adaptación a los suelos calientes de las laderas expuestas al sol.
    In the natu ral habitat of cape gooseberry in Colombia, on sites from 1.600 to 2.800 m.a.s.l., soil temperature is affected by c1imatologicfactors, which are determined by the altitud and cultural and soil management practices. In order to study the effect of rizosphere temperature on the distribution of dry matter in the cape gooseberry plant and to find mecanisms of adaptation to the Colombian highland conditions, during 11 weeks 'Colombia' and

  12. Características fisiológicas e crescimento de clones de eucalipto em resposta ao boro Physiological characteristics and dry matter production of eucalyptus in response to boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A exigência para boro (B varia largamente entre e dentro das espécies vegetais. Objetivando avaliar a resposta de clones de eucalipto ao B em solução nutritiva foi realizado ensaio em casa de vegetação com oito clones. As plantas cresceram em soluções nutritivas com 0, 10, 20, 50 e 100 µmol/L de B, durante 70 dias. Na finalização do ensaio determinaram-se características fisiológicas, produção de matéria seca e teores de B no tecido vegetal. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones à concentração de B na solução nutritiva, com máxima produção de matéria seca entre 28 e 69 µmol/L de B. Em baixas concentrações de B, pôde-se observar sintomas visuais de deficiência e, em altas concentrações, não foram observados sintomas de toxidez, porém houve redução na produção de matéria seca. A resposta do eucalipto ao B na solução nutritiva depende do clone, havendo diferenças entre eles na tolerância à deficiência e toxidez e na eficiência de utilização de B. Os clones 68 e 129 apresentaram as mais elevadas taxas de fotossíntese. O clone 3487 foi o mais responsivo ao B. Os clones 3487, 3336 e 68 foram mais sensíveis à deficiência e os clones 3281 e 1270 os mais tolerantes à deficiência. O clone 2486 foi o mais sensível à toxidez e o clone 3281 o mais tolerante. Os clones 3487, 2486 e 129 foram mais eficientes na utilização de B.Boron (B requirement for plant growth varies both within and among plant species. In order to evaluate the response of clones of eucalyptus to B in nutrient solution, an experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions, with eight clones. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions at B concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µmol/L for 70 days, after which, physiological variables, dry matter production and boron content were determined. There was a differential response of the eucalyptus clones to the concentration of boron in nutrient solution with maximum dry matter

  13. Acúmulo de massa seca e marcha de absorção de nutrientes em mudas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' Dry matter storage and absorption route of nutrients in guava seedlings "Pedro Sato"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mariano Dias Augostinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a curva de acúmulo da matéria seca de mudas e a marcha de absorção de macro e micronutrientes de goiabeira cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram utilizadas sete coletas de plantas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato', em cultivo hidropônico, em casa de vegetação da Unesp, Campus de Jaboticabal. Nas coletas, avaliaram-se o crescimento das plantas e o acúmulo de nutrientes, a cada 15 dias, durante 120 dias após o transplantio. As mudas de goiabeira proporcionaram maior acúmulo de biomassa no órgão folha em relação ao caule e à raiz. Observou-se alta absorção dos nutrientes, no período de 60 a 90 dias após o transplantio, nas mudas de goiabeira. O acúmulo de nutrientes das mudas de goiabeira (planta inteira foi de 340, 44, 380, 173, 33 e 40 mg planta-1, respectivamente para N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, e de 743, 118, 5.114, 2.151, 566 mg planta-1, respectivamente, para B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn.This work aimed to determine the dry matter storage curve of seedlings and the absorptions of macro and micro nutrients of guava tree cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. It was used randomized design with three repetitions. Seven samples of guava plants cultivar 'Pedro Sato' were used in hydroponic growth in the greenhouse located at UNESP- Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was evaluated the samples of plants growing and the nutrients storage every 15 days, during 120 days after the transplanting. The seedlings of guava priorized the dry matter storage of leaves in relation of the stem and leaves. The guava seedlings presented high absorption of nutrients in the period of 60 and 90 days after the transplanting. The nutrients storage of the guava seedlings (whole plant were of : 340; 44; 380; 173; 33; and 40 mg plant-1, respectively, for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and 743; 118; 5114; 2151; 566µg plant-1, respectively for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn.

  14. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco Unapal- Dorado, pumpkin new cultivar with high dry matter for fresh consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alirio Vallejo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.From three diallelic crossings, among populations with different degree of inbreeding (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2, 11 family with high dry matter, production by plant and fruit quality for consumption in fresh were selected. Two cycles of genetic recombination and selection were carried out. Four selected genotypes were evaluated the Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (CEUNP. The genotype of better performance was evaluated comparatively with others six families, including the control Unapal Bolo Verde, in regional tests, in three localities of the Valle del Cauca, during two consecutive semesters (2008 B - 2009A. By its excellent behavior in production (15 kg/planta, content of dry matter (higher than 16%, 3,5 kg by fruit, and five fruits by plant, quality of fruit for consumption in fresh, this family of better performance originated the pumpkin new cultivar, with the

  15. Chemically and size-resolved particulate matter dry deposition on stone and surrogate surfaces inside and outside the low emission zone of Milan: application of a newly developed "Deposition Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Casati, Marco; Nobili, Lara; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Conti, Claudia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Bernardi, Elena; Vassura, Ivano

    2018-04-01

    The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay. A pitched roof avoided rainfall and wind variability; a standardised gentle air exchange rate ensured a continuous "sampling" of ambient air leaving unchanged the sampled particle size distribution and, at the same time, leaving quite calm condition inside the box, allowing the deposition to occur. Thus, the "Deposition Box" represents an affordable tool that can be used complementary to traditional exposure systems. With this system, several exposure campaigns, involving investigated stone materials (ISMs) (Carrara Marble, Botticino limestone, Noto calcarenite and Granite) and surrogate (Quartz, PTFE, and Aluminium) substrates, have been performed in two different sites placed in Milan (Italy) inside and outside the low emission zone. Deposition rates (30-90 μg cm -2  month -1 ) showed significant differences between sites and seasons, becoming less evident considering long-period exposures due to a positive feedback on the deposition induced by the deposited particles. Similarly, different stone substrates influenced the deposition rates too. The collected deposits have been observed with optical and scanning electron microscopes and analysed by ion chromatography. Ion deposition rates were similar in the two sites during winter, whereas it was greater outside the low emission zone during summer and

  16. Results for the Aboveground Configuration of the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks is evaluated through detailed numerical analysis. These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full-sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask, in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways, and also by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above- and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the current investigation was to produce data sets that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern dry casks that utilize elevated helium pressure in the sealed canister in an above-ground configuration.

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  19. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  20. Acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes no meloeiro irrigado sob estratégias de manejo da salinidade Accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in irrigated melon under strategies of salimity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero P. C. Terceiro Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar estratégias de uso de água salobra sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes, duas cultivares de melão (Sancho- C1 e Medellín- C2 irrigadas com água de baixa (S1 = 0,61 dS m-1 e alta (S2 = 4,78 dS m-1 salinidade por fase da cultura: S1S1S2S2- T1, S2S1S2S2- T2, S2S2S1S2- T3 (os 1, 2, 3 e 4º termos correspondem, respectivamente, às fases de crescimento, floração, crescimento dos frutos e maturação e colheita e, ainda a irrigação alternada, durante todo o ciclo, com água S1 por 2 dias consecutivos seguido com água S2 por um dia (S12dias + S21dia- T4 e a irrigação com água S2 durante todo o ciclo- T5. Além disto foi utilizada, como testemunha, a irrigação com a mistura de 37% da água S1 e 63% da água S2- T0 (manejo adotado atualmente na fazenda em que o experimento foi conduzido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 6 x 2 (manejo da água salina x cultivar com quatro repetições. O acúmulo de fitomassa seca total na parte aérea da cultivar Sancho foi superior ao de Medellín, em todas as estratégias de manejo utilizado; os nutrientes mais absorvidos pelas plantas das duas cultivares foram o cálcio, o potássio e o nitrogênio.A study was carried out aiming to investigate management strategies for use of brackish water in the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in two cultivars of melon (C1 - Sancho and C2 - MedeLλi n irrigated with low (S1 = 0.61 dS m-1 and high (S2 = 4.78 dS m-1 salinity water in different phases of crop: S1S1S2S2 - T1, S2S1S2S2 - T2, S2S2S1S2 - T3. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th term correspond, respectively, to different phases - initial growth, flowering, fruit maturation and harvest. Alternate irrigation during the crop cycle, two days of consecutive application with S1 water followed by one day with S2 water (S1 2 days + S2 1day - T4 and irrigation with

  1. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  2. Safe dry storage of intermediate-level waste at CRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, A.; Sanderson, T.; Lian, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing operations at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) generate High-, Intermediate- and Low-Level Waste (HLW, ILW and LLW) that will require safe storage for several decades until a long-term management facility is available. This waste is stored in below grade concrete structures (i.e. tile holes or bunkers) or the above-ground Shielded Modular Above Ground Storage (SMAGS) facility depending on the thermal and shielding requirements of the particular waste package. Existing facilities are reaching their capacity and alternate storage is required for the future storage of this radioactive material. To this end, work has been undertaken at CRL to design, license, construct and commission the next generation of waste management facilities. This paper provides a brief overview of the existing radioactive-waste management facilities used at CRL and focuses on the essential requirements and issues to be considered in designing a new waste storage facility. Fundamentally, there are four general requirements for a new storage facility to dry store dry non-fissile ILW. They are the need to provide: (1) containment, (2) shielding, (3) decay heat removal, and (4) ability to retrieve the waste for eventual placement in an appropriate long-term management facility. Additionally, consideration must be given to interfacing existing waste generating facilities with the new storage facility. The new facilities will be designed to accept waste for 40 years followed by 60 years of passive storage for a facility lifespan of 100 years. The design should be modular and constructed in phases, each designed to accept ten years of waste. This strategy will allow for modifications to subsequent modules to account for changes in waste characteristics and generation rates. Two design concepts currently under consideration are discussed. (author)

  3. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta, e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho Consumption and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy, and balance of nitrogen of silages of five maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.R. Freitas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantificaram-se o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta, energia bruta e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG 5011 e BR 3123. Foram utilizados 15 carneiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para coleta total de fezes e urina. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos quanto ao consumo e digestibilidade da MS, da EB e da PB (P>0,05. Os consumos de MS, EB e PB digestíveis e energia metabolizável também não foram diferentes entre os híbridos (P>0,05. Quanto às relações consumo de energia digestível/consumo de MS e consumo de energia metabolizável/consumo de MS, o genótipo AG5011 foi semelhante ao HT01 (P>0,05 e superior aos demais (P0,05. Todos os genótipos produziram silagens de bom valor nutritivo, entretanto o genótipo AG5011 apresentou maior eficiência na utilização da energia (PThe voluntary intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and the nitrogen balance, of silages of five maize genotypes (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG5011 and BR3123 were quantified. Fifteen sheep were stored in metabolic cages for total collection of feces and urine. A complete randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions was used. The intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. The intake of digestible dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and metabolic energy did not differ (P>0.05 among the genotypes. The ratios of digestible energy intake/dry matter intake and metabolic energy intake/dry matter intake of the genotype AG5011 silage was similar (P>0.05 to HT01, and higher than the other genotypes (P<0.05. All genotypes showed similar and positive nitrogen balance, and all of them produced silages of good nutritional value

  4. Influência do teor de matéria seca e do inoculante bacteriano nas características físicas e químicas da silagem de capim Tanzânia = Effects of dry matter content and bacterial inoculant on the physical and chemical properties and losses in Tanzânia grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solidete de Fátima Paziani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do teor de matéria seca e da adição de inoculante bacteriano sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e perdas em silagens do capim Tanzânia. O uso do inoculante não foi efetivo em preservar a PB. Os índices de recuperação de matéria seca e as perdas de MS, na forma de efluente e gases, foram respectivamente de 90,6%; 53,7 kg t-1 MV e 6,4% da MS nas silagens não-emurchecidas, 93,6%; 16,8 kg t-1 MV e 5,0% com adição de milheto grão e 92,2%; 3,6 kg t-1 MV e 6,2% naquelas emurchecidas. Asdensidades de massa verde/matéria seca foram 346/105, 455/145 e 442/97 kg m-3 nas silagens emurchecidas, adicionadas com milheto e com umidade original, respectivamente. Como a elevação no teor de MS não alterou o índice de recuperação de MS, apesar de promoveralgumas modificações na composição química das silagens, a opção pelos tratamentos vai depender da ponderação de fatores que facilitem a operacionalidade e reduzam os custos na confecção da silagem.The present trial aimed to study the effect of dry matter content and the addition of bacterial inoculant on the ensilage of Tanzânia grass. The bacterial inoculant did not alter crude protein content. Dry matter recovery rates, effluent yield and DM gases losses were 90.6%, 53.7 kg t-1 wet forage, 6.4% for the wet silages; 93.6%, 16.8 kg t-1 wet forage, 5.0% for millet added silages and 92.2%, 3.6 kg t-1 wet forage, 6.2% for the wilted silages, respectively. The silages dry matter content influenced wet bulk density/dry matter silo bulk density resulting in 346/105, 455/145 and 442/97 kg m-3 for the wilted, millet added and wet silages, respectively. Because the increase on dry matter content was not offsets in DM recovery rate, although there were some changes in chemical composition, the adoption and field recommendation of strategies will be dependent on the operational and costs restrictions.

  5. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  6. Digestibilidade da matéria seca de silagens de milho e de suplementos concentrados determinada por procedimentos in vitro Dry matter digestibility of corn silages and concentrates determined by in vitro procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS de quatro silagens de milho e de seis concentrados (três proteicos e três energéticos, determinados pelo método de dois estádios realizados em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação, e avaliou-se a ocorrência de efeito associativo na digestão de alimentos destas três classes incubadas em um mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora in vitro, ou em jarros diferentes contendo a mesma classe de alimentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (procedimentos in vitro x classes de alimentos. Os valores de DIVMS determinados pelo método dos tubos foram mais próximos dos relatados na literatura e menores (P0,05 nos valores de DIVMS dos concentrados e das silagens de milho incubados no mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora ou, separadamente por alimento, em jarros diferentes.The values of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of four corn silages and six concentrates (three proteic and three energetics were determined by the two-stage technique that utilizes individual digestion tubes and by an automatic equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique. It was also evaluated the associative effect on digestion of these three food classes when incubated in the same fermentation jar of the "in vitro incubator" and when in different vessels containing the same class of foods. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were closer to those found in the literature and lower (P0.05 in IVDMD of concentrates and silages when incubated together in the same fermentation jar or separated by food classes in separated jars.

  7. Produção de massa seca e composição química de cinco cultivares de Cynodon = Dry matter production and chemical composition of five Cynodon cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. Os tratamentos consistiram na avaliação de 5 cultivares de Cynodon, em 11 idades de corte, para estudo da característica crescimento e 5 idades para a avaliação da composição química. O delineamento experimental foi ointeiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições, considerando-se, nas parcelas, as cultivares (C e, nas subparcelas, as idades de corte (I. Foram avaliados a produção de massa seca (PMS, a relação folha/colmo, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, defibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, nas folhas, nos colmos e na planta inteira. A PMS aumentou dos 14 aos 84 dias (PThe experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The treatments aimed to evaluate five Cynodon cultivars at eleven cutting ages to study the characteristics of growing, and at five cutting ages toevaluate the chemical composition. A random design with split plot was adopted, with three replications, considering cultivars as plot and cutting age as subplots. The following variables were studied: dry matter (DM production, leaf/stem ratio and the contents of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, in green leaf, stem and total plant. The highest DM production was from 14 to 84 days (P<0.01, and did not differ among cultivars. The leaf/stem ratio differ (P<0.01 among cultivars (C and decreased with plant age (I showing interaction C x I. The CP contents of the total plant were superior to the stem and inferior to the leaf. The NDF and ADF contents were similar among cultivars. The Cynodon cultivars would be better managed during 28 days of plant growth.

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  10. Test Plan for the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis . These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same vertical, canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern vertical, canistered dry cask systems. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above-ground and below-ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 deg C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the

  11. The application of the finite element method for the low-cycle fatigue calculation of the elementsof the pipelines’ fixed support construction for the areas of above-ground routing of the oil pipeline «Zapolyarye — NPS „Pur-Pe“»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the order of performing low-cycle fatigue strength calculation of the elements of the full-scale specimen construction of the fixed support DN 1000 of the above-ground oil pipeline “Zapolyarye — Purpe” during rig-testing. The calculation is performed with the aim of optimizing the quantity of testing and, accordingly, cost cutting for expensive experiments. The order of performing the calculation consists of two stages. At the first stage the calculation is performed by the finite element method of the full-scale specimen construction’s stressed-deformed state in the calculation complex ANSYS. Thearticle describes the main creation stages of the finite element calculation model for the full-scale specimen in ANSYS. The calculation model is developed in accordance with a three-dimensional model of the full-scale specimen, adapted for rig-testing by cyclic loads. The article provides the description of the full-scale specimen construction of the support and loading modes in rig-testing. Cyclic loads are accepted as calculation ones, which influence the support for the 50 years of the oil pipeline operation and simulate the composite impact in the process of the loads’ operation connected to the changes in the pumping pressure, operational bending moment. They also simulate preloading in the case of sagging of the neighboring free support. For the determination of the unobservable for the diagnostic devices defects impact on the reliability of the fixed support and welding joints of the fixed support with the oil pipeline by analogy with the full-scale specimen, artificial defects were embedded in the calculation model. The defects were performed in the form of cuts of the definite form, located in a special way in the spool and welding joints. At the second stage of calculation for low-cycle fatigue strength, the evaluation of the cyclic strength of the full-scale specimen construction’s elements of the

  12. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  13. Disponibilidade, composição bromatológica e consumo de matéria seca em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens com Stylosanthes guianensis Herbage availability, chemical composition and dry matter intake in mixed pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with Stylosanthes guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilidade de forragem, a composição bromatológica, o consumo de matéria seca e a proporção de gramínea e leguminosa na dieta de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão e leguminosas arbóreas. Para estimativa da produção fecal, foram usados 10 g vaca-1 dia-1 de óxido crômico, durante dez dias. Amostras de extrusa foram usadas para determinação da composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. A disponibilidade de matéria seca de forragem de B. decumbens variou com as condições climáticas, enquanto a de S. guianensis decresceu linearmente ao longo do período experimental. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior em maio de 2001 (1,9% do peso do animal vivo e não diferiu entre os demais meses (1,5% do peso do animal vivo. Os baixos índices de consumo de matéria seca refletiram altos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (70,2% a 79,4% e baixos coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (42,1% a 48,0% da forragem. O consumo de leguminosa variou entre 8,7% e 24,1% do total ingerido. O consumo de matéria seca esteve diretamente relacionado à porcentagem de leguminosa na pastagem, o que evidencia o potencial de uso de pastagens consorciadas para vacas leiteiras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage availability, nutritive value, dry matter intake and grass and legume percentage in diet of crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows, in pasture with Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão and tree legumes. To estimate the fecal output, it was used 10 g cow-1 day-1 of chromium oxide during ten consecutive days. Extrusa samples were used to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. B. decumbens availability varied with climatic conditions, while S. guianensis

  14. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  15. Simulation of Dry Matter Productivity and Water Dynamics in a Chilean Patagonian Range Simulación de la Productividad de Materia Seca y Dinámica del Agua en Praderas de la Patagonia Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simulation model combining the main components of water balance and growth of perennial grassland steppe in Chilean Patagonia, to estimate long-term annual production (Yr, kg ha-1 and sheep carrying capacity (GC, sheep equivalent [EO] ha-1. The model is based on climate-water balance relationships, where the basic process is evapotranspiration. The model calculates Yr depending on the accumulation of transpiration and the water use efficiency from the time of growth initiation until the grassland accumulates the maximum amount of dry matter (DM. Depending on Yr, the DM requirement of EO, the proper use factor of grassland and a slope correction factor, a range site GC is calculated. Simulations were performed using actual climate data sets of eight growing seasons at Kampenaike (52º41' S; 70°54'W; 12 m.a.s.l. and a long-term simulation in the same location, using a stochastic weather variables generator. Through the model it was possible to estimate the water loss associated with the components of water balance and estimate the restriction imposed by water deficit on Yr. By simulating many years, it was possible to establish a normal distribution of GC with 0.629 EO ha-1 yr-1, associated with 80% probability of being exceeded, which is lower than values reported in field assessments. This method calculates GC with a conservational approach, taking into account soil and climatic variability in semiarid ecosystems.Se describe un modelo de simulación para pastizales esteparios de la Patagonia chilena, que estima a largo plazo los principales componentes del balance hídrico, la producción anual de MS (Yr, kg ha-1 y la capacidad de carga ovina (GC, equivalente ovino [EO] ha-1 de éstos. El modelo se basa en la relación clima-balance hídrico, siendo el proceso básico la evapotranspiración. Yr es función de la acumulación de transpiración durante la temporada de crecimiento y de la eficiencia del uso del agua. La GC

  16. Níveis críticos de boro no solo e na planta para cultivo de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo Boron application the nutricional status and dry matter production of passion fruit cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Melo Prado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação de boro ao substrato de produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, para o estabelecimento dos níveis críticos do B no solo e na planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As doses de boro, na forma de ácido bórico, foram: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0 mg de B dm-3 de solo. As mudas receberam doses de N, P, K e Zn, de 300; 450; 150 e 5 mg dm-3, respectivamente, sendo o N e o K parcelados em três vezes (15; 30 e 45 dias após o plantio. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos com 2 dm-3 de substrato de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Após 70 dias do plantio, foram avaliados: o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, o número de folhas e a matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, bem como os teores de macro e micronutrientes. As mudas de maracujazeiro responderam à aplicação de boro em substrato com baixa concentração (0,06 mg dm-3, extraído com água quente. O maior desenvolvimento das plantas esteve associado à dose próxima de 0,5 mg de B dm-3 e à concentração de 0,4 mg de B dm-3 no substrato e um teor de 22 mg de B kg-1 na parte aérea.It was objectified to evaluate the application of boron to the substratum of production of yellow passion fruit cuttings, for the establishment of the critical levels of the B in the soil and the plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The doses of boron were: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 and 1,00 mg dm-3 of B. All the plants received doses of N, P, K and Zn of 300; 100; 150 and 5,0 mg dm-3, respectively. The experiment was lead in vases with 2.0 dm³ of substratum of a Typic Haplorthox. After 70 days of the sowing were evaluated: height, leave numeric, dry matter, nutritional status of plants and soil nutrients. The passion fruit plant seedlings answered to the boron application in soil with low concentration of

  17. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  20. Forest vegetation as a sink for atmospheric particulates: Quantitative studies in rain and dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, I.J.; Choquette, C.E.; Fang, S.; Dundulis, W.P.; Pao, A.A.; Pszenny, A.A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclides in the atmosphere are associated with nonradioactive air particulates and hence serve to trace the fluxes of air particulates to various surfaces. Natural and artificial radioactivities found in the atmosphere have been measured in vegetation for 10 years to elucidate some of the mechanisms of acquirement by forest trees of atmospheric particulates. Whole tree analysis, in conjunction with soil assay, have served to establish the fraction of the flux of radionuclides retained by above-ground tissues of a forest stand. Interpretation is facilitated because most radionuclides in the atmosphere are superficially acquired. Typically 5--20% of the total open field flux is retained by the forest canopy in a moderately rainy climate (120 cm/year). Short-lived daughters of radon give a dry deposition velocity of particulates in the Aitken size range of 0.03--0.05 cm/s, thus permitting an estimate of transient removal by forest canopies by dry deposition of this size fraction

  1. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia de silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench por ovinos Voluntary intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of silages of four sorghum genotype in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.R. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia e o balanço de nitrogênio de silagens dos sorgos BR601, BR700, BR701 e AG2002 em ovinos. O consumo de matéria seca e de energia bruta não diferiu entre os híbridos. Quanto à digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da energia bruta e ao consumo de matéria seca digestível e de energia digestível, observaram-se maiores valores para o BR601. O maior consumo de proteína bruta foi observado no BR700 e o menor no AG2002. A maior digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta ocorreu para o BR601 e a menor para o BR701. O consumo de proteína digestível foi maior para os híbridos BR601 e BR700. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram balanço de nitrogênio positivo e não diferiram entre si.The nitrogen balance, the consumption and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the energy of the silages of four genotypes of sorghum were evaluated. The consumption of dry matter and crude energy did not differ among the hibrids. The largest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude energy and the consumption of digestible dry matter and energy, were observed for BR601 genotype. The largest consumption of crude protein, was observed for BR700 and the smalest for AG2002 genotypes (P<0.05. The largest apparent digestibility of protein was observed for BR601 and the smalest one for BR701 (P<0.05 genotype. The consumption of digestible protein was larger for BR601 and BR700. All treatments showed positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among them.

  2. Impact of fugitive sources and meteorological parameters on vertical distribution of particulate matter over the industrial agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbová, Kristína; Raclavská, Helena; Bílek, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize vertical distribution of particulate matter, in an area well known by highest air pollution levels in Europe. A balloon filled with helium with measuring instrumentation was used for vertical observation of air pollution over the fugitive sources in Moravian-Silesian metropolitan area during spring and summer. Synchronously, selected meteorological parameters were recorded together with particulate matter for exploration its relationship with particulate matter. Concentrations of particulate matter in the vertical profile were significantly higher in the spring than in the summer. Significant effect of fugitive sources was observed up to the altitude ∼255 m (∼45 m above ground) in both seasons. The presence of inversion layer was observed at the altitude ∼350 m (120-135 m above ground) at locations with major source traffic load. Both particulate matter concentrations and number of particles for the selected particle sizes decreased with increasing height. Strong correlation of particulate matter with meteorological parameters was not observed. The study represents the first attempt to assess the vertical profile over the fugitive emission sources - old environmental burdens in industrial region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  4. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  5. NUTRIÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA DE MILHO SUBMETIDO A CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO SULFATADA MAIZE NUTRITION AND DRY MATTER YIELD UNDER LIMING AND SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretusa Daniela Resende Mendes

    2011-04-01

    -3, 30 mg dm-3 e 60 mg dm-3, mais o tratamento sem adição de enxofre. As plantas de milho foram colhidas aos 45 dias após a semeadura, sendo separada a parte aérea do sistema radicular. O método mais eficiente de recomendação de calagem para o milho foi o método da elevação da saturação por bases. A aplicação de doses de enxofre não teve efeito no desenvolvimento do milho, até o estádio avaliado.


    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Zea mayz; acidez do solo; matéria seca; desenvolvimento radicular.


    Liming is essential for obtaining high yield levels in tropical acid soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate maize nutrition and dry matter yield in soil under

  6. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  7. Dry matter production and partitioning of maize hybrids and dwarf unes at four plant populations Produção e distribuição de matéria seca de híbridos e linhagens anãs de milho em quatro populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sangoi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in Ames, Iowa, USA, to compare dry matter accumulation patterns of maize genotypes contrasting in height and leafiness, and to test whether reduction in plant height an leaf number through the use of dwarfing genes or earliness can improve grain dry matter allocation. Five plant genotypes were tested: a full season hybrid adapted to central lowa (NK 4525, a short season hybrid adapted to northern Minnesota (C1070, and three dwarf lines (156-A, 302-E and I17- A. The dwarves contained, respectively, the homozygous, independent, recessive dwarfing genes d3, d1 and br2. Each genotype was sown at four plant populations: 25, 50, 75 and 100.000 plants. ha-1. Hybrids had the greatest rates of decrease in total biomass and grain dry matter per plant when population was increased, though they also had larger absolute values of these variables at any given density. Hybrids produced more grain dry matter per unit of leaf area, and a higher harvest index, regardless the plant population used. Reduction in plant height or leaf number did not improve maize efficiency in producing and partitioning dry matter to the grain.Este experimento foi conduzido em Ames, Iowa, Estados Unidos, tendo como objetivos comparar os padrões de produção e distribuição de matéria seca de genótipos de milho contrastantes quanto a estatura e número de folhas, e verificar se a redução nestas características, mediante a utilização de genes para nanismo ou cultivares precoces, pode aumentar a eficiência da planta em alocar matéria seca para a produção de grãos. Cinco genótipos foram testados: um híbrido de ciclo normal adaptado à região central de lowa (NK 4525, um híbrido de ciclo precoce adaptado à região norte do estado de Minnesota (C 1070, e três linhagens anãs (156-A, 302-E and 117-A, contendo os genes recessivos de nanismo d3, d1 and br2, respectivamente Cada genótipo foi semeado em quatro populações, equivalentes a 25

  8. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for

  9. Dry matter yield and nutritional value of Marandu grass under nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in cerrado in São Paulo Produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu sob adubação nitrogenada e irrigação no cerrado paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Dupas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate dry matter yield and nutritional value of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu using nitrogen doses and sprinkler irrigation in two periods of the year, aiming at reducing seasonality of forage production. It was used a randomized block design in a split-plot scheme, with five doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg/ha/cut, and the sub-plots were defined by the seasons of the year (wet and dry season, with and without irrigation. During the wet season, in the plots with and without irrigation, doses of 175 and 161 kg/ha/cut promoted the highest dry matter yields. During the dry season, 171 kg ha-1N with irrigation resulted in the highest dry matter yield. During the same season, there was no response to N fertilization in the lack of irrigation. Average contents of CP were 10% with and without irrigation. Contents of neutral detergent fiber decreased with nitrogen doses, while acid detergent fiber was not affected by fertilization. Plots under irrigation reached the maximal acid detergent fiber content at N dose of 60 kg ha-1. Irrigation promotes increase of 15% increase in dry matter yield and it increases contents of neutral detergent fiber.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu utilizando doses de nitrogênio e irrigação por aspersão em dois períodos do ano, visando à redução da estacionalidade de produção de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg/ha/corte e as subparcelas definidas pelos períodos do ano (período das águas e da seca, com e sem irrigação. No período das águas, nas parcelas com e sem irrigação, as doses de 175 e 161 kg/ha/corte promoveram as máximas produções de MS. No período da seca, a dose 171 kg ha-1 de N com irrigação propiciou a

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  11. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  12. LIMING EFFECTS ON THE NUTRITION AND DRY MATTER YIELD OF TIFTON 85 GRASS EFEITOS DA CALAGEM NA NUTRIÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DE MASSA SECA DO CAPIM TIFTON 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Soil acidity is the most limiting factor to the productivity of crops and, in the livestock context, the non-correction implies in a low animal performance. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the effects of liming in nutrition, growth, and production of Tifton 85 grass. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in pots filled with 3 dm3 of samples of an oxisol. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and four replications: zero (control, half (0.77 g dm-3, once (1.55 g dm-3, one and a half times (2.32 g dm-3, and twice the dose of reference for this crop (3.10 g dm-3. The reference dose was calculated to increase the soil base saturation to 70%. It was observed that liming promoted significant effects on the growth of grass, in the second and third cuts, and that the maximum production of dry matter occurred with a soil base saturation of 67%. These results demonstrate the need of soil acidity correction for the development and production of grass.

    KEY-WORDS: Cynodon ssp.; grass; oxisol; soil base saturation; soil acidity.

    Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  13. Estimativa do consumo de matéria seca de vacas em lactação em pastejo rotativo em capim coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, (L. Pers cv. coast-cross Estimative of the dry matter intake of lactating cows in intensive grazing coastcross grass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estimar o consumo total de MS de vacas das raças gir e girolanda, em pastagem de capim coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Foram utilizadas oito vacas gir e oito girolanda com 30 a 90 dias de lactação. Foi utilizada uma área de cinco hectares (ha, dividida em 10 piquetes de um hectare, e a pastagem manejada em pastejo rotacionado, com três dias de ocupação e 27 dias de descanso e taxa de lotação de 1,6 animais/ha no final da seca e 3,2 animais/ha nas demais épocas experimentais. Para a estimativa do consumo, foi utilizado o marcador cromo mordente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos (gir e girolanda, oito repetições e quatro blocos (épocas. O consumo total médio foi de 7,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça girolanda e 5,71kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir, correspondentes a 1,58% e 1,38% do peso vivo, respectivamente. Os consumos médios de capim coastcross estimados foram de 2,70kg e 4,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir e girolanda, correspondendo a 0,66 e 1,16% de PV, respectivamente.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the total dry matter intake of gir and girolanda breed cows kept in coastcross pasture [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Eight gir and eight girolanda cows were used, all between 30 and 90 days of lactation period. The pasture (five ha was divided in 10 paddocks, grazed for three days with 27 days of resting period with stocking rate of 1.6 cows/ha at the end of the dry season and 3.2 cows/ha in the other experimental periods. Chromic mordant marker was used to estimate dry matter intake. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two treatments (gir and girolanda, eight replications and four blocks (seasons. The total mean dry matter intake for girolanda cows was of 7.68 kg DM/cow/day and 5.71 kg DM/cow/day for gir cows, corresponding to 1.58% and 1.38% live weight

  14. Drying-induced physico-chemical changes in cranberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Honke, Joanna; Ciska, Ewa; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2018-02-01

    Sugar-free cranberry juice (XAD) and juice with 15% of maltodextrin were dried by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Total phenolics (589-6435mg/kg dry matter) including 5 flavonols, 3 phenolic acids, 2 procyanidins and 5 anthocyanins were stronger affected by juice formulation than by drying methods. Spray drying of juice, regardless of its formulation, was competitive to freeze drying in terms of polyphenols' retention. Increase in temperature up to 100°C during vacuum drying of XAD extracts resulted in degradation of polyphenolics (down to 4%), except chlorogenic acid. Its content increased with rise in temperature and accelerated hydroxymethylfurfural formation. The stronger the impact of drying, the more chlorogenic acid is present in cranberry products. In all powders analysed, formation of furoylmethyl amino acids was noted. Antioxidant capacity of cranberry products was influenced by juice formulation and was linked to content of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  16. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  17. Produção de matéria seca, teor e acúmulo de silício em cultivares de arroz sob doses de silício Dry matter production, content and accumulation of silicon in cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L. under levels of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Antônio de Faria Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do silício (Si na produção de matéria seca de arroz, teor e acúmulo de Si foi avaliado sob condições de casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram 5 doses de Si (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 g dm-3 e 2 cultivares de arroz (Conai e Curinga. A aplicação de Si não afetou os componentes de crescimento e produção, com exceção da matéria seca de raiz. Houve um acréscimo da matéria seca de raiz sob aplicação de Si com uma produção máxima de 33,57 g vaso-1 na dose ajustada de 0,38 g dm-3 de Si. O acúmulo e os teores de Si variaram entre os cultivares, os quais responderam de forma linear ao aumento das doses de Si. Já para o acúmulo de Si na parte aérea não houve diferenças significativas entre cultivares.The effect of silicon (Si application on dry matter production of rice, as well as on the content and accumulation of silicon was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized design arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial structure with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a combination of five Si levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 g dm-3 and two rice cultivars (Conai and Curinga. The Si application did not affect the growth and production components except the root dry matter. There was an increase in the root dry matter under Si application with a maximum production of 33.57 g pot-1 in the dose of 0.38 g dm-3 Si. The content and accumulation of Si varied between the cultivars, increasing linearly with the Si levels, except for Si accumulated in the shoot, where no significant differences were observed between the cultivars.

  18. Efeito da aplicação de zinco em sementes sobre a nutrição e a produção de massa seca de plantas de milho = Effect of zinc application in seeds on the nutrition and production of dry matter of maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes à aplicação de zinco sobre a nutrição e a produção de massa seca de plantas de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de híbridos de milho (BRS 1001 e PZ 677, e cinco doses de zinco (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200 g de Zn por 20 kg de sementes, aplicados na forma de sulfato de zinco. Foi avaliado o efeito dos tratamentos sobre o índice de velocidade de emergência dasplântulas e, após 28 dias da semeadura, avaliou-se a produção de massa seca e o teor de zinco na parte aérea e nas raízes. O aumento das doses promoveu elevação do teor de zinco na parte aérea e nas raízes das plântulas de milho, mesmo não existindo aumento significativo na produção da massa seca. Os níveis de zinco utilizados não proporcionaram sintomas de toxicidade nas plântulas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeding treatment to zinc application as regards the nutrition and production of dry matter in maize plants. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, with completely randomized design, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial and three replications. The treatments corresponded to two maize cultivars, the BRS 1001 and the PZ 677 and fiverates of zinc (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 g of Zn to 20 kg of seeds as zinc sulfate. The effect on the outgrowth speed was followed after 28 days of sowing and the dry matter production and the zinc level in the leaves and roots were evaluated. There was accumulation in thelevel of zinc in the leaves and roots with an increase of the rates. However, a significant increase in the dry matter production was not observed. The plants did not present toxicity symptoms with the rates used.

  19. MATÉRIA SECA E ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM FUNÇÃO DO ESPAÇAMENTO E DA DENSIDADE DE SEMEADURA EM ARROZ DE TERRA ALTA DRY MATTER AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF DRYLAND RICE RELATED TO ROW SPACING AND PLANT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento em condições de campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho escuro, epi-eutrófico, textura argilosa, em Selvíria-MS, com arroz de sequeiro cv. IAC 201, estudando-se três espaçamentos entre fileiras (30, 40 e 50 cm e três densidades de semeadura (100, 150 e 200 sementes viáveis/m2. Foram avaliadas a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea no momento do florescimento e determinados os teores e quantidades de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S absorvidos, assim como a eficiência de utilização de nutrientes. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras aumentou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e a quantidade de nutrientes absorvidos. A variação da densidade de semeadura não afetou os parâmetros estudados. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras proporcionou maior eficiência de utilização do Ca e diminuiu a do N e Mg. Os teores de nutrientes na matéria seca da parte aérea não foram afetados pela variação do espaçamento entre fileiras.A field experiment was conducted in a clayey Dark Red Latosol in Selviria, MS, Brazil, to study the effect of three row spacings (30, 40 and 50 cm and three seed densities (100, 150 and 200 viable seeds/m2 on plant dry matter yield, macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S uptake at flowering, and the nutrient use efficiency. A decrease in row spacing led to an increase in shoot dry matter production and nutrient uptake. There was no effect of plant densities on dry matter or nutrient uptake. The decrease in row spacing allowed a higher Ca use efficiency, but not for N and Mg. The concentration of the macronutrients in the shoots was not affected by spacing.

  1. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  2. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  4. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding. Effects on milk production and circulating indicators of energy balance and metabolic health in early lactation were evaluated. A herd of 150 cows was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels in late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS at the time of dry-off (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale). Following dry-off, both herds were managed to achieve a BCS of 5.0 one month before calving; this involved controlled feeding (i.e., maintenance) and over-feeding of ME during the far-off dry period. Within each far-off feeding-level treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 25 cows/treatment). Body weight and BCS were measured weekly before and after calving, and milk production was measured weekly until wk 7 postcalving. Blood samples were collected weekly for 4 wk pre-calving and 5 wk postcalving, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving, and analyzed for indicators of energy balance (e.g., blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), calcium status, and inflammatory state. No interaction was observed between far-off and close-up feeding levels. Over-feeding of ME to low BCS cows during the far-off nonlactating period

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  6. Acúmulo e repartição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva sob três doses de nutrientes minerais Dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants under three mineral nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nicasio Rodríguez Espínola

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito de três doses de nutrientes minerais sobre o acúmulo e distribuição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva, híbrido Crispina. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacolas plásticas com 4,6kg de substrato composto por uma mistura de 40% de casca de arroz e 60% de solo, no interior de uma estufa de polietileno, na primavera de 1998 e no verão de 1999. Foi empregado um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis múltiplos de uma dose padrão de nutrientes aplicada para cada planta, contendo N-P-K-Ca e Mg nas quantidades de 0,8-0,12-0,8-0,46-0,086g.pl-1, com 0,33m de solução de micronutrientes e 0,07m de quelato de ferro. Os níveis corresponderam às quantidades de 50%, 100% e 150% da dose padrão, denominados de tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, aplicados semanalmente através da fertirrigação em todas as plantas de uma mesma parcela. Determinou-se a matéria seca dos diferentes órgãos da parte aérea da planta a intervalos semanais. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no acúmulo da matéria seca, nos dois experimentos. A maior fração foi alocada para os frutos, atingindo o valor mais elevado de 0,64 na primavera. Concluiu-se que a distribuição da matéria seca desse material vegetal não é constante, sofrendo interações com as variáveis do ambiente.It was determined the effect of three mineral nutrient levels on dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants, hybrid Crispina, grown inside a polyethylene greenhouse, in spring 1998 and in summer 1999. Planting was made in bags filled with 4.6kg of a substrate mixture composed by 40% rice husks and 60% soil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications and15 plants per plot. A reference nutrient dose was supplied weekly to each one of the plants, with the following composition

  7. Rendimento de massa seca e absorção de fósforo pelo milho afetado pela aplicação de fósforo, calcário e inoculação com fungos micorrízicos Dry matter of corn and phosphorus uptake as affected by liming, rates of phosphorus, and mycorrhizae inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pires Santos

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A colonização do sistema radicular com micorrizas pode aumentar a absorção de P e com isto aumentar o crescimento das plantas, o que parece ser mais comum em solos com baixa disponibilidade de P. No presente trabalho, a inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, objetivou avaliar seu efeito na morfologia do sistema radicular, na produção de massa seca e na absorção de fósforo pelo milho. Utilizou-se o latossolo bruno argiloso, e os tratamentos consistiram de dois valores de pH (4,8 e 5,5, duas doses de fósforo (25 e 100mg P/kg de solo e inoculação com FMA. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com cinco repetições, distribuídas no delineamento experimental completamente casualisado. Aos 46 dias após a emergência as plantas foram colhidas, e nelas determinou-se a produção de massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes, o comprimento e o raio médio radicular. a porcentagem e intensidade de colonização micorrízica e a absorção de fósforo. A inoculação com FMA aumentou a CM mas não afetou a produção de massa seca e absorção de fósforo pelo milho, embora as raízes mostrassem menor comprimento, indicando que as hifas extraradiculares compensaram o crescimento radicular. A adição de fósforo e a elevação do pH aumentaram a massa seca da parte aérea e raízes, a absorção de fósforo e o comprimento radicular.The existence of mycorrhiza in the plant roots may increase phosphorus uptake and thus crop yield. This effect, however, seems to occur only in phosphorus deficient soils. The objetive of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil pH, rates of phosphorus addition, and mycorrhiza inoculation on dry matter yield of corn and on phosphorus uptake. The experiment was run in a greenhouse, using an oxisol, with five replicates per treatment distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The treatments, a 2x2x2 factorial, were two rates of phosphorus (25 and 100mg P/kg, two p

  8. Deficiência nutricional em bastão-do-imperador (Etlingera elatior (Jack R. M. Smith: efeito na produção de matéria seca e índices biométricos Nutritional deficiency in torch ginger (Etlingera elatior (Jack R. M. Smith: effect on dry matter production and biometrical index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Ellen Morais Frazão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de omissões de nutrientes na produção de matéria seca e nos parâmetros de crescimento do bastão-do-imperador. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação da área experimental do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, no período de janeiro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos: Solução Hoagland & Arnon completa, soluções nutritivas com as omissões de N, de P, de K, de Ca, de Mg, de S e de B. Foram avaliadas a altura das plantas, diâmetro das hastes, número de hastes, número de folhas por hastes e volume da raiz. Posteriormente, as plantas foram divididas em folhas, hastes, rizoma e raiz para determinação da massa de matéria seca de cada parte. A omissão de nutrientes afetou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas e a produção de matéria seca. Observou-se que o bastão-do-imperador mostrou-se mais exigente em B, K, N, P e S na fase inicial de crescimento do que em Ca e Mg. A redução da matéria seca total das plantas foi influenciada na seguinte ordem: B > K > N > P > S > Mg > Ca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of simple and multiple nutrient omissions on the dry matter production and growth parameters of torch ginger plants. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department of Federal University of Lavras (Lavras-MG. The experiment was started in January 2007 and lasted for 12 months, following a completely randomized design, with four replicates and eight treatments: Complete Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution, and nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and B. Plant height, stem diameter, number of stems, number of leaves per stem, and volume of root were evaluated. Subsequently the plants were divided into leaf + pseudostem, rhizome, root and tillers for dry matter

  9. Valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu submetidas aos efeitos de umidade, inoculação bacteriana e estação do ano Nutritive value of palisadegrass silages affected by year season, dry matter level and bacterial inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Ribeiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da estação do ano, do teor de matéria seca (MS e da inoculação bacteriana sobre o valor nutritivo de silagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, disposto em arranjo fatorial (2 × 3 × 3, com duas estações do ano (verão e inverno, três teores de MS (com ou sem emurchecimento ou adição de polpa cítrica peletizada, PCP e ausência ou presença de inoculante (Lactobacillus plantarum ou Lactobacillus buchneri, perfazendo 18 tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições. As silagens foram confeccionadas em baldes de plástico de 20 L. Após 90 dias do fechamento, os silos foram abertos para as avaliações. O emurchecimento elevou os teores de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e lignina (LIG em ambas as estações, porém não alterou o coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira in vitro da MS (DVIVMS das silagens. A adição de PCP aumentou os teores de proteína bruta (PB e carboidratos solúveis (CHO e reduziu os teores de FDN, o que resultou em silagens com maior DVIVMS em ambas as estações. A inoculação não alterou a fração fibrosa e não aumentou a DVIVMS das silagens. As silagens de verão apresentaram maiores teores de PB e menores constituintes da parede celular, com exceção da hemicelulose (HEMI, o que resultou no maior coeficiente médio de DVIVMS dessas silagens. O baixo valor nutritivo das silagens de inverno contraria os resultados descritos na literatura, principalmente em virtude da maior idade de rebrotação do capim-marandu nesta estação. Desta forma, silagens de verão podem ser recomendadas como volumoso suplementar, principalmente quando acrescidas de PCP.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of year season, dry matter concentration (DM, and bacterial inoculation on the nutritive value of palisadegrass silages. The trial was carried out in a complete randomized

  10. Deposition of particle-bound radionuclides in dry weather, fog, rain and snowfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberschachtsiek, D.; Sparmacher, H.; Kreh, R.; Adam, M.; Fuelber, K.; Stegger, J.; Bonka, H.

    1992-01-01

    Radionuclides emitted from nuclear plants and installations are transported in dry weather, because of turbulences and sedimentations, to plant parts above ground and near the ground and to other areas, and deposited there. The deposited activity is proportional to the activity concentration near the deposition area. In the case of particle-bound radionuclides it depends on the aerodynamic particle diameter, surface quality and other factors. In a large number of experiments deposition velocity was measured. In fog the particles to which radionuclides are bound grow by coagulation and condensation. The aerosol size spectrum changes with increasing distance from the place of emission. The type of the fog and the form of the emitted spectrum are important factors which influence this process. With normal activity distributions as a function of the aerodynamic particle diameter, the deposition velocity increases with the distance from the place of emission, up to a final value, due to the shift of the spectrum to larger diameters. (orig.) [de

  11. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  12. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  13. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  14. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  15. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  16. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  17. Determination of dry matter and organic matter content in input material for solid-matter fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of tests made on various samples of biogenous wastes taken from four fermentation plants in Switzerland. The aims of the tests made on the fermentation input materials that were sampled on a weekly basis are discussed. Various relevant data on the samples noted include the characterisation of the material and even weather data. The spread of the data acquired is discussed. The results obtained are examined in detail, including seasonal variations. The basic findings of the project are presented and differences between countryside and city areas as well as garden and catering wastes are discussed. A comprehensive appendix presents details on the data collected.

  18. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  19. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  20. Fermentation profile, chemical composition and dry matter losses of orange pulp silage with different microbial inoculantsPerfil fermentativo, composição bromatológica e perdas em silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes inoculantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1x103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes microbianos sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, recuperação de matéria seca, pH, ácidos graxos voláteis e composição bromatológica de silagens de polpa cítrica, usando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de polpa cítrica (CONT, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH; silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum e buchneri (LACBUCH. Os

  1. Degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana de açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claithiane Oliveira Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido da cana de açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio nas doses zero, 1; 2 e 3% (com base na matéria natural. Foram incubados no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de zero; seis; 12; 24; 48; 72; 96; 120 e 144 horas, sacos de náilon contendo amostras de 2,5g da cana de açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio. Verificou-se degradabilidade potencial de 80,7% na matéria seca para cana de açúcar tratada com 3% de óxido de cálcio. Os resultados da fração degradável para fibra em detergente neutro e para fibra em detergente ácido no tratamento com 3% de óxido de cálcio foram de 59,7 e 59,9%, respectivamente, enquanto, a cana sem aditivo, apresentou valores de degradação de 44,5% para fibra em detergente neutro e de 39,5% para fibra em detergente ácido. Houve incremento nos parâmetros da degradabilidade da matéria seca da fração “a” de 37,5 vs 46,8% da cana sem aditivo para a cana de açúcar com a dose de 3% de óxido de cálcio. Para a degradabilidade da fibra em detergente ácido foi observado efeito semelhante ao da degradabilidade da fibra em detergente neutro, com valores da fração potencialmente degradável “b” que corresponderam a 64,2 e 68,7%, respectivamente, na dose de 3% de óxido de cálcio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the parameters of ruminal degradation of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of the sugar cane treated with calcium oxide in the doses of 0; 1; 2 and 3 % (with basis of the natural matter. The samples were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72; 96; 120 and 144 hours, on nylon bags containing 2.5g of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide. There was 80.7% of potential degradability in dry matter for sugar cane treated with 3% calcium oxide. The results for degradable fraction for neutral detergent

  2. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  3. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  4. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  5. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  6. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  8. Dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo e produção de fitomassa por plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno com o uso de dejetos de suínos Dynamics of soil nitrogen and cover crops dry matter production in the fall/winter as affected by pig slurry use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2006-10-01

    favoreceu o crescimento da aveia em detrimento da ervilhaca, ocorrendo o melhor equilíbrio entre a produção de fitomassa e a adição de N na dose de 20 m³ ha-1 de dejetos. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam a eficiência das plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno em ciclar nutrientes fornecidos pelos dejetos de suínos e a importância da utilização de espécies com elevado potencial de produção de matéria seca e que sejam exigentes em N.The use of pig slurry before implanting cover crops in the fall/winter is becoming a common practice in southern Brazil, although its effects on crops and soil are still poorly investigated. The objective of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of soil N as well as to study the cover crop yields under use of pig slurry in the fall/winter. The study was developed in the growing season 2000 on an experimental area of the Soils Department of UFSM, RS. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with split-plots and three replications. The main plots had black oat, black oat (30 % + common vetch (70 % mixture and spontaneous vegetation of the area (fallow. Four pig slurry rates (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 were applied on the split-plots. The mineral N contents (N-NH4+ and N-NO2- + N-NO3- were evaluated at seven dates in the layers of 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth. The dry matter production and N, P and K concentration of cover crops and spontaneous vegetation were evaluated. Mineral soil N increased with liquid manure application, with similar N dynamics when applied on residues of oat/corn or on weeds/corn residues. After application of 80 m³ ha-1 there was evidence of N-NO3- leaching to depths below 60 cm, higher in weeds/corn system than oat/corn crop system. Dry matter production as well as the content of N, P and K in cover crops increased with the use of slurry. For single oat the increase of dry matter production with a slurry dose of 40 was 2.7 mg ha-1 compared to no-slurry treatment. In

  9. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  11. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  12. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  13. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  14. Distribuição da matéria seca e composição química das raízes, caule e folhas de goiabeira submetida a estresse salino Dry matter partitioning and mineral composition of roots, stems and leaves of guava grown under salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Gonçalves Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de goiabeira (Psidium guajavaL. a diferentes concentrações de NaCl. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, com 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 e 150 mM de NaCl, e colhidas com 30 e 50 dias após estresse, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinadas: matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea; e porcentagens de Na, Cl, K, Ca e Mg nas raízes, caule e folhas. O estresse salino reduziu a matéria seca total, e a relação parte aérea/raiz foi reduzida. O estresse causou um aumento nos níveis dos íons Na+ e Cl-, com maior acúmulo nas folhas, seguido das raízes. Os teores de Ca foram estáveis nas raízes, mas decresceram no caule e folhas. Os teores de K foram reduzidos, particularmente nas folhas. Ao contrário, os teores de Mg não foram afetados pela salinidade no caule e nas raízes, havendo, entretanto, redução nas folhas. O teor de Na apresentou relação direta com o de Cl e inversa com o de K nas raízes e folhas. O teor de Ca não variou com o de Na nas folhas, mas apresentou uma relação inversa nas raízes. O teor de Mg não variou com o de Na nas raízes e folhas.A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of studying the response of guava plants (Psidium guajavaL. to increasing levels of NaCl concentrations. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150mM of NaCl, and harvested 30 and 50 days after saline stress in a complete randomized design. The following traits were studied: shoot, root and total plant dry matter and the percentage of Na, Cl, K, Ca and Mg in plant dry matter. Dry matter yield decreased when salinity increased. The root/shoot ratio decreased with the saline treatment. Salinity stress caused an increase in the levels of Na+ and Cl-. The highest ion accumulation was found in the leaves followed by the roots. The Ca levels were stable in the roots

  15. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER AND FIBROUS FRACTION SUGARCANE BAGASSE TREATED WITH UREA DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DO BAGAÇO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR TRATADO COM URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in situ degradability of dry matter (iDMD, neutral detergent fiber (iNDFD, acid detergent fiber (iADFD and hemicel-lulosis of sugar cane bagasse submitted to ammoniation with urea. The treatments consisted of four urea levels (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% on dry matter – DM basis added to the sugar cane bagasse and addition of 1.2% (DM basis of ground soybean as urease source. Samples of 3 g of the bagasses were incubated in the rumen of three steers during periods of 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The urea addiction to sugar cane bagasse provided increase not only on the iDMD, but also in degradability of cell wall con-tents. The degradability increased of 73.6, 61.3, 45.6 and 65.7% for DM, NDF, ADF and hemicellulosis, respective-ly, at the longer incubation time (96 hours. The iDMD, iNDFD, iADFD and in situ hemicellusosis degradability of sugar cane bagasse were improved by urea treatment.

    KEY-WORDS: Ammoniation, by product, dry matter, cellular wall.

    O experimento foi desenvolvido para avaliar a de-gradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (DiMS, da fibra em detergente neutro (DiFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DiFDA e da hemicelulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar submetido à amonização com uréia. Os tratamentos cons-taram de quatro níveis de uréia (0%, 2,5%, 5,0% e 7,5% na base da matéria seca – MS adicionados ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e adição de 1,2% (base da MS de soja grão moída como fonte de urease. Amostras de 3 g