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Sample records for abortive infection mechanism

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Phage Gene sav, Involved in Sensitivity to the Lactococcal Abortive Infection Mechanism AbiV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Rousseau, G. M.; Hammer, Karin;

    2009-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis phage mutants that are insensitive to the recently characterized abortive infection mechanism AbiV were isolated and analyzed in an effort to elucidate factors involved in the sensitivity to AbiV. Whole-genome sequencing of the phage mutants p2.1 and p2.2 revealed mutations...

  2. A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system functions through a Type IV toxin-antitoxin mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Ron L; Przybilski, Rita; Semeijn, Koen; Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are 'altruistic' cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin-antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that AbiE systems are encoded by bicistronic operons and function via a non-interacting (Type IV) bacteriostatic TA mechanism. The abiE operon was negatively autoregulated by the antitoxin, AbiEi, a member of a widespread family of putative transcriptional regulators. AbiEi has an N-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix domain that is required for repression of abiE transcription, and an uncharacterized bi-functional C-terminal domain, which is necessary for transcriptional repression and sufficient for toxin neutralization. The cognate toxin, AbiEii, is a predicted nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) and member of the DNA polymerase β family. AbiEii specifically bound GTP, and mutations in conserved NTase motifs (I-III) and a newly identified motif (IV), abolished GTP binding and subsequent toxicity. The AbiE systems can provide phage resistance and enable stabilization of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. Our study reveals molecular insights into the regulation and function of the widespread bi-functional AbiE Abi-TA systems and the biochemical properties of both toxin and antitoxin proteins.

  3. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available.

  4. Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abortion is not only a sin; it is also a crime as Canon Law describes it. The paper deals with the issue of abortion from the Canon Law's perspective. Not every sin of abortion is at the same time a crime in the legal sense. The paper discusses what the circumstances are to turn the sin of abortion into the crime of abortion. The censure of excommunication is imposed on the individuals who are guilty of the crime of abortion. If there is no crime, there is no excommunication which is attached...

  5. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  6. Abortions in sheep associated with Arcobacter skirrowii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth F. Bath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The history, circumstances, clinical signs, post mortem lesions, morbidity, mortality and laboratory findings are described in an abortion storm in sheep that occurred in Mpumalanga, South Africa, associated with infection with Arcobacter skirrowii. Altogether, about 200 Suffolk Down ewes lost 60 lambs in late pregnancy or at term. Although only three foetuses were submitted for investigation, two had signs consistent with a diagnosis of A. skirrowii infection and the organism was isolated from the placentas of both specimens. No abortions had occurred in previous years, or have subsequently. There were no animal introductions prior to the outbreak that could have indicated a source of infection. One stillborn lamb submitted subsequently had lesions consistent with dystocia, and the history and circumstantial evidence indicated that dystocia had been a factor in several more losses. No ewes or rams had shown signs of diarrhoea or other diseases associated with A. skirrowii infection. Twenty-two faecal, preputial and vaginal swab specimens taken from six rams and 13 ewes after the abortion event were all negative for A. skirrowii. This is the first report of abortions in sheep associated with A. skirrowiiin South Africa. Because the genus Arcobacter is similar to Campylobacter, it is possible that infection has gone unrecognised in the past. Veterinarians and laboratories should take note and include this genus in the list of potential abortifacient organisms. The possible role of Arcobacter species in other diseases like enteritis and mastitis, as well as the potential role as a zoonosis, must be borne in mind.

  7. An alternate mechanism of abortive release marked by the formation of very long abortive transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Monica; Austin, Karyn M; Aye-Han, Nwe-Nwe; Sircar, Piya; Hsu, Lilian M

    2007-11-01

    The Esigma70-dependent N25 promoter is rate-limited at promoter escape. Here, RNA polymerase repeatedly initiates and aborts transcription, giving rise to a ladder of short RNAs 2-11 nucleotides long. Certain mutations in the initial transcribed sequence (ITS) of N25 lengthen the abortive initiation program, resulting in the release of very long abortive transcripts (VLATs) 16-19 nucleotides long. This phenomenon is completely dependent on sequences within the first 20 bases of the ITS since altering sequences downstream of +20 has no effect on their formation. VLAT formation also requires strong interactions between RNA polymerase and the promoter. Mutations that change the -35 and -10 hexamers and the intervening 17 base pair spacer away from consensus decrease the probability of aborting at positions +16 to +19. An unusual characteristic of the VLATs is their undiminished levels in the presence of GreB, which rescues abortive RNAs (mechanism distinct from backtracking, which we propose entails polymerase molecules hyper forward translocating during the promoter escape transition. We discuss how certain features in the ITS, when combined with the N25 promoter, may lead to hyper forward translocation and abortive release at VLAT positions.

  8. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  9. [Clostridium perfringens septicemia associated with foodborne toxic infection and abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantelme, P; Mohammedi, I; Duperret, S; Vedrinne, J M; Allaouchiche, B; Motin, J

    1995-01-01

    A 32-year-old pregnant woman with poor life and hygiene conditions presented with premature labour, fever and diarrhoea. After admission she gave birth to a stillborn child. The examination revealed a septicaemia with massive haemolysis and renal failure. Six blood cultures obtained on admission yielded Clostridium perfringens. The outcome was favourable after an adapted antibiomicrobial therapy. This case illustrates the potential severity of Clostridium perfringens foodborne toxi-infection which can lead to abortion and septicaemia with massive haemolysis.

  10. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

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    Thủy Đỗ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. Method The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC, bacterial vaginosis (BV and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH. Results In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12% followed by chlamydia (1.3% and trichomoniasis (0.7%. The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. Conclusion RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance

  11. Intranasal infection with Chlamydia abortus induces dose-dependent latency and abortion in sheep.

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    David Longbottom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3 were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×10(3, 5×10(5 and 5×10(7 inclusion forming units (IFU, respectively prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×10(6 IFU C. abortus (group 5. Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50-67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and

  12. Phage abortive infection in lactococci: variations on a theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Marie-Christine; Chopin, Alain; Bidnenko, Elena

    2005-08-01

    Abortive infection (Abi) systems, also called phage exclusion, block phage multiplication and cause premature bacterial cell death upon phage infection. This decreases the number of progeny particles and limits their spread to other cells allowing the bacterial population to survive. Twenty Abi systems have been isolated in Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium used in cheese-making fermentation processes, where phage attacks are of economical importance. Recent insights in their expression and mode of action indicate that, behind diverse phenotypic and molecular effects, lactococcal Abis share common traits with the well-studied Escherichia coli systems Lit and Prr. Abis are widespread in bacteria, and recent analysis indicates that Abis might have additional roles other than conferring phage resistance.

  13. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Kamali; HesamAdin Seifi; Ahmad Reza Movassaghi; Gholam Reza Razmi; Zahra Naseri

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  14. Abortion in cattle due to infection with Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

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    Ardigò, Paolo; D'Incau, Mario; Pongolini, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine.

  15. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir; Kamali; Hesam; Adin; Seifi; Ahmad; Reza; Movassaghi; Gholam; Reza; Razmi; Zahra; Naseri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospom caninum(N.caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran.In addition,the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination.To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis,data analysis was performed by SAS.Results:N.caninum was detected in 179(45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR.Among the PCR-positive brain samples,only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination.The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16(28%) of PCR-positive samples.The risk factors including season,parity of dam,history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd,cow’s milk production,herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection.This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods.In addition,a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth.Conclusions:The results showed N.caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses.In addition,at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection.These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  16. Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssafidis, Andreas L; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed H; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gennari, Solange M

    2015-01-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. It is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. It has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no description of Neospora caninum-related abortion. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential impact of neosporosis in pregnant water buffalo cows. In this work, three pregnant buffalo cows were experimentally infected with Nc-1 strain of N. caninum, and abortion was detected 35 days post-infection. Molecular and histopathological results found in post-mortem tissues are described and discussed, confirming the susceptibility of water buffalos to abortion caused by N. caninum.

  17. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have

  18. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...

  19. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My Huong; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Do, Thi Thu Thuy

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated d......BACKGROUND: Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well......-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI....... METHOD: The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH) from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea...

  20. Exploring the relationship between induced abortion and HIV infection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Regina M; Pinho, Adriana A; Santos, Naila S; Villela, Wilza V

    2012-12-01

    The impact of HIV on the decision to interrupt pregnancy remains an understudied topic in Brazil and the world. The technical means to implement HIV prevention and treatment interventions are widely available in Brazil. Although Brazil has restrictive abortion laws, induced abortion occurs frequently. This qualitative study investigates the extent to which Brazilian women are motivated to seek abortion as a consequence of having HIV disease, and the extent to which the decision is part of a larger reproductive decision-making context. Researchers interviewed 30 women who were living with HIV and had terminated pregnancies or attempted to do so. Many women identified their HIV status as an important aspect of their decision-making regarding abortion. Women also took into account issues such as the stage of life when the pregnancy occurred and the absence of support from partners and families. Contraceptive practices, pregnancy and abortion in this population are influenced by multiple factors that act on the structural, social, interpersonal and individual levels. We hypothesize that HIV infection and abortion are sometimes associated with similar contexts of vulnerability. Health services therefore should address HIV and reproductive issues together, with reproductive and sexual rights serving as the fundamental basis of health care.

  1. Cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeria, S; Serrano-Pérez, B; Darwich, L; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F

    2016-08-30

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. In this study, Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL4) and T reg (IL-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time PCR using the TaqMan approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate Nc-Spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. In prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and transplacental infection in all the 6 infected foetuses. In the spleen of the dams, IL-4 expression was down-regulated in dams with aborted/non viable foetuses compared to both uninfected dams (controls, n=3) and infected dams with live fetuses at euthanasia. In the lymph nodes draining the placenta, up-regulated expression of IL-4 was observed in infected dams with live foetuses compared to control dams. In the placenta, infected dams with live foetuses had significantly up-regulated IFN-γ in both caruncle and cotyledon and up-regulated IL-10 in cotyledon compared to control dams. Infected live foetuses showed up-regulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in foetal spleen, and showed downregulated expression of IL-4 in the thymus compared to control uninfected foetuses. Expression of any cytokine in the thymus was significantly lower compared to the levels observed in foetal spleen. The results indicate an up-regulated expression of Th1, Th2 and Treg in infected dams with live foetuses and in their foetuses. On the other hand, down-regulation of Th2 immune responses and Treg cytokines were observed in infected dams which had aborted or had non-viable foetuses at euthanasia, suggesting an immunological recovery of cytokine gene expression levels in dams a few weeks after an abortion occurred.

  2. A randomised controlled trial of prophylaxis of post-abortal infection: ceftriaxone versus placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Wilken-Jensen, C; Thorsen, P;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of post-operative infection after first trimester abortion in women treated with a long-acting cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) compared with low risk patients receiving no treatment and with high risk patients receiving our standard treatment of ampicillin/piva...

  3. Mutagenesis and functional characterization of the RNA and protein components of the toxIN abortive infection and toxin-antitoxin locus of Erwinia.

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    Blower, T R; Fineran, P C; Johnson, M J; Toth, I K; Humphreys, D P; Salmond, G P C

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria are constantly challenged by bacteriophage (phage) infection and have developed multiple adaptive resistance mechanisms. These mechanisms include the abortive infection systems, which promote "altruistic suicide" of an infected cell, protecting the clonal population. A cryptic plasmid of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, pECA1039, has been shown to encode an abortive infection system. This highly effective system is active across multiple genera of gram-negative bacteria and against a spectrum of phages. Designated ToxIN, this two-component abortive infection system acts as a toxin-antitoxin module. ToxIN is the first member of a new type III class of protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin modules, of which there are multiple homologues cross-genera. We characterized in more detail the abortive infection phenotype of ToxIN using a suite of Erwinia phages and performed mutagenesis of the ToxI and ToxN components. We determined the minimal ToxI RNA sequence in the native operon that is both necessary and sufficient for abortive infection and to counteract the toxicity of ToxN. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of ToxN revealed key conserved amino acids in this defining member of the new group of toxic proteins. The mechanism of phage activation of the ToxIN system was investigated and was shown to have no effect on the levels of the ToxN protein. Finally, evidence of negative autoregulation of the toxIN operon, a common feature of toxin-antitoxin systems, is presented. This work on the components of the ToxIN system suggests that there is very tight toxin regulation prior to suicide activation by incoming phage.

  4. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  5. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-08

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.

  6. Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain Abortion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Minors.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Dee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Report evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-18

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute.

  8. Detection and Identification of Toxoplasma gondii Type One Infection in Sheep Aborted Fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamalzade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to apply the nested-PCR and bioassay methods in detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii infection in provided sheep aborted fetus samples from Qazvin Province of Iran. Methods: Eighteen sheep aborted fetal samples were studied by nested-PCR-RFLP, histopathologi­cal observation and microbiological assay. Bioassay in mice was carried out by inoculating the brain samples intraperitoneally. Results: The results demonstrated the frequency of 66% infected sheep aborted fetal samples with T. gondii type one. Although we could not isolate any parasite from inoculated mice even after three pas­sages, but it was confirmed histopathologically formation of cyst like bodies in prepared mice brain sections. Conclusion: The results of the performed nested-PCR and formation of brain cyst in inoculated mice exhibited that T. gondii type one infection might be considered as one of the major causative agents for abortion in ewes.

  9. Missed abortion complicated by Candida infection in a woman with rested IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, L C; Nenoff, P; Ziegert, M; Höckel, M

    2001-01-01

    Although Candida species are frequent saprophytes of the female genital tract, chorioamnionitis or intrauterine fetal infections are rarely caused by these fungi. The present report describes a 34-year-old woman G2, P2, presenting with vaginal bleeding in the 11.6 weeks of gestation. Clinical and sonographic examination revealed a missed abortion and rested IUD. Histopathologically, a fungal chorioamnionitis due to Candida spp. was found at the curetting material, confirmed by detection of C. albicans infection on mycological culture. Foreign intrauterine bodies, like IUD's and cerclage sutures predispose to fungal chorioamnitis or fetal infections. This conditions urge repetetive search for Candida spp. to establish early anti-fungal therapy which may be therapeutic for this hithero rare intrauterine infection.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Dellarupe, A; De Felice, L; Gos, M L; Venturini, M C

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two fetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non-canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina.

  11. The lactococcal abortive infection protein AbiP is membrane-anchored and binds nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Susana; McGovern, Stephen; Plochocka, Danuta; Santos, Mário A; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Polard, Patrice; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2008-03-30

    AbiP, a lactococcal abortive phage infection system, has previously been shown to arrest phage bIL66M1 DNA replication around 10 min after infection and to inhibit the switch off of phage early transcripts. We report here the functional characterization and implication in the abortive infection phenotype of two domains identified in the AbiP sequence. We show that AbiP is a protein anchored to the membrane by an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain. Our results further suggest that membrane localization may be required for the anti-phage activity of AbiP. The remainder of the protein, which contains a putative nucleic acid binding domain, is shown to be located on the cytosolic side. Purified AbiP is shown to bind nucleic acids with an approximately 10-fold preference for RNA relative to ssDNA. AbiP interaction with both ssDNA and RNA molecules occurs in a sequence-independent manner. We have analyzed the effect of substitutions of aromatic and basic residues on the surface of the putative binding fold. In vitro and in vivo studies of these AbiP derivatives indicate that the previously reported effects on phage development might be dependent on the nucleic acid binding activity displayed by the membrane-bound protein.

  12. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  13. [Herpetic infection of spermatozoa in failure of reproductive technologies and spontaneous abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharova, E N; Bragina, E E; Gusak, Iu K; Zotov, V V; Tereshchenko, A B; Shileĭko, L V; Kurilo, L F; Klimova, R R; Kushch, A A

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was studied in ejaculate of 36 men whose wives had the history of spontaneous abortions, or failure of artificial insemination (AI), or extracorporeal fertilization (ECF). The control group consisted of 222 patients examined prophylactically after urogenital inflammation or for primary infertility. HSV was detected with immunofluorescence (IF) reaction with monoclonal antibodies to HSV antigens, rapid culture method (RCM) and transmission electronic microscopy. HSV antigens were detected in fraction of mobile spermatozoa in 13 (65%) of 20 samples from patients of the study group. HSV detectability in the study group was significantly higher than in the controls (p = 0.003). Intragametic capsides of HSV were detected at ultrastructural investigation in 13 of 19 (68%) ejaculate samples from patients of the study group in whom IF and/ or RCM results were positive. The study of 6 ejaculate samples of this group in which HSV was not detected by IF or RCM and 24 control samples HSV capsides were not detected. The following conclusions can be made: mobile spermatozoa of normal morphology can be infected with HSV; as shown morphologically, samples of ejaculate from men whose wives had spontaneous abortions contained intragametic HSV capsides; intragametic HSV infection of spermatozoa had a negative effect on the course of pregnancy and/or embryon vitality.

  14. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Vejarano, M P; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pprotocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol.

  15. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  16. Activation of mRNA translation by phage protein and low temperature: the case of Lactococcus lactis abortive infection system AbiD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich S Dusko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abortive infection (Abi mechanisms comprise numerous strategies developed by bacteria to avoid being killed by bacteriophage (phage. Escherichia coli Abis are considered as mediators of programmed cell death, which is induced by infecting phage. Abis were also proposed to be stress response elements, but no environmental activation signals have yet been identified. Abis are widespread in Lactococcus lactis, but regulation of their expression remains an open question. We previously showed that development of AbiD1 abortive infection against phage bIL66 depends on orf1, which is expressed in mid-infection. However, molecular basis for this activation remains unclear. Results In non-infected AbiD1+ cells, specific abiD1 mRNA is unstable and present in low amounts. It does not increase during abortive infection of sensitive phage. Protein synthesis directed by the abiD1 translation initiation region is also inefficient. The presence of the phage orf1 gene, but not its mutant AbiD1R allele, strongly increases abiD1 translation efficiency. Interestingly, cell growth at low temperature also activates translation of abiD1 mRNA and consequently the AbiD1 phenotype, and occurs independently of phage infection. There is no synergism between the two abiD1 inducers. Purified Orf1 protein binds mRNAs containing a secondary structure motif, identified within the translation initiation regions of abiD1, the mid-infection phage bIL66 M-operon, and the L. lactis osmC gene. Conclusion Expression of the abiD1 gene and consequently AbiD1 phenotype is specifically translationally activated by the phage Orf1 protein. The loss of ability to activate translation of abiD1 mRNA determines the molecular basis for phage resistance to AbiD1. We show for the first time that temperature downshift also activates abortive infection by activation of abiD1 mRNA translation.

  17. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle. PMID:27977708

  18. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  19. Infection and inflammatory mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dyke, Thomas E.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2013-01-01

    This introductory article examines the potential mechanisms that may play a role in the associations between periodontitis and the systemic conditions being considered in the EFP/AAP Workshop in Segovia, Spain. Three basic mechanisms have been postulated to play a role in these interactions; metasta

  20. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  1. A Case–control Study on the Relationship between Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Women with Normal Pregnancy and Spontaneous Abortion using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Farhadifar, Fariba; Rouhi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Amjad; Menbari, Shaho; Fallahi, Fariba; Mirnejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mycoplasma genitalium infections are suggested as causes of a number of pathological outcomes in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of M. genitalium infections among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods In this case–control study we included 109 women with spontaneous abortion with a gestational age of 10–20 weeks (patients), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with a gestational age of 20–37 weeks (controls) in Sana...

  2. Estimated economic losses due to neospora caninum infection in dairy herds with and without a history of neospora caninum associated abortion epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Schaik, van G.; Wouda, W.; Dijkstra, Th.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, direct economic losses due to Neospora caninum infection, based on actual data from N. caninum seropositive reference herds and from herds that experienced an N. caninum- associated abortion epidemic, were calculated using a stochastic model with random elements. The results demonstra

  3. High prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among HIV-infected women from Western India : need to emphasize dual method use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Janssen, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence, reasons, and predictors of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among ever married HIV-infected women attending a care facility in Maharashtra, Western India, and discusses its programmatic and policy implications. Retrospectively collected data of pregnanci

  4. A prospective study of the effect of Neospora caninum and BVDV infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, K; Björkman, C; Emanuelson, U; Rivera, H; Zelada, A; Moreno-López, J

    2006-08-17

    We used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru, and its association with Neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Between January 2002 and March 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. Of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. The serological status to N. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas BVDV status was assessed at the herd level through consecutive samplings of young stock. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the effect of N. caninum and BVDV on the hazard of early (between day 42 and day 100 in gestation), and late (after day 100) abortions, respectively. Serological status to N. caninum was included as a dichotomous variable, and the effect of BVDV estimated at the herd level, as a time-dependent seasonal effect. Because data from repeated pregnancies were included, we considered possible lack of independence between observations and included frailty effects into the models. Our models also considered the possible confounding by parity and animal origin. Only multiparity was associated with the hazard of early abortion (HR=2.8 compared to nulliparous heifers). N. caninum seropositivity significantly affected the hazard of late abortion, but interacted with parity. The HRs for Neospora-positive animals were 6.4, 3.7 and 1.9, respectively, for nulliparous heifers, first-lactation cows and multiparous cows. Evidence of BVDV circulating (or not) among the young stock was not associated with abortions, but few cows in this herd were susceptible to incident infection.

  5. Plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins measured using anti-bovine PAG-2 antibodies on day 120 of gestation predict abortion in dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; Almería, S; Serrano, B; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The present study sought to determine: (i) the effects of Neospora caninum infection and twin pregnancy on plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2 (PAG-2) concentrations throughout pregnancy and (ii) whether plasma PAG-2 concentrations could predict abortion in N. caninum-infected cows. The study was performed on a commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herd in northeastern Spain and the final data included those recorded in 53 non-aborting and 19 aborting animals. Blood samples were collected immediately before pregnancy diagnosis (on Days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 post-insemination) in non-aborting cows or until the time of abortion detection in aborting cows. General lineal models (GLM) repeated measures anova revealed the different behaviour of PAG-1 and PAG-2, and significant effects of Neospora seropositivity, cool season and twin pregnancy on plasma PAG-2 concentrations throughout gestation (between-subject effects). In addition, based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of abortion increased in Neospora-seropositive cows (by a factor of 7.0) compared to seronegative animals and decreased in cows with a high plasma PAG-2 concentration (>4.5 ng/ml) on Day 120 of pregnancy (by a factor of 0.24), compared to the remaining cows. In conclusion, there is a relationship between plasma PAG-2 concentrations and the risk of abortion in Neospora-infected dairy cows. Thus, plasma PAG concentrations measured using anti-boPAG-2 antiserum on Day 120 of gestation could serve as an indicator of the abortion risk in N. caninum infected animals; values <4.5 ng/ml indicating a high risk of abortion in chronically infected animals.

  6. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  7. Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and PCR in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Infection in Tissues of Human Aborted Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Sarkari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoa that infect humans and a wide range of mammalians and birds [1]. The infection is particularly important in women when they acquire the infection for the first time during their pregnancy where an intrauterine transmission of the parasite may occur. Effective prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis can permit a decision to terminate the pregnancy at the early stage or initiate the treatment of late-term fetus in uterus. Prenatal diagnosis is commonly performed based on biological and serological tests on fetal blood and amniotic fluid, and ultrasonographic examination of fetus [2].

  8. Abortion and Selection

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of legalized abortion in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility behavior. Some research has suggested as well that there were important impacts on cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms through which abortion access affects cohort outcomes, and use that framework to both address inconsistent past methodological approaches, and provide evidence on the long-run...

  9. Bacteriophage ΦM1 of Pectobacterium evolves to escape two bifunctional Type III toxin-antitoxin and abortive infection systems through mutations in a single viral gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Tim R; Chai, Ray; Przybilski, Rita; Chindhy, Shahzad; Fang, Xinzhe; Kidman, Samuel E; Tan, Hui; Luisi, Ben F; Fineran, Peter C; Salmond, George P C

    2017-02-03

    Some bacteria, when infected by their viral parasites (bacteriophages), undergo a suicidal response that also terminates productive viral replication (abortive infection; Abi). This response can be viewed as an altruistic act protecting the uninfected bacterial clonal population. Abortive infection can occur through the action of Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, such as ToxINPa from the phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum Rare spontaneous mutants evolved in the generalized transducing phage, ΦM1, which escaped ToxINPa-mediated abortive infection in P. atrosepticum ΦM1 is a member of the Podoviridae and member of the "KMV-like viruses", a subset of the T7 supergroup. Genomic sequencing of ΦM1 escape mutants revealed single-base changes which clustered in a single open reading frame. The "escape" gene product, M1-23, was highly toxic to the host bacterium when over-expressed, but mutations in M1-23 that enabled an escape phenotype caused M1-23 to be less toxic. M1-23 is encoded within the DNA metabolism modular section of the phage genome, and when it was over-expressed, it co-purified with the host nucleotide excision repair protein, UvrA. While the M1-23 protein interacted with UvrA in co-immunoprecipitation assays, a UvrA mutant strain still aborted ΦM1, suggesting that the interaction is not critical for the Type III TA Abi activity. Additionally, ΦM1 escaped a heterologous Type III TA system (TenpINPl) from Photorhabdus luminescens (reconstituted in P. atrosepticum) through mutations in the same protein, M1-23. The mechanistic action of M1-23 is currently unknown but further analysis of this protein could provide insights into the mode of activation of both systems.

  10. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I need to follow up with my health care provider after having a medical abortion? You will need to see your health ... This is more likely to happen with a medical abortion. Infection—Your health care provider will prescribe antibiotics to prevent this. Antibiotics also ...

  11. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  12. Analysis of intrauterine device and treatment on infection after abortion%放取宫内节育器与人流术后感染治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奕奕

    2016-01-01

    In order to discuss intrauterine device (IUD) and treatment on infection after abortion, 130 patients who underwent abortive surgery from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. By correct diagnosis and examination, infected patients were taken timely accurate treatment. Abortion patients infected with accurate and scientific treatment will return to normal in the short term. It is an effective way to carry out the family planning, and it is a timely and effective remedy for the patients infected after abortion. Many scholars believe that the low pregnancy rate pelvic inflammatory and other diseases are caused by infection after abortion.%以探讨放取宫内节育器与人流术后感染患者的治疗分析为目的,截取本院2008———2013年130位接受人流手术的患者,通过对其正确的诊断与检查,对人流手术后感染的患者采取及时准确的治疗方法。对放取宫内节育器与人流术后感染患者采取及时准确、科学的治疗方法,患者及时康复,即使有少数感染患者也会在短期内恢复正常。说明放取宫内节育器是实行计划生育的一个有效途径,对于实行计划生育人流手术后感染患者来说,采取有效的治疗方式是一种及时有效补救的治疗方法。很多学者认为,很多患者在放取宫内节育器之后,或是在经过人流手术后妊娠率很低的原因就是因为术后感染造成了盆腔炎等疾病的发生。

  13. An Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) mutant with enhanced BZLF1 expression causes lymphomas with abortive lytic EBV infection in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Dong; Yu, Xianming; Mertz, Janet E; Gumperz, Jenny E; Reinheim, Erik; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Weihua; Burlingham, William J; Gulley, Margaret L; Kenney, Shannon C

    2012-08-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are at risk for developing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive lymphomas that express the major EBV oncoprotein, LMP1. Although increasing evidence suggests that a small number of lytically infected cells may promote EBV-positive lymphomas, the impact of enhanced lytic gene expression on the ability of EBV to induce lymphomas is unclear. Here we have used immune-deficient mice, engrafted with human fetal hematopoietic stem cells and thymus and liver tissue, to compare lymphoma formation following infection with wild-type (WT) EBV versus infection with a "superlytic" (SL) mutant with enhanced BZLF1 (Z) expression. The same proportions (2/6) of the WT and SL virus-infected animals developed B-cell lymphomas by day 60 postinfection; the remainder of the animals had persistent tumor-free viral latency. In contrast, all WT and SL virus-infected animals treated with the OKT3 anti-CD3 antibody (which inhibits T-cell function) developed lymphomas by day 29. Lymphomas in OKT3-treated animals (in contrast to lymphomas in the untreated animals) contained many LMP1-expressing cells. The SL virus-infected lymphomas in both OKT3-treated and untreated animals contained many more Z-expressing cells (up to 30%) than the WT virus-infected lymphomas, but did not express late viral proteins and thus had an abortive lytic form of EBV infection. LMP1 and BMRF1 (an early lytic viral protein) were never coexpressed in the same cell, suggesting that LMP1 expression is incompatible with lytic viral reactivation. These results show that the SL mutant induces an "abortive" lytic infection in humanized mice that is compatible with continued cell growth and at least partially resistant to T-cell killing.

  14. Aborto ovino associado com infecção por Sarcocystis sp Ovine abortion associated with Sarcocystis sp. infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Pescador

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecções por protozoários têm distribuição mundial e podem causar aborto, nascimentos prematuros e ou morte fetal em diversas espécies animais. Em julho de 2004, oito ovinos Corriedale apresentaram problemas reprodutivos caracterizados por aborto e natimortalidade no terço final da gestação. Dessas oito perdas, um natimorto macho foi enviado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária para necropsia. Alterações macroscópicas não foram observadas durante a necropsia. Lesões histológicas foram observadas principalmente no cérebro e coração e se caracterizaram por encefalite não-supurativa multifocal acentuada associada à presença de protozoários no interior de células endoteliais e vasos sanguíneos e miocardite não-supurativa focal leve. Alguns desses organismos apresentaram formato de roseta. O teste de imunoistoquímica anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi negativo, mas houve reação cruzada com anticorpo anti-Neospora caninum. O exame de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foi negativo. A bacteriologia aeróbica e micro-aeróbica não revelou crescimento significativo. Esses achados foram compatíveis com o diagnóstico de Sarcocystis sp.Protozoal infection has worldwide distribution and may cause abortion, premature parturition or fetal death in almost all domestic animals. In July 2004, eight Corriedale sheep showed abortion and stillbirth in the third trimester of gestation. Of these reproductive losses, one stillborn male was submitted to the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology for necropsy investigation. The direct immunofluorescence test for Leptospira sp. was negative. No significant bacteria was isolated from lung and liver by aerobic and microaerobic cultures. Macroscopic lesions were not found in any fetal tissue. The histological lesions were observed mainly in the brain and heart and consisted primarily of severe multifocal nonsupurative encephalitis and nonsuppurative myocarditis. Schizonts of a protozoan

  15. Lactococcal Abortive Infection Protein AbiV Interacts Directly with the Phage Protein SaV and Prevents Translation of Phage Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Samson, J.E.; Labrie, S.J.;

    2010-01-01

    RNAs and proteins suggested that AbiV blocks the activation of late gene transcription, probably by a general inhibition of translation. Using size exclusion chromatography coupled with on-line static light scattering and refractometry, as well as fluorescence quenching experiments, we also demonstrated that both......AbiV is an abortive infection protein that inhibits the lytic cycle of several virulent phages infecting Lactococcus lactis, while a mutation in the phage gene sav confers insensitivity to AbiV. In this study, we have further characterized the effects of the bacterial AbiV and its interaction...... with the phage p2 protein SaV. First, we showed that during phage infection of lactococcal AbiV(+) cells, AbiV rapidly inhibited protein synthesis. Among early phage transcripts, sav gene transcription was slightly inhibited while the SaV protein could not be detected. Analyses of other phage p2 m...

  16. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  17. Epstein-Barr virus infection mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liudmila S. Chesnokova; Lindsey M. Hutt-Fletcher

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection occurs by distinct mechanisms across different cell types. EBV infection of B cellsin vitro minimally requires 5 viral glycoproteins and 2 cellular proteins. By contrast, infection of epithelial cells requires a minimum of 3 viral glycoproteins, which are capable of interacting with one or more of 3 different celular proteins. The ful complement of proteins involved in entry into al cel types capable of being infectedin vivo is unknown. This review discusses the events that occur when the virus is delivered into the cytoplasm of a cel, the players known to be involved in these events, and the ways in which these players are thought to function.

  18. Abortion laws into action: implementing legal reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, A J

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide trend towards liberalizing abortion laws has resulted in reduced abortion-related mortality in areas where legal abortion is accessible. In countries considering abortion reform, policy-makers and health care providers have a responsibility to ensure that provisions of any new law can be met. Preparations underway to prepare for South Africa's new abortion law can serve as a guideline for such action. A new abortion law calls for policy changes that may include 1) developing new standards, protocols, and guidelines for abortion care services; 2) ensuring provision of adequate trained staff willing to provide abortions; 3) streamlining administrative regulations to avoid delays; 4) establishing regulations and mechanisms for drug and equipment supply and distribution; 5) restructuring the health system to accommodate provision of abortion services; 6) allocating funds for new abortion services; and 7) reviewing and revising security measures. In addition, health professionals will require training in abortion provision, staff will need information updates about aspects of the legislation, and administrators and providers in a position to impede provision of services must be made aware of the affect of unsafe abortion on maternal health. Researchers should document the effect of the new law on women's health, the provision of reproductive health services, and the community. IEC (information, education, communication) activities will be required to inform the public about the new law and services, establish sex education programs in schools and health facilities, and mobilize family planning organizations and programs to help reduce the incidence of repeat abortions.

  19. Abortive infection of snakehead fish vesiculovirus in ZF4 cells was associated with the RLRs pathway activation by viral replicative intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Asim, Muhammad; Yi, Lizhu; Hegazy, Abeer M; Hu, Xianqin; Zhou, Yang; Ai, Taoshan; Lin, Li

    2015-03-18

    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative strand RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4) to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral mRNAs and cRNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral mRNAs and cRNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN) and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates.

  20. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA: a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Dieter R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.

  1. Abortive Infection of Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus in ZF4 Cells Was Associated with the RLRs Pathway Activation by Viral Replicative Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV is a negative strand RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4 to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral mRNAs and cRNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral mRNAs and cRNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  3. The relationship between the infections of urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics and missed abortion%生殖道支原体和沙眼衣原体感染与稽留流产的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the infections of urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics and the oc-curence of the missed abortion . Method The cervical secretion was cultivated to detect the urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics in 252 miss abortion patients,another 255 normal abortion women were servedas controls. Results The positive rates of urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics was higher than the rates of the controls. Conclusion Urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics in the genital duct are compact associated with missed abortion and are one of the causes of missed abortion in pregnant women.%目的:探讨生殖道支原体( Mu、UU)、沙眼衣原体感染与稽留流产的相关性。方法:采用培养法分别对252例稽留流产(研究组)与255例早孕人流妇女(对照组)进行宫颈分泌物培养。结果:稽留流产组生殖道支原体、衣原体阳性检出率均高于人工流产组( P<0.01)。结论:支原体、衣原体感染与稽留流产有着密切关系,是导致稽留流产综合原因之一。

  4. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kumar; L. Hessini; E.M.H. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  5. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women.

  6. [Analysis of abortions at a community maternity hospital in Bangui].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepou, A; Ngbale, R; Yanza, M C; Domande-Modanga, Z; Nguembi, E

    2004-01-01

    Abortion, i.e., early termination of pregnancy, has few complications when it occurs spontaneously. However self-inflicted abortion (SIA) often leads to more or less serious complications. In view of the increasing number of abortion cases in our department, we undertook this yearlong transversal study to evaluate the incidence of SIA in the department, determine the demographic characteristics of the women that practiced SIA, and identify the complications of SIA. Only ongoing or incomplete abortions were studied. Amenorrhea not related to pregnancy or associated with ectopic pregnancy was excluded from study. Clinical and demographic data were noted on forms specially designed by the research team. Data analysis yielded the following findings. Abortion accounted for 719 of the 5292 hospitalizations (13.6%) in gynecology unit, including 43.4% of SIA. Mean patient age was 24.7 years (range, 13 to 39). Spontaneous abortion was more likely to be observed in married women than in students who usually presented SIA. Wanted pregnancy was more likely to be reported by married women than by single woman who posed the problem of unwanted pregnancy. Students had more SIA. The main reasons for practicing SIA were financial (61.5%). The most common methods used for SIA were drug combinations (39.1%) and mechanical tools (26.0%). All severe complications such as infection and death were observed in women who practiced SIA. The high incidence of SIA in the department was especially disturbing due to the young age of the women involved and the severity of the complications. More action is needed to spread information on contraceptive methods in schools and universities to avoid unintended pregnancies that drive young people to practice SIA.

  7. Effect of heat preservation infusion on incidence of infection for patients after artificial abortion%人工流产后感染患者应用保温输液的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜玲; 王健平; 黄彬寿; 曾军荣; 刘敏鸿; 黄燕莺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the control effect of heat preservation infusion on incidence of infection after artificial abortion.Methods 168 cases of patients after artificial abortion were randomly divided into the heat preservation infusion group and normal infusion group with 84 cases in each group.The normal infusion group received routine nursing,and was intravenously infused fluid with non heat preservation method,the heat preservation infusion group was intravenously infused constant temperature liquid heated to 37℃.The incidence of infection was observed in two groups of patients after artificial abortion.Results The infection rate of the heat preservation group was significantly less than the normal infusion group.Conclusions Heat preservation infusion can effectively reduce the infection rate after artificial abortion.%目的 观察保温输液对人工流产后感染状况的控制效果.方法 将168例人工流产患者随机分为保温输液组和常温输液组各84例.常温输液组采用常规护理,用非保温方式静脉输入室温液体,保温输液组输入恒温加热至37℃的液体,观察2组患者人工流产术后感染的发生情况.结果 保温输液组流产后感染发生率显著低于常温输液组.结论 保温输液能有效降低人工流产后的感染率.

  8. Abortive T Follicular Helper Development Is Associated with a Defective Humoral Response in Leishmania infantum-Infected Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vasco; Laforge, Mireille; Campillo-Gimenez, Laure; Soundaramourty, Calaiselvy; Correia-de-Oliveira, Ana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Ouaissi, Ali; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum causes a chronic infectious disease named visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We employed a non-human primate model to monitor immune parameters over time and gain new insights into the disease. Rhesus macaques were infected with L. infantum and the T helper and B cell immunological profiles characterized during acute and chronic phases of infection. Parasite detection in visceral compartments during the acute phase was associated with differentiation of effector memory CD4 T cells and increased levels of Th1 transcripts. At the chronic phase, parasites colonized novel lymphoid niches concomitant with increased expression of IL10. Despite the occurrence of hypergammaglobulinemia, the production of parasite-specific IgG was poor, being confined to the acute phase and positively correlated with the frequency of an activated memory splenic B cell population. We noticed the expansion of a splenic CD4 T cell population expressing CXCR5 and Bcl-6 during acute infection that was associated with the differentiation of the activated memory B cell population. Moreover, the number of splenic germinal centers peaked at one month after infection, hence paralleling the production of specific IgG. However, at chronic infection these populations contracted impacting the production of parasite-specific IgG. Our study provides new insights into the immune events taking place in a physiologically relevant host and a mechanistic basis for the inefficient humoral response during VL. PMID:24763747

  9. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  10. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...

  11. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  12. Post abortion contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  13. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  14. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  15. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  16. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.

  17. 57.1% of Unmarried Women Undergoing Abortion Have RTI:Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 2,002 unmarried women under 24 years of age who requested abortions in four Chinese cities indicates that reproductive tract infection (RTI) has become a major factor affecting the reproductive health of unmarried women having abortions.

  18. Toxicity associated with high dosage 9-[(2R,5R-2,5-dihydro-5-phosphonomethoxy)-2-furanyl]adenine therapy off attempts to abort early FIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, K; Ferk, G; North, T W; Pedersen, N C

    1997-09-01

    9-[(2R,5R-2,5-dihydro-5-phosphonomethoxy)-2-furanyl]adenine, or D4API, was tested in the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection model and found to be significantly more inhibitory in vitro than its parent compound 9-phosphonylmethoxethyl adenine (PMEA). Cytotoxicity was less than for PMEA or azidothymidine (AZT) for culture periods of 7 days, but more toxic after 10 days. D4API was rapidly absorbed by cats following subcutaneous inoculation, with a plasma half-life of less than 1 h after intravenous inoculation and between 2 and 3 h after subcutaneous injection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from cats given a single dose of D4API were refractory, however, to FIV infection in vitro for up to 24 h. Given its prolonged intracellular phase and high selectivity index, high dose D4API therapy was tested for its ability to abort an acute (i.e. 2 week) FIV infection. A divided daily dose of D4API, which was one-fourth the toxic dose and 125 times the concentration that would totally inhibit virus replication in vitro, completely abrogated the anticipated viremia and antibody responses. Unfortunately, a majority of treated/uninfected and treated/infected test cats died acutely of drug toxicity after 47 days of treatment. Toxicity in vivo mirrored what was observed in vitro, being precipitous and cumulative in nature. Toxic signs included widespread hepatic and lymphoid necrosis. A surviving treated/FIV infected cat remained healthy to day 175 when the study was terminated; antibodies appeared 2 months later than in untreated/infected cats and virus was only detectable at low levels on day 175. In contrast, untreated/infected cats were viremic and antibody positive from 3 to 4 weeks post-infection onwards. Therefore, it was possible to alter, but not abort, an early FIV infection with prolonged, high-dose D4API treatment.

  19. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Eduardo; Garcia, Ana V; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amélie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  20. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J

    2014-04-01

    The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment

  1. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  2. Anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M J; Murray, A B

    1979-03-01

    The role of anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense was studied by force-feeding infected mice to a normal energy intake. Their mortality and survival times were then compared with those of infected mice feeding ad libitum. Mortality was increased and survival time shortened in force fed animals. Our observations suggest that anorexia, by reducing energy intake, has a significant role in the early defense of the host.

  3. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  4. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  5. 毛白杨花粉败育机制的研究%STUDY ON MECHANISM OF POLLEN ABORTION IN CHINESE WHITE POPLAR (\\%POPULUS TOMENTOSA\\% CARR.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康向阳

    2001-01-01

    从细胞遗传学角度较为系统地揭示了毛白杨花粉败育的机制,即主要是毛白杨异质性遗传基础与环境相互作用的结果。(1)在减数分裂中有数目不等的联合程度较差的单价体以及落后染色体出现,这种与异质性相关的染色体行为异常,导致同源染色体向子细胞的不均衡分配,造成具功能染色体的缺失,从而引起毛白杨一定比率的败育花粉的产生;(2)遗传上的不平衡与温度等环境因子相互作用,进一步引发毛白杨生理乃至结构上的不平衡,花粉母细胞(或孢原细胞)和绒毡层细胞发育异常,从而造成不产粉或产粉较少;环境与基因型互作的差异性导致了花粉败育的年度不稳定性。(3)易位、倒位等染色体结构变异和天然三倍体株系的存在也是造成毛白杨花粉败育的原因。%The mechanism of pollen abortion in Chinese white poplar was revealed systematically from the observation of cytogenetics in this paper,that is,principally,resulted from interactions between environment and genetic heterogenetic basis of the species.(1)Unequal number of univalents with decreased degree of synapsis and lagging chromosomes occurred in meiosis.The abnormal chromosomal behavior correlated with heterogenicity gave rise to unequal allocation of homogenous chromosomes to daughter cells and resulted in the deletion of functional chromosoms,thus led to the occurence of a certion proportion of aborted pollens.(2)The interaction between genetic imbalance and such environmental factors as temperature,etc.,further drew forth physiological and even structrural imbalance,with abnormal development of pollen mother cells (orsporogonium) and tapetal cells,and consequently resulted in no or very few production of pollens.The difference in the interaction between environment and genotype reflected on the unstability of pollen abortion in different years.(3)The esistence of chromosome structrural

  6. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.

  7. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  8. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  9. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  10. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  11. A safe vaccine (DV-STM-07 against Salmonella infection prevents abortion and confers protective immunity to the pregnant and new born mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Devi Negi

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a transient immuno-compromised condition which has evolved to avoid the immune rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The altered immune response of the pregnant female leads to increased susceptibility to invading pathogens, resulting in abortion and congenital defects of the fetus and a subnormal response to vaccination. Active vaccination during pregnancy may lead to abortion induced by heightened cell mediated immune response. In this study, we have administered the highly attenuated vaccine strain DeltapmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07 in female mice before the onset of pregnancy and followed the immune reaction against challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium in pregnant mice. Here we demonstrate that DV-STM-07 vaccine gives protection against Salmonella in pregnant mice and also prevents Salmonella induced abortion. This protection is conferred by directing the immune response towards Th2 activation and Th1 suppression. The low Th1 response prevents abortion. The use of live attenuated vaccine just before pregnancy carries the risk of transmission to the fetus. We have shown that this vaccine is safe as the vaccine strain is quickly eliminated from the mother and is not transmitted to the fetus. This vaccine also confers immunity to the new born mice of vaccinated mothers. Since there is no evidence of the vaccine candidate reaching the new born mice, we hypothesize that it may be due to trans-colostral transfer of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies. These results suggest that our vaccine DV-STM-07 can be very useful in preventing abortion in the pregnant individuals and confer immunity to the new born. Since there are no such vaccine candidates which can be given to the new born and to the pregnant women, this vaccine holds a very bright future to combat Salmonella induced pregnancy loss.

  12. Abortion in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.

  13. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  14. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  15. PREGNANCY OUTCOME FOLLOWING ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The previous two or three induced - were spontaneous abortion will carry a risk of preterm, ectopic pregnancy. This is to study is to evaluate the outcome of pregnancy with history of previous abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This study was conducted for on e and half year period in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur. RESULTS: We observed that majority of the women in the study fell in 25 to 35 years of age. 116 (71.9% women with history of induced abortion were aged between 25 to 30 yea rs of age. 52(73.3% women with history of spontaneous abortions were less than 30 years of age. There were only 7(9.7% women in the spontaneous abortion group who were above 35 years of age. CONCLUSION: We concluded that women with previous history of tw o or three induced abortions were at risk of preterm birth, very preterm birth and low birth weight babies in the subsequent pregnancies. The risk of caesarean was found to be increased in women with previous two or three spontaneous abortions exposing the women to the morbidity associated with the C-section

  16. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  17. Nurses in abortion care: identifying and managing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Allyson; Fothergill, Anne

    2009-02-01

    The psychological impact of abortion on the women undergoing the procedure is well researched, but little is known about the potential psychological impact on nurses working in abortion care. The proportion of medical abortions in the UK is rising compared to surgical abortions. A recent research study found that being more directly involved in the procedure places more emotional demands on the nurses. This emotional labour required by nurses working in abortion care may increase their stress levels. This paper examines the potential increase in stress in nurses caused by medical abortions. A model of stress comprising stressors, moderators and stress outcomes was used as a framework for this examination. Research on abortion and mental health nursing was applied to managing stress in abortion care; this included coping mechanisms, prevention and intervention strategies. This showed that stress, burnout and coping are important issues in abortion care. On this basis, recommendations for practice have been formulated to inform practice for nurses and managers in abortion care.

  18. Some research advances of immune mechanism during infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases continue to pose a substantial threat throughout the world.Understanding the immune mechanism during infection contributes not only to discoveries in science but also to advances in health care.Chinese researchers have made tremendous efforts to decipher the underlying mechanism of how pathogens elicit and evade immune responses and the immune homeostasis during infection.Here,we review new findings in Chinese studies concerning immune response to pathogens,immunoregulation and pathogen evasion,which offer us new insight into the trend in infectious immunology in China.

  19. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. METHODS: We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010. RESULTS: 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75. CONCLUSION: Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the

  20. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium infection primes a nutriprive mechanism in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo

    2016-04-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction.

  2. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system.

  3. Autoimmune diseases and fungal infections: immunological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.

  4. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2009-03-16

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  5. Nosocomial infection and its molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Tang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Nosocomial infection is a kind of infection, which is spread in various hospital environments, and leads to many serious diseases (e.g. pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, and puerperal fever), and causes higher mortality than community-acquired infection. Bacteria are predominant among all the nosocomial infection-associated pathogens, thus a large number of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, are adopted in clinical treatment. However, in recent years antibiotic resistance quickly spreads worldwide and causes a critical threat to public health. The predominant bacteria include Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In these bacteria, resistance emerged from antibiotic resistant genes and many of those can be exchanged between bacteria. With technical advances, molecular mechanisms of resistance have been gradually unveiled. In this review, recent advances in knowledge about mechanisms by which (i) bacteria hydrolyze antibiotics (e.g. extended spectrum β-lactamases, (ii) AmpC β-lactamases, carbapenemases), (iii) avoid antibiotic targeting (e.g. mutated vanA and mecA genes), (iv) prevent antibiotic permeation (e.g. porin deficiency), or (v) excrete intracellular antibiotics (e.g. active efflux pump) are summarized.

  6. A preliminary study on effect of psychological intervention on immune mechanism of threatened abortion%心理干预对先兆流产患者免疫机制影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚莉; 林虹; 刘昉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical curative effect of psychological intervention in treatment of threatened abortion and the impact on immune mechanism.Methods:Eighty patients with threatened abortion who were treated with routine therapy and psychological intervention were selected as study group,eighty patients with threatened abortion who were treated with routine therapy were selected as control A group,and eighty normal pregnant women without abortion history during the same period were selected as control B group.SCL 90 was used to evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on psychological status and curative effect of patients with threatened abortion,the levels of Cortisol,IL-2,IL-10 and TGF-β1 in the three groups were detected,the effect on endocrine of patients was analyzed.Results:Compared with non-abortion group,SCL-90 score,Cortisol and IL-2 levels in threatened abortion group increased significantly,while the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 decreased significantly; compared with routine therapy group,SCL-90 score,Cortisol and IL-2 levels in psychological intervention group decreased significantly,the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 and successful rate of pregnancy increased significantly.Conclusion:Psychological intervention may play a curative role by affecting the immune mechanism of threatened abortion.%目的:探讨心理干预在先兆流产治疗中的临床疗效及其对免疫机制的影响.方法:以先兆流产孕妇施行常规治疗+心理干预80例作为研究组,以先兆流产孕妇施行常规治疗80例作为对照组A,以同期无流产病史的早孕妇女80例作为对照组B.以SCL-90症状自评量表评估心理干预对先兆流产孕妇心理状况及疗效的影响,测定各组考的松(Cortisol)、IL-2、IL-10及TGF-β1水平,分析其对先兆流产患者内分泌的影响.结果:先兆流产组与无流产病史组相比,SCL-90评分、Cortisol及IL-2水平显著增高,IL-10和TGF-β1水平显著降低;心理干预

  7. 75 FR 15597 - Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Executive Order 13535--Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient... ] Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010 Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in... adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except...

  8. A meta-analysis of spontaneous abortion associated with ureaplasma urealyticum infection of reproductive tract in women%妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与自然流产关联的 meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽君; 王亚菲; 郭超; 朱琳; 江素真; 郑晓瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与自然流产、稽留流产发生关联.方法:检索自然流产和稽留流产文献数据并进行整理,用Mantel-Haenszel法合并OR值,并进行meta分析.结果:妇女孕早期生殖道解脲支原体感染发生自然流产的合并OR值为4.72(95%CI:3.77 ~5.92),发生稽留流产的合并OR值为4.31(95%CI:2.68 ~6.94);在有解脲支原体感染史妇女中,自然流产和稽留流产的发生危险随着其复发次数的增加而升高.结论:妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染是自然流产和稽留流产发生的可能危险因素,有效诊断解脲支原体感染,可避免妇女生殖道感染中滥用或误用抗生素问题.%Objective: To evaluate the associations between the risk of missed abortion and spontaneous abortion and ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) of reproductive tract infections among Chinese women. Methods: Multiple databases were searched and odd ratio (OR) was pooled using Mantel - Haenszel method. A meta - regression analysis was performed using restricted maximum likelihood. Results: The risks of spontaneous abortion and missed abortion were associated with intrauterine UU infection, the pooled OR was 4.72 (95% CI: 3.77-5.92) and 4.31 (95% CI: 2.68-6.94), respectively. The risks of spontaneous abortion and missed abortion recurrence enhanced significantly along with the increasing frequency of UU infection. Conclusion ; There are significant associations between UU infection of reproductive tract and the risks of spontaneous abortion as well as missed abortion. It suggests that the combination of UU quantitative and qualitative detection should be considered in order to prevent the antibiotic misuse in reproductive women.

  9. Induced abortion and psychosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Kulier, R; Perrin, E; Campana, A

    2000-12-01

    Little information exists on the impact of induced abortion on psychosexuality. Negative psychological effects and psychiatric complications due to termination of pregnancy seem to be rare. The objective of this study was to review the impact of induced abortion on sexuality and couple relationships. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Studies had to report a quantitative or qualitative evaluation of sexuality after pregnancy termination. Four studies were included. In the one prospective study using a control group, no difference in sexual functioning between groups after 1 year was reported. In the remaining observational studies, sexual dysfunction was reported in up to 30% of women after termination. Women undergoing abortion had significantly more conflicts in their partnerships. This was similar in all studies. Separation occurred in about one-quarter of all couples. Some studies report sexual dysfunction after termination of pregnancy. In about half of the couples separated after termination, abortion seemed not to have led to the separation. Psychological factors, together with relationship problems, might have played a role in failed contraception. The impact of induced abortion on sexuality needs to be studied in greater detail with rigorous methodology to draw firm conclusions.

  10. Legal abortion in Georgia, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, A M; Oberle, M; Zaro, S M

    1984-02-01

    According to data reported to the Georgia Department of Human Resources (DHR), the number of induced abortions performedin Georgia in 1980 decreased for the 1st time since 1968 when the state legalized abortion. To verify this reported decrease, the DHR data were compared with statistics obtained by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in a 1980 survey of abortion providers in Georgia. Since the AGI contacts providers directly, its statistics are considered a more accurate reflection of abortions performed. According to the DHR, the number of abortions dropped from 36,579 in 1979 to 33,288 in 1980, a 9% decrease, and the abortion rate fell from 26.6/1000 women ages 15-44 years to 23.9/1000. AGI data indicated a drop from 38,760 abortions in 1979 to 37,890 in 1980, a 2% decrease. Since both sources noted a similar trend despite differences in data collection methods, the 1980 decline in abortion procedures in Georgia is considered to represent a true decline rather than s statistical artifact. The sociodemographic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in Georgia in 1980 were also analyzed on the basis of DHR data. Although the number of abortions in Georgia performed on Georgia residents increased 2.5% from 1979-80 to 90.7%, the abortion ratio for residents decreased from 367.7 to 327.4 abortions/1000 live births. There was little change in the age, race, or marital status distribution of women receiving abortions. The ratio for white women was 317 abortions/1000 live births and that for blacks was 342/1000. The abortion ratio for unmarried women (1166/1000) was 13 times that for married women (88/1000). The number of repeat abortions decreased form 34% in 1979 to 29% in 1980. Moreover, 93% of women obtaining abortions did so in the 1st 12 weeks of gestation compared with 89% in 1979. The percentage of abortions performed in clinics increased from 66.5% in 1979 to 75.3% in 1980, with suction curettage accounting for 85% of all abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of

  11. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  12. Mechanisms Underlying T Cell Immunosenescence: Aging and Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenjuan; Rao, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the human immune system to protect against infectious disease declines with age and efficacy of vaccination reduces significantly in the elderly. Aging of the immune system, also termed as immunosenescence, involves many changes in human T cell immunity that is characterized by a loss in naïve T cell population and an increase in highly differentiated CD28- memory T cell subset. There is extensive data showing that latent persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is also associated with age-related immune dysfunction in the T cells, which might enhance immunosenescence. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related and HCMV-related immunosenescence is critical for the development of effective age-targeted vaccines and immunotherapies. In this review, we will address the role of both aging and HCMV infection that contribute to the T cell senescence and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms in aged T cells. PMID:28082969

  13. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  14. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  15. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  16. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-01-01

    All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn t...

  17. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  18. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  19. The Psychological and Emotional Effects of Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Ibtihaj S.; Chireau, Ruby M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and emotional effects of abortion on women who terminated their pregnancies for social, economic, or personal reasons. These effects were determined, in part, by an analysis of the woman's concept of self, the external support given, and the various coping mechanisms utilized in the…

  20. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  1. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  2. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  3. Apoptosis transcriptional mechanism of feline infectious peritonitis virus infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Safi, Nikoo; Haghani, Amin; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Haron, Mohd Syamsul Reza; Tan, Sheau Wei; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis has been postulated to play an important role during feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection; however, its mechanism is not well characterized. This study is focused on apoptosis and transcriptional profiling of FIPV-infected cells following in vitro infection of CRFK cells with FIPV 79-1146 WSU. Flow cytometry was used to determine mode of cell death in first 42 h post infection (hpi). FIPV infected cells underwent early apoptosis at 9 hpi (p < 0.05) followed by late apoptosis at 12 hpi (p < 0.05) and necrosis from 24 hpi (p < 0.05). Then, next generation sequencing was performed on 9 hpi and control uninfected cells by Illumina analyzer. An aggregate of 4546 genes (2229 down-regulated and 2317 up-regulated) from 17 cellular process, 11 molecular functions and 130 possible biological pathways were affected by FIPV. 131 genes from apoptosis cluster (80 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated) along with increase of apoptosis, p53, p38 MAPK, VEGF and chemokines/cytokines signaling pathways were probably involved in apoptosis process. Six of the de-regulated genes expression (RASSF1, BATF2, MAGEB16, PDCD5, TNFα and TRAF2) and TNFα protein concentration were analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively, at different time-points. Up-regulations of both pro-apoptotic (i.e. PDCD5) and anti-apoptotic (i.e. TRAF2) were detected from first hpi and continuing to deregulate during apoptosis process in the infected cells.

  4. AbiV, a Novel Antiphage Abortive Infection Mechanism on the Chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Moineau, Sylvain; Fortier, Louis-Charles;

    2008-01-01

    MG1363. This gene was also found to confer phage resistance to L. lactis MG1363 when it was cloned into an expression vector. A subsequent frameshift mutation in the ORF completely eliminated the phage resistance phenotype, confirming that the ORF was necessary for phage resistance. This ORF provided...

  5. Abortion and contraceptive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Persona, marketed by Unipath, is a new method of natural family planning which has been on the market since 1996. It works by measuring the hormone levels in a woman's urine and letting her know when she is not fertile and may have sex without using a barrier method of contraception. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that their surveyed clients who reported using Persona had 188 abortions in 3 months and concluded that there was a need for better information and more advice for couples who plan to use the method. The other major non-NHS abortion provider, Marie Stopes International, reported similar findings, with about 60 women per month visiting their clinics for abortions after having used the method. The BPAS survey also showed that 43% of the women who had an abortion after using Persona were aged 24 years or younger even though Persona is intended for use by women aged 25-40 years in stable relationships. A similar proportion also reported having sex on days when the method told them that they were most fertile. These latter women were not asked if they used another method of contraception on fertile days. An additional 13% reported ignoring the instructions to wait for 3 natural periods after terminating pill use before beginning to use Persona.

  6. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  7. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  8. Swedish students' attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.

  9. Induced abortion and anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders: isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.

  10. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    : Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional ...

  11. Abortion law reform in sub-Saharan Africa: no turning back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Moyo, Josephine Banda

    2004-11-01

    Stigma and silence surrounded unsafe abortion in Africa until the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994. Up to five million unsafe abortions are performed in Africa every year, with young women disproportionately affected. This paper summarises the colonial origins of current abortion laws and efforts in the region to provide post-abortion care. Much as it helps to save lives, however, post-abortion care will not eliminate unsafe abortion. There is a need to do away with restrictive laws. The paper describes efforts in several countries to change the law, focusing on Kenya, where organised opposition to reforming the law has emerged and led to the arrest of three service providers. Regional bodies, including the African Union, have taken a stand on abortion within the wider context of safe motherhood and reducing maternal mortality, and advocacy for better abortion laws is increasing across the region. As more girls remain in school and the marriage age increases, the inadequate provision of family planning and abortion care will cause Africa to lose many young women through unsafe sexual activity, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, early childbearing and HIV infection. The time has come in Africa for a commitment to eliminate deaths and disability from unsafe abortion and respect women's right to decide the number and spacing of their children.

  12. INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES AND HEALTH EDUCATION OF A INDUCED ABORTION CASE WITH AIDS%1例艾滋病患者人工流产术的预防感染措施及健康教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨艾滋病患者人工流产术的预防感染措施以及通过健康教育提高患者行为依从性,促进健康提高患者的生存质量.[方法]采用回顾性的调查方法,对确诊为艾滋病的1例患者行人工流产术,采用预防感染措施及相关健康教育.[结果]在为艾滋病患者行人工流产术的各个环节中,落实各项感染控制措施,从根本上杜绝了在人工流产手术过程中造成的医院感染性疾病的发生,为该患者行人工流产术的4位医务人员无1例感染.同时,因时、因人制定的健康教育,使患者的心理压力得到缓解,遵医行为明显增强,促进了患者的早日康复.[结论]预防和控制艾滋病医院感染的发生,医务人员首先应加强自我防护意识,严格执行各项消毒隔离制度,且需要医、护、技、患等各方面的密切配合.通过适时的健康教育,可有效地缓解患者身心两方面的压力,对疾病的治疗和患者的远期生存质量有积极的促进作用.%[Objective] To discuss the countenneasure of AIDS' abortion so as to improve the life quality of patients and patients ' obedience. [Methods] Based on retrospective investigation methods, one case with AIDS infection was operated with ahortion, and was protected by the countermeasures and educated with heath. [Results] From all aspects of the AIDS patients with induced abortion, we carried out every kinds of countermeasure to prevent the occurrence of sexual diseases in the abortion procedure. None of the four operators was infected with AIDS. Meanwhile, under the right heath education according to the patients' circumslance, patients psychological pressure has been relaxed significantly. It increased the compliance to the treatment and promoted the patients' speedy recovery. [ Conclusion] In order to protect and control the hospital infection,medical staffs should firstly strengthen the awareness of self-protection and obey strictly to the disinfection

  13. Mechanism of intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Lin Zhang; Ya-Fei Yue; Gui-Qin Bai; Lei Shi; Hui Jiang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanism of intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV).METHODS: HBV DNA was detected in vaginal secretion and amniotic fluid from 59 HBsAg-positive mothers and in venous blood of their newborns by PCR. HBsAg and HBcAg in placenta were determined by ABC immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The rate of HBV intrauterine infection was 40.l% (24/59). HBV DNA was detected in 47.5% of amniotic fluid samples and 52.5% of vaginal secretion samples respectively.HBsAg and HBcAg were detected in placentas from HBsAgpositive mothers. The concentration of the two antigens decreased from the mother's side to the fetus's side, in the following order: maternal decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells. However, in 4 placentas the distribution was in the reverse order. HBsAg and HBcAg were detected in amniotic epithelial cells from 32 mothers.CONCLUSION: The main route of HBV transmission from mother to fetus is transplacental, from the mother side of placenta to the fetus side. However, HBV intrauterine infection may take place through other routes.

  14. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  15. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion.

  16. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors.

  17. Clinical study on secondary infertility following tubal blockage after artificial abortion and analysis on infections%人工流产术后输卵管堵塞继发不孕的临床研究与感染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金筱筱; 郑灵芝; 张紫娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨人工流产术后输卵管堵塞继发不孕的发病因素及检查宫颈分泌物的病原菌分布,以提高对人工流产术后输卵管堵塞继发不孕的认识,降低感染率。方法选取2011年6月-2013年4月妇科收治的86例输卵管堵塞继发不孕患者作为观察组,选取同期收治的输卵管堵塞原发性不孕患者84例作为对照组;对两组患者进行问卷调查,培养宫颈分泌物检测病原菌分布,采用SPSS 18.0软件进行统计分析。结果170份宫颈分泌物检出96株病原菌,其中革兰阴性菌66株占68.75%,革兰阳性菌30株,占31.25%;观察组性伴侣数≥2与初次性生活年龄<20岁所占比例均较对照组高,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);人工流产次数≥2次输卵管堵塞率42.86%,明显高于人工流产的24.14%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论人工流产术对输卵管的通畅度具有不同程度的影响,人工流产次数越多,而发生输卵管堵塞概率越大,故应采取有效的避孕措施,减少或防止人工流产。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the pathogenic factors for secondary infertility following tubal blockage after artificial abortion and the distribution of pathogens in cervical secretions ,so as to raise awareness of secondary in‐fertility following tubal blockage after artificial abortion and reduce infection rates .METHODS Totally 86 patients with secondary infertility following tubal blockage during Jun .2011-Apr .2013 were selected as the observation group and 84 patients with primary infertility with tubal blockage admitted and treated during the same period were selected as the control group .Two groups of patients were surveyed by questionnaires .Cervical secretions were cultured to observe the distribution of pathogens .The software SPSS18 .0 was used for statistical analysis . RESULTS Totally 96 pathogens were detected from 170 samples of cervical

  18. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  19. 生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的临床探讨%Clinical exploration on reproductive tract infection of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum and spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程梦婕; 丁玎

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between chlamydia trachomatis (CT), ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and spontaneous abortion. Methods: lmmunochromatography and isolation culture method were used to detect CT and UU in cervical secretions of 95 cases with spontaneous abortion (observation group) and 102 cases with artificial abortion (control group) . Results: The total detection rates of CT and UU in observation group and control group were 64. 21% and 24. 51%, respectively, there was significant difference between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ); there was no significant difference in the rate of mixed infection of CT and UU between observation group and control group ( P > 0. 05 ); there was significant difference in detection rates of CT and UU between the cases with time of spontaneous abortion≥2 and the cases with spontaneous abortion once (P<0. 05) . Conclusion: The infection of CT and UU may be related to the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, especially the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous abortion; detection of CT and UU and active treatment play important roles in prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes for cases with spontaneous abortion.%目的:探讨沙眼衣原体(CT)、解脲支原体(UU)与自然流产的相关性.方法:采用免疫层析法和分离培养法对95例自然流产者(观察组)和102例人工流产患者(对照组)的宫颈分泌物进行CT、UU的检测.结果:①观察组宫颈分泌物CT和/或UU的总检出率为64.21%,对照组为24.51%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).②自然流产次数≥2次者,CT、UU检出率与只有1次自然流产史者相比,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:CT、UU感染与自然流产的发生可能相关,尤其与复发性自然流产关系密切,对自然流产患者进行CT和UU的检测并积极治疗对防止不良妊娠结局再次发生有重要意义.

  20. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  1. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  2. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn the Shiite jurisprudence, the ensoulment occurs after about 4 months. Before this stage, all Shiite authorities regard abortion as forbidden (Hiram unless if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger or will be intolerable for her. But after that, they regard abortion as Hiram, unless in conditions in which continuing the pregnancy results in dying of both mother and fetus, but abortion will save the life of mother. However, the Shiite authorities have not accepted to legitimate abortion in unwanted pregnancies and even in pregnancies resulted from adultery (Zina or rape."nThe debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. There are some important and notable related Fatwas that make jurisprudical basis for some new and problem solving legal acts, showing the inherent and valuable flexibility of the Shiite jurisprudence in dealing with such important issues. Some related issues, such as the priority of saving the life of mother after ensoulment can be referred to jurisprudical authorities for more assessment.

  3. Abortion denied--outcome of mothers and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, C

    1984-02-15

    A consistent argument favoring therapeutic abortions has been that mothers who are denied abortions will seek "illegal" help elsewhere, often in less than optimal conditions. Yet, a review of published reports on women who had been denied abortion and were followed up shows that 70.67% of the 6298 women completed their pregnancies and only 13.2% had an abortion elsewhere. Several studies have shown that the incidence of Complications of pregnancy is no greater in mothers denied abortion than in paired controls. The results of a prospective study by Laukaran and Van Den Berg showed a higher incidence of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase in the prevalence of congenital anomalies, and a higher incidence of infection and hemorrhage during the puerperium in women who had been denied abortion. They concluded that maternal attitude and psychosocial stress had little effect on the progress of the pregnancy and labor. Published reports on the psychological effects on the children of women who had been denied abortion are few, mainly because longterm follow-up is required. In 1966 Forssman and Thuwe described the results of their study of 120 children whose mothers had been denied abortion. The children had been followed up until their 21st birthdays. The controls had been carefully paired. The proportion of children who had been placed in foster and children's homes was significantly higher among the "unwanted" children than among the controls (50% versus 18%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of drunken misconduct, crime, or "educational mental subnormality" between the 2 groups, but the incidence rates of delinquency and psychiatric consultation were 10% and 13% higher respectively among the unwanted children than among the controls. There have been virtually no objective studies on the psychologic and social well-being of women who have been denied abortion. The literature

  4. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats.

  5. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  6. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  7. Heat shock cognate protein 70 contributes to Brucella invasion into trophoblast giant cells that cause infectious abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuoka Hidefumi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell tropism of Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in the placenta is thought to be a key event of infectious abortion, although the molecular mechanism for this is largely unknown. There is a higher degree of bacterial colonization in the placenta than in other organs and many bacteria are detected in trophoblast giant (TG cells in the placenta. In the present study, we investigated mechanism of B. abortus invasion into TG cells. Results We observed internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in cultured TG cells. A monoclonal antibody that inhibits bacterial internalization was isolated and this reacted with heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70. Depletion and over expression of Hsc70 in TG cells inhibited and promoted bacterial internalization, respectively. IFN-γ receptor was expressed in TG cells and IFN-γ treatment enhanced the uptake of bacteria by TG cells. Administering the anti-Hsc70 antibody to pregnant mice served to prevent infectious abortion. Conclusion B. abortus infection of TG cells in placenta is mediated by Hsc70, and that such infection leads to infectious abortion.

  8. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...

  9. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  10. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  11. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  12. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  13. Study on application of painless and medicinal abortions in reducing postoperative infections of uterus and accessories%无痛与药物流产在降低术后子宫及附件感染应用中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉娟; 柴泽英; 蔡王英

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the application of painless and medicinal abortions in reducing postoperative infections of uterus and accessories ,so as to provide reference for reducing postoperative infections of uterus and accessories in pregnant women .METHODS Totally 2100 patients with abortion from Jun .2013 to Dec .2013 in our hospital were studied including 1800 cases with painless abortion and 300 with medicinal abortion .Postopera‐tive infections of uterus and accessories as well as the distribution of related pathogens were observed .The soft‐ware SPSS17 .0 was used for statistical analysis .RESULTS The painless abortion group had 21 cases of nosocomial infections with the infection rate of 1 .17% including 31 cases of infections of uterus and its accessories with the rate of 1 .72% ,while the medicinal abortion group had 17 cases of infections with the infection rate of 5 .67% in‐cluding 23 cases of infections in uterus and its accessories with the rate of 7 .67% .The incidence of nosocomial in‐fections and infections of uterus and its accessories was higher in the medicinal abortion group than in the painless abortion group .Totally 76 pathogens were cultured ,mainly including 45 gram‐negative bacteria accounting for 59 .21% .CONCLUSION Painless abortion not only can reduce pain during abortion ,but also has significance in re‐ducing the incidence of nosocomial infections and infections of uterus and its accessories ,enhancing the quality of life in patients .%目的:探讨无痛人流与药物流产在降低术后子宫及附件感染中应用研究,为降低孕妇术后子宫及其附件感染的发生率提供依据。方法选取2013年6-12月2100例流产孕妇进行分析,其中无痛人流1800例为无痛人流组,药物流产孕妇300例为药物流产组,观察无痛人流和药物流产后孕妇医院感染和子宫及附件的感染情况,以及相关病原菌分布,采用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计分析

  14. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Hans Henrich; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel...

  15. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  16. A sero-survey of major infectious causes of abortion in small ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, Abdelali; Essamkaoui, Soukaina; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Lucchese, Laura; Natale, Alda

    2015-01-01

    A serological survey was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of 5 major abortive infections in 13 sheep flocks and 10 goat herds in 2 regions of Morocco. A total of 308 from aborted females (202 ewes and 106 does) and 197 sera (97 ewes and 99 does), were tested for brucellosis, chlamydiosis, Q fever, toxoplasmosis, and for 9 major serovars of Leptospira. An average abortion rate of 12.10% was found in ewes and 10.26% in does. The serological analyses revealed the presence of all 5 abortive infections, both in sheep and in goats. Ten (43%) herds/flocks were positive to brucellosis, 21 (91%) to chlamydiosis, 17 (74%) to toxoplasmosis, 13 (57%) to Q fever, and 5 (22%) to leptospirosis. Leptospira spp. serovars Copenhageni and Grypothyphosa were found in a single sheep flock, while Tarassovi and Copenhageni were detected in 4 goat herds. Of the 23 investigated herds/flocks, 22 (96%) showed mixed infections. The findings of this study confirmed the possible involvement of the 5 selected abortive infections in abortion outbreaks occurring in the investigated regions. Further investigations are needed to better understand the aetiology of infectious abortions in herds and flocks within investigated regions.

  17. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  18. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  19. [Abortion in sheep: epidemic Salmonella abortusovis outbreak 2005 in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Fivian, R; Kirchhofer, M; Boujon, P; Hirsbrunner, G

    2005-10-01

    In spring 2005, the outbreak of contagious abortion caused by Salmonella Abortusovis in 6 sheep flocks in Switzerland led to considerable economic losses. The Swiss small ruminant health service (BGK) evaluated this case. The aim was to identify the source of the epidemic in order to avoid further spread of infection and to evaluate the possibility of using vaccination. Moreover, a strategy for prevention of future outbreaks was developed. This article aims to increase disease awareness of food animal practitioners for Salmonella Abortusovis abortion in sheep.

  20. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major f...

  1. Incomplete infection of secondarily infected potato plants – an environment dependent underestimated mechanism in plant virology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, Lukas; Bühler, Lukas; Dupuis, Brice; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Forbes, Gregory A.; Keller, Ernst R.; Scheidegger, Urs C.; Struik, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditio

  2. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    aborted fetuses from a single sow. The high prevalence of arcobacters in Danish pig abortions may account for at least some of the >90% of cases in which no established abortifacient agent is detected, but further studies are needed to define the role of each species, especially where co...... to examine pooled tissue samples for Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. Routine microbiological, immunological, and histopathological examinations were also performed to identify concurrent infections or histopathological change. The abortions tested negative for established abortifacient...

  3. The dysfunction of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells contributes to the abortion of mice caused by Toxoplasma gondii excreted-secreted antigens in early pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling Chen

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that is highly prevalent in human and warm-blooded animals throughout the world, leading to potentially severe congenital infections. Although the abortion caused by T. gondii is believed to be dependent on the timing of maternal infection during pregnancy, the mechanism remains unclear. This study was focused on the effects of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens on pregnant outcomes and CD4(+CD25(+ Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells at different stages of pregnancy. The results showed that in mice the frequency and suppressive function of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory cells were diminished after injection of T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early and intermediate stages of pregnancy. The abortion caused by T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at early pregnancy could be partly prevented by adoptively transferring of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from the mice injected with T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens at late pregnancy, but not from the mice with the same treatment at early pregnancy. Furthermore, T. gondii excreted-secreted antigens induced apoptosis of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory cells of mice in early and intermediate stages of pregnancy by down-regulating their Bcl-2 expressions and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. This study provides new insights into the mechanism that T. gondii infection is the high risk factor for abortion in early pregnancy.

  4. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  5. 生殖道解脲支原体感染与胚胎停育和反复自然流产关联的meta分析%A meta-analysis of ureaplasma urealyticum infection of reproductive tract in women with early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽君; 王亚菲; 刘向国; 陈华; 卜雯婷; 王佳; 刘亚芳; 郑晓瑛

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价早孕妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与胚胎体育和反复自然流产发生的风险关联性.方法:在全面回顾文献基础上,分别对检索到的胚胎停育和反复自然流产文献进行数据整理,用Mantel-Haenszel法合并OR值,并进行meta分析.结果:meta分析表明,妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染发生胚胎停育的合并OR值为3.62(95%CI:2.80~4.67),发生反复自然流产的合并OR值为5.66(95%CI:4.46~7.18);有有解脲支原体感染史的妇女中,胚胎停育和反复自然流产的发生风险随着其复发次数的增加发生风险逐渐加强.结论:妇女生殖道解脲支原体感染与胚胎停育和反复自然流产之间存在关联,其强度随着复发次数的增加而逐渐加强.有效治疗生殖道解脲支原体感染,对预防育龄妇女不良妊娠结局的再次发生具有重要作用.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of association between the risk of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion and ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) of reproductive tract infections.Methods: Based on a comprehensive review of literatures, meta- analyses were performed to analyze the data collected from the literatures on early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion.A meta- regression analysis was conducted using restricted estimation of maximum likelibood.Odd ratios (OR) was pooled using Mantel - Haenszel method.Results: The risks of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion wereasseciated with UU infection of reproductive tract, the pooled OR were 3.62 (95% CI 2.80 - 4.67 ) and 5.66 (95% CI 4.46 -7.18), respectively.The risks of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion enhanced significantly along with the increasing frequency of UU infection.Conclusion: There was a significant association between the risk of early pregnant failure and recurrent spontaneous abortion and UU infection of reproductive tract, and the association degree

  6. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  7. Contraception and abortion in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

    1993-04-03

    After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected.

  8. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Conservation of Salmonella Infection Mechanisms in Plants and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Schikora; Isabelle Virlogeux-Payant; Eduardo Bueso; Garcia, Ana V.; Theodora Nilau; Amélie Charrier; Sandra Pelletier; Pierrette Menanteau; Manuela Baccarini; Philippe Velge; Heribert Hirt

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also...

  10. Incomplete Infection of Secondarily Infected Potato Plants – an Environment Dependent Underestimated Mechanism in Plant Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Lukas; Bühler, Lukas; Dupuis, Brice; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Forbes, Gregory A.; Keller, Ernst R.; Scheidegger, Urs C.; Struik, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant – virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit

  11. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  12. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Vallely

    Full Text Available In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion.Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information.Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119 of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119 of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported.In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  13. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  14. Polish parliament liberalizes abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-22

    On October 24, the Sejm (Poland's lower house of parliament) voted 228 to 195 (with 16 abstentions) to amend Poland's March 1993 ban on abortions. The amendment legalizes abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy for women who face financial hardship or difficult personal circumstances. Client counseling by a doctor who will not perform the abortion and a 3-day wait are required. Abortions will be permitted in licensed private clinics, as well as in public hospitals. Anyone performing an illegal abortion can receive 2 years' imprisonment. The government will subsidize contraceptive pills, and a sex education curriculum will be developed for schools. Abortion had been legal and widely available under communist rule; however, a Catholic-aligned government limited abortion to cases where a woman's life or health was endangered, where the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or where the fetus had a severe anomaly. The Catholic Church opposed the new measure, and the Senat (Poland's upper house), on October 3, had voted 40 to 52 (with 2 abstentions) against the amendment. Although the Sejm had previously voted 208 to 61 (with 15 abstentions) in favor of the amendment, 120 of those opposed to the measure, primarily members of the Polish Peasants Party (part of Poland's ruling coalition), had walked out in protest just before an August tally. The Democratic Left Alliance, the other coalition partner, supports the amendment. The most recent vote in the Sejm overturns the Senat veto; however, before the law can go into effect in 1997, it must be signed by President Aleksandr Kwasniewski (a supporter) after a review by Poland's conservative constitutional tribunal.

  15. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308 Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA para detecção de Brucella abortus a partir de abortos ou de bezerros nascidos de vacas experimentalmente infectadas com estirpe 2308

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matrone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives, 26 spleens (11 positives, 23 livers (8 positives and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives. All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04 or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004 and equal to the spleens (p=0.18. From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi aperfeiçoar a detecção de Brucella abortus pela PCR em homogeneizados de órgãos de fetos abortados por vacas infectadas, importante mecanismo para descobrir focos da doença na fase de erradicação. Assim, foram comparados diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA, visando à detecção de B. abortus pela PCR em amostras clínicas colhidas de abortos ou de bezerros oriundos de vacas desafiadas com a estirpe 2308 de B. abortus. Para tanto, foram construídos dois grupos padrão ouro com base na bacteriologia clássica, constituídos por: 32 pulmões (17 positivos, 26 baços (11 positivos, 23 fígados (8 positivos e 22 linfonodos bronquiais (7 positivos. Todas essas amostras foram submetidas a três protocolos de extração de DNA, seguidos do mesmo processo de amplificação com os primers B4 e B5. Nos resultados acumulados por

  16. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  17. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  18. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  19. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights.

  20. Analysis on infection of bacterial vaginosis and ureaplasma urealyticum with 118 recurrent spontaneous abortion women%反复性自然流产患者细菌性阴道病及解脲支原体感染状况118例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菲; 纪巍

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解反复性自然流产患者下生殖道细菌性阴道病及解脲支原体感染情况.方法 对118例反复性自然流产患者作为实验组及109例有正常妊娠史的健康体检者作为对照组, 进行下生殖道细菌性阴道病及解脲支原体感染检测.结果实验组细菌性阴道病感染28例(23.7%),解脲支原体感染49例(41.5%),二者双重感染25例(21.2%);对照组细菌性阴道病感染13例 (11.0%),解脲支原体感染22例(20.2%),二者双重感染9 例(8.3%),实验组与对照组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).自然流产2次患者细菌性阴道病感染16例(21.0%),解脲支原体感染28例(36.8%), 二者双重感染15例(19.7%).自然流产≥3次患者细菌性阴道病感染13例(28.6%),解脲支原体感染21例(50.0%),二者双重感染10例(23.8%).随着流产次数的增加解脲支原体感染率上升(P<0.05),细菌性阴道病及二者双重感染率也呈上升趋势,但无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 下生殖道细菌性阴道病及解脲支原体感染与反复性自然流产之间存在一定相关性,孕前检查要重视筛查细菌性阴道病及解脲支原体感染情况.%Objective To study the reproductive tract in patients with recurrent abortion, bacterial vaginosis and ureaplasm urealyticum infection. Methods Collected in June 2006 ~ October 2009 in our hospital prenatal and postnatal care center treatment of 118 cases of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion as an object of study, a history of normal pregnancy, 109 cases of healthy persons as control the crowd, the next reproductive tract bacteria vaginal disease and detection of ureaplasma urealyticum infection.Results Experimental group of bacterial vaginosis infection in 28 cases ( 23.7% ), ureaplasma urealyticum infection in 49 cases ( 41.5% ), both co-infection 25 ( 21.2% ); control group, bacterial vaginosis infection in 13 cases ( 11.0% ), ureaplasma urealyticum infection in 22 cases ( 20.2% ), both

  1. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000).

  2. Expression of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bax in the First Trimester Abortion Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender DÜZCAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible similar or different mechanisms in recurrent and spontaneous abortion by evaluating immunohistochemical correlation between proliferation marker Ki-67, and apoptosis markers Bcl-2 and Bax in the fetal trophoblasts and maternal deciduas from abortion material.Material and Method: Eighty samples of curettage materials from 65 abortion patients histopathologically diagnosed “decidua showing Arias-Stella reaction and chorionic villi” or only “decidua showing Arias-Stella reaction” were included in the study. Hematoxylin&Eosin stained sections from all cases were re-evaluated and further stained immunohistochemically using antibodies against Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bax.Results: Proliferation rate evaluated by Ki-67 expression both in the cytotrophoblastic cells and decidua was found to be significantly lower in spontaneous and recurrent abortions compared to evacuation abortion. The extent of Bcl-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblastic cells covering villous stroma was also decreased in spontaneous abortion. There were no significant differences between spontaneous and recurrent abortions in terms of Bcl-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and Ki-67 proliferation index in cytotrophoblastic cells or decidua. Bax staining showed minimal decidual expression in a few spontaneous and recurrent abortions.Conclusion: We concluded that proliferation rate was decreased in fetal villous cytotrophoblasts and maternal deciduas in spontaneous and recurrent abortions. We also proposed that loss of Bcl-2 expression in syncytiotrophoblasts may cause abortion in a subset of cases. However, the data from spontaneous and recurrent abortions did not not support the presence of different mechanisms in both groups.

  3. To abort or not to abort: that is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomison, J B

    1991-02-01

    Abortion is not a medical issue, as the law would like to make it when requesting definitions of when life begins. To medicine, life begins at conception. conception is the 1st step in the miracle of life. It is up to the law and society to determine when life begins legally. Doctors have responsibilities as citizens to do what they can to support laws they believe in. The American Medical Association has remained neutral on the issue. Abortion can be ethical if the mother's life is threatened. But it is unethical and unconstitutional when it is done out of convenience to correct indiscretions.

  4. Innate immune control of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: mechanisms contributing to combating systemic Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella enterica serovars remain a serious problem worldwide. While serovar Typhi causes significant morbidity and mortality that is restricted to humans, serovar Typhimurium causes gastroenteritidis in humans and can also infect other animals. As mice with the susceptible Nramp1 locus get systemic infection with serovar Typhimurium, murine infection models using this serovar have been widely used to decipher the immune mechanisms required to survive systemic Salmonella infection. This review summarizes recent studies in murine infection models that have advanced our understanding of the events that occur during the first days after oral Salmonella infection. The pathways of bacterial penetration across the intestinal epithelium, bacterial spread to draining (mesenteric) lymph nodes and dissemination to systemic tissues is discussed. The response of myeloid cell populations, including dendritic cells, inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, during the early stage of infection is also discussed. Finally, the mechanisms driving recruitment of myeloid cells to infected intestinal lymphoid tissues and what is known about Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in innate immunity to Salmonella infection is also discussed.

  5. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 60% of all first trimester abortions are associated with derangement of one or more chromosomal complements. Aim: - The aim of this study was to assess frequency and increasing the awareness of physician about the nature of chromosomal aberration that contribute to the occurrence of repeated abortions. Material & Methods: - Patient of recurrent abortion was investigated by history taking, examination and investigations. For present study 20 women having two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, who attended outdoor & indoor patient department, were selected and karyotyping was done. In 10 of the above cases karyotype study of both partners was done. So in total 30 individuals (20 females & 10 males were selected for Cytogenetic study. In all cases relevant history and clinical findings and other investigations were noted. Blood samples were obtained and karyotype study was performed at Genetic Laboratory, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: - Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotypes revealed robertsonian translocation in one (5% female; this patient had a history of 2 spontaneous abortions and two times IVF failure, she had history of chocolate cyst of ovary and family history of infertility. No numerical anomaly; mosaicism or inversions were found in this study; 23 cases had normal karyotype and remaining 6 cases came out inconclusive.

  6. New clues underlying mechanism of HIV infection in pig-tailed macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent studies made by CAS scientists may shed new light on a novel approach to demystifying the complicated pathogenesis of AIDS, i.e., the formative mechanism of HIV infection at the molecular level.

  7. Locus of control and decision to abort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P N; Strano, D A; Willingham, W

    1984-04-01

    The relationship of locus of control to deciding on an abortion was investigated by administering Rotter's Locus of Control Scale to 118 women immediately prior to abortion and 2 weeks and 3 months following abortion. Subjects' scores were compared across the 3 time periods, and the abortion group's pretest scores were compared with those of a nonpregnant control, group. As hypothesized, the aborting group scored significantly more internal than the general population but no differences in locus of control were found across the 3 time period. The length of delay in deciding to abort an unwanted pregnancy following confirmation was also assessed. Women seeking 1st trimester abortions were divided into internal and external groups on the Rotter Scale and the lengths of delay were compared. The hypothesis that external scores would delay the decision longer than internal ones was confirmed. The results confirm characteristics of the locus of control construct and add information about personality characteristics of women undergoing abortion.

  8. Abortion Counseling and the School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jack A.; Moffett, Catherine F.

    1974-01-01

    Abortion counseling is now legally within the purview of the school counselor. It is therefore essential that counselors determine their role in abortion counseling, the kind of training necessary, and whether professional organizations should develop counseling guidelines. (RP)

  9. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M.D. Generally, abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  10. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Souzas, Raquel; Universidade Federal da Bahia; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  11. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  12. "If a woman has even one daughter, I refuse to perform the abortion": Sex determination and safe abortion in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand

    2015-05-01

    In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions.

  13. Mechanisms controlling anaemia in Trypanosoma congolense infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Noyes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular protozoan parasites of the blood stream of artiodactyls and are one of the main constraints on cattle production in Africa. In cattle, anaemia is the key feature of disease and persists after parasitaemia has declined to low or undetectable levels, but treatment to clear the parasites usually resolves the anaemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The progress of anaemia after Trypanosoma congolense infection was followed in three mouse strains. Anaemia developed rapidly in all three strains until the peak of the first wave of parasitaemia. This was followed by a second phase, characterized by slower progress to severe anaemia in C57BL/6, by slow recovery in surviving A/J and a rapid recovery in BALB/c. There was no association between parasitaemia and severity of anaemia. Furthermore, functional T lymphocytes are not required for the induction of anaemia, since suppression of T cell activity with Cyclosporin A had neither an effect on the course of infection nor on anaemia. Expression of genes involved in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism was followed in spleen, liver and kidney tissues in the three strains of mice using microarrays. There was no evidence for a response to erythropoietin, consistent with anaemia of chronic disease, which is erythropoietin insensitive. However, the expression of transcription factors and genes involved in erythropoiesis and haemolysis did correlate with the expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il6 and Ifng. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The innate immune response appears to be the major contributor to the inflammation associated with anaemia since suppression of T cells with CsA had no observable effect. Several transcription factors regulating haematopoiesis, Tal1, Gata1, Zfpm1 and Klf1 were expressed at consistently lower levels in C57BL/6 mice suggesting that these mice have a lower haematopoietic capacity and therefore less ability to recover from

  14. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/cli...

  15. Evaluation of ovine abortion associated with Toxoplasma gondii in Spain by different diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Bueno, J; Quintanilla-Gozalo, A; Pérez-Pérez, V; Alvarez-García, G; Collantes-Fernández, E; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2004-05-07

    A total of 173 aborted ovine foetuses and seven aborted caprine foetuses, submitted from different points of north and central Spain, were analysed to determine the role of T. gondii in abortion and to compare the utility of the most widely used techniques in diagnosis of the congenital infection (histopathology, serology--IFAT and ELISA--and a nested-PCR). Parasite infection was diagnosed in 40 (23.1%; n = 173) ovine foetuses by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. A higher percentage of foetuses were diagnosed using serological techniques (IFAT and ELISA) (28.3%; n = 106) than by histologic examination (8.7%; n = 173) or PCR (6.9%; n = 173). No significant association between infection and the foetal age categories was found (P > 0.05). In this study, 106 aborted foetuses were analysed by all of the three diagnostic techniques. When we compared serological results, perfect agreement between ELISA and IFAT was obtained. On the contrary, slight to fair agreements were observed when histology results were compared with those obtained by serology and PCR techniques. All the positive foetuses were aborted in the mid (60%) or last (40%) term of pregnancy, but no significant differences were found between ages of the infected and non-infected foetuses (P > 0.05). This report indicates that toxoplasmosis may be a common cause of small ruminant abortion and neonatal death in Spain and points out the necessity of using different and complementary techniques to increase the probability of detecting Toxoplasma infection in an aborted foetus.

  16. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided.

  17. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  18. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.


Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  19. Knowledge and attitude of schoolgirls about illegal abortions in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lussy J. Paluku

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortion and the increase in HIV infection have become major concerns in sub-Saharan Africa and understanding adolescent sexual behaviour remains a challenge. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the practice of illegal abortions is prevalent among school-going adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies. Assessing their attitude and knowledge on the subject could be a starting point from which to address the problem.Objectives: To determine the knowledge of schoolgirls in Goma, DRC about the health consequences of illegal abortions and to assess their attitude towards these abortions.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected sample of 328 high school girls aged 16 to 20 years. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Nine out of 55 (11 public and 44 private secondary schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The Epi-Info 2000 computer program was used for data capturing and analysis.Results: The different sources of information were the radio (66.2%, 217, friends (31.7%, 104, parents (1.5%, 5, and the church (0.5%, 2. The health consequences of illegal abortion mentioned were death, infertility, infection and bleeding. Of the participants, 9.8% (32 had committed an abortion before and 46% (151 knew where to obtain it; 76.2% (250 of participants were against illegal abortion, while 23.8% (78 supported it.Conclusion: Girls in secondary school in Goma had good knowledge of the illegal abortion practice and its consequences. A fifth of them were in support of the procedure. The DRC government may need to consider legalising abortion to secure a healthy future for affected girls.

  20. A method for quantifying mechanical properties of tissue following viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Lam

    Full Text Available Viral infection and replication involves the reorganization of the actin network within the host cell. Actin plays a central role in the mechanical properties of cells. We have demonstrated a method to quantify changes in mechanical properties of fabricated model three-dimensional (3D connective tissue following viral infection. Using this method, we have characterized the impact of infection by the human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (HCMV. HCMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and infects a variety of cell types including fibroblasts. In the body, fibroblasts are necessary for maintaining connective tissue and function by creating mechanical force. Using this 3D connective tissue model, we observed that infection disrupted the cell's ability to generate force and reduced the cumulative contractile force of the tissue. The addition of HCMV viral particles in the absence of both viral gene expression and DNA replication was sufficient to disrupt tissue function. We observed that alterations of the mechanical properties are, in part, due to a disruption of the underlying complex actin microfilament network established by the embedded fibroblasts. Finally, we were able to prevent HCMV-mediated disruption of tissue function by the addition of human immune globulin against HCMV. This study demonstrates a method to quantify the impact of viral infection on mechanical properties which are not evident using conventional cell culture systems.

  1. Rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) infects Arabidopsis via a mechanism distinct from that required for the infection of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Young; Jin, Jianming; Lee, Yin-Won; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes rice (Oryza sativa) blast. Although M. oryzae as a whole infects a wide variety of monocotyledonous hosts, no dicotyledonous plant has been reported as a host. We found that two rice pathogenic strains of M. oryzae, KJ201 and 70-15, interacted differentially with 16 ecotypes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Strain KJ201 infected all ecotypes with varying degrees of virulence, whereas strain 70-15 caused no symptoms in certain ecotypes. In highly susceptible ecotypes, small chlorotic lesions appeared on infected leaves within 3 d after inoculation and subsequently expanded across the affected leaves. The fungus produced spores in susceptible ecotypes but not in resistant ecotypes. Fungal cultures recovered from necrotic lesions caused the same symptoms in healthy plants, satisfying Koch's postulates. Histochemical analyses showed that infection by the fungus caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and eventual cell death. Similar to the infection process in rice, the fungus differentiated to form appressorium and directly penetrated the leaf surface in Arabidopsis. However, the pathogenic mechanism in Arabidopsis appears distinct from that in rice; three fungal genes essential for pathogenicity in rice played only limited roles in causing disease symptoms in Arabidopsis, and the fungus seems to colonize Arabidopsis as a necrotroph through the secretion of phytotoxic compounds, including 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Expression of PR-1 and PDF1.2 was induced in response to infection by the fungus, suggesting the activation of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways. However, the roles of these signaling pathways in defense against M. oryzae remain unclear. In combination with the wealth of genetic and genomic resources available for M. oryzae, this newly established pathosystem allows comparison of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying

  2. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  3. Free abortion has come to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In Sweden abortion has been free and on demand since 1975. The philosophy behind this law is that the pregnant women is the best judge of whether she should have an abortion. Any attempt to change the legal status of abortion should be strongly fought. Criminalizing abortion has never amounted to any good in any country that has tried it. A critical aspect of abortion is that it must be prevented with effective sexual education and free access to contraception. This is the best way to avoid unwanted pregnancies and thus abortion. Still even in Sweden 25% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Planned parenthood is essential in a country with a high standard of living in order to maintain an adequate level of births. Many countries with high standards of living have very low births rates because they do not offer parental leave, short working hours, or day care.

  4. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.

  5. Abortion--the breath of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, R J

    1974-01-01

    A scholarly review of medical-legal and biblical authority on the su bject of abortion supports abortion as a woman's right when it is performed before the fetus has had its "breath of life." Based on biblical evidence, a person becomes a living being when the soul, the "breath of life" is breathed into it. Without the "breath of life" no person exists. A fetus less than 28 weeks old is incapable of breathing alone; thus an aborted fetus that age is not truly a living human being capable of surviving independently of its mother's womb. Legal aspects include supreme, local and state court decisions defining abortion. It is ultimately expected that each person will determine what approach to take towards the abortion question. Abortion is still a personal problem regardless of supreme court decisions or ecclesiastical determinants. Religion and moral concepts should be the guiding conscience involved in the question of abortion.

  6. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections Adenovirus Bronchiolitis Campylobacter Infections Cat Scratch Disease Cellulitis Chickenpox Chlamydia Cold Sores Common Cold Coxsackievirus Infections Croup Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Dengue Fever Diphtheria E. Coli ...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Ful-Term Deliveries and Women with Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are some documents which support the role of some certain infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis in spontaneous abortion. As there were not data about role this bacterium in abortion in this area of IRAN, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with abortion and compare it with healthy women with no previous history of abortion. Approach: This case-control study was carried out in Shariatee hospital of Hormozgan University of medical sciences, during 2004-2005. A number of 220 women with definite diagnosis of previous abortion and 200 matched women with normal full term delivery and negative history of miscarriage as controls were studied as case and control groups. All obtained PAP smears from the case and the control groups were then tested using Immunoflourescent method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Data was analyzed, using SPSS software (chi square and t-test. Results: The prevalence of positive direct immunofluorescent test on PAP smears indicating the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 56 (25.45% in women with abortion comparing to 13 (5.20% in women in control group, the difference was significant (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed Chlamydia trachomatis is an important causative agent for abortion in this area of IRAN.

  8. Survey of Infectious Etiologies of Bovine Abortion during Mid- to Late Gestation in Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769

  9. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  10. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  11. HMG-CoA reductase inhibition aborts functional differentiation and triggers apoptosis in cultured primary human monocytes: a potential mechanism of statin-mediated vasculoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamvakopoulos Joannis E

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins effectively lower blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular death. Immunomodulatory actions, independent of their lipid-lowering effect, have also been ascribed to these compounds. Since macrophages participate in several vascular pathologies, we examined the effect of statin treatment on the survival and differentiation of primary human monocytes. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy individuals were cultured in the presence or absence of mevastatin. Apoptosis was monitored by annexin V / PI staining and flow cytometry. In parallel experiments, cultures were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of mevastatin and the release of IL-1β and IL-1Ra was measured by ELISA. Results Among PBMCs, mevastatin-treated monocytes were particularly susceptible to apoptosis, which occurred at doses >1 microM and was already maximal at 5 microM. However, even at the highest mevastatin dose used (10 microM, apoptosis occurred only after 24 h of culture, possibly reflecting a requirement for cell commitment to differentiation. After 72 h of treatment the vast majority (>50% of monocytes were undergoing apoptosis. Stimulation with LPS revealed that mevastatin-treated monocytes retained the high IL-1β output characteristic of undifferentiated cells; conversely, IL-1Ra release was inhibited. Concurrent treatment with mevalonolactone prevented the induction of apoptosis and suppressed both IL-1β and IL-1Ra release in response to LPS, suggesting a rate-limiting role for HMG-CoA reductase in monocyte differentiation. Conclusions Our findings indicate that statins arrest the functional differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and steer these cells into apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism for the vasculoprotective properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

  12. Pathogens penetrating the central nervous system: infection pathways and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Norton, Robert; Currie, Bart J; St John, James A; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Batzloff, Michael; Ulett, Glen C; Beacham, Ifor R

    2014-10-01

    The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis.

  13. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  14. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Perlstein, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  15. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  16. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  17. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  18. An unusual complication of unsafe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortion is a significant medical and social problem worldwide. In developing countries, most of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained personnel leading to high mortality and morbidity. Case Report: A 30 year-old female, gravida 7, para 6 underwent uterine evacuation for heavy bleeding per vaginum following intake of abortifacient to abort a 14 weeks gestation. The procedure was performed at a rural setup and her bowel was pulled out of the introitus through the perforated wound, an unusual complication of unsafe abortion. Illiteracy, unawareness about health services, and easy accessibility to untrained abortion providers lead to very high mortality and morbidity in India. There is unmet need to bring awareness among the people about the safe and effective methods of contraception and abortion services to avoid such complications.

  19. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  20. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  1. Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of New World and Old World arenavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Lisa; Liang, Yuying; Ly, Hinh

    2014-01-01

    Arenaviruses can cause fatal human haemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases for which vaccines and therapies are extremely limited. Both the New World (NW) and Old World (OW) groups of arenaviruses contain HF-causing pathogens. Although these two groups share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of virus infection exist. These closely related pathogens share many characteristics, including genome structure, viral assembly, natural host selection and the ability to interfere with innate immune signalling. However, members of the NW and OW viruses appear to use different receptors for cellular entry, as well as different mechanisms of virus internalization. General differences in disease signs and symptoms and pathological lesions in patients infected with either NW or OW arenaviruses are also noted and discussed herein. Whilst both the OW Lassa virus (LASV) and the NW Junin virus (JUNV) can cause disruption of the vascular endothelium, which is an important pathological feature of HF, the immune responses to these related pathogens seem to be quite distinct. Whereas LASV infection results in an overall generalized immune suppression, patients infected with JUNV seem to develop a cytokine storm. Additionally, the type of immune response required for recovery and clearance of the virus is different between NW and OW infections. These differences may be important to allow the viruses to evade host immune detection. Understanding these differences will aid the development of new vaccines and treatment strategies against deadly HF viral infections.

  2. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  3. Conscientious refusal to assist with abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, D

    1994-09-10

    Abortion is a moral issue affecting the identity and integrity of physicians and nurses. Ethical reasoning helps reasonable and sincere people who do not agree on abortion to understand the sources of disagreement and to explore shared principles in the differences. Discussions of abortion cannot be limited to the conflict between the rights of a woman to control her reproduction and the rights of a fetus to live. Religious, cultural, feminist, and political beliefs must also be considered. This complexity must be considered when examining whether physicians and nurses have rights to refuse to assist in abortion on conscientious grounds. People with fundamentally different moral outlooks already determine what is morally right or wrong, good or evil. Health professionals who refuse to assist in abortion base their decision on beliefs about moral duties, injunctions of natural law, and the essentially nonnegotiable rights of people to be protected from intentional harm. They know and regret the adverse effects for pregnant women but there is no compelling motivation to change their opposition to abortion. There is no morally neutral position from which to judge conscientious refusals in abortion. Society should develop a position that respects autonomy of belief and grants the right to physicians and nurses to conscientiously refuse to assist in abortions. In those countries where the abortion law grants physicians the right to refuse but not nurses, society needs to reflect on why nurses have been accorded second class professional and moral status. In those countries which have not yet formulated an abortion law, the government should consider how it can find enough health workers who will in good conscience assist in abortions. Governments must first seriously consider a presumptive right to conscientious refusal in abortion before health systems can redistribute sectors of responsibility among health workers and implement changes in recruitment policies for

  4. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Rahimeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Parsay, Sosan

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods This case-control study included the case group (n=331) experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331) who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), in which they ...

  5. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimeh Ahmadi; Saeideh Ziaei; Sosan Parsay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331) experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331) who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (...

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Manipulates Host Cell Apoptosis by Different Mechanisms to Establish Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alberdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever of ruminants. This obligate intracellular bacterium evolved to use common strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate hosts and tick vectors. Herein, we discuss the different strategies used by the pathogen to modulate cell apoptosis and establish infection in host cells. In vertebrate neutrophils and human promyelocytic cells HL-60, both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors have been reported. Tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and differential regulation of apoptosis pathways have been observed in adult female midguts and salivary glands in response to infection with A. phagocytophilum. In tick midguts, pathogen inhibits apoptosis through the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT pathway, while in salivary glands, the intrinsic apoptosis pathways is inhibited but tick cells respond with the activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. In Ixodes scapularis ISE6 cells, bacterial infection down-regulates mitochondrial porin and manipulates protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell glucose metabolism to inhibit apoptosis and facilitate infection, whereas in IRE/CTVM20 tick cells, inhibition of apoptosis appears to be regulated by lower caspase levels. These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum uses different mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis for infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

  7. Therapeutic abortion follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, A J; Davison, L A; Hanson, K H; Loos, S A; Mikkelsen, C M

    1971-05-15

    To determine the long-range psychological effects of therapeutic abortion, 50 women (aged from 13-44 years), who were granted abortions between 1967 and 1968 Because of possible impairment of mental and/or physical health, were analyzed by use of demographic questionnaires, psychological tests, and interviews. Testing revealed that 44 women had psychiatric problems at time of abortion. 43 patients were followed for 3-6 months. The follow-up interviews revealed that 29 patients reacted positively after abortion, 10 reported no significant change and 4 reacted negatively. 37 would definitely repeat the abortion. Women under 21 years of age felt substantially more ambivalent and guilty than older patients. A study of 36 paired pre- and post-abortion profiles showed that 15 initially abnormal tests had become normal. There was a significant increase in contraceptive use among the patients after the abortion, but 4 again became pregnant and 8 were apparently without consistent contraception. It is concluded that the abortions were therapeutic, but physicians are encouraged to be aware of psychological problems in abortion cases. Strong psychological and contraceptive counselling should be exercised.

  8. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  9. [Mechanisms underlying interferon-mediated host innate immunity during influenza A virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Chi, Xiaojuan; Bai, Qingling; Chen, Jilong

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus can create acute respiratory infection in humans and animals throughout the world, and it is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Numerous studies have shown that influenza A virus infection induces rapidly host innate immune response. Influenza A virus triggers the activation of signaling pathways that are dependent on host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs). Using a variety of regulatory mechanisms, these signaling pathways activate downstream transcript factors that control expression of various interferons and cytokines, such as type I and type III interferons. Thus, these interferons stimulate the transcript of relevant interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and expression of the antiviral proteins, which are critical components of host innate immunity. In this review, we will highlight the mechanisms by which influenza A virus infection induces the interferon-mediated host innate immunity.

  10. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  11. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  12. STUDY OF WHO SAFE ABORTION REGIMEN IN MEDICAL ABORTIONS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Joylene Diana; Sujaya V.

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion is the use of drugs to induce abortion of a fetus. Due to the advances in the field of research , numerous regimens have been formulated to ensure a fast and complete expulsion of the fetus. These regimens also aim to towards reduced post abortal side effects and to decrease the need for surgical evacuation ...

  13. Why women are dying from unsafe abortion: narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Carolyn M; Debbink, Michelle Precourt; Steele, Ellen A; Buck, Caroline T; Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Harris, Lisa H

    2013-06-01

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the life-threatening impact that stigma, financial restraints, and confusion regarding abortion law have on the women of Ghana who seek abortion. They posit that the vast majority of serious abortion complications arise in the setting of clandestine or self-induced second trimester attempts, suggesting that training greater numbers of physicians to perform second trimester abortion is prerequisite to reducing maternal mortality. They also recognized that an adequate supply of abortion providers alone is a necessary but insufficient step toward reducing death from unsafe abortion. Rather, improved accessibility and cultural acceptability of abortion are integral to the actual utilization of safe services. Their insights suggest that any comprehensive plan aimed at reducing maternal mortality must consider avenues that address the multiple dimensions which influence the practice and utilization of safe abortion, especially in the second trimester.

  14. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  15. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  16. Potential involvement of Neospora caninum in naturally occurring ovine abortions in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L; Collett, M G; Pattison, R S; Marshall, J; West, D M; Pomroy, W E

    2012-04-30

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite and is recognised as the leading cause of bovine abortion worldwide. Natural infection with N. caninum has been described in sheep but it has generally not been regarded as a significant cause of abortion. Recently, there have been several New Zealand cases of foetal abortions where N. caninum was detected which strongly suggested the involvement of Neospora in these abortions. However, there is minimal information about the prevalence of N. caninum infection naturally occurring in New Zealand sheep flocks and particularly its impact on reproduction success. Thus, this present study provides preliminary data on the role that Neospora is playing in ovine reproductive failure by establishing the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies and DNA in ewe blood and foetal material present in 21 New Zealand sheep farms with ongoing unexplained abortion problems and 10 farms with consistently high fertility levels. The results of this study demonstrated an overall seroprevalence of 1.4% which varied between Aborting/non-pregnant (1.8%), age-matched pregnant controls (0.6%) and high fertility (2.1%) ewes. However, despite the variation observed, there was no statistical difference between the three groups. In addition, Neospora DNA was detected by PCR in 13% of submitted foetal brains and in ewe blood from aborting/non-pregnant (6.9%), age-matched pregnant controls (3.6%) and high fertility pregnant (2.1%) ewes. When the PCR results were considered with the IFAT and IDEXX ELISA results, there was no correlation between serology positive and PCR positive blood samples. Taken together, these results reveal that reliance on ELISA-based serology or PCR alone may underestimate the involvement of Neospora. Furthermore, determining the involvement of Neospora appears to require a multi-facetted approach where diagnostic methods and serological cut-off values may need to be adjusted as further information about the effect of natural

  17. [Motives and circumstances surrounding induced abortion among women living with HIV in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Portella, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Luzia Aparecida

    2012-07-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS infection on the decision of women living with HIV/AIDS to interrupt a pregnancy remains an understudied topic. In an effort to understand the influence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis on abortion practices, a qualitative study was carried out in seven Brazilian municipalities with women living with HIV/AIDS who reported inducing an abortion at some point in their lives. This study presents the analysis of interviews with thirty women who became pregnant after diagnosis. The results show that for some women, infection was the primary motive for terminating their pregnancy, while for others, the motives for abortion were predominantly related to life circumstances. The decision to abort due to HIV infection is not the same for all women. It is related to the timing of the diagnosis and other aspects of the woman's life during her pregnancy, such as the relationship with her partner, her job and family support. The results suggest the need for more attention from health services to the reproductive decisions of women living with HIV/Aids; the incorporation of men into sexual and reproductive health prevention actions; and a deeper discussion of the illegality of abortion in Brazil and its harmful consequences for women, men, and children.

  18. Mechanical ventilation enhances lung inflammation and caspase activity in a model of mouse pneumovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bem; J.B.M. van Woensel; A.P. Bos; A. Koski; A.W. Farnand; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg; T.R. Martin; G. Matute-Bello

    2009-01-01

    Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children can progress to respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI). Accumulating evidence suggests that mechanical ventilation (MV) is an important cofactor in the development of ALI by modulating the host immune responses to bacteria

  19. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  20. Molecular Testing for Toxoplasma Diagnosis in Aborted Fetuses- Taleghani Maternity Hospital- Arak- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Eslamirad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is most critical in pregnant women who acquire infection during gestation and also in fetuses and newborns who are congenitally infected. This study described the performance of molecular and confirmatory serologic testing for toxoplasma infection in the tissues of human spontaneous aborted fetuses and their mothers' blood. Materials and Methods: 87 random samples from the tissues of body of spontaneous aborted fetuses (less than 14 weeks in a separate container of preservative solution were collected from the delivery room of the university maternity hospital, Arak- Iran , during autumn 2012 to 2013. In the ward, 3 ml of blood sample of their mothers were collected and the sera were separated and analyzed by ELISA method for the detection of specific IgG. DNA extraction from the tissues of fetuses was performed and stored until use. The PCR reaction was performed by a pair of primers. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis and stained with safe stain. It is necessary to mention first that the written consent was obtained from their mothers and after recovery, a demographic questionnaire was completed. Results: Most of the mothers were 20-29 years of age and the correlation between the location of residence, contact with cats and eating undercooked food with abortion, not significant. Serological tests on the sera of 87 mothers for anti-Toxoplasma IgG showed 39.08% positive results. The results of PCR amplification showed that none of the 87 samples from aborted fetuses were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Conclusion: In aborted fetuses, we did not observe any evidence of Toxoplasmosis and it appears that Toxoplasma gondii was not the cause of spontaneous abortion in this area of Iran but considering the importance of the infection during pregnancy, the control measurements during pregnancy is required.

  1. ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs.

  2. Presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii and risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. It is well established that Q fever causes fetal loss in small ruminants. The suspicion has been raised that pregnant women may also experience adverse pregnancy outcome when the infection is acquired or reactivated durin...... pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential association between serologic markers of infection with C. burnetii and spontaneous abortion....

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Vaginal Bleeding after Drug-induced Abortion by Yaoliuan Capsule and Its Effects on Menses Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhichun; HUANG Guangying

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period ≤ 49 days and without contraindication, were divided randomly into study group (168 cases, taking Yaoliuan capsule) and control group (155 cases, taking placebo capsule). The results showed that in the study group, there were 161 cases (95.8 %) of complete abortion, 7 cases (4.2 %) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2 %) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9 %) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9 %) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5±5.2 days and 33.8 d±8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1±3.5 days and 9.9±5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  4. Aftershocks: The Impact of Clinic Violence on Abortion Services

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Between 1973 and 2003, abortion providers in the United States were the targets of over 300 acts of extreme violence. Using unique data on attacks and on abortions, abortion providers, and births, we examine how anti-abortion violence has affected providers' decisions to perform abortions and women's decisions about whether and where to terminate a pregnancy. We find that clinic violence reduces abortion services in targeted areas. Once travel is taken into account, however, the overall effec...

  5. 玉米叶片早衰及籽粒败育的机理与影响因素%The Mechanism and Effect of the Early Ageing and Kernel Abortion of Corn Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范杰英; 王昱; 姜晓莉; 张世忠

    2011-01-01

    Genes and environmental factors and cultural practices related to early ageing of corn leaves were reviewed in the paper. The relationship between early ageing and condition of roots was discussed. Kernel abortion was because of nutrition, the position of kernel, transportation and assimilation limits, potential and activity of sink. Factors affecting kernel abortion were genetic factor, water condition, temperature,light condition and kernel density. Measures for reducing kernel abortion were put foreword, such. as choosing fine seeds, suitable density,plucking out ears, fertilizing reasonably, improving nutrition condition, suitable irrigation and timely emission of water.%综述了导致玉米叶片早衰的遗传基因、外界环境条件和栽培措施等因素,及玉米籽粒败育的机理(营养供应限制、粒位与籽粒败育、输导及合成限制、库容及库活性)和影响籽粒败育的因素(遗传因素、水分条件、温度及光照条件和密度等);提出了减少籽粒败育的几点措施(选用优良品种,适宜密度、拔除雄穗,科学合理施肥、改善植株营养条件,适宜灌溉、及时排涝).

  6. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  7. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  8. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  9. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  10. Medical grand rounds at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Septic abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, F L; Landsberg, L

    1970-09-01

    a 17-year-old gravida 1, para 0, single white girl who had undergone criminal abortion, presented at the hospital with high fever and red urine. Her vital signs were monitored and laboratory tests were performed. A total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of gangrenous uterus and ovaries. The patient developed postoperative complications and blood transfusion was performed. The criminal abortion was induced using some type of liquid (eg., Lysol) that was injected into the uterus transvaginally. The use of Lysol, soap and detergents in criminal abortion produces an area of tissue necrosis. The compounds are also absorbed into the bloodstream. The necrotic tissue is susceptible to infection, while the part which is absorbed into the bloodstream is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and produces hemolysis. Common complications of septic abortion are pelvic abscesses; metastatic abscesses; tetanus; renal insufficiency; cortical necrosis; and acute tubular necrosis. Coagulation abnormalities, as well as the psychological, economic and legal aspects of septic abortion are also discussed. It is hoped that all physicians would actively support legislation which would liberalize abortion laws.

  11. Mechanisms of immunity in post-exposure vaccination against Ebola virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Bradfute

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever that is characterized by rapid viral replication, coagulopathy, inflammation, and high lethality rates. Although there is no clinically proven vaccine or treatment for Ebola virus infection, a virus-like particle (VLP vaccine is effective in mice, guinea pigs, and non-human primates when given pre-infection. In this work, we report that VLPs protect Ebola virus-infected mice when given 24 hours post-infection. Analysis of cytokine expression in serum revealed a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in mice given VLPs post-exposure compared to infected, untreated mice. Using knockout mice, we show that VLP-mediated post-exposure protection requires perforin, B cells, macrophages, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, and either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Protection was Ebola virus-specific, as marburgvirus VLPs did not protect Ebola virus-infected mice. Increased antibody production in VLP-treated mice correlated with protection, and macrophages were required for this increased production. However, NK cells, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha were not required for post-exposure-mediated protection. These data suggest that a non-replicating Ebola virus vaccine can provide post-exposure protection and that the mechanisms of immune protection in this setting require both increased antibody production and generation of cytotoxic T cells.

  12. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  13. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  14. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  15. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  16. Violence against abortion increases in US clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J

    1994-08-13

    In the US, violence against abortion clinics is escalating. In July 1994, a doctor who performed abortions and one of his escorts was gunned down outside of an abortion clinic. In March of 1993, another doctor was killed outside of a clinic. That killing prompted passage of a federal law designed to protect abortion providers and clinics from violence. In addition to the individuals murdered, the number of violent incidents against abortion clinics increased four-fold to 250 in 1993. Some elderly physicians feel compelled to continue to perform the procedure instead of retiring because there are no young practitioners to replace them. These physicians note that the young practitioners have no experience with the deaths and illness which resulted from illegal abortions and have not been properly trained by their medical schools. The US Attorney General has dispatched federal marshalls to guard abortion clinics, and local police are increasing their protection of clinics. Abortion protestors say that the new federal law will cause some formerly peaceful protestors to resort to violence.

  17. Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath Ali

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  18. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  19. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  20. Incidence of ovine abortion by Coxiella burnetii in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, B; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; Aduriz, G; Moreno, B; Garcia-Perez, A L

    2006-10-01

    The infectious causes of ovine abortion occurring in 148 farms in northern Spain between 1999 and 2003 were investigated. Laboratory analysis included microbiological, serological, pathological and molecular techniques. Border disease was diagnosed in 16% of the flocks, toxoplasmosis in 15%, chlamydiosis in 12%, salmonellosis in 10%, Q fever in 3%, miscellaneous infections in 7% (Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Brucella spp.), and inflammatory lesions compatible with an infectious cause were seen in 7% of the flock. In an additional 1% of the flocks non-infectious causes were identified, and a diagnosis was not reached in 38% of the flocks. When a PCR retrospective study was carried out to investigate the possible implication of Coxiella burnetii in the cases without diagnosis, including those with inflammatory lesions, the prevalence of this pathogen increased from 3% up to 9% of the flocks, revealing the importance of this zoonotic pathogen as a small-ruminant abortifacient agent. Placenta was the most commonly positive sample, but other fetal tissues were also of value for C. burnetii DNA detection. The present results update information about the situation of abortion in sheep farms in northern Spain, and highlight the relevance of molecular diagnostic tools in routine laboratory analysis of abortions by C. burnetii.

  1. Interleukin-15 is required for maximal lipopolysaccharide-induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kandiah, Nalaayini; Karimi, Khalil; Clark, David A; Ashkar, Ali A

    2013-06-01

    The maternal immune response during pregnancy is critical for the survival of the fetus yet can be detrimental during infection and inflammation. Previously, IL-15 has been observed to mediate inflammation during LPS-induced sepsis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether IL-15 mediates the inflammatory process during LPS-induced abortion through the use of IL-15(-/-) and WT mice. Administration of 2.5 μg LPS i.p. on gd 7.5 drastically reduced fetal viability in WT mice, whereas it had a minimal effect on fetal survival in IL-15(-/-) mice. The uteroplacental sites of LPS-treated WT mice were characterized by vast structural degradation and inflammation compared with treated IL-15(-/-) and untreated controls. This suggests that IL-15 may mediate the inflammation responsible for LPS-induced resorption. As IL-15(-/-) mice are deficient in NK cells and resistant to LPS-induced abortion, these effects suggest that IL-15 may mediate abortion through their homeostatic and/or activation effects on NK cells. WT uteroplacental units exposed to LPS had an increase in the overall number and effector number of NK cells compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before administration of LPS in WT mice partially restored fetal viability. Overall, this paper suggests that IL-15 mediates the inflammatory environment during LPS-induced fetal resorption, primarily through its effects on NK cells.

  2. Induced Abortion and the Risk of Tubal Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between induced abortion and tubal infertility in Chengdu, China.Methods A 1 :2 case-control study was designed. Infertile women with bilateral tubal occlusion in the case group compared with two control groups: infertile control group with bilateral tubal patency and pregnant control group with currently pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires through face-to-face interviews, covering the subjects' demographic details and histories of gynecology and obstetrics. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated as a measure of the association using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis.Results Induced abortion was not found to be associated with tubal infertility in the analysis including either the infertile controls or the pregnant controls, but other risk factors were found, such as history of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), lower abdominal surgeries, dysmenorrhea and pregnancy.Conclusion It is contended that facing an increasing trend of infertile cases with tubal occlusion in China, it is emphasized that special attention should paid to the long term impact of reproductive tract infection, especially, asymptomatic ones, rather than induced abortion.

  3. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  4. The abortion culture issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a large number of abortions in our country was first pointed out as far back as 1935 at the 17th Congress of Yugoslav Physicians. The abortion problem in Serbia is still present today, even though modern science has provided new methods and means which are a logical solution to the dilemma on birth control methods from the health and social aspect. Namely, total abortion rate in Serbia was estimated at 2.76 in the year 2007. It is very high; double the number of the total fertility rate and among the highest in Europe and the world. The term abortion culture was first used, as far as we know, by Henry David in the introduction of the book From Abortion to Contraception - A Resource to Public Policies and Reproductive Behavior in Central and Eastern Europe from 1917 to the Present in 1999, without specifically determining it. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important factors of the deterministic basis of endemic induced abortions in Serbia together with indirectly estimating their connection with the existence, namely nonexistence, of the abortion culture in our country. In that sense, potential factors of abortion incidence in Serbia which emerge from the social system and those connected to the individual level have been considered. In other words, a series of laws and other legal and political documents have been analyzed which are significant for perceiving the abortion matter, as well as institutional frameworks for family planning, health services, educating the youth regarding reproductive health, including findings of numerous researches carried out among women of various age and doctors from 1990 till present day in Serbia. The following most significant factors for the long duration of the abortion problem have been singled out: insufficient knowledge of modern contraception, a belief that modern contraceptive methods are harmful to health and a number of psychological barriers as well as those arising from

  5. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Women Who Have Aborted in Comparison with the Women with Normal Delivery in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Primary maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission to the fetus. However it is not certain whether Toxoplasma infection can cause recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion via detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of women with obstetrical problems and compare the results with control group consisting of women with history of normal delivery. Sera from 130 women with abortion and sera of 130 women with normal delivery were tested for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by ELISA method. The present study revealed 24.6% of the samples with abortion and 21.5% of the samples with normal delivery were positive for IgG antibodies. However, statistical analysis indicated no significant differences (P>0.05. In addition, IgM antibody was detected in one woman who had aborted but not in women with normal childbirth. This study showed no significant difference between the case and control groups in IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibody but detected one sample with IgM antibodies in woman with abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. In order to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion, anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity and PCR to discriminate between recent and prior infections are recommended.

  7. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct.

  8. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  9. Labour Force Participation and the Likelihood of Abortion in Finland over Three Birth Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Heini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies on the association between labour force participation and abortion. This study examined how the likelihood of having an abortion depends on being employed, unemployed, student or outside the workforce using Finnish register data from three birth cohorts (born in 1955-59, 1965-69 and 1975-79 of nearly 260,000 women. The results differed depending on whether all women or only pregnant women were studied and on the cohort analysed. Unemployed women had a high likelihood of abortion when all women were studied, but among pregnant women students had the highest likelihood. The direction and strength of the association varied by relationship status, age, and parity. The results show that the likelihood of abortion depends on women’s economic position. More studies on contraceptive use and pregnancy intentions in Finland are needed to identify the mechanisms behind these findings.

  10. Abortive lytic Epstein–Barr virus replication in tonsil-B lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis and a subset of the chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerner AM

    2012-11-01

    . Abortive lytic replication may be a pathogenic mechanism for EBV disease. EBV (HHV4 is a gamma herpesvirus composed of dsDNA about 170 Kb in length. For this discussion, there are early genes (including expressions of encoded proteins EBV dUTPase, DNA polymerase, and nuclear proteins and late genes (including expressions of capsid and membrane proteins. Abortive infection infers incomplete virion expressions of either early or late proteins, but the virion is incomplete. The lytic virus infers a complete virion. The pathologic consequences of EBV abortive replication are currently being investigated by authors.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, chronic fatigue syndrome, subset chronic fatigue syndrome, abortive lytic replication

  11. Major trends in recent abortion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Tak, J

    1975-05-01

    Abortion research continues actively. 1 finding has been that abortion has distinct regional features. In Western Europe the rights of the woman in relation to the rights of the fetus are under study while Eastern European researchers examine the effect of long standing available abortion on birthrates, women's health, subsequent pregnancies, and contraceptive use. The increase in illegal abortion shows that improved health and contraceptive services, better data, and changes in restrictive laws are necessary. Changes in the laws, either from less to more liberal or the opposite, have brought about national studies of subsequent trends in abortion, maternal and infant mortality, service facilities, contraceptive practice and fertility. The technique of menstrual regulation, performed within 14 days of a missed menstrual period and before pregnancy can be determined, has created new research problems. It raises the questions of whether menstrual regulation can legally be considered an abortion and whether effectiveness rates can be reliably determined if a large proportion of the women are not even pregnant. The relative risks of menstrual regulation in very early pregnancy and vacuum aspiration and dilation and curretage at a later stage are now being researched. The World Health Organization is planning research of the psychosocial aspects of the relationship between the users and providers of abortion services. Also receiving research attention is the incidence of repeat abortions and the effects of an abortion refused. The fact that overall birthrates have not been substantially changed by the liberalization of abortion laws in the last 20 years appears to be associated with the improvement of contraceptive methods.

  12. Aborter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria; Warburg, Margit

    2008-01-01

    Mens nogle hospitaler nedgraver aborterede fostre på kirkegården, bortskaffer andre dem som vævsaffald. Tvetydig lovgivning er årsagen. Udgivelsesdato: 15. oktober......Mens nogle hospitaler nedgraver aborterede fostre på kirkegården, bortskaffer andre dem som vævsaffald. Tvetydig lovgivning er årsagen. Udgivelsesdato: 15. oktober...

  13. Transcriptome analysis and gene expression profiling of abortive and developing ovules during fruit development in hazelnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Cheng

    Full Text Available A high ratio of blank fruit in hazelnut (Corylus heterophylla Fisch is a very common phenomenon that causes serious yield losses in northeast China. The development of blank fruit in the Corylus genus is known to be associated with embryo abortion. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for embryo abortion during the nut development stage. Genomic information for C. heterophylla Fisch is not available; therefore, data related to transcriptome and gene expression profiling of developing and abortive ovules are needed.In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis were conducted using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina HiSeq 2000. The results of the transcriptome assembly analysis revealed genetic information that was associated with the fruit development stage. Two digital gene expression libraries were constructed, one for a full (normally developing ovule and one for an empty (abortive ovule. Transcriptome sequencing and assembly results revealed 55,353 unigenes, including 18,751 clusters and 36,602 singletons. These results were annotated using the public databases NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO. Using digital gene expression profiling, gene expression differences in developing and abortive ovules were identified. A total of 1,637 and 715 unigenes were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in abortive ovules, compared with developing ovules. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used in order to verify the differential expression of some genes.The transcriptome and digital gene expression profiling data of normally developing and abortive ovules in hazelnut provide exhaustive information that will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of abortive ovule formation in hazelnut.

  14. Mechanics governs single-cell signaling and multi-cell robustness in biofilm infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Vernita

    In biofilms, bacteria and other microbes are embedded in extracellular polymers (EPS). Multiple types of EPS can be produced by a single bacterial strain - the reasons for this redundancy are not well-understood. Our work suggests that different polymers may confer distinct mechanical benefits. Our model organism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen that forms chronic biofilm infections associated with increased antibiotic resistance and evasion of the immune defense. Biofilms initiate when bacteria attach to a surface, sense the surface, and change their gene expression. Changes in gene expression are regulated by a chemical signal, cyclic-di-GMP. We find that one EPS material, called ``PEL,'' enhances surface sensing by increasing mechanical coupling of single bacteria to the surface. Measurements of bacterial motility suggest that PEL may increase frictional interactions between the surface and the bacteria. Consistent with this, we show that bacteria increase cyclic-di-GMP signaling in response to mechanical shear stress. Mechanosensing has long been known to be important to the function of cells in higher eukaryotes, but this is one of only a handful of studies showing that bacteria can sense and respond to mechanical forces. For the mature biofilm, the embedding polymer matrix can protect bacteria both chemically and mechanically. P. aeruginosa infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung often last for decades, ample time for the infecting strain(s) to evolve. Production of another EPS material, alginate, is well-known to tend to increase over time in CF infections. Alginate chemically protects biofilms, but also makes them softer and weaker. Recently, it is being increasingly recognized that bacteria in chronic CF infections also evolve to increase PSL production. We use oscillatory bulk rheology to determine the unique contributions of EPS materials to biofilm mechanics. Unlike alginate, increased PSL stiffens biofilms. Increasing both

  15. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the United States and Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone.

  16. Tissue-specific localization of pea root infection by Nectria haematococca. Mechanisms and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Uvini; Rodriguez, Marianela; Straney, David; Romeo, John T; VanEtten, Hans D; Hawes, Martha C

    2005-04-01

    Root infection in susceptible host species is initiated predominantly in the zone of elongation, whereas the remainder of the root is resistant. Nectria haematococca infection of pea (Pisum sativum) was used as a model to explore possible mechanisms influencing the localization of root infection. The failure to infect the root tip was not due to a failure to induce spore germination at this site, suppression of pathogenicity genes in the fungus, or increased expression of plant defense genes. Instead, exudates from the root tip induce rapid spore germination by a pathway that is independent of nutrient-induced germination. Subsequently, a factor produced during fungal infection and death of border cells at the root apex appears to selectively suppress fungal growth and prevent sporulation. Host-specific mantle formation in response to border cells appears to represent a previously unrecognized form of host-parasite relationship common to diverse species. The dynamics of signal exchange leading to mantle development may play a key role in fostering plant health, by protecting root meristems from pathogenic invasion.

  17. [Up-to-date findings in the host defence mechanism to cryptococcus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a medically important opportunistic fungal pathogen with a polysaccharide capsule surrounding the yeast-like cells. In hosts with impaired cell-mediated immunity such as AIDS, uncontrolled infection causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis. In immunocompetent individuals, the host immune response usually limits the growth of the fungal pathogen at the primary infected site, where it may persist, without completely eradicated, in a latent state because of its ability to escape from killing by macrophages. Th1 response in adaptive immunity is essential for the host defense to cryptococcal infection, in which interferon (IFN)-γ polarizes innate macrophages into fungicidal M1 macrophages. Recently, we found that caspase recruitment domain family member (CARD9), an adaptor protein in a signal transduction triggered by C-type lectin receptors, plays a key role in the early production of IFN-γ at the site of infection by recruiting NK cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory-phenotype T cells. We also found that IL-4 produced by Th2 cells stimulates broncoepithelial cells to secrete mucin, which may lead to promotion in the mucociliary clearance of C. neoformans. Here, we summarize the up-to-date findings in the host defense mechanism to this infection with focusing on our recent data.

  18. STUDY OF WHO SAFE ABORTION REGIMEN IN MEDICAL ABORTIONS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joylene Diana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical abortion is the use of drugs to induce abortion of a fetus. Due to the advances in the field of research , numerous regimens have been formulated to ensure a fast and complete expulsion of the fetus. These regimens also aim to towards reduced post abortal side effects and to decrease the need for surgical evacuation post medical abortion. The objective of this cros s sectional analysis was to study the effectiveness of the WHO safe abortion regimen in a tertiary care hospital . METHODS: A total of 60 patients with pregnancies of 12 to 30 weeks of gestation and in whom a medical abortion was deemed necessary were chosen . After instituting the WHO SAFE ABORTION regimen they were analysed based on indication for pregnancy termination , onset of pain with WHO regimen and time of expulsion as well as post abortal side effects and the need for surgical evacuation due to failure of the WHO safe abortion regimen. Post abortion an ultrasound was done to confirm the success of the regimen . RESULTS: Majority of patients in our study was multiparous and Mean gestational age for pregnancy termination was 20.6 weeks . The most common indication for medical abortion was incidental diagnosis of fetal demise or fetal anomaly on ultrasonography ( 43.6% . The average duration for onset of pain was 3 hours and the average time needed for expulsion was 6 hours from the start of the Abortion regimen . The most common post abortal side effect was excessive bleeding . Only about 13.3 percent patients needed a surgical evacuation due to failure of the regimen. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the WHO safe abortion regimen is highly effective and a desirable method for medical termination of pregnancy , especially in early pregnancy and in patients in whom a surgical method of abortion could pose as a risk . The WHO SAFE ABORTION regimen has minimal post abortal side effects , need for surgical intervention and the time needed for expulsion is less. Hence it

  19. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries.

  20. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Adelaja Lamina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  1. Chest radiological patterns predict the duration of mechanical ventilation in children with RSV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodhan, Parthak [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Division of Pediatric Critical Care and Cardiology, College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Lin, James [Mattel Children' s Hospital at UCLA, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Karni-Sharoor, Sarit [Shaarei Tzedek Medical Center, Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Jerusalem (Israel); Regan, Susan [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Noviski, Natan [Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    RSV-infected children demonstrate various radiographic features, some of which are associated with worse clinical outcomes. To investigate whether specific chest radiological patterns in RSV-infected children with acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the peri-intubation period are associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation. We included RSV-infected children <1 year of age admitted with ARF from 1996 through 2002 to the pediatric intensive care unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. Their chest radiographs were evaluated at three time-points: preintubation (day -1) and days 1 and 2 after intubation. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions models were utilized to investigate our objective. The study included 46 children. Using day 1 chest radiograph findings to predict duration of mechanical ventilation of >8 days, a backward stepwise regression arrived at a model that included age and right and left lung atelectasis. Using day 2 chest radiograph results, the best model included age and left lung atelectasis. A model combining the two days' findings yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 with a satisfactory fit (P = 0.95). Chest radiological patterns around the time of intubation can identify children with RSV-associated ARF who would require prolonged mechanical ventilation. (orig.)

  2. [Medical and social implications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, A; Capra, G

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the evolution of human society the problem or idea of interrupting a pregnancy has been faced many times. Romania has adopted a mixed solution to the termination of pregnancy allowing abortions for medical, eugenic, and social reasons. The 1936 penal code allowed only medical abortion, but recent regulations have offered differing solutions. The old regulation not allowing termination of pregnancy or restricting it was in force with minor modifications until 1957. In 1966 a decree was issued that allowed women with 4 children an abortion for special reasons as determined by an abortion committee, but still therapeutic and strictly medical causes predominated. In 1985 a new regulation of medical law prohibited termination of normal pregnancy up to 28 weeks of gestation and infractions were punishable by law. Illegal induced abortion represents an antisocial manifestation that jeopardizes human relationships in society. Induced abortion occurs often in disintegrated family situations. The social implications of the phenomenon of birth are manyfold. Medical intervention is difficult because of the mutilating effect of abortion. The motives are a matter of reflection for physicians and jurists alike.

  3. A measured response: Koop on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, C E

    1989-01-01

    The available scientific literature on the health effects of abortion on women in the US neither supports nor refutes the premise that abortion contributes to psychological problems. The 250 studies that have considered the psychological aspects of abortion are all flawed methodologically. Needed to resolve this issue is a prospective study of a cohort of US women of childbearing age focused on the psychological effects of failure to conceive, as well as the physical and mental sequelae of pregnancy whether carried to delivery, miscarried, or terminated by abortion. The most desirable such study could be conducted for about US$100 million over a 5-year period; a less expensive yet satisfactory study could be conducted for $10 million over the same time frame. Before such a study can be undertaken, a survey instrument must be designed to eliminate the discrepancy between the number of abortions on record and the number of women who admit to having an abortion on survey. Another issue is that the health effects of abortion cannot easily be separated from the controversial social issues surrounding pregnancy termination.

  4. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  5. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  6. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S;

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  7. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  8. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  9. Feelings of Well-Being Before and After an Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Examined feelings of well-being in 217 women who had abortions. Results suggest that, compared to women who have not had abortions, those who choose abortion feel more negatively. Of women choosing abortion, those who are already mothers are most likely to be depressed and lonely, followed by those from lower educational and socioeconomic…

  10. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  11. Mechanisms by Which Interleukin-12 Corrects Defective NK Cell Anticryptococcal Activity in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Kyei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12 restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown. By examining the sequential steps in NK cell killing of Cryptococcus, we found that NK cells from HIV-infected patients had defective binding of NK cells to C. neoformans. Moreover, those NK cells that bound to C. neoformans failed to polarize perforin-containing granules to the microbial synapse compared to healthy controls, suggesting that binding was insufficient to restore a defect in perforin polarization. We also identified lower expression of intracellular perforin and defective perforin release from NK cells of HIV-infected patients in response to C. neoformans. Importantly, treatment of NK cells from HIV-infected patients with IL-12 reversed the multiple defects in binding, granule polarization, perforin content, and perforin release and restored anticryptococcal activity. Thus, there are multiple defects in the cytolytic machinery of NK cells from HIV-infected patients, which cumulatively result in defective NK cell anticryptococcal activity, and each of these defects can be reversed with IL-12.

  12. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  13. Psychosocial correlates of delayed decisions to abort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, M B; Kasl, S V

    1976-01-01

    Two samples of women aborting in New York and Connecticut during 1972 and 1973 were studied. In all, six hundred and fifty eight women about to undergo first and second trimester procedures completed a self-administered questionnaire. Items include: demographic, psychosocial and personality parameters, and a detailed review of the decision process leading to abortion. Analyses of the correlates of delay are organized around four components: acknowledgment of pregnancy; seeing a physician ; deciding to abort; and locating a clinic. Other analyses focus on the role of decisional conflict in delay. Methodological issues, implications for educational practice and for theory of decision-making are discussed.

  14. Aborto. Responsabilidad compartida/Abortion. Shared responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernesto Betancourt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The father and the mother are involved in the act of procreation, therefore in abortion should also be considered is the father figure in some way and not let you load psychological, emotional and physical exclusively women. Similarly, when she decides to have an abortion he is not observed or questioned integral form to family and society to which she belongs, in short, the stigmatization affects only to the woman in question when there are several actors and circumstances that come into the Act of abortion.

  15. Spinal epidural abscess caused by Bacteroides fragilis group after dilation and curettage for incomplete abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ohyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is a rare infection complicated in patients who have some risk factors such as injection-drug use, diabetes mellitus, and several illnesses. However, no case of SEA associated with abortion has been reported. Here we report a case of SEA in a 30-year-old woman after dilation and curettage for incomplete abortion. The diagnosis of SEA was done by MRI and pus was drained after the cervical discectomy. Bacteroides fragilis group was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotics.

  16. Spinal epidural abscess caused by bacteroides fragilis group after dilation and curettage for incomplete abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyagi, Masaki; Ohkubo, Takuya; Taniyama, Takashi; Tomizawa, Shoji; Okawa, Atsushi; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-04-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection complicated in patients who have some risk factors such as injection-drug use, diabetes mellitus, and several illnesses. However, no case of SEA associated with abortion has been reported. Here we report a case of SEA in a 30-year-old woman after dilation and curettage for incomplete abortion. The diagnosis of SEA was done by MRI and pus was drained after the cervical discectomy. Bacteroides fragilis group was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotics.

  17. An aborted human fetus with truncus arteriosus communis--possible teratogenic effect of Tedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, R; Gilbert, E F; Bruyers, H; Optiz, J M

    1985-08-01

    We recently performed a detailed anatomicopathologic examination on an aborted human embryo whose mother had taken four tablets of Tedral (one tablet of Tedral contains 130 mg theophylline, 25 mg ephedrine, 8 mg phenobarbital) for an upper respiratory tract infection when the embryo was at approximately 30 days of development. On the same day, the mother developed acute chest pain and a fast, irregular heart beat. The abortion occurred at approximately 80 days of gestation. The heart of the fetus showed truncus arteriosus (Van Praagh type A1). Although no direct cause and effect relationship was proven in this case, the possibility of a teratogenic effect of Tedral during early pregnancy is considered.

  18. CONSULTANT REPORT INCOMPLETE ABORTIONS TREATED AT JAHANSHAH SALEH HOSPITAL IN TEHRAN, IRAN FROM MAY 14, 1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Behjatnia

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from May, 1973 to April, 1974, one hundred patients were trea ted for incomple te abortion at the ]ahanshah Saleh Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients admitted to th e hospital were from 4 to 28 weeks' gestation and were routinely administered analgestics before the abortion was completed by D&C. The D&C took about 10 minutes and the patient was usually able to go home that same day: Twenty-four women (24 .0% experienced complicatio n(s including blood loss, fever requiring antibiotic treatment, and pelvic infection.

  19. Differentially expressed genes implicated in embryo abortion of mango identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J H; Ma, F W; Chen, Y Y; Shu, H R

    2012-11-14

    Embryo abortion in mango severely damages mango production worldwide. The mechanisms by which the mango embryos abort have long been an intriguing question. We used subtractive suppression hybridization to investigate the differentially expressed genes involved in this process. We generated 2 cDNA libraries from normal seed and aborted seed embryos of mango cultivar 'Jinhuang'. One thousand five hundred and seventy-two high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained, with 1092 from the normal seed tester library and 480 from the aborted seed tester library. These ESTs were assembled into 783 unigenes, including 147 contigs and 636 singletons in contigs; 297 singletons in gene ontology (GO) indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. Seven candidate genes from different categories were selected for semi-quantitative PCR analysis, and their possible functions in embryo abortion are discussed. These data provide new insight into the genetic regulation of embryo abortion in mango and may aid in further identification of novel genes and their functions.

  20. Women's risk of repeat abortions is strongly associated with alcohol consumption: a longitudinal analysis of a Russian national panel study, 1994-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Keenan

    Full Text Available Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16-44 years was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS, a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994-2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001, and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62-3.20. This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994-2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts.

  1. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  2. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nai-peng Tey; Siew-yong Yew; Wah-yun Low; Lela Su'ut; Prachi Renjhen; Huang, M. S. L.; Wen-ting Tong; Siow-li Lai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowled...

  3. Second trimester medical abortion – perceptions and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Inga-Maj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Second-trimester abortions account for 10 - 15 % of all induced abortions worldwide with a wide variation of permits in different countries. In Sweden, second-trimester abortions account for less than 10 % of the total number of induced abortions. The indication can be fetal or socioeconomic. The medical abortion regimen with mifepristone and misoprostol, is the regimen used in Sweden. The treatment with misoprostol often causes painful contractions, and prophylactic as we...

  4. Actin polymerization as a key innate immune effector mechanism to control Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Si Ming; Ekpenyong, Andrew; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Wright, John A; Cicuta, Pietro; Guck, Jochen R; Bryant, Clare E

    2014-12-09

    Salmonellosis is one of the leading causes of food poisoning worldwide. Controlling bacterial burden is essential to surviving infection. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), such as NLRC4, induce inflammasome effector functions and play a crucial role in controlling Salmonella infection. Inflammasome-dependent production of IL-1β recruits additional immune cells to the site of infection, whereas inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis of macrophages releases bacteria for uptake by neutrophils. Neither of these functions is known to directly kill intracellular salmonellae within macrophages. The mechanism, therefore, governing how inflammasomes mediate intracellular bacterial-killing and clearance in host macrophages remains unknown. Here, we show that actin polymerization is required for NLRC4-dependent regulation of intracellular bacterial burden, inflammasome assembly, pyroptosis, and IL-1β production. NLRC4-induced changes in actin polymerization are physically manifested as increased cellular stiffness, and leads to reduced bacterial uptake, production of antimicrobial molecules, and arrested cellular migration. These processes act in concert to limit bacterial replication in the cell and dissemination in tissues. We show, therefore, a functional link between innate immunity and actin turnover in macrophages that underpins a key host defense mechanism for the control of salmonellosis.

  5. Therapeutic abortion in California. Effects of septic abortion and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G K; Goldstein, P J

    1971-04-01

    The impact of the reformed California abortion law, passed in November 1967, is investigated. The law allows interruption of pregnancy in the presence of substantial risk of grave impairment to the mental or physical health of the mother. Septic abortions (complete or incomplete abortion in a patient whose gestation is less than 20 weeks; duration and whose temperature is greater than 100.4 degrees F for more than 4 hours) per 1000 deliveries at San Francisco General Hospital fell from 69 in 1967 to 22 in 1969. The total number of abortions rose from less than 100 per 1000 births in 1968 to more than 250 in 1969. Maternal deaths due to abortion decreased in California per 100,000 live births from 8 to 5 to 3 in 1967, 1968, and 1969. Maternal deaths due to other causes remained relatively fixed in incidence. Maternal deaths have decreased much more markedly in the San Francisco Bay area, where many more therapeutic abortions have been performed, than in the Los Angeles Area, where relatively few therapeutic abortions have been performed. The decrease in septic abortion seems to represent a trend toward decrease in the number of illegal abortions.

  6. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yun Shan; Necchi, Francesca; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Young, Stephen P.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Saul, Allan J.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both). IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing. Conclusion/Significance IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials

  7. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  8. The Study about Chinese Abortion Approval Policy and Resolution Mechanisms ——Based on the Perspective of Policy Conflicts%"人流审批"政策研究及消解机制构建 ——基于政策冲突的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佩佩

    2015-01-01

    Chinese government made a p olicy which says that 14 weeks pregnant women who meet the conditions of giving birth to babies are forbidden to get an abortion without any medical needs .They have to get a approval certificate from the department in the place where they were born and where they live in case of the medical needs . This policy has been in conflict with Chinese Family Planning Policy, administrative licensing laws, Woman's Rights and Interests Protection Laws and social reality. The policy values guidance mechanism, consultation mechanism, department integration mechanism and information sharing mechanism, which can be considered to resolve the policy conflicts of abortion approval, safeguard the status of women and reflect the public interest.%我国规定符合生育条件的孕14周的妇女禁止非医学需要终止妊娠,因医学需要终止妊娠需经出生地和所在地计生部门的审批. 这种政策与我国既有的计划生育政策、行政许可法、妇女权益保障法以及社会现实等产生了冲突. 可以尝试从价值引导和政策协商、利益协调、信息共享等方面入手,逐步消解我国"人流审批"的政策冲突,切实维护妇女权益,体现公共利益.

  9. Obstetric performance following an induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowit, Alison; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been legalised in most of the Western world for the past four decades. In areas where abortion practices are legal and easy to access, the risk of short-term complications is very low. As most women requesting induced abortion (IA) are young, potential adverse effects on subsequent reproductive function are important to them. This review investigates obstetric performance following IA and highlights methodological problems associated with research in this area. Some data suggest that IA may be linked with an increased risk of low birth weight, miscarriage and placenta previa but could be protective for pre-eclampsia. Current evidence also suggests an association between IA and pre-term birth. Large prospective cohort studies, which permit meaningful subgroup analyses, are needed to provide definitive answers on outcomes following alternative methods of IA and the impact of gestational age at abortion on future obstetric outcomes.

  10. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion.

  11. Thatcher condemns attacks on abortion mp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-19

    The Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, has stepped in to condemn a series of violent attacks on Liberal MP David Alton who is trying to reduce the [Illegible word] limit on abortions from 28 to 18 weeks.

  12. Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an undue burden on women seeking access to abortion care in Texas," said researcher Dr. Daniel Grossman. Grossman is an investigator with the Texas Policy Evaluation Project, which studies the impact of state legislation affecting women's reproductive health. He's ...

  13. When legalising abortion isn’t enough

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    LSE’s Ernestina Coast is the Principal Investigator on a new research project in Zambia that seeks to establish how investment in abortion services impacts the socio-economic conditions of women and their households.\\ud \\ud

  14. Sex-Selective Abortions to Be Outlawed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is to outlaw the selective abortion of female fetuses to correct an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls that has grown since the family planning policy was introduced more than 20 years ago.

  15. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among women with abortion in Khartoum State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahaeldin Khalid Elamin Elhag

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and infection among aborted women in order to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross sectional hospital based study was conducted. A total of 95 pregnant women were enrolled in the study from Khartoum Teaching Hospital in the period from January 2012 to January 2013. The entire participant has history of abortion. The data were collected from the patient medical file.ELISA was used forToxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) IgG and IgM using commercial diagnostic kit. Quantitative analysis forT. gondii antibodies IgG and IgM was performed, and the assay result interpreted as IU/mL. Data were analyzed usingSSPS using theChi-square test. Results:A total of 95 participants were tested forT. gondii antibodies. Mean age was (29.93 ± 6.30) years old.T. gondiiIgM was found reactive in 5 participants (5.3%), while 27 participants (28.4%) were found reactive forT. gondii IgG. It was found that the age group of 20-29 and 30-39 had a significant correlation with antibody sero-positive. Conclusions: This study showed a high seroprevalence ofT. gondiiantibodies. Hence this study recommends implementing health program among pregnant women to prevent primary infection during pregnancy and regular surveillance of the disease among population all over the country.

  16. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhl, S; Casson, N.; Kaiser, C.; Thoma, R; Pospischil, A.; Greub, G; Borel, N.

    2008-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on new possible abortigenic agents such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. Retrospective samples (n = 235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae, rachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were furth...

  17. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴培

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt

  18. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.

  19. A novel mechanism inducing genome instability in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Jackson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and cancer development. Notably, aberrations in the cellular transcription and export complex (hTREX proteins have been identified in high-grade tumours and these defects contribute to genome instability. We have previously shown that the lytically expressed KSHV ORF57 protein interacts with the complete hTREX complex; therefore, we investigated the possible intriguing link between ORF57, hTREX and KSHV-induced genome instability. Herein, we show that lytically active KSHV infected cells induce a DNA damage response and, importantly, we demonstrate directly that this is due to DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, we show that sequestration of the hTREX complex by the KSHV ORF57 protein leads to this double strand break response and significant DNA damage. Moreover, we describe a novel mechanism showing that the genetic instability observed is a consequence of R-loop formation. Importantly, the link between hTREX sequestration and DNA damage may be a common feature in herpesvirus infection, as a similar phenotype was observed with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 ICP27 protein. Our data provide a model of R-loop induced DNA damage in KSHV infected cells and describes a novel system for studying genome instability caused by aberrant hTREX.

  20. Characterising the Mechanism of Airway Smooth Muscle beta(2) Adrenoceptor Desensitization by Rhinovirus Infected Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ly, David; Faiz, Alen; Jenkins, Christine; Crossett, Ben; Black, Judith L.; McParland, Brent; Burgess, Janette K.; Oliver, Brian G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infections account for approximately two thirds of all virus-induced asthma exacerbations and often result in an impaired response to beta 2 agonist therapy. Using an in vitro model of RV infection, we investigated the mechanisms underlying RV-induced beta 2 adrenoceptor desensitizat

  1. Immediate vs. delayed insertion of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Judith A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to assess whether intrauterine contraception placed immediately after a second trimester abortion will result in fewer pregnancies than current recommended practice of intended placement at 4 weeks post-abortion. Decision analysis suggests the novel strategy could substantially reduce subsequent unintended pregnancies and abortions. This paper highlights considerations of design, implementation and evaluation of a trial expected to provide rigorous evidence for appropriate insertion timing and health economics of intrauterine contraception after second trimester abortion. Methods/Design Consenting women choosing to use intrauterine contraception after abortion for a pregnancy of 12 to 24 weeks will be randomized to insertion timing groups either immediately (experimental intervention or four weeks (recommended care post abortion. Primary outcome measure is pregnancy rate at one year. Secondary outcomes include: cumulative pregnancy rates over five year follow-up period, comprehensive health economic analyses comparing immediate and delayed insertion groups, and device retention rates, complication rates (infection, expulsion and, contraceptive method satisfaction. Web-based Contraception Satisfaction Questionnaires, clinical records and British Columbia linked health databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Enrolment at all clinics in the province performing second trimester abortions began in May 2010 and is expected to complete in late 2011. Data on one year outcomes will be available for analysis in 2014. Discussion The RCT design combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate such an approach by determining pregnancy rate at one

  2. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  3. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  4. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does My Child Need? How to Safely Give Acetaminophen Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Common Childhood Infections Can Chronic Ear Infections Cause Long-Term Hearing Loss? Chickenpox Cold Sores Common Cold Diarrhea Fever and ...

  5. Mining Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions to Characterize Burkholderia mallei Infectivity Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memišević, Vesna; Zavaljevski, Nela; Rajagopala, Seesandra V.; Kwon, Keehwan; Pieper, Rembert; DeShazer, David; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pathogenicity relies on protein virulence factors to control and promote bacterial internalization, survival, and replication within eukaryotic host cells. We recently used yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening to identify a small set of novel Burkholderia proteins that were shown to attenuate disease progression in an aerosol infection animal model using the virulent Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 strain. Here, we performed an extended analysis of primarily nine B. mallei virulence factors and their interactions with human proteins to map out how the bacteria can influence and alter host processes and pathways. Specifically, we employed topological analyses to assess the connectivity patterns of targeted host proteins, identify modules of pathogen-interacting host proteins linked to processes promoting infectivity, and evaluate the effect of crosstalk among the identified host protein modules. Overall, our analysis showed that the targeted host proteins generally had a large number of interacting partners and interacted with other host proteins that were also targeted by B. mallei proteins. We also introduced a novel Host-Pathogen Interaction Alignment (HPIA) algorithm and used it to explore similarities between host-pathogen interactions of B. mallei, Yersinia pestis, and Salmonella enterica. We inferred putative roles of B. mallei proteins based on the roles of their aligned Y. pestis and S. enterica partners and showed that up to 73% of the predicted roles matched existing annotations. A key insight into Burkholderia pathogenicity derived from these analyses of Y2H host-pathogen interactions is the identification of eukaryotic-specific targeted cellular mechanisms, including the ubiquitination degradation system and the use of the focal adhesion pathway as a fulcrum for transmitting mechanical forces and regulatory signals. This provides the mechanisms to modulate and adapt the host-cell environment for the successful establishment of host infections

  6. Mining host-pathogen protein interactions to characterize Burkholderia mallei infectivity mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Memišević

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pathogenicity relies on protein virulence factors to control and promote bacterial internalization, survival, and replication within eukaryotic host cells. We recently used yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screening to identify a small set of novel Burkholderia proteins that were shown to attenuate disease progression in an aerosol infection animal model using the virulent Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 strain. Here, we performed an extended analysis of primarily nine B. mallei virulence factors and their interactions with human proteins to map out how the bacteria can influence and alter host processes and pathways. Specifically, we employed topological analyses to assess the connectivity patterns of targeted host proteins, identify modules of pathogen-interacting host proteins linked to processes promoting infectivity, and evaluate the effect of crosstalk among the identified host protein modules. Overall, our analysis showed that the targeted host proteins generally had a large number of interacting partners and interacted with other host proteins that were also targeted by B. mallei proteins. We also introduced a novel Host-Pathogen Interaction Alignment (HPIA algorithm and used it to explore similarities between host-pathogen interactions of B. mallei, Yersinia pestis, and Salmonella enterica. We inferred putative roles of B. mallei proteins based on the roles of their aligned Y. pestis and S. enterica partners and showed that up to 73% of the predicted roles matched existing annotations. A key insight into Burkholderia pathogenicity derived from these analyses of Y2H host-pathogen interactions is the identification of eukaryotic-specific targeted cellular mechanisms, including the ubiquitination degradation system and the use of the focal adhesion pathway as a fulcrum for transmitting mechanical forces and regulatory signals. This provides the mechanisms to modulate and adapt the host-cell environment for the successful establishment of

  7. Cross-cultural attitudes toward abortion--Greeks versus Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J; Marcos, Anastasios C

    2003-04-01

    Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there are three major differences between Greece and the United States. First, in Greece religiosity has a smaller impact on sexual liberalism, and sexual liberalism has a much weaker impact on both types of abortion attitudes, particularly social abortion attitudes. Second, in Greece religiosity is more strongly related to abortion attitudes than in the United States, particularly to social abortion attitudes. Third, education has a weaker influence in Greece than in the United States.

  8. Management of abortion complications at a rural hospital in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...

  9. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...... present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected and globally an estimated 66...

  10. Freedom of conscience, professional responsibility, and access to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, R S

    1994-01-01

    The current shortage of US physicians willing to perform induced abortions has created a conflict between women's legal right to access to pregnancy termination and physicians' right to refuse participation in a procedure they regard as morally objectionable. According to a 1993 survey, 84% of US counties (housing 30% of women of reproductive age) had no abortion provider. This situation has been exacerbated by a trend to isolate abortion from other medical procedures; in 1992, only 12% of residency programs in obstetrics and gynecology routinely offered training on first-trimester abortion. Also contributing to physician reluctance to become abortion providers have been the violence, death threats, property damage, and harassment of abortion seekers perpetrated by anti-abortion groups. To ameliorate the abortion access crisis, without intruding on the religious convictions of individual physicians, there must be greater collaboration between professional and community groups. Local community officials and pro-choice supporters are urged to use their influence to protect abortion providers from harassment. Professional organizations should provide both symbolic and practical support, e.g. increased status and remuneration, to physicians who commit to the hardship of abortion provision. Older physicians, most aware of the threat to women's health posed by any erosion of abortion rights, should educate their younger colleagues about the importance of safe abortion. Finally, training on abortion techniques should be integrated into the medical school curriculum and rotations should be established at local abortion clinics.

  11. Medication abortion in missed abortion up to 13 weeks amenorrhoea: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya R. Prasad

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Medication abortion is a safe and effective method for the termination of missed abortion up to 13 weeks of pregnancy with fewer complications thus reducing the need for surgical methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 3840-3842

  12. Apoptosis mechanisms of human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 infected with human mutant p27

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Shui Zhu; Long Wang; Guo-Qiang Cheng; Qin Li; Zu-Ming Zhu; Li Zhu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the inducing effect of human mutant p27 gene on the apoptosis of the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 and its associated mechanisms. METHODS: The recombinant adenovirus Ad-p27mt was constructed to infect the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. Using flow cytometry, TUNEL assay and DNA fragment analysis, we measured the apoptotic effect of Ad-p27mt on the human gastric cancer cells. RESULTS: Ad-p27mt was successfully constructed and the infection efficiency reached 100%. After 18 h of infection, we observed an apoptotic hypodiploid peak on the flow cytometer before G1-S and apoptotic characteristic bands in the DNA electrophoresis. The apoptotic rate detected by TUNEL method was significantly higher in the Ad-p27mt group (89.4±3.12%)compared to the control group (3.12±0.13%, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Human mutant p27 can induce apoptosis of the human gastric cancer cells in vitro.

  13. Infectivity versus Seeding in Neurodegenerative Diseases Sharing a Prion-Like Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fernández-Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions are considered the best example to prove that the biological information can be transferred protein to protein through a conformational change. The term “prion-like” is used to describe molecular mechanisms that share similarities with the mammalian prion protein self-perpetuating aggregation and spreading characteristics. Since prions are presumably composed only of protein and are infectious, the more similar the mechanisms that occur in the different neurodegenerative diseases, the more these processes will resemble an infection. In vitro and in vivo experiments carried out during the last decade in different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's diseases (PD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS have shown a convergence toward a unique mechanism of misfolded protein propagation. In spite of the term “infection” that could be used to explain the mechanism governing the diversity of the pathological processes, other concepts as “seeding” or “de novo induction” are being used to describe the in vivo propagation and transmissibility of misfolded proteins. The current studies are demanding an extended definition of “disease-causing agents” to include those already accepted as well as other misfolded proteins. In this new scenario, “seeding” would be a type of mechanism by which an infectious agent can be transmitted but should not be used to define a whole “infection” process.

  14. Functional Mechanisms of Treg in the Context of HIV Infection and the Janus Face of Immune Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abente, Jacobo; Correa-Rocha, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in infections, by modulating host immune responses and avoiding the overreactive immunity that in the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to a marked erosion and deregulation of the entire immune system. Therefore, the suppressive function of Treg in HIV-infected patients is critical because of their implication on preventing the immune hyperactivation, even though it could also have a detrimental effect by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses. In recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 can directly infect Treg, disturbing their phenotype and suppressive capacity via different mechanisms. These effects include Foxp3 and CD25 downregulation, and the impairment of suppressive capacity. This review describes the functional mechanisms of Treg to modulate immune activation during HIV infection, and how such control is no longer fine-tune orchestrated once Treg itself get infected. We will review the current knowledge about the HIV effects on the Treg cytokine expression, on pathways implying the participation of different ectoenzymes (i.e., CD39/CD73 axis), transcription factors (ICER), and lastly on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), one of the keystones in Treg-suppressive function. To define which are the HIV effects upon these regulatory mechanisms is crucial not only for the comprehension of immune deregulation in HIV-infected patients but also for the correct understanding of the role of Tregs in HIV infection.

  15. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  16. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  17. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

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    Zamberlin Nina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1 a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2 complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it

  18. Effector Mechanisms of Neutrophils within the Innate Immune System in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Eric; Teskey, Garrett; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils’ well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function. Additionally, the unique transcriptional changes of neutrophils may be used to differentiate between infection with M. tb and other bacterial and chronic rheumatological diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Adversely, during the innate immune response to M. tb, inappropriate phagocytosis of spent neutrophils can result in nonspecific damage to host cells due to necrotic lysis. Furthermore, some individuals have been shown to be more genetically susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) due to a “Trojan Horse” phenomenon whereby neutrophils block the ability of resident macrophages to kill M. tb. Despite these aforementioned negative consequences, through the scope of this review we will provide evidence to support the idea that neutrophils, while sometimes damaging, can also be an important component in warding off M. tb infection. This is exemplified in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These individuals are at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) due to a diminished innate immune response associated with decreased levels of glutathione. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to limit and contain M. tb infection through the use of antibiotics and vaccinations. However, due to several significant limitations, the current bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG, vaccine against

  19. Effector Mechanisms of Neutrophils within the Innate Immune System in Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils’ well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function. Additionally, the unique transcriptional changes of neutrophils may be used to differentiate between infection with M. tb and other bacterial and chronic rheumatological diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Adversely, during the innate immune response to M. tb, inappropriate phagocytosis of spent neutrophils can result in nonspecific damage to host cells due to necrotic lysis. Furthermore, some individuals have been shown to be more genetically susceptible to tuberculosis (TB due to a “Trojan Horse” phenomenon whereby neutrophils block the ability of resident macrophages to kill M. tb. Despite these aforementioned negative consequences, through the scope of this review we will provide evidence to support the idea that neutrophils, while sometimes damaging, can also be an important component in warding off M. tb infection. This is exemplified in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These individuals are at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB due to a diminished innate immune response associated with decreased levels of glutathione. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to limit and contain M. tb infection through the use of antibiotics and vaccinations. However, due to several significant limitations, the current bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG

  20. Mechanism of action and application of virocids in health care-associated viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shahbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important causes of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Newer viruses are still being discovered. Apart from frequently causing infections in the general community, many types of viruses are significant nosocomial pathogens that with emerging viruses has become a real issue in medical field. There are specific treatments, vaccine and physical barrier to fight some of these infections. Health care-associated viral infections are an important source of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The method of sterilization or disinfection depends on the intended use of the medical devices (comprising critical, semicritical and noncritical items and failure to perform proper sterilization or disinfection of these items may leads to introduction of viruses, resulting in infection. Disinfection is an essential way in reducing or disruption of transmission of viruses by environmental surfaces, instruments and hands which achieves by chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, respectively. This review discusses about chemical agents with virocids properties (e.g. alcohols, chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, phenolic compounds, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, iodophor, ammonium compounds quaternary, bigunides and so on., mechanisms of action and their applications in health care-associated viral infection control. As well as, we described an overview for hierarchy of viruses in challenge with disinfantans, effective agents on viral inactivation, i.e.targect viruses, viral stability or survival duration time in enviromental surfaces and hands. We explained disinfection of surfaces, challenges in emerging viral pathogens inactivation, viral resistance to chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Because, there are laboratory studies and clinical evidences for some viruses which viral resistance to biocide or failure to perform proper disinfection can lead to infection outbreaks. Also, we described virucidal

  1. Abnormal T-Cell Reactivity against Paternal Antigens in Spontaneous Abortion: Adoptive Transfer of Pregnancy-Induced CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells Prevents Fetal Rejection in a Murine Abortion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Gerlof, Katrin; Zenclussen, Maria Laura; Sollwedel, André; Bertoja, Annarosa Zambon; Ritter, Thomas; Kotsch, Katja; Leber, Joachim; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian pregnancy is thought to be a state of immunological tolerance. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. Here, we determined whether an inappropriate function of T regulatory (Treg) cells is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion. We evaluated spleen and decidual lymphocytes from CBA/J mice undergoing immunological abortion (DBA/2J-mated) or having normal pregnancy (BALB/c-mated) on day 14 of gestation for ex vivo cytokine production after ...

  2. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  3. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

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    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  4. New insights into the mechanisms whereby low molecular weight CCR5 ligands inhibit HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Javier; Rueda, Patricia; Staropoli, Isabelle; Kellenberger, Esther; Alcami, Jose; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Lagane, Bernard

    2011-02-18

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for the chemokines CCL3, -4, and -5 and a coreceptor for entry of R5-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into CD4(+) T-cells. We investigated the mechanisms whereby nonpeptidic, low molecular weight CCR5 ligands block HIV-1 entry and infection. Displacement binding assays and dissociation kinetics demonstrated that two of these molecules, i.e. TAK779 and maraviroc (MVC), inhibit CCL3 and the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 binding to CCR5 by a noncompetitive and allosteric mechanism, supporting the view that they bind to regions of CCR5 distinct from the gp120- and CCL3-binding sites. We observed that TAK779 and MVC are full and weak inverse agonists for CCR5, respectively, indicating that they stabilize distinct CCR5 conformations with impaired abilities to activate G-proteins. Dissociation of [(125)I]CCL3 from CCR5 was accelerated by TAK779, to a lesser extent by MVC, and by GTP analogs, suggesting that inverse agonism contributes to allosteric inhibition of the chemokine binding to CCR5. TAK779 and MVC also promote dissociation of [(35)S]gp120 from CCR5 with an efficiency that correlates with their ability to act as inverse agonists. Displacement experiments revealed that affinities of MVC and TAK779 for the [(35)S]gp120-binding receptors are in the same range (IC(50) ∼6.4 versus 22 nm), although we found that MVC is 100-fold more potent than TAK779 for inhibiting HIV infection. This suggests that allosteric CCR5 inhibitors not only act by blocking gp120 binding but also alter distinct steps of CCR5 usage in the course of HIV infection.

  5. Safe abortion for HIV-positive women with unwanted pregnancy: a reproductive right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Maria

    2003-11-01

    About 2.5 million women who become pregnant each year worldwide are HIV-positive. UNAIDS recommends that HIV-positive women should be able to control their fertility and to prevent HIV transmission perinatally if they decide to have children. Yet a literature review on these matters found that termination of pregnancy for HIV-positive women receives very little attention. This paper describes the difficulties faced by HIV-positive women in obtaining safe, legal, affordable abortion services. It shows that voluntary HIV counselling and testing for women seeking induced abortions and post-abortion care may not be provided. HIV-positive women want to avoid pregnancy for the same reasons as other women, but they also do not want to infect their partners through unprotected sex, worry about effects of pregnancy and childbirth on their own health, or about infecting a child and the child's future care. Little research has been done on whether HIV-positive women have a greater risk of morbidity following unsafe abortions than HIV-negative women, but evidence suggests they might. Studies in Zimbabwe and Thailand show that when information and access to legal pregnancy termination are lacking, HIV-positive women may be prevented from terminating a pregnancy. The paper concludes that it is essential for women living with HIV/AIDS to be able to exercise their right to decide whether and when to have children.

  6. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  7. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  8. Chlamydophila abortus infection in the mouse: a useful model of the ovine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M R; Buendía, A J; Del Rio, L; Ortega, N; Gallego, M C; Cuello, F; Navarro, J A; Sanchez, J; Salinas, J

    2009-03-16

    Chlamydophila (C.) abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium able to colonize the placenta of several species of mammals, which may induce abortion in the last third of pregnancy. The infection affects mainly small ruminants resulting in major economic losses in farming industries worldwide. Furthermore, its zoonotic risk has been reported in pregnant farmers or abattoir workers. Mouse models have been widely used to study both the pathology of the disease and the role of immune cells in controlling infection. Moreover, this animal experimental model has been considered a useful tool to evaluate new vaccine candidates and adjuvants that could prevent abortion and reduce fetal death. Future studies using these models will provide and reveal information about the precise mechanisms in the immune response against C. abortus and will increase the knowledge about poorly understood issues such as chlamydial persistence.

  9. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of System Health Management (SHM) and of its operational subset Fault Management (FM) states that FM is implemented as a "meta" control loop, known as an FM Control Loop (FMCL). The FMCL detects that all or part of a system is now failed, or in the future will fail (that is, cannot be controlled within acceptable limits to achieve its objectives), and takes a control action (a response) to return the system to a controllable state. In terms of control theory, the effectiveness of each FMCL is estimated based on its ability to correctly estimate the system state, and on the speed of its response to the current or impending failure effects. This paper describes how this theory has been successfully applied on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of proposed abort triggers so as to select the most effective suite to protect the astronauts from catastrophic failure of the SLS. The premise behind this process is to be able to quantitatively provide the value versus risk trade-off for any given abort trigger, allowing decision makers to make more informed decisions. All current and planned crewed launch vehicles have some form of vehicle health management system integrated with an emergency launch abort system to ensure crew safety. While the design can vary, the underlying principle is the same: detect imminent catastrophic vehicle failure, initiate launch abort, and extract the crew to safety. Abort triggers are the detection mechanisms that identify that a catastrophic launch vehicle failure is occurring or is imminent and cause the initiation of a notification to the crew vehicle that the escape system must be activated. While ensuring that the abort triggers provide this function, designers must also ensure that the abort triggers do not signal that a catastrophic failure is imminent when in fact the launch vehicle can successfully achieve orbit. That is

  10. Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Vanzzini Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective, and descriptive study about the support that the laboratory of microbiology aids can provide in the diagnosis of ocular infections in patients whom were attended a tertiary-care hospital in México City in a 10-year-time period. We describe the microbiological diagnosis in palpebral mycose; in keratitis caused by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, and melanized fungi; endophthalmitis; one Histoplasma scleritis and one mucormycosis. Nowadays, ocular fungal infections are more often diagnosed, because there is more clinical suspicion and there are easy laboratory confirmations. Correct diagnosis is important because an early medical treatment gives a better prognosis for visual acuity. In some cases, fungal infections are misdiagnosed and the antifungal treatment is delayed.

  11. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place.

  12. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  13. 生化糖浆对药物致不完全流产早孕大鼠子宫内膜血管新生及作用机制研究%Effect of Shenghua syrup on angiogenesis of medicine-induced incomplete-abortion in early pregnancy rats and its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苌凤锦; 梁杰; 彭代银; 陈孟夏; 孙学勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Shenghua syrup on angiogenesis of medicine-induced incomplete-abortion in early pregnancy rats and the related mechanisms. Methods Early pregnancy rats were intragastrically administered with misoprostol and mifepris-tong to establish the incomplete-abortion model. The incomplete-abortion rats were randomly divided into the model group,the positive control group and Shenghua syrup-treated groups. After the successive oral administration for 7 days,blood was collected from aorta abdominalis, and rat uterine tissues were collected. The content of serum Ang-1 and Ang-2 were detected by ELISA;the levels of Tie-2 and MVD in uter-ine tissues were detected by SP immunohistochemistry. Results Endometrial rat model groupˊs MVD and Tie-2 integrated absorbance and se-rum Ang-1,Ang-2 levels were significantly lower than those of the normal control group(P < 0. 05). In positive control group,biochemical syrup dose group,endometrial rat biochemical syrup,MVD in the high dose group and Tie-2 integrated absorbance and serum Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than those of the model group(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Shenghua syrup has the effect of markedly promoting angiogenesis in incomplete-abortion rats. Its mechanism may be related to the regulation of concentrations of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in serum and Tie-2 in uterine tissues.%目的研究生化糖浆对药物致不完全流产早孕大鼠子宫内膜血管新生及作用机制。方法将受孕7 d 的早孕大鼠灌胃米非司酮和米索前列醇,复制不完全流产模型,将不完全流产模型大鼠分为模型组、阳性对照组、生化糖浆低剂量组、生化糖浆中剂量组和生化糖浆高剂量组,将正常受孕大鼠作为正常对照组。采用免疫组化法检测大鼠子宫内膜中微血管密度(MVD)和酪氨酸激酶受体(Tie-2),采用酶联吸附法检测血清中促血管生成素-1(Ang-1)和促血管生成素-2(Ang-2

  14. Endocarditis tricuspid sub-aigue of post abortion: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjo, Léopold Houétondji; Savi de Tove, Kofi-Mensa; Hounkponou, Fanny Ahouingnan; Dohou, Serge Hugues Mahougnon; Houenassi, Martin Dàdonougbo

    2015-03-23

    Tricuspid infective endocarditis is rare and represents five to 10% of all cases of infective endocarditis. It occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users, and patients with central venous catheters or intracardiac probes. We report on the case of subacute tricuspid infective endocarditis in a girl of 17 years. She had no particular cardiovascular history. She was admitted for a persistent fever with cachexy, cough and thoracic pains, and right heart failure that appeared one month after a clandestine abortion. Transthoracic echocardiography found several vegetations on the tricuspid valve with massive tricuspid regurgitation. The chest X-ray showed bilateral excavated lung abscesses and condensation areas. Blood culture was not done and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was given. She was apyretic after 10 days. However, the massive tricuspid regurgitation with right heart failure persisted. She was discharged from hospital after 40 days of treatment. Although rare, infective endocarditis is one of the more serious complications of gynaecological procedures, particularly clandestine abortion. Therefore any young girl with persistent fever must be suspected of clandestine abortion.

  15. Student Nurses View an Abortion Client: Attitude and Context Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two studies of the relationship between student nurses' attitudes and patient perception with regard to abortion. Results indicate that the student nurses' judgments were related to their prevailing attitude toward abortion and to their religiosity. (Author/MA)

  16. Physician opinions concerning legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn; Rochat, Roger; Fink, Lauren; Richardson, Kalie; Brack, Chelsey; Comeau, Dawn

    2017-01-19

    Since the decriminalisation of abortion in 2006, women in Colombia have continued to seek clandestine abortions, endangering their health and contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. The goal of this study was to explore physicians' opinions towards and knowledge about legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia, and key barriers to the legal abortion access. We conducted 13 key informant interviews followed by a survey with a probability sample of 49 doctors working in public hospitals in Bogotá. Interview and survey data showed lack of technical experience in the provision of abortion and nuanced opinions towards its practice. Key informants described ignorance and lack of abortion training in medical schools as key barriers to provision. In the survey, 16/49 respondents had performed an abortion, 24/49 had referred a woman for an abortion and only 33/49 showed correct knowledge of the law.

  17. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  18. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  19. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  20. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  1. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  2. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain.

  3. The politics of abortion and contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezgić Rada

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author challenges several dominant positions that are relevant for understanding demographic trends and contraceptive practices as well as their mutual relationship. First, the author rejects the assumed direct connection between high abortion rates and low fertility. Second, the author challenges the thesis according to which abortions come about because of the lack of contraception and proposes that high abortion rates result from failing contraception i.e. from high failing rates of coitus interruptus which is a preferred method of birth control by men and women in Serbia. Finally, the author argues that giving control over reproductive risk to men does not make women passive victims of male domination. Rather women are, it is argued, active agents in reproducing hegemonic gender roles and relations. In addition, the author shows how gender power relations formed at the micro level may be consequential for macro level politics.

  4. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  5. An Epigenetic Role for Disrupted Paternal Gene Expression in Postzygotic Seed Abortion in Arabidopsis Interspecific Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, Ryan C; Yu, Helen Hong; Nah, Gyoungju; Zhang, Changqing; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-12-07

    Interspecific hybrids often increase the levels of heterozygosity and hybrid vigor, but some interspecific hybrid seeds are aborted shortly after fertilization. The mechanism behind this postzygotic seed abortion is poorly understood. Here, we report genome-wide analysis of allelic expression changes in developing siliques and seeds in three F1 interspecific crosses between Arabidopsis thaliana (Col, Ler, or C24) and Arabidopsis arenosa. The majority of maternally expressed genes (MEGs) were shared among all three F1 interspecific crosses, whereas ∼90% of 272 paternally expressed genes (PEGs) were found only in one or two F1 crosses, suggesting a role for disrupted paternal gene expression in seed abortion that varies in different crosses. Consistent with this notion, 12 PEGs in the infertile interspecific hybrids matched MEGs in fertile intraspecific hybrids. This disruption of PEGs in the interspecific hybrids was consistent with the upregulation of the genes in the paternal-excess interploidy cross (2X6) between a diploid mother and a hexaploid father, leading to the seed abortion. Moreover, a subset of PEGs in the interspecific crosses were also upregulated in the intraspecific hybrid met1XWT or meaXWT, in which the mutant of MET1 (DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1) or MEDEA, a Polycomb Repressive Complex2 gene, was used as the maternal parent. These data suggest that maternal epigenetic factors and paternal gene expression play important roles in the postzygotic seed abortion in interspecific hybrids or neo-allopolyploids.

  6. Studies on Expression of IGF-II Gene in Deciduas Derived from Medical Abortion Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅱ (IGF-Ⅱ ) upon the maintenance of decidua in early pregnancy and its relationship with progesterone, as well as its role in medical abortion. Materials & Methods Decidua tissue was obtained from 28 women who undergoing surgical abortion and 39 for medical abortion respectively at 5~7 weeks of gestation. The extracted total RNA was reversely transcripted and amplified by PCR with spe cific primers (IGF-Ⅱ and β-actin). The products were semi-quantitated by MIAS 300 system and qualitatively analyzed by southern blotting. Results The expression of IGF-Ⅱ gene in decidua from surgical abortion was signif icantly higher than that from medical abortion (P<0.05). The average IGF-Ⅱ gene transcription values were 1. 54±0.79 and 0.72±0.39 respectively. The results of southern blotting proved qualitatively that the RT-PCR products were IGF-Ⅱ cDNA. Conclusion IGF-Ⅱ plays a role in the maintenance of decidua in early pregnancy. It may act as a mediator of progestin. It's also involved in the molecular mechanism of mifepristone.

  7. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  8. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  9. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled.

  10. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 107 conidia/mL. The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent. The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%–47% and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%–63%. Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD. Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse, signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein, signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein, was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms.

  11. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 107 conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent). The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%–47%) and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%–63%). Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD). Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW) immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse), signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein), signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein) and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein), was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms. PMID:27618036

  12. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in high-risk pulmonary infections: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Esquinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to review the role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV in acute pulmonary infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, H1N1 and tuberculosis, and to assess the risk of disease transmission with the use of NIV from patients to healthcare workers. We performed a clinical review by searching Medline and EMBASE. These databases were searched for articles on ‘‘clinical trials’’ and ‘‘randomised controlled trials’’. The keywords selected were non-invasive ventilation pulmonary infections, influenza-A (H1N1, SARS and tuberculosis. These terms were cross-referenced with the following keywords: health care workers, airborne infections, complications, intensive care unit and pandemic. The members of the International NIV Network examined the major results regarding NIV applications and SARS, H1N1 and tuberculosis. Cross-referencing mechanical ventilation with SARS yielded 76 studies, of which 10 studies involved the use of NIV and five were ultimately selected for inclusion in this review. Cross-referencing with H1N1 yielded 275 studies, of which 27 involved NIV. Of these, 22 were selected for review. Cross-referencing with tuberculosis yielded 285 studies, of which 15 involved NIV and from these seven were selected. In total 34 studies were selected for this review. NIV, when applied early in selected patients with SARS, H1N1 and acute pulmonary tuberculosis infections, can reverse respiratory failure. There are only a few reports of infectious disease transmission among healthcare workers.

  13. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative application of the theory of System Health Management and its operational subset, Fault Management, to the selection of Abort Triggers for a human-rated launch vehicle, the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the theory to assess the effectiveness of candidate failure detection and response mechanisms to protect humans from time-critical and severe hazards. The quantitative method was successfully used on the SLS to aid selection of its suite of Abort Triggers.

  14. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy.  This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challa...

  15. Abortion and women's roles in society: opinions from Tlaxcala, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the opinions of Mexicans in the state of Tlaxcala on abortion and other topics concerning women's reproductive health and status in society. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We summarize opinions on abortion and women's roles in society and perform logit regressions to assess characteristics correlated with support for abortion rights. RESULTS: A majority of respondents were against a woman's right to abortion when asked generally, but when asked about specific circumstances,...

  16. Nursing care according to women in abortion situations

    OpenAIRE

    MARIUTTI, Mariana Gondim; Almeida, Ana Maria; PANOBIANCO, Marislei Sanches

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to understand how women having an abortion experience the nursing care they receive. The statements of 13 hospitalized women were analyzed through content analysis. The central category "Nursing care experienced in situations of abortion" was constituted from 4 subcategories: care centered in physical needs; fear of judgment in abortion situations; legal aspects defining care; the need for support in abortion situations. These women identified nursing care as base...

  17. Policies Affect Preferences: Evidence from Random Variation in Abortion Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in th...

  18. Post-Abortion Syndrome: A Critical Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Unwanted pregnancy and abortion are common life events, with an estimated 1 in 5 women experiencing an abortion within their lifetime. Although abortion itself is a relatively minor, safe procedure with minimal physical impact, controversy exists regarding the psychological risks associated with the termination of a pregnancy. A key argument within this debate is whether or not there is such a phenomenon as post-abortion syndrome. Therefore, this study aimed to examine t...

  19. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  20. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  1. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human skin against the background of papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Reva, G V; Yamamoto, T; Tolmachyov, V E

    2014-09-01

    The cells in the skin tumor developing under conditions of persisting papillomavirus infection are morphologically identical to blast cells in a blood smear from a leukemia patient. The cells filling the lesion focus are morphologically and immunohistochemically related to blood stem cells. A mechanism of epithelial layer modification under conditions of papillomavirus infection leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. The dynamics of structural changes in the skin is characterized by disturbed interactions between the epithelium and adjacent connective tissue, destruction of the basal membrane, disorders in the cambial keratinocyte differentiation, and absence of the spinous and granular layers. We conclude that detection of blast leukocytes in the human skin lesion can be explained by disorders in the cell-cell interactions in the epithelium-mesenchymal tissue system. High proliferative activity followed by death of cambial keratinocytes, migration of effector antigen-presenting CD68 cells to the adjacent connective tissue are the factors inducing migration of blast leukocytic forms to the focus. Not only keratinocyte restitution capacity, but also epithelium-dependent differentiation of young leukocytes disappeared. Undifferentiated cells are migrated from the blood to the epithelium alteration zone, but not in the reverse direction. The insufficiency or the absence of blood blast cell differentiation of the in the focus of epidermal injury and adjacent tissue triggers carcinogenesis. The authors suggest their model of carcinogenesis. The conclusions offer a new concept of cancer pathogenesis and suggest a new strategy in the search for methods for early diagnosis of carcinogenesis.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of Ustilago maydis infecting Arabidopsis reveals important aspects of the fungus pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, Domingo; Robledo-Briones, Angélica M; Estrada-Luna, Andrés A; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2013-08-01

    Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of the experimental pathosystem constituted by Ustilago maydis and Arabidopsis thaliana were performed. Haploid or diploid strains of U. maydis inoculated in A. thaliana plantlets grew on the surface and within the plant tissues in the form of mycelium, inducing chlorosis, anthocyanin formation, malformations, necrosis and adventitious roots development, but not teliospores. Symptoms were more severe in plants inoculated with the haploid strain which grew more vigorously than the diploid strain. RNA extracted at different times post-infection was used for hybridization of one-channel microarrays that were analyzed focusing on the fungal genes involved in the general pathogenic process, biogenesis of the fungal cell wall and the secretome. In total, 3,537 and 3,299 genes were differentially expressed in the haploid and diploid strains, respectively. Differentially expressed genes were related to different functional categories and many of them showed a similar regulation occurring in U. maydis infecting maize. Our data suggest that the haploid strain behaves as a necrotrophic pathogen, whereas the diploid behaves as a biotrophic pathogen. The results obtained are evidence of the usefulness of the U. maydis-A. thaliana pathosystem for the analysis of the pathogenic mechanisms of U. maydis.

  3. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-01-18

    Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host-pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  5. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks...

  6. [The decision process in induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterstad, T S; Tollan, A

    1990-06-20

    This study describes the pattern of decision as reported by women undergoing elective abortion. The results are based on interviews with 45 of 67 women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Tromsø, during a two month period in 1988. All women had informed, and most often consulted, at least one person before making the decision, usually their partner and/or a female friend. The majority of the persons consulted supported her, whatever her decision. According to the women, they made the women, the final decision themselves. Two women were persuaded by their partner to decide to have an elective abortion.

  7. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  8. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  9. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Nancy Y; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Rahman, Masmudur M; Barrett, John W; McFadden, Grant

    2010-06-05

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1--low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2--the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3--knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  10. C. elegans germline-deficient mutants respond to pathogen infection using shared and distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael TeKippe

    Full Text Available Reproduction extracts a cost in resources that organisms are then unable to utilize to deal with a multitude of environmental stressors. In the nematode C. elegans, development of the germline shortens the lifespan of the animal and increases its susceptibility to microbial pathogens. Prior studies have demonstrated germline-deficient nematodes to have increased resistance to gram negative bacteria. We show that germline-deficient strains display increased resistance across a broad range of pathogens including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Furthermore, we show that the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, which regulates longevity and immunity in C. elegans, appears to be crucial for maintaining longevity in both wild-type and germline-deficient backgrounds. Our studies indicate that germline-deficient mutants glp-1 and glp-4 respond to pathogen infection using common and different mechanisms that involve the activation of DAF-16.

  11. Candida parapsilosis Resistance to Fluconazole: Molecular Mechanisms and In Vivo Impact in Infected Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Carolina R; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Pinhati, Henrique M S; Siqueira, Ricardo A; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2015-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the main non-albicans Candida species isolated from patients in Latin America. Mutations in the ERG11 gene and overexpression of membrane transporter proteins have been linked to fluconazole resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis isolated from critically ill patients. The identities of the nine collected C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level were confirmed through molecular identification with a TaqMan qPCR assay. The clonal origin of the strains was checked by microsatellite typing. The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to confirm in vitro resistance. We assessed the presence of ERG11 mutations, as well as the expression of ERG11 and two additional genes that contribute to antifungal resistance (CDR1 and MDR1), by using real-time quantitative PCR. All of the C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto) isolates tested exhibited fluconazole MICs between 8 and 16 μg/ml. The in vitro data were confirmed by the failure of fluconazole in the treatment of G. mellonella infected with fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis. Sequencing of the ERG11 gene revealed a common mutation leading to a Y132F amino acid substitution in all of the isolates, a finding consistent with their clonal origin. After fluconazole exposure, overexpression was noted for ERG11, CDR1, and MDR1 in 9/9, 9/9, and 2/9 strains, respectively. We demonstrated that a combination of molecular mechanisms, including the presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene, overexpression of ERG11, and genes encoding efflux pumps, are involved in fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis.

  12. [Abortion level in 5 species of Cestrum L. (Solanaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Laportte, M; Ruíz Zapata, T

    2001-01-01

    We studied the fitness and abortion levels in five species of genus Cestrum L. (Solanaceae) present in a cloud forest of Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, Venezuela. The seed set is variable and the abortion is higher at flowers-fruits and ovule levels, while the S/O ratio is low. We discuss the possible causes of abortion and seed set in these species.

  13. The Expression of Experience: Code's Critique of Gilligan's Abortion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Alice

    1991-01-01

    Presents a response to Lorraine Code's critique of Carol Gilligan's abortion study. Urges that abortion be read as a socially constructed experience based on more than women's moral decisions. Discusses language and experience to present abortion as an area of contested meaning in historical and ideological constructions of social life. (DK)

  14. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  15. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  16. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  17. ANTISPERM ANTIBODY IS A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChong; CHENFu; LIULi; ZHAOFei-Sha

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the possible correlation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and spontaneous abortion, 68 women, aged 23-37, experienced 2-9 times of spontaneous abortion were tested for ASA by ELISA. 38 fertile women, aged 24-40, without history of abortion were employed as control.

  18. 稽留流产128例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 128 cases of missed abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金凤

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the incidence of missed abortion factors, diagnosis and method of treatment, prevention of the occurrence of missed abortion. Missed abortion (missed abortion) refers to the embryo or fetus has retained intrauterine death not naturaly discharged ( 1 ), is a special type of spontaneous abortion. Causes of missed abortion for many reasons, but the mechanism is not clear. Methods: the retrospective approach on clinical data analysis of missed abortion. Results: the missed abortion and fetal genetic defects, adverse external factors and the effect of maternal disease of. Conclusion: the incidence of missed abortion factors, diagnosis and method of treatment, prevention of the occurrence of missed abortion, on the health of women of childbearing age has important significance. Fetal genetic defects, chromosome abnormality is the main reason of occurrence of missed abortion. B ultrasound is the main diagnostic methods. The diagnosis should be promptly after the evacuation of uterus.%  目的探讨稽留流产的发病因素,诊断及治疗方法,预防稽留流产的发生.稽留流产(missed abortion)是指胚胎或胎儿已死亡滞留宫腔内未能及时自然排出者[1],是自然流产的一种特殊类型.造成稽留流产的原因很多,但机制尚不明确.方法采用回顾性方法对稽留流产的临床资料进行分析.结果稽留流产与胎儿遗传基因的缺陷、外界不良因素的影响及母体疾患有关.结论探讨稽留流产的发病因素,诊断及治疗方法,预防稽留流产的发生,对育龄妇女的身心健康有着重要的意义.胎儿遗传基因的缺陷,染色体异常是发生稽留流产的主要原因.B超是主要的诊断方式.诊断明确后应及时排空子宫.

  19. Tricuspid valve endocarditis with Group B Streptococcus after an elective abortion: the need for new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palys, Erica E; Li, John; Gaut, Paula L; Hardy, W David

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS), was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  20. [Management of patients with a history of late abortion or very premature delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, B; Gaudineau, A; Sananes, N; Fritz, G

    2013-02-01

    Patients have a very late abortion or premature delivery in 2-3 % of pregnancies. Management in a subsequent pregnancy should seek an infection, a fetal cause (aneuploidy, malformation syndrome, intrauterine death) or vascular pathology (preeclampsia, IUGR, intrauterine death). In women with a late abortion or very premature childbirth history, several preventive treatments of prematurity are now available. The main cause of prematurity is ascending infection from the vagina. Cerclage or pessary is designed to better isolate the uterine cavity. Their effectiveness has been validated in patients for whom the repeated measurement of cervical length by transvaginal ultrasound shows a cervical length prematurity. Finally, the routine administration of intramuscular or vaginal progesterone at the beginning of the 2(nd) quarter also proved effective in several randomized studies.

  1. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Palys

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS, was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  2. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Interactions between biofilms and the environment. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1997;20:291–303. 4. Webb LX, Wagner W, Carroll D, et al. Osteomyelitis and...treatment of osteomyelitis . Biomed Mater. 2008;3: 034114. 6. Gristina AG. Biomaterial-centered infection: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration...vertebral osteomyelitis . Spine. 2007;32: 2996–3006. 15. Beckham JD, Tuttle K, Tyler KL. Reovirus activates transforming growth factor ß and bone

  3. HIV肺部感染机制研究进展%Research advances in mechanism of HIV and pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱亚林; 任晓凤; 谢龙舟; 赵卉

    2015-01-01

    人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者易发肺部感染,HIV感染机体时,外周血中CD4+T细胞进行性降低,肺泡巨噬细胞功能受损是获得性免疫缺陷综合征易发肺部感染的两大主要原因。本文从CD4+ T细胞、肺泡巨噬细胞两方面与获得性免疫缺陷综合征肺部感染的关系作一综述,以此提高人们对HIV患者易发肺部感染机制的认识,并为其相关治疗提供新的思路和策略。%HIV-infected persons are prone to lung infection, the gradual decline of CD4+ T lymphocytes and impaired alveolar macrophages are the two main reasons why persons prone to lung infection in HIV infection. This review focused on the CD4+ T lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in pulmonary infection of HIV-infected persons and improving people's awareness on the mechanism of pulmonary infection of HIV-infected persons.

  4. Do Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain an Abortion Help Reduce STIs Among Minors?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Thomas Dee

    2011-01-01

    This issue brief evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link between parental involvement laws and teen STI rates.

  5. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  6. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  7. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area.

  8. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks....... The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  9. Abortion Services and Military Medical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    general.83 However, the Senate agreed, subject to certain limitations, to consider legislation, S. 1104,84 “to provide for parental involvement in...Senators Frist and Brownback), would “provide for parental involvement in the performance of abortions for dependent children of members of the Armed

  10. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  11. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  12. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  13. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  14. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...

  15. Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola: a causal agent of sow abortions in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, S V; Dianderas, M T; Windsor, R S

    1991-11-01

    An outbreak of abortions, stillbirths, mummified piglets and neonatal deaths in a pig herd in Arequipa, Peru is described. A total of 31 of 240 sows aborted between May and September 1988. When sera were examined 12 of 14 had very high titres of antibody to canicola PC125 and canicola Hond Utrecht, but there were also high titres of antibody to other leptospiral serovars. A detailed investigation was made and serovar canicola PC125 was isolated from the urine of four sows which had aborted and the kidney of one slaughter pig. Antibodies to various serovars of Leptospira were demonstrated in 11 of 17 sows which had aborted, two of six sows which had normal litters, nine of 18 boars, four of 39 slaughter pigs and four of 14 workers on the farm. The outbreak was brought under control by treatment and vaccination coupled with a thorough cleaning of the farm and control of the wild animal population. It is suggested that the infection was brought onto the farm by wild animals and that the disease is more common in Arequipa than was previously supposed.

  16. Safety and acceptability of post-abortal IUD insertion and the importance of counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tagy, Ahmed; Sakr, Ezzat; Sokal, David C; Issa, Adel Hakim

    2003-03-01

    This nonrandomized observational clinical study evaluated the safety and acceptability of intrauterine device insertion either immediately or 2 weeks after abortion, according to the patient's preference. Participants were 300 women with first-trimester abortions who agreed to immediate or delayed insertion. End points were bleeding patterns, pregnancy, expulsion, perforation, infection and device removal at 2, 6 and 10 weeks after insertion, and acceptance rates before and after counseling procedures were improved. The overall initial acceptance rate was 35.8%, and the actual acceptance rate was 31.7%. After counseling procedures were improved, the initial and actual acceptance rates increased substantially (17.7% vs. 44.3% and 10.2% vs. 42.0%, respectively). Bleeding, expulsion rates and pain did not differ significantly between the immediate and delayed insertion groups after IUD insertion. No pregnancies, perforations or cases of pelvic inflammatory disease were recorded in either group. Immediate post-abortal insertion offers the advantage of being a painless procedure. The quality of counseling is critical to improving acceptance of post-abortion contraception.

  17. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  18. Why don’t humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion services?

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Therese; Casey, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Background Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors’ observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: ‘There’s no need’; ‘Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises’; ‘Donors don’t fund abortion services’; and ‘Abortion is illegal’. Discussion However, each of these reasons is based on false premises. Unsafe abortion is a...

  19. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Pourreza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

  20. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  1. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  2. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  3. Structure, adsorption to host, and infection mechanism of virulent lactococcal phage p2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeacua, Cecilia; Tremblay, Denise; Farenc, Carine; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Sadovskaya, Irina; van Heel, Marin; Veesler, David; Moineau, Sylvain; Cambillau, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Lactococcal siphophages from the 936 and P335 groups infect the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis using receptor binding proteins (RBPs) attached to their baseplate, a large multiprotein complex at the distal part of the tail. We have previously reported the crystal and electron microscopy (EM) structures of the baseplates of phages p2 (936 group) and TP901-1 (P335 group) as well as the full EM structure of the TP901-1 virion. Here, we report the complete EM structure of siphophage p2, including its capsid, connector complex, tail, and baseplate. Furthermore, we show that the p2 tail is characterized by the presence of protruding decorations, which are related to adhesins and are likely contributed by the major tail protein C-terminal domains. This feature is reminiscent of the tail of Escherichia coli phage λ and Bacillus subtilis phage SPP1 and might point to a common mechanism for establishing initial interactions with their bacterial hosts. Comparative analyses showed that the architecture of the phage p2 baseplate differs largely from that of lactococcal phage TP901-1. We quantified the interaction of its RBP with the saccharidic receptor and determined that specificity is due to lower k(off) values of the RBP/saccharidic dissociation. Taken together, these results suggest that the infection of L. lactis strains by phage p2 is a multistep process that involves reversible attachment, followed by baseplate activation, specific attachment of the RBPs to the saccharidic receptor, and DNA ejection.

  4. Mechanisms and significance of liver steatosis in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Negro

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of liver damage associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to be largely immunomediated.However,some frequent histopathological features,such as steatosis,suggest a direct cytopathic effect of HCV.The direct responsibility of HCV in the pathogenesis of steatosis is shown by:(1) the association with HCV genotype 3 infection,suggesting that some viral sequences are involved in the intracellular accumulation of lipids;(2) the correlation between severity of steatosis and HCV replication levels; (3) association between response to treatment and disappearance of steatosis. Experimental studies have shown that the nucleocapsid protein of HCV (core protein) is capable and sufficient to induce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes.Moreover, the observation that chronic hepatitis C patients have reduced serum levels of ApoB suggests an interference with the very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, although other mechanisms are possible. In patients with sustained virological response induced by antiviral therapy, such levels are normalized. Other observations suggest that the pathogenesis of steatosis in chronic hepatitis C is not solely due to HCV. The origin of the mild steatosis observed in most patients may be metabolic, since its severity correlates with body mass index and insulin resistance. Most studies have shown a correlation between presence and/or severity of steatosis and fibrosis stage, but it is unclear whether this effect is direct or mediated by the associated insulin resistance,increased susceptibility to apoptosis, or by inflammatory cytokines. Finally, steatosis negatively influences the rate of response to antiviral treatment, as confirmed by large clinical trials. Management of steatosis in chronic hepatitis C requires knowledge of its pathogenesis and may involve both life-style changes and pharmacological interventions, although the latter remain largely experimental.

  5. Unsafe Abortion- A Tragic Saga of Maternal Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Regmi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite provision of adequate care and legalization of abortion. The aim of this study was to find out the contribution of unsafe abortion in maternal mortality and its other consequences. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in BPKIHS between 2005 April to 2008 September analyzing all the unsafe abortion related admissions. RESULTS: There were 70 unsafe abortion patients. Majority of them (52.8% were of high grade. Most of them recovered but there were total 8maternal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Unsafe abortion is still a significant medical and social problem even in post legalization era of this country. Keywords: abortion, legalization, maternal death, unsafe.

  6. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2011-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event....... Results The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first...

  7. Co-infection by porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets in southern Brazil Co-infecção por circovírus suíno tipo 2 e parvo-vírus suíno em fetos abortados e natimortos suínos no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Pescador

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 (PCV1, PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV are widespread in pig populations around the world. Nevertheless, only PCV2 has been associated with different clinical syndromes, thus representing a major problem to the pig industry. The association of cases of swine abortions and stillborns with PCV1 and PCV2 and PPV was studied retrospectively (2005-2007. Additional pathogens were also investigated in lesioned fetuses. The studied litters included stillborn piglets and several mummified fetuses of varied sizes. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial pale areas, and mesocolic edema were the gross lesions. Escherichia coli was detected as co-infecting with PCV2 the cases in which mesocolic edema was seen. Microscopic lesions included non-suppurative myocarditis, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, mineralization foci and intranuclear inclusion bodies in cardiomyocytes, and interstitial mononuclear pneumonia. Samples from 7 (5.78 per cent of 121 aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets had lesions consistent with a viral cause and showed both positive anti-PCV2 immunostaining as well as PCV2-PCR. In samples from 3 (2.47 per cent of these 7 fetuses, co-infection with PPV was confirmed by Nested-PCR. Both viruses were detected in fetuses at different stages of gestation. Viral antigens of PCV2 were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in macrophages and myocytes. PCV1 individually was not detected in any of these affected fetuses, but it was associated with PCV2 and/or PPV in some of them. These findings indicate that PCV2 alone or in association with PPV should be kept in mind when investigating causes of infectious abortion in pigs in Brazil.Estudou-se retrospectivamente (2005-2007 a associação de casos de abortos e natimortos suínos com infecções por circovírus suíno (PCV tipos 1 e 2 e parvovírus suíno (PPV. Outros agentes patogênicos foram pesquisados em amostras de fetos com lesões. O estudo incluiu natimortos e

  8. Importance of immunoglobulin E (IgE in the protective mechanism against gastrointestinal nematode infection: looking at the intestinal mucosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGRÃO-CORRÊA Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses experimental evidences that indicate the IgE participation on the effector mechanisms that leads to gastrointestinal nematode elimination. Data discussed here showed that, for most experimental models, the immune response involved in nematode elimination is regulated by Th-2 type cytokines (especially IL-4. However, the mechanism(s that result in worm elimination is not clear and might be distinct in different nematode species. Parasite specific IgE production, especially the IgE produced by the intestinal mucosae or associated lymphoid organs could participate in the intestinal elimination of Trichinella spiralis from infected rats. Intestinal IgE may also be important to the protective mechanism developed against other gastrointestinal nematodes that penetrate the murine duodenum mucosa tissue, such as Strongyloides venezuelensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus. At least in Trichinella spiralis infected rats, the results indicated that intestinal IgE might work independently from mast cell degranulation for worm elimination.

  9. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its contribution to abortion in cattle, camel, and goat kept under pastoral management in Borana, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Bekele; Biffa, Demelash; Abunna, Fufa; Regassa, Alemayehu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-03-01

    The involvement of Brucella infection in causing abortion was investigated in a breeding female subpopulation of 283 cattle, 756 camels, and 757 goats. Serum samples were serially tested using the Rose Bengal test and complement fixation test. The study showed that anti-Brucella antibodies were prevalent in 10.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4, 14.9), 2.2% (95%CI, 1.4, 3.7), and 1.9% (95%CI, 1.1, 3.2) of cattle, camel, and goats, respectively. Abortion was more commonly reported in camels (23.4%) than cattle (13.8%) and goats (12.4%). The results of this study suggested that Brucella infections contribute significantly to abortion in cattle (odds ratio (OR), = 4.7; 95%CI, 2.0, 10.8) and goats (OR = 6.9; 95%CI, 2.2, 21.7) but not in camels. The number of young animals produced by breeding females seems to be apparently reduced in seropositive groups. Keeping more than two animal species at household level was found to be the risk factor for cattle (OR = 3.1; 95%CI, 1.2, 7.9) and camel (OR = 5.3; 95%CI, 1.2-23.5) seropositivity to Brucella infection when compared to those animals from households that keep only two animal species. This may suggest a possibility of cross species transmission of Brucella infection under such mixed herding. Wet season (OR = 4.8; 95%CI, 1.3, 18.1) was found to be associated with seropositivity in goats, linked to a coincidence of increased deliveries in flocks with possible excretion of Brucella organisms. The study results suggest that Brucella infection is the likely cause of abortion in cattle and goats while other causes largely outweigh brucellosis as a cause of abortion in camels in Borana, hence, contributing to reproductive loss.

  10. The Nuclear Receptor LXR Limits Bacterial Infection of Host Macrophages through a Mechanism that Impacts Cellular NAD Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Matalonga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages exert potent effector functions against invading microorganisms but constitute, paradoxically, a preferential niche for many bacterial strains to replicate. Using a model of infection by Salmonella Typhimurium, we have identified a molecular mechanism regulated by the nuclear receptor LXR that limits infection of host macrophages through transcriptional activation of the multifunctional enzyme CD38. LXR agonists reduced the intracellular levels of NAD+ in a CD38-dependent manner, counteracting pathogen-induced changes in macrophage morphology and the distribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton and reducing the capability of non-opsonized Salmonella to infect macrophages. Remarkably, pharmacological treatment with an LXR agonist ameliorated clinical signs associated with Salmonella infection in vivo, and these effects were dependent on CD38 expression in bone-marrow-derived cells. Altogether, this work reveals an unappreciated role for CD38 in bacterial-host cell interaction that can be pharmacologically exploited by activation of the LXR pathway.

  11. An outpatient regimen of combined oral mifepristone 400 mg and misoprostol 400 microg for first-trimester legal medical abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rasmussen, Ase; Knudsen, Ulla Breth;

    2005-01-01

    the procedure over a 3-year period and 606 (92%) experienced successful medical abortion. The remaining 8% had vacuum aspiration performed mainly due to uterine retention (70%). Other reasons were vaginal bleeding (25%), vomiting (2%), or pelvic infection (4%). Most women reported no days with severe pain (67......%), 0--1 days with moderate pain (82%), and 0--1 days with light pain (62%). In terms of gastrointestinal side effects, 68% reported nausea, 33% vomiting, and 27% diarrhea. Most women (90%) felt that the information given at the hospital prior to the abortion was sufficient, 74% would prefer medical...

  12. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days.

  13. Fetal death in cows experimentally infected with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. Most of the N. caninum experimental primary infections in cattle late in gestation, after 120 days of pregnancy, results in birth of full-term congenitally infected fetuses....

  14. 流产后服务模式的临床探讨%Investigatoin on clinical post abortion care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁贞明; 魏敏敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨人工流产术后即时开展人工流产后服务( post abortion care, PAC)的临床意义。方法:将行人工流产的年轻未生育妇女480例随机分为2组,人工流产术后接受PAC者为治疗组(240例),不采用PAC者为观察组(240例)。观察2组术后出血及月经情况,采取避孕措施及再次非意愿妊娠情况。结果:观察组出血时间短,术后并发感染及宫腔粘连等并发症发生率低,流产后月经恢复快,且避孕效果优于观察组(P<0.05),再次非意愿妊娠率低。结论:人工流产后立即开展PAC是安全、有效,并具有额外益处的避孕方法。%Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of immediate post abortion care after artificial abortion.Methods:The induced abortion young nulliparous women 480 cases were randomly divided into two groups, who accepted PAC after abortion are the treatment group (240cases), who do not accepted PAC after abortion are the observation group (240 case)s.The amount and duration of vaginal bleeding after induced abortion,the recovery of menstruation,take contraceptive measures and unwanted pregnancy once again after treatment were evaluated.Results:Shorter duration of vaginal bleeding,lower rate of complications such as intrauterine adhesions and ac -companying infection ,faster recovery of menstrual cycle after abortion , better contraception effect and lower unintended pregnancy rate once again were observed in the treatment group (P <0.05),.Conclusion:Immediate application of post abortion care after artificial a-bortion should be safe and effective and has additional benefit of contraception.

  15. 基于下丘脑-垂体-卵巢轴研究盐酸益母草碱对药物流产后子宫异常出血作用机制的实验研究%Experimental Study on Mechanism of Leonurine Hydrochloride on HPOA Function in Rats After Medical Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵懿清; 李霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of abnormal uterine bleeding inhibited by Leonu-rine hydrochloride (Leo) through observing the change of hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis (HPOA)endocrine function in early pregnant rats after medical abortion. Methods Incomplete abortion was induced in prepregnancy rats by perfusion of mifepristone(8. 3 mg/kg) and misoprostol (100 μg/kg). Then the serum FSH, LH level change in rat was detected by radioimmunoassay ( RIA). Expression of gonadotro-pin releasing hormone (GnRH) in hypothalamus was detecteed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha ( Erα) , estrogen receptor betal ( Erβ) and progestin receptor ( PR) mRNA in rat uterine tissue was analysised by RT-PCR. Results Leo significantly increased the content of serum FSH and LH in rats(P0.05). Conclusion Leo can inhibit the abnormal uterine bleeding after abortion in rats and its mechanism may be closely associated with the regulation of HPOA neuroendocrine disorder and the change of Erα and Erβ level in uterus.%目的 通过观察盐酸益母草碱(Leo)对药物流产后大鼠下丘脑-垂体卵巢轴(HPOA)内分泌功能的影响,探讨Leo抑制子宫异常出血作用的机制.方法 采用早孕大鼠灌服米非司酮(8.3 mg/kg)和米索前列醇(100μg/kg)造成不完全流产大鼠模型,用放射免疫分析法(RIA)观察其血清黄体生成激素(LH)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)水平的变化;免疫组化法检测下丘脑中促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)的表达;RT-PCR检测子宫组织中孕酮受体(PR)、雌二醇受体(ERα、ERβ)mRNA的表达.结果 Leo明显提高大鼠血清中LH、FSH的水平和下丘脑中GnRH蛋白的表达,明显上调药流后大鼠子宫组织中ERα、ERβ mRNA的表达(P<0.05或<0.01),而对PRmRNA没有明显影响(P>0.05).结论 Leo能明显抑制药物流产后大鼠子宫异常出血,其机制可能与其调节或改善HPOA神经内分泌功能紊乱及子宫ERα、ERβ水平的变化密切相关.

  16. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    to synthesize ketones is not fully utilized during acute infectious illnesses (6). The mechanisms responsible for inhibition of ketogenesis during...AND R. W. WANNEMACHER, JR. Gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis, and ketogenesis during sepsis. J.P.E.N. 4:277, 1980. 7. WANNEMACHER, R. W., JR., R. E

  17. Gynecologists and the abortion issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional inefficient contraception, incorporated to a large extent in the system of values, has become a natural part of sexual relations in Serbia and represents a rational preventive choice from the individual standpoint. However, when pregnancy is unwanted or cannot be accepted out of any reasons abortion is used as a resort. For this reason there is a long history of a large number of abortions in Serbia. Research findings in our country identify the following, as the most important factors for not accepting modern values in this sphere: traditional contraception and abortion have a firm social confirmation; there is a trans-generational transfer of psychological resistance towards the use of combined oral contraception pills and intrauterine devices; sexual education has never become a natural way of growing up in the family, nor is a constituent part of school programs and that distinct obstacles of various nature exist regarding contraception availability. A developed network of various types of family planning counseling is an important determinant of the accessibility of contraceptive means and methods. There are, however, numerous conditions which have to be fulfilled in order for the contraception counseling services to function properly. Among them, motivated personnel who acquired general and specific knowledge for work in this field are an especially important prerequisite. This theoretical assumption opens the question -whether gynecologists represent an important factor of slow transition of birth control in Serbia? We searched for the answer in the research analyses obtained through two in-depth surveys which either had to do with this theme or tried to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of gynecologists. The first research regarding the determination of the causes for a large number of abortions in our country, was directed towards women who decided on abortion. Gynecologists were the target group in the second

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and membrane organization: elucidating mechanisms to balance immunotherapy and susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Edidin, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), notably of the n-3 series, have immunosuppressive effects which make these molecules candidates for treating inflammatory symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, arthritis, and asthma. However, immunosuppression by PUFAs could increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. A detailed molecular picture is required in order to understand the balance between the benefits and risks of utilizing PUFAs as adjuvant immunosuppressants. Here we review evidence that incorporation of PUFAs into membrane lipids of antigen presenting cells (APCs) downregulates APC function. We propose that PUFAs modulate antigen presentation by altering the organization of lipid and protein molecules of the plasma membrane and endomembranes; this alters recognition and responses by T cells. The foundation of our hypothesis is built on data from artificial bilayer experiments which provide the physical principles by which PUFA acyl chains affect membrane architecture. This review also reconciles conflicting results in the literature by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of differing methods of PUFA treatment of cells. We suggest that membrane modulation of immune cells may be an important and overlooked mechanism of immunomodulation. In addition, we propose that mechanistic studies with defined experimental protocols will speed the translation of laboratory studies on PUFAs to the clinic.

  19. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Ii, Wayne M Jurick

    2014-08-29

    Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs) in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  20. Mechanisms of Infectivity and Evasion Derived from Microvesicles Cargo Produced by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Bruna C.; Uehara, Isadora A.; Dias, Laysa O. S.; Brígido, Paula C.; da Silva, Claudio V.; Silva, Marcelo J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Cell invasion by the intracellular protozoans requires interaction of proteins from both the host and the parasite. Many parasites establish chronic infections, showing they have the potential to escape the immune system; for example, Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease. Parasite internalization into host cell requires secreted and surface molecules, such as microvesicles. The release of microvesicles and other vesicles, such as exosomes, by different eukaryotic organisms was first observed in the late twentieth century. The characterization and function of these vesicles have recently been the focus of several investigations. In this review, we discuss the release of microvesicles by T. cruzi. The molecular content of these vesicles is composed of several molecules that take place during parasite-host cell interaction and contribute to the parasite-driven mechanism of evasion from the host immune system. These new findings appear to have a profound impact on the comprehension of T. cruzi biology and highlight novel potential strategies for developing more efficient therapeutic approaches. PMID:27921011

  1. Calmodulin Gene Expression in Response to Mechanical Wounding and Botrytis cinerea Infection in Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor, plays an important role in decoding stress-triggered intracellular calcium changes and regulates the functions of numerous target proteins involved in various plant physiological responses. To determine the functions of calmodulin in fleshy fruit, expression studies were performed on a family of six calmodulin genes (SlCaMs in mature-green stage tomato fruit in response to mechanical injury and Botrytis cinerea infection. Both wounding and pathogen inoculation triggered expression of all those genes, with SlCaM2 being the most responsive one to both treatments. Furthermore, all calmodulin genes were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, two signaling molecules involved in plant immunity. In addition to SlCaM2, SlCaM1 was highly responsive to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. However, SlCaM2 exhibited a more rapid and stronger response than SlCaM1. Overexpression of SlCaM2 in tomato fruit enhanced resistance to Botrytis-induced decay, whereas reducing its expression resulted in increased lesion development. These results indicate that calmodulin is a positive regulator of plant defense in fruit by activating defense pathways including salicylate- and jasmonate-signaling pathways, and SlCaM2 is the major calmodulin gene responsible for this event.

  2. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also...... willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time...

  3. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion.

  4. [An opinion survey on abortion in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Fernández, L; Shrader-Cox, E; Benson, J

    1994-01-01

    In view of the lack of information regarding abortion attitudes in Mexico, an abortion opinion survey was conducted in Mexico City among 387 women and 338 men. Respondents were asked if they agreed with a woman's abortion decision under seven different circumstances. Affirmative responses were analyzed by respondents' sociodemographic and reproductive health characteristics and a scale was created to measure respondents' overall attitudes toward abortion. Greatest support was expressed for a woman's right to an abortion, and to abortion in cases of fetal defect, threat to the mother's life, and rape. On the attitudinal scale, however, respondents generally disapproved abortion. Male respondents were more likely than female respondents to support a woman's abortion decision. Males in union, females not in union, respondents over thirty years of age, those with more than primary school education, those with fewer pregnancies, those with no history of child mortality, and those with a history of or experience with abortion, were also more likely to support an abortion decision.

  5. Genetic battle between Helicobacter pylori and humans. The mechanism underlying homologous recombination in bacteria, which can infect human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that colonises the human stomach. The chronic infection it causes results in peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. H. pylori can easily establish a chronic infection even if the immune system attacks this pathogen with oxidative stress agents and immunoglobulins. This is attributed to bacterial defence mechanisms against these stresses. As a defence mechanism against oxidative stresses, in bacterial genomes, homologous recombination can act as a repair pathway of DNA's double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, homologous recombination is also involved in the antigenic variation in H. pylori. Gene conversion alters genomic structures of babA and babB (encoding outer membrane proteins), resulting in escape from immunoglobulin attacks. Thus, homologous recombination in bacteria plays an important role in the maintenance of a chronic infection. In addition, H. pylori infection causes DSBs in human cells. Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection.

  6. Considerations in Launch Vehicle Abort Capability and Failure Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, N. W., Jr.; Conte, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    operations, the Space Shuttle was designed to incur loss of thrust from one engine at liftoff and return safely to a runway. This is a very unusual capability in space launch vehicles and, if desired, must be designed into the system initially. For some extremely high value payloads on future expendable launch vehicles, this capability may be cost effective as well as for human space flights. Current designers may be inclined to design a "simple" emergency escape pod to resolve this issue. That may neither be the most effective nor the safest way to provide ascent failure tolerance. This paper discusses some real-world issues associated with this capability that the designers of the Space Shuttle did take into account that have become serious issues in real operations. paper discusses the affect of payload mass on abort capability. Issues related to abort modes can also be influence by other aspects of payload mass including center of gravity concerns. In a similar mode, consumables such as on-orbit attitude control propellant is a major factor in abort mode design. multiple engine failures during the powered ascent trajectory and have a happy outcome: landing on a runway. This paper discusses options and post-design fixes to the Space Shuttle to enhance multiple engine out capability. scenarios. include propellant underload on STS-61C, off nominal performance of engine clusters on STS-78 and STS-93, and other flights. Designers of these future human rated vehicles should consider the Space Shuttle experience in designing their systems. About the Authors: N. Wayne Hale, Jr. is currently the Deputy Chief for Shuttle of the NASA/JSC Flight Director Office. In 23 years with NASA at Houston's Johnson Space Center, he has served in the Mission Control Center for 41 Space Shuttle flights including 25 as Entry Flight Director. Mr. Hale received his Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Rice University in 1976 and his Master of Science Degree in

  7. Abortion and various associated risk factors in small ruminants in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa; Kouidri, Brahim; Metref, Djamil; Luka, Pam Dachung; Ben-Mahdi, Meriem Hind

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the causes of abortion among the huge population of small ruminants in Algeria (≈31 millions heads), is an important task for the control of livestock productivity and viability scourges to the small ruminants industry. Optimal production and utilization is constrained by a number of factors: disease, poor feeding and low management skills. Therefore, in the present study the prevalence of abortion in Algerian small ruminant's flocks was estimated and its possible association was correlated with infectious (PPR, BT and Brucellosis seropositivity) and managerial (flock size, grazing system, type of farming, and contact with other flocks) risk factors. The present study showed an overall flock prevalence of small ruminant's abortion as 75.33% (113/150) [95% CI 71.72-78.94%]. The risk factor analysis using multivariable logistic regression recognized the north-western and the steppe region as well as PPR positivity as a risk factor for abortion in Algerian small ruminant's flocks. The odds of flock abortion was 11.47 [95% CI 2.39-54.88; P=0.002] and 10.31 [95% CI 1.28-82.88; P=0.028] times higher in north-western and steppe regions respectively compared to other region. Also the presence of PPRV infection in small ruminant flocks amplified the odds by 6 times [95% CI 2.221-17.427; P=0.001].Surprisingly, the univariate analysis for the other risk factors associated with abortions in Algerian small ruminant flocks indicated no statistically significant links with bluetongue (P=1.000) and brucellosis seropositivity (P=0.334). Flock size (P=0.574), type of farming (P=0.443), grazing system (P=0.117) and contact with other flocks (P=0.245) was also not statistically significant. Our results revealed that abortion in small ruminants is a challenge to farmers and PPR was chiefly linked to it. Therefore an effective vaccination and control programme is advocated for small ruminants in Algeria.

  8. [The modern indications for abortion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, D

    1980-01-15

    Within the Swiss legal code, somatic and psychiatric indications for interruption of pregnancy are very well indicated and codified. These days, however, only 8% of indications for abortion are based on purely medical reasons; the great majority of indications are "modern", a clear manifestation of a slipping away from classical indications toward a much more liberal intervention which often has nothing to do with the corporal integrity of the mother, but with that of the child, or which simply takes into consideration the future quality of life of everybody involved. This evolution is a reflection of the new role of women in society, and also the result of the recent progresses of the science of neonatology. Such enlarged indications for abortion are accepted by most doctors concerned with these problems, and they include such different reasons as IUD failure, hormonal contraception failure, very young or too old age, exposure to X-rays, divorce and exposure to chemotherapy.

  9. [Psychodiagnostic factors of indication for abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, A; Hodel, J

    1975-04-05

    The psychodiagnostic indication for abortion was investigated by means of the MMPI in 251 women with unwanted pregnancy. The results showed: 1. that, independently of the MMPI, positive indications exhibited more obvious psychopathological distrubance than the negative indications; 2. that women with negative indications where in some ways psychologically different from women with wanted pregnancy; 3. that after abortion women with positive indication no longer differed from a group of women with wanted pregnancy, so that the former could be identified as psychologically well adjusted; and 4. comparison between women with unwanted pregnancy and a group of neurotic women showed that both groups are phenomenologically very similar although women with unwanted pregnancy should be diagnosed as "reactive". The results are presented without comment as a basis for the medical and political debate now in progress.

  10. 内分泌异常与复发性流产%Endocrine Abnormalities and Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 梁晓燕

    2013-01-01

    The recurrent miscarriage is traditionally defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks. The causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion are not clear,including genetic factors, uterine abnormalities,immunologic and endocrine factors,infections,and unexplained abortion. The endocrine disorders is related to recurrent miscarriage, including disorders of both reproductive glands and other glands. This article discussed the relationships between recurrent spontaneous abortion and endocrine disorders such as luteal insufficiency,thyroid dysfunction,hyperprolactinemia,insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. However, it needs more study to understand the mechanism of recurrent miscarriage caused by endocrine abnormalities.%复发性流产是指在妊娠20周前,连续发生2次或以上自然流产。复发性流产的病因目前尚未明确,主要包括遗传因素、解剖异常、内分泌异常、感染、免疫因素及不明原因的复发性流产。其中内分泌异常与复发性流产密切相关,无论是生殖腺分泌功能异常或其他相关内分泌腺体分泌异常,都有可能导致复发性流产的发生。从黄体功能不足、甲状腺功能异常、高催乳素血症、胰岛素抵抗及高雄激素血症等方面,探讨内分泌异常与复发性流产之间的相关性。内分泌异常会导致复发性流产,但是其具体机制仍需要进一步探索。

  11. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  12. Mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to model biomaterial surfaces: Establising a link between thrombosis and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Julie Miyo

    Infections involving Staphylococcus epidermidis remain a life threatening complication associated with the use of polymer based cardiovascular devices. One of the critical steps in infection pathogenesis is the adhesion of the bacteria to the device surface. Currently, mechanisms of S. epidermidis adhesion are incompletely understood, but are thought to involve interactions between bacteria, device surface, and host blood elements in the form of adsorbed plasma proteins and surface adherent platelets. Our central hypothesis is that elements participating in thrombosis also promote S. epidermidis adhesion by specifically binding to the bacterial surface. The adhesion kinetics of S. epidermidis RP62A to host modified model biomaterial surface octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) under hydrodynamic shear conditions were characterized. Steady state adhesion to adsorbed proteins and surface adherent platelets was achieved at 90-120 minutes and 60-90 minutes, respectively. A dose response curve of S. epidermidis adhesion in the concentration range of 10sp7{-}10sp9 bac/mL resembled a multilayer adsorption isotherm. Increasing shear stress was found to LTA, and other LTA blocking agents significantly decreased S. epidermidis adhesion to the fibrin-platelet clots, suggesting that this interaction between S. epidermidis and fibrin-platelet clots is specific. Studies evaluated the adhesion of S. epidermidis to polymer immobilized heparin report conflicting results. Paulsson et al., showed that coagulase negative staphylococci adhered in comparable numbers to both immobilized heparin and nonheparinized surfaces, while exhibiting significantly greater adhesion to both surfaces than S. aureus. Preadsorption of the surfaces with specific heparin binding plasma proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen significantly increased adhesion. It was postulated that immobilized heparin contained binding sites for the plasma proteins, exposing bacteria binding domains of the

  13. Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: To summarize clinical outcomes and adverse effects of medical abortion regimens consisting of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol in pregnancies through 70 days of gestation. Data Sources: We used PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists from published reports to identify relevant studies published between November 2005 and January 2015 usi...

  14. Do the epidemiology, physiological mechanisms and characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-infected patients justify specific screening policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelu-Simeon, Moana; Sobesky, Rodolphe; Haïm-Boukobza, Stéphanie; Ostos, Marita; Teicher, Elina; Fontaine, Hélène; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Meyer, Laurence; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Paule, Bernard; Samuel, Didier; Lewin, Maïté; Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles

    2014-06-19

    Reducing the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HIV-infected patients has become a serious problem when managing these patients. There are many explanations for this disease evolution, which notably include their longer survival under effective antiviral therapy and also the more rapid evolution of chronic liver disease. Despite recent advances in the management of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral diseases, which will probably increase the number of patients achieving a virological response, HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis are still at risk of the onset of HCC. This evolution to HCC is also correlated to other comorbidities such as excessive alcohol consumption and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HCC thus remains a public health issue in this population. The poor prognosis and aggressiveness of HCC have been fully demonstrated, but the mechanisms underlying this aggressiveness are not yet well defined. As well as underlying mechanisms that contribute to accelerating hepatocarcinogenesis in HIV-infected patients, there are other reasons why HIV-infected patients should be considered a higher risk population. This review discusses the principal epidemiological determinants; the mechanisms of pathogenesis; and the treatment of HCC in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfected patients. It also discusses the probable need to develop a specific screening policy for HCC in this population in order to prevent the rapid development and to make them more amenable to a curative treatment.

  15. Women and men’s psychological adjustment after abortion: a six months prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...

  16. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mark; Koopmann, Birger; Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Kropf, Ute; Schlüter, Klaus; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Factors limiting trichothecene contamination of mature wheat grains after Fusarium infection are of major interest in crop production. In addition to ear infection, systemic translocation of deoxynivalenol (DON) may contribute to mycotoxin levels in grains after stem base infection with toxigenic Fusarium spp. However, the exact and potential mechanisms regulating DON translocation into wheat grains from the plant base are still unknown. We analyzed two wheat cultivars differing in susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), which were infected at the stem base with Fusarium culmorum in climate chamber experiments. Fungal DNA was found only in the infected stem base tissue, whereas DON and its derivative, DON-3-glucoside (D3G), were detected in upper plant parts. Although infected stem bases contained more than 10,000 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight (DW) of DON and mean levels of DON after translocation in the ear and husks reached 1,900 μg kg⁻¹ DW, no DON or D3G was detectable in mature grains. D3G quantification revealed that DON detoxification took mainly place in the stem basis, where ≤ 50% of DON was metabolized into D3G. Enhanced expression of a gene putatively encoding a uridine diphosphate-glycosyltransferase (GenBank accession number FG985273) was observed in the stem base after infection with F. culmorum. Resistance to F. culmorum stem base infection, DON glycosylation in the stem base, and mycotoxin translocation were unrelated to cultivar resistance to FHB. Histological studies demonstrated that the vascular transport of DON labeled with fluorescein as a tracer from the peduncle to the grain was interrupted by a barrier zone at the interface between grain and rachilla, formerly described as "xylem discontinuity". This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears.

  17. Genetic-and-epigenetic Interspecies Networks for Cross-talk Mechanisms in Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells During MTB Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. Mtb is one of the oldest human pathogens, and evolves mechanisms implied in human evolution. The lungs are the first organ exposed to aerosol-transmitted Mtb during gaseous exchange. Therefore, the guards of the immune system in the lungs, such as macrophages (Mϕs and dendritic cells (DCs, are the most important defense against Mtb infection. There have been several studies discussing the functions of Mϕs and DCs during Mtb infection, but the genome-wide pathways and networks are still incomplete. Furthermore, the immune response induced by Mϕs and DCs varies. Therefore, we analyzed the cross-talk genome-wide genetic-and-epigenetic interspecies networks (GWGEINs between Mϕs vs. Mtb and DCs vs. Mtb to determine the varying mechanisms of both the host and pathogen as it relates to Mϕs and DCs during early Mtb infection.First, we performed database mining to construct candidate cross-talk GWGEIN between human cells and Mtb. Then we constructed dynamic models to characterize the molecular mechanisms, including intraspecies gene/microRNA (miRNA regulation networks (GRNs, intraspecies protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs, and the interspecies PPIN of the cross-talk GWGEIN. We applied a system identification method and a system order detection scheme to dynamic models to identify the real cross-talk GWGEINs using the microarray data of Mϕs, DCs and Mtb.After identifying the real cross-talk GWGEINs, the principal network projection (PNP method was employed to construct host-pathogen core networks (HPCNs between Mϕs vs. Mtb and DCs vs. Mtb during infection process. Thus, we investigated the underlying cross-talk mechanisms between the host and the pathogen to determine how the pathogen counteracts host defense mechanisms in Mϕs and DCs during Mtb H37Rv early infection. Based on our findings, we propose Rv1675c as a potential drug target because of its important defensive

  18. Comparaing the causes of abortion in patients with two or more than two consecutive miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Azargoon MD. A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Recurrent miscarriage is defined as the loss of three or more pregnancies. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL is traditionally investigated after three or more consecutive losses. Although some believe that the investigation must be launched after two miscarriages, there is not enough compelling evidence to draw conclusion. "n"nMethods : In this cross-sectional study, we studied 58 women with two or more consecutive abortions (37 women with two and 21 women with three or more miscarriages from 2005 to 2009. The following risk factors were analyzed and compared between the two groups: endocrine dysfunctions, genetic abnormalities, uterine anomalies, infections, thrombophilia, polycystic ovary syndrome, autoimmune disorders, sperm characteristics, and advanced maternal age."n"nResults : We did not find any known factor for pregnancy losses in 18 (31.03% patients but in the rest, the most common cause of Recurrent pregnancy loss was endocrine disorders (41.4%. The other causes were uterine abnormalities (12.1%, infections (12.1%, maternal age more than 35 years (12.1%, thrombophilia (8.6%, abnormal semen analysis (8.6%, genetic defects (6.9% and autoimmune disorders (1.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups in regards with the causes of abortion except uterine abnormality (P=0.039 which was more frequent in women with three or more three miscarriages (23.8% relative to women with two abortions (5.4%."n"nConclusion: There were no significant differences between women

  19. Association between Spontaneous abortion and Presence of anti thyroid antibodies in mother’s serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2012-12-01

    Results: Out of 51 subjects, 18 had positive Anti-TPO-Ab, of which -10 were among the cases and 8 belonged to the controls. Out of 18 women with positive AntiTG-Ab, 11 cases were in the control group and 7 were in the cases. The differences between the control group and the amounts of Anti-TPO-Abs (P=0.468 and Anti-TG-Abs (P=0.675 were not swignificant. Conclusion: The results revealed that there is no association between abortion and presence of antithyroid antibodies in mother’s serum. Other abortion causes such as various kinds of infections and smoking might be involved which requires more research.

  20. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.;

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...... to immunohistochemistry (IHC) using human positive control serum in 12 cases of C burnetii-associated placentitis as well as 7 negative control tissue samples. In all 12 cases the bacterium was detected within trophoblasts as well as free in the placental debris by both FISH and IHC. Extensive and significant infection...... by C. burnetii was revealed in 10 of the cases, whereas a slighter and focal distribution of the bacterium was observed in two cases. 90 aborted placentas from Danish ruminants were investigated by FISH. C burnetii was detected in one bovine case only, representing the first confirmation of C burnetii...

  1. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  2. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion and other reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, R A; Robinson, K B; Larson, E H; Dobie, S A

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigated the attitude toward abortion and other reproductive health services of first- and second-year medical students at the Seattle campus of the University of Washington, a large regional primary care-oriented medical school, in 1996-97. A total of 219 (76.6%) students responded. The majority of the students support the availability of a broad range of reproductive health services including abortion; 58.1% felt that first-trimester abortions should be available to patients under most circumstances. Of the 43.4% of students who anticipated a career in family practice, most expected to provide abortions in their future practices. Moreover, older students and women were more likely to support the provision of abortion services. This study concludes that despite the continuing pressure on abortion providers, most first- and second-year medical students at a fairly state-supported medical school intend to incorporate this procedure into their future practices.

  3. The Role of Free Radicals and Antioxidant in Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Suryawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Free radicals and antioxidant exist in balance under normal condition. In prooxidant condition, excessive free radicals can initiate a state of oxidative stress (OS followed by capillary endothelial cell damage, a process involved in the pathophysiology of abortion. CONTENT: Abortion is a common complication of pregnancy and occurs in 25% of women. Many factors can cause abortion including fetal factor, implantation process and hormonal status. Combination those factors with OS influence the entire reproductive life of a woman. Antioxidant can neutralize free radicals and used to reduce OS especially in recurrent abortion. SUMMARY: Antioxidant therapy is a very interesting field in abortion especially used as prevention approach mainly caused by the high cost of infertility treatment methods. KEYWORDS: free radical, antioxidant, abortion.

  4. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services.

  5. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  6. How Danes evaluate moral claims related to abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion...... to at least one moral claim. Two hundred and fifty-eight responded to all four claims without using the option 'neither agree nor disagree' and were classified as 'morally engaged responders'. A majority of these had a pro-abortion moral. The general relationship between moral beliefs and attitudes towards...... abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. DISCUSSION: The direction of causality...

  7. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  8. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    Locale responses in muscle tissue against either a sterile tissue damage or infection were compared in salmonid fish in order to examine the inflammatory responses and regeneration of tissue. From higher vertebrates both damage and infection are known to cause inflammation since DAMPs released from....... Samples were obtained from site of lesions and from locations without clinical signs of disease and lesions. The tissue damage was performed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by applying sterile needles to skin and muscle tissue to one side of the fish. Samples were taken 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days...... injured cells as well as PAMPs from the surface of pathogens are immunogenic. To examine this in salmonid fishes, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were infected with Moritella viscosus, the causative agent of winter ulcer. Muscle tissue was sampled from infected fish at 4, 7 and 14 days post infection...

  9. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-08-09

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.

  10. Post-abortion adjustment of health care professionals in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkau, J P

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-three women students of the health care professions were surveyed about their abortion and post-abortion experiences, feelings, and attitudes. Variables predictive of short- and long-term adjustment, belief in the wisdom of the choice, and right to choose were analysed, as were effects on emotional and attitudinal responses of passage of time and pressure to abort. Most reported mild, transient, short-term negative effects, and generally benign long-term effects. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in pu...

  12. Coverage of abortion controversial in both public and private plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    During 1995-96, 17 of 50 US states used their own resources, either voluntarily or under state court order, to pay for all or most abortions for low-income women. Alaska, Maryland, New York, and Washington are the only states to voluntarily pay for these abortions. Anti-choice legislators in California, Illinois, New York, and West Virginia tried unsuccessfully to cut funding for these abortions. Arkansas is the only state to circumvent direct payment for abortions for low-income women. Alabama, Mississippi, and South Dakota still are not complying with the court order but remain in the Medicaid program. Massachusetts has passed legislation to allow health insurance to cover abortions for state and city employees, thereby undoing a 17-year ban on the use of public funds for abortions for employees or their spouses. On the other hand, Virginia's governor has unilaterally, via an executive order, eliminated health insurance coverage for most abortions for state employees and their dependents. Anti-choice legislators have shepherded legislation that prohibit private insurance coverage for abortion unless women pay an extra premium in Idaho, Kentucky, Missouri, and North Dakota. Legislators in Illinois and Minnesota have passed state subsidized health care reform programs that exclude abortion from coverage except when the mother's life is endangered. There appears to be a loophole in the MinnesotaCare program that allows women to obtain state-financed abortions for other reasons, so antifunding lawmakers will introduce a bill in 1997 to close the loophole. The loophole is a result of a conflict between state and federal laws as a result of a 1995 federal waiver granted to Minnesota. The waiver allows pregnant women who earn up to 275% of the federal poverty level to be eligible for either MinnesotaCare or Medicaid. Abortion-rights legislators find MinnesotaCare's exclusion of abortion coverage to be a violation of the court order. They plan to submit a bill in 1997 to

  13. We Should Protect Women’s Right of Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Many countries have legalized abortion such as China,America,Japan,France and Italy,but still about one third women cannot have a legal abortion around the world(Debate on Legality).Although two thirds women are protected by law on abortion,some of them cannot get support from others due to the bondage of religions and morality.Some people,especially

  14. Why women seek abortion? a qualitative study on perspectives of rural women on abortion and contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shanthini Navis

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to improve rural women's knowledge of fertility and contraception. Media and service providers should use every possible opportunity to educate women regarding the legal status of abortion and to promote contraceptive usage by creating awareness regarding safety and free availability of various contraceptives thereby clearing misconceptions regarding contraception. There is a need to educate rural women that use of a regular contraceptive method is better than undergoing repeated abortions. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1153-1157

  15. Decriminalisation of abortion performed by qualified health practitioners under the Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (Vic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-06-01

    In 2008, the Victorian Parliament enacted the Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (Vic) and amended the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) to decriminalise terminations of pregnancy while making it a criminal offence for unqualified persons to carry out such procedures. The reform legislation has imposed a civil regulatory regime on the management of abortions, and has stipulated particular statutory duties of care for registered qualified health care practitioners who have conscientious objections to terminations of pregnancy. The background to, and the structure of, this novel statutory regime is examined, with a focus on conscientious objection clauses and liability in the tort of negligence and the tort of breach of statutory duty.

  16. Mechanisms of alcohol-mediated hepatotoxicity in humanimmunodeficiency- virus-infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyongyi Szabo; Samir Zakhari

    2011-01-01

    Clinical observations have demonstrated that excessive chronic alcohol use negatively affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and contributes to the liver manifestations of the disease, even in HIV monoinfection. HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is associated with increased progression of HVC liver disease compared to HCV infection alone, and both of these are negatively affected by alcohol use. Recent data suggest that alcohol use and HIV infection have common targets that contribute to progression of liver disease. Both HIV infection and chronic alcohol use are associated with increased gut permeability and elevated plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide; a central activator of inflammatory responses. Both alcoholic liver disease and HIV infection result in non-specific activation of innate immunity, proinflammatory cytokine cascade upregulation, as well as impaired antigen presenting cell and dendritic cell functions. Finally, alcohol, HIV and antiretroviral therapy affect hepatocyte functions, which contributes to liver damage. The common targets of alcohol and HIV infection in liver disease are discussed in this mini-review.

  17. The abortion-crime link: evidence from England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We use panel data from 1983 to 1997 for the 42 police force areas in England and Wales to test the hypothesis that legalizing abortion contributes to lower crime rates. We provide an advance on previous work by focusing on the impact of possible endogeneity of effective abortion rates with respect to crime. Our use of U.K. data allows us to exploit regional differences in the provision of free abortions to identify abortion rates. When we use a similar model and estimation methodology, we are...

  18. Psychological effects of abortion (a study of 1739 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, W F; Cheng, M C; Vengadasalam, D; Seng, K M

    1976-06-01

    A 6-month prospective study was conducted among 1739 women who underwent therapeutic abortion at Kandang Kerbau Hospital in Singapore to ascertain the aftereffects of abortion. Results of the study indicate that induced abortion has no observable bad effects on the mental health of the patients. In fact, somatic and psychiatric complaints were reduced and sexual adjustment increased 6 months postoperative. Those who were also sterilized at the time of the abortion showed a slightly lower rate of somatic symptom reduction than the rest of the group.

  19. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  20. Abortion in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia: Incidence and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Duglas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The abortion incidence is influenced by many medical and socioeconomic factors. In some way, it indicates the wellbeing of the population, and the abortion statistics can show the ways to improve medical services and to raise the living standards of people. The objective of the study was to estimate the abortion incidence and to describe its current trends in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (the RS(Y. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a population-based descriptive study, based on the results of a longitudinal analysis of national and regional reports of the Yakut healthcare services and an analysis of medical records describing 34,220 abortions among women living in all regions of Yakutia, which occurred between 2010 and 2014 and in the first 9 months of 2015. Results: The absolute number of abortions performed each year, the rate of abortions per 1,000 women of fertile age, and the rate of abortions per 100 deliveries declined (p<0.01 by about 37%, 32% and 37%, respectively, between 2006 and 2014. The rate of abortions per 1000 women of fertile age in the first 9 months of 2015 decreased by 1.3%, compared to the same period of 2014 (p=0.05. Though the number of abortions in primigravida women decreases every year, the percentage of them is still rather high, especially at the age of 20 to 24 and 15 to 19, accounting for approximately 2.4% of all abortions. The relative number of miscarriages before 12 weeks of pregnancy increased. Changes in the relative number of abortions performed between 12 to 21 weeks of pregnancy characterized by a decrease in the percentage of miscarriages from 2012 to 2015 and a dramatic increase in the percentage of therapeutic abortions. Conclusion: The revealed trends of the absolute number of abortions and the rates of occurrence in the RS(Y can be considered in total as favorable, but compared to the data obtained in Russia in total, the dynamics of these trends cannot be regarded as

  1. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  2. Conscientious objection to abortion provision: Why context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura Florence; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Chavkin, Wendy; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2016-09-12

    Conscientious objection to abortion - a clinician's refusal to perform abortions because of moral or religious beliefs - is a limited right, intended to protect clinicians' convictions while maintaining abortion access. This paper argues that conscientious objection policies and debates around the world generally do not take into account the social, political, and economic pressures that profoundly influence clinicians who must decide whether to claim objector status. Lack of clarity about abortion policies, high workload, low pay, and stigma towards abortion providers can discourage abortion provision. As the only legal way to refuse to provide abortions that are permitted by law, conscientious objection can become a safety valve for clinicians under pressure and may be claimed by clinicians who do not have moral or religious objections. Social factors including stigma also shape how stakeholders and policy-makers approach conscientious objection. To appropriately limit the scope of conscientious objection and make protection of conscience more meaningful, more information is needed about how conscientious objection is practised. Additionally, abortion trainings should include information about conscientious objection and its limits, reproductive rights, and creating an enabling environment for abortion provision. Policy-makers and all stakeholders should also focus on creating an enabling environment and reducing stigma.

  3. Bowel injury: a rare but dreaded complication of unsafe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ramola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortions represent a preventable yet major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in India. Intestinal perforation is a rare dreaded complication of unsafe abortion. It is commonly seen in countries in which abortions are performed by people without proper training and proper instruments. Bowel perforation occurs when the posterior vaginal wall or the uterine wall is perforated. The ileum and the sigmoid colon are the most commonly injured portion of the bowel. Here, we report a case of ileal perforation following induced unsafe abortion which was managed successfully. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3223-3225

  4. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Staphylococcus Non-aureus Bone and Joint Infection: Interspecies Homogeneity and Specific Behavior of S. pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Yousef; Martins-Simões, Patrícia; Valour, Florent; Bouvard, Daniel; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Bes, Michele; Haenni, Marisa; Ferry, Tristan; Laurent, Frédéric; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Implicated in more than 60% of bone and joint infections (BJIs), Staphylococci have a particular tropism for osteoarticular tissue and lead to difficult-to-treat clinical infections. To date, Staphylococcus aureus internalization in non-professional phagocytic cells (NPPCs) is a well-explored virulence mechanism involved in BJI chronicity. Conversely, the pathophysiological pathways associated with Staphylococcus non-aureus (SNA) BJIs have scarcely been studied despite their high prevalence. In this study, 15 reference strains from 15 different SNA species were compared in terms of (i) adhesion to human fibronectin based on adhesion microplate assays and (ii) internalization ability, intracellular persistence and cytotoxicity based on an in vitro infection model using human osteoblasts. Compared to S. aureus, S. pseudintermedius was the only species that significantly adhered to human fibronectin. This species was also associated with high (even superior to S. aureus) internalization ability, intracellular persistence and cytotoxicity. These findings were confirmed using a panel of 17 different S. pseudintermedius isolates. Additionally, S. pseudintermedius internalization by osteoblasts was completely abolished in β1 integrin-deficient murine osteoblasts. These results suggest the involvement of β1 integrin in the invasion process, although this mechanism was previously restricted to S. aureus. In summary, our results suggest that internalization into NPPCs is not a classical pathophysiologic mechanism of SNA BJIs. S. pseudintermedius appears to be an exception, and its ability to invade and subsequently induce cytotoxicity in NPPCs could explain its severe and necrotic forms of infection, notably in dogs, which exhibit a high prevalence of S. pseudintermedius infection.

  5. Pathophysiological mechanisms of Staphylococcus non-aureus bone and joint infection: interspecies homogeneity and specific behaviour of S. pseudintermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Maali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Implicated in more than 60% of bone and joint infections (BJIs, Staphylococci have a particular tropism for osteoarticular tissue and lead to difficult-to-treat clinical infections. To date, Staphylococcus aureus internalization in non-professional phagocytic cells (NPPCs is a well-explored virulence mechanism involved in BJI chronicity. Conversely, the pathophysiological pathways associated with Staphylococcus non-aureus (SNA BJIs have scarcely been studied despite their high prevalence. In this study, fifteen reference strains from 15 different SNA species were compared in terms of (i adhesion to human fibronectin based on adhesion microplate assays and (ii internalization ability, intracellular persistence and cytotoxicity based on an in vitro infection model using human osteoblasts. Compared to S. aureus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the only species that significantly adhered to human fibronectin. This species was also associated with high (even superior to S. aureus internalization ability, intracellular persistence and cytotoxicity. These findings were confirmed using a panel of 17 different S. pseudintermedius isolates. Additionally, S. pseudintermedius internalization by osteoblasts was completely abolished in β1 integrin-deficient murine osteoblasts. These results suggest the involvement of β1 integrin in the invasion process, although this mechanism was previously restricted to S. aureus. In summary, our results suggest that internalization into NPPCs is not a classical pathophysiologic mechanism of SNA BJIs. S. pseudintermedius appears to be an exception, and its ability to invade and subsequently induce cytotoxicity in NPPCs could explain its severe and necrotic forms of infection, notably in dogs, which exhibit a high prevalence of S. pseudintermedius infection.

  6. Derivation and characterisation of a live equid herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) vaccine to protect against abortion and respiratory disease due to EHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J R; Bateman, H; Williams, J; Didlick, S

    2003-01-02

    A German abortion isolate of EHV-1 (strain M8) was grown in equine dermal (ED) cells at a low multiplicity of infection in presence of 5-bromo-2-deoxy uridine. The resulting stock was dialysed, titrated and cloned by terminal dilution in ED cells grown in 96-well microtitration plates. Of 192 clones each originating from a single focus, clone 147 (C147) was found to be restricted for growth at and above temperatures of 38.5 degrees C. It was also restricted for growth at 37 degrees C in rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells which are widely used for the isolation and titration of EHV-1; hence clone 147 was EHV-4-like. Clone 147 showed a remarkable efficacy as a vaccine in protecting conventional pregnant Welsh Mountain pony mares against abortions due to EHV-1. A single intranasal (IN) vaccination protected five out of six (83.3%), and four out of five (80%) of mares upon challenge 4 and 5-6 months, respectively, after the immunisation, whereas all six unvaccinated mares aborted between 9 and 19 days after IN EHV-1 challenge. With the exception of the day 9 abortion, foetuses of the remaining five mares were EHV-1 infected. Placenta from the early aborting mare was, however, EHV-1 positive. Both groups of vaccinated mares were also significantly protected against clinical reaction (notably pyrexia), nasal shedding and viraemia following challenge infection.

  7. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  8. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  9. DAP10 contributes to CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxic effector mechanisms during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessmann, Manuela; Rausch, Alexandra; Rückerl, Dominik; Adams, Pamela Scott; Simon, Markus; Gilfillan, Susan; Colonna, Marco; Ehlers, Stefan; Hölscher, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    The activating C-type lectin-like receptor NKG2D, which is expressed by mouse NK cells and activated CD8 T cells, was previously demonstrated to be involved in tumor rejection and as a defense mechanism against viral and bacterial infections. Because CD8 T cells are important for protective immune responses during chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and represent a promising target for new vaccine strategies to prevent human pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), we studied the immune response in mice deficient for the NKG2D adapter molecule DAP10 during experimental TB. After aerosol infection, DAP10-defcient mice displayed an unimpaired recruitment, activation and development of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. Whereas the frequency of interferon-gamma-producing CD8 T cells from Mtb-infected DAP10-defcient mice was not affected, CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the absence of DAP10. The loss of cytotoxic activity in DAP10-deficient CD8 T cells was associated with an impaired release of cytotoxic granules. Together, our results suggest that during Mtb infection DAP10 is required for maximal cytolytic activity of CD8 T cells.

  10. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal.

  11. Morganella sp. rods – characteristics, infections, mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Zalas-Więcek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Morganella genus is one member of the tribe Proteae, which also includes the genera Proteus and Providencia. These bacteria are commonly present in the environment.Morganella sp. rods are known to be a causative agent of opportunistic hospital infections, mainly urinary tract, wound and blood infections of severe and high mortality, even in cases of an appropriate antibiotic.These bacteria may produce many virulence factors, for example urease, hemolysins, LPS, adhesins and enzymes hydrolyzing and modifying antibiotics commonly used to treat infections.Understanding the diverse biological properties of these rods may be of importance in the development of effective methods of prevention and control of infections with their participation. 

  12. From amoeba to macrophages: exploring the molecular mechanisms of Legionella pneumophila infection in both hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoll, Pedro; Rolando, Monica; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. It replicates within amoeba and infects accidentally human macrophages. Several similarities are seen in the L. pneumophila-infection cycle in both hosts, suggesting that the tools necessary for macrophage infection may have evolved during co-evolution of L. pneumophila and amoeba. The establishment of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) within the host cytoplasm requires the remodeling of the LCV surface and the hijacking of vesicles and organelles. Then L. pneumophila replicates in a safe intracellular niche in amoeba and macrophages. In this review we will summarize the existing knowledge of the L. pneumophila infection cycle in both hosts at the molecular level and compare the factors involved within amoeba and macrophages. This knowledge will be discussed in the light of recent findings from the Acanthamoeba castellanii genome analyses suggesting the existence of a primitive immune-like system in amoeba.

  13. Vpu Mediates Depletion of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 during HIV Infection by a Lysosome-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Doehle, Brian P.; Chang, Kristina; Rustagi, Arjun; McNevin, John; McElrath, M. Juliana; Gale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    HIV has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid restriction by intracellular innate immune defenses that otherwise serve to control acute viral infection and virus dissemination. Innate defenses are triggered when pattern recognition receptor (PRR) proteins of the host cell engage pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) present in viral products. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) plays a central role in PRR signaling of innate immunity to drive the expression of type I interferon ...

  14. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further ...

  15. Immunologic Mechanisms of HTLV-III Infection: Role of Autoimmunity in Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-15

    their growth. Studies of in vitro hematopoietic colony growth implicate T lymphocytes in the regulation of neutrophil, macrophage, eosinophil (Chickkuppa...transplantation. In-vitro evidence indicates that zidovudine is able to prevent CD4 + cells from being permissively infected by HIV-I, and feline and murine...Neseaba F. 3-. ry mtanal. Cold Spring Harbor. Now York: Cold Spring Harbor Anido-3’-d@*zythymadmne in feline leukemia virus-infected cats a Laboratory

  16. Virulence Mechanisms of Enteroinvasive Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    enteroinvasive strain to initiate infection, it does abortion and death can also result from inges- not address other determinants of virulence. For tion of... abortions in domestic imal models have been used in the study of animals. Humans are the natural reservoirs of enteroinvasive pathogens. The ability of...clinical manifestation rier encountered by shigellae which are invad- is dysentery (36). These data suggest that an ing the colonic mucosa. The effectiveness

  17. Cytotoxic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar (Salmonella Javiana) during macrophage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Gokulan, Kuppan; Shelman, Diamond; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf; Khare, Sangeeta

    2015-02-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin B (cdtB) is a conserved virulence factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we report the presence and functionality of cdtB in some nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, including Salmonella Javiana (cdtB+wt S. Javiana), isolated from imported food. To understand the role of cdtB in NTS serovars, a deletion mutant (cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana) was constructed. Macrophages were infected with cdtB+wt S. Javiana (wild type), cdtB(-)Δ S. Javiana (mutant), and cdtB-negative NTS serovar (S. Typhimurium). Cytotoxic activity and transcription level of genes involved in cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) were assessed in infected macrophages. The cdtB+wt S. Javiana caused cellular distension as well as high degree of vacuolization and presence of the autophagosome marker LC3 in infected macrophages as compared with cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the induction of autophagy in response to toxin (Esr1 and Pik3C3) and coregulators of autophagy and apoptosis (Bax and Cyld) were significantly upregulated in cdtB(+)wt S. Javiana-infected macrophages. As autophagy destroys internalized pathogens in addition to the infected cell, it may reduce the spread of infection.

  18. [Psychological aspects of voluntary induced abortion among fathers drafted into military service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouis-bonnefond, J C; Galle-tessonneau, J R

    1982-06-01

    an infant when in fact it is only potentially an infant. On the unconscious level the father may identify with the aborted fetus in the belief that his own parents may have wanted to destroy him. The abortion may also contain a suicidal element to the extent that the fetus represents a prolongation of the parent. The anxiety and guilt of the father find expression also in auto- and heteroaggressive acts. Through a mechanism of projection, responsibility of the army is substituted for that of the individual.

  19. The fertility response to abortion reform in Eastern Europe: demographic and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, R J

    1972-01-01

    This preliminary appraisal examines the extent to which abortion reform by itself explains the abruptness of the decline and the ensuing uniformly low level of all important fertility indicators for the Eastern European countries over the last 15 years. The fertility pattern of these countries has changed from the upper to the very lower end of the fertility spectrum of developed countries. Detailed consideration of events in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary indicate that this decline cannot be explained by war-induced changes in the age structure of the population, by rapid urbanization, or by changes in nuptuality patterns. On an a priori basis, legalization of abortion would be expected to have at least 2 distinct effects on the fe rtility decision-making process. First, abortion reform completely tran sforms the cost side of the conception control problem. Any attempt to measure "desired family size" must assume a given cost structure, modification of which should naturally be expected to alter measured "desired family size." In addition to this direct cost mechanism, abortion availability may also have a demonstration effect which results in a further modification of parental "tastes". The appearance of many 1 and 2 child families may change ideas of what is the "normal" and desired number of children. Availability of legal abortion can be expected to influence observed fertility through the specific cost and "taste" factors operating on the desired number of births and also through at least partial elimination of the inability to adjust the "realized" to the "desired" number of children. To some extent the avai lability of abortion may only change the timing and spacing of births, rather than the ultimate family size. However, such an effect would have a distinct retarding influence on any aggregate indicator of fertility as well as on the rate of population growth. Inspection of age-specific fertility rates and statistics on the distribution of births

  20. Decriminalization of abortion in Mexico City: The effects on women's reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In April 2007, the Mexico City legislature passed landmark legislation decriminalizing elective abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. In Mexico City, safe abortion services are now available to women through the Mexico City Ministry of Health's free public sector legal abortion program and in the private sector, and over 89,000 legal abortions have been performed. By contrast, abortion has continued to be restricted across the Mexican states (each state makes their own abortion laws) a...