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Sample records for abortion incomplete

  1. Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis.

  2. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

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    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care

  3. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

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    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial

  4. Prevalence of Asherman's syndrome after secondary removal of placental remnants or a repeat curettage for incomplete abortion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.D. Westendorp (Iris); W.M. Ankum (Willem); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); J. Vonk (Jan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis prospective study assesses the prevalence of intrauterine adhesions among women undergoing secondary removal of placental remnants after delivery, or a repeat curettage for incomplete abortions, and evaluates risk factors associated with the presence of

  5. Acceptance and use of the female condom among women with incomplete abortion in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2006-01-01

    offered to 548 women admitted to the Kagera Regional Hospital for incomplete abortion. The counseling included information about STI/HIV and the use male or female condom. In total, 521 (95%) women accepted contraception. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was assessed 3 months after abortion among 475 (91......BACKGROUND: This study describes the outcome of a postabortion care intervention aimed at introducing the female condom as a means of preventing women from having unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. METHODS: Postabortion contraceptive counseling and services were...... intended to use it again. CONCLUSION: Postabortion care programs provide an excellent entry point for introducing the female condom as a contraceptive method for the prevention of both repeat unwanted pregnancies and STI/HIV infection....

  6. 社区人工流产术中人流不全常见原因、诊断及防治措施%Community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜美芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures. Methods:59 patients with incomplete abortion were selected.We retrospective analyzed clinical data,while implementing curettage, curettage,or let the patients taking the drug.Results:Incomplete abortion patients were treated successfully,and the success rate of 100%.Conclusion:The reason for incomplete abortion has a variety of features,for incomplete abortion patients require prompt diagnosis and treatment.%目的:分析社区人工流产术后人流不全的常见原因、诊断方法与防治措施。方法:收治人工流产不全患者59例,回顾分析其临床资料,同时实施钳刮术、清宫术,或让患者服用药物。结果:人流不全患者均治疗成功,成功率100%。结论:人流不全的原因具有多样化的特点,对于人流不全患者需要及时诊断与治疗。

  7. Community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures%社区人工流产术中人流不全常见原因、诊断及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜美芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析社区人工流产术后人流不全的常见原因、诊断方法与防治措施。方法:收治人工流产不全患者59例,回顾分析其临床资料,同时实施钳刮术、清宫术,或让患者服用药物。结果:人流不全患者均治疗成功,成功率100%。结论:人流不全的原因具有多样化的特点,对于人流不全患者需要及时诊断与治疗。%Objective:To analyze the community abortion incomplete abortion common cause diagnosis and prevention measures. Methods:59 patients with incomplete abortion were selected.We retrospective analyzed clinical data,while implementing curettage, curettage,or let the patients taking the drug.Results:Incomplete abortion patients were treated successfully,and the success rate of 100%.Conclusion:The reason for incomplete abortion has a variety of features,for incomplete abortion patients require prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  9. CONSULTANT REPORT INCOMPLETE ABORTIONS TREATED AT JAHANSHAH SALEH HOSPITAL IN TEHRAN, IRAN FROM MAY 14, 1973

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    Yahya Behjatnia

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from May, 1973 to April, 1974, one hundred patients were trea ted for incomple te abortion at the ]ahanshah Saleh Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients admitted to th e hospital were from 4 to 28 weeks' gestation and were routinely administered analgestics before the abortion was completed by D&C. The D&C took about 10 minutes and the patient was usually able to go home that same day: Twenty-four women (24 .0% experienced complicatio n(s including blood loss, fever requiring antibiotic treatment, and pelvic infection.

  10. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, M

    1979-09-15

    I would like to take issue with Dr Colin Brewer's statements concerning intrauterine contraceptive devices and abortion (11 August, p 389). I agree that logically there is no distinction between IUCDs, and other abortifacients used early in pregnancy, and abortion methods used later in pregnancy. However, I disagree with his statement that to make illegal IUCDs and similar methods out of an "obsessive concern for microscopic forms of life" would be "absurd." Firstly, size has never been a criterion for the presence or absence of life, or of its importance. Surely Dr Brewer, MPs, and the public would be outraged by anything less than obsessively careful handling of, say, rabies or smallpox viruses in laboratories. Do not the products of conception, with the full potential of a human being unless actively interfered with by other men (neglecting normal fetal wastage), deserve any less concern? Secondly, mortality should not be determined by practicalities; rather morality should determine one's actions. The question of whether IUCDs and other such procedures should remain legal or be made illegal should not be determined by their efficacy, popularity, or economy. I agree fully with Dr Brewer--abortion is a moral issue and it is a pity that the BMF has not raised the moral issues at stake. Particularly so, as Lord Denning put it "...without morality there can be no law." I personally subscribe to the Hippocratic Oath. PMID:497769

  11. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda.

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    Amanda Cleeve

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians.This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1 was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14-28 days following treatment. Analysis of women's overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024.From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician. 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904 of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded.Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024.

  12. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  13. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  14. Effect of conservative treatments for incomplete induced abortion and the factors related to successful removal of the remnants%保守治疗人工流产术后残留效果及相关因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛听; 黄紫蓉; 李斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of conservative treatments for abortive remnants of induced abortion, and probe into the influencing factors related to the successful removal of the remnants. Methods: A total of 101 patients with abortive remnants after induced abortion were selected by simple random sampling, and randomly divided into 4 groups, with 3 groups treated with different dosages of mifepristone (50 mg/d ×28d, 100 mg/d × 14d, and 200mg/d ×7d)and 1 control group. Based on the treatment outcomes, the patients were subgrouped into cured group and uncured group. The parameters of age, weight, gravidity, parity, bleeding time after treatment, baseline β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) levels, and the size of abortive remnants measured by B - mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment were analyzed. Rank sum test and logistic regression method were used to analyze the correlated factors with successful treatment of abortive remnants of induced abortion with mifepristone. Results : The group with mifepristone 200mg/d × 7d showed the most effective results (P < 0. 05). Compared with the uncured group, cured group had lower levels of serum β -hCG, smaller abortive remnants, shorter bleeding time after treatment, greater resistance index of blood flow (P <0.05 for all above factors). Logistic regression analysis showed that dosage of mifepristone, baseline β - hCG, the average size of the abortive remnants, and resistance index of blood flow status of the remnant tissue were closely correlated to the treatment outcomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone was effective in the treatment of incomplete induced abortion, and it was most effective when used at a short - term high dose. The baseline β - hCG, size of the abortive remnants and resistance index of bleed flow of the abortive remnants could predict the treatment outcomes.%目的:探讨影响人工流产术后残留保守治疗的相关因素,为临床有效诊断提供和治疗依据.方法:采用

  15. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  16. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...... are used and their potential effect.MethodsData were obtained among women admitted with incomplete abortion at Kagera Regional Hospital during the period January - June, 2006. The women underwent an empathetic interview to determine if they had experienced an unsafe abortion prior to their admission....... In all 125/187 women revealed having had an unsafe abortion. The women identified as having had an unsafe abortion underwent a questionnaire interview where information about abortion provider and abortion method used was obtained through open-ended questions. To get more detailed information about...

  17. Ley de matrimonio igualitario y aborto en Argentina: notas sobre una revolución incompleta Egalitarian marriage law and abortion in Argentina: notes on an incomplete revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Belgrano Rawson

    2012-04-01

    context, in appearance so favourable to sexual equality, I believe this new law does not match the sexual order that today regulates the bodies of Argentine women. As from 1920 abortion is illegal in Argentina and it is reckoned as a crime against human life. Nevertheless, abortion is still the major cause of death among women in this country. Given this situation, in this article I will analyze the gap I find between homosexual and reproductive politics in the country. Unlike Europe, where reproductive rights preceded homosexual rights, in Argentina the opposite situation is observed. In this country, the legal recognition of same sex couples matches measures taken by other democracies and aimed at reaching what certain authors call sexual citizenship. Nevertheless, as long as Argentina does not recognize the right to free and safe abortion, this notion, which legitimates the universal applicability of sexual rights, will continue to be problematic. I believe that without the right of self-ownership, which comprehends sexual freedom and the right to decide to terminate a pregnancy, in the current Argentine context the gay marriage act represents an isolated event.

  18. Clinical study of marvelon in the prevention and treatment of incomplete abortion in early pregnancy%去氧孕烯炔雌醇防治早期妊娠流产不全的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚贵香; 邓秀成; 刘春雷

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究分析去氧孕烯炔雌醇预防与治疗早期妊娠流产不全患者的临床效果。方法:选取2010年3月至2013年5月来我院治疗的360例患者,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组患者180例。实验组患者服用去氧孕烯炔雌醇片剂,并且常规使用抗生素和促宫缩药;对照组患者只需常规使用抗生素和促宫缩药,探究实验组和对照组患者血清中内分泌物的变化;采用多普勒彩色超声检查实验组和对照组患者子宫内膜变化,分析 GnRH、LH、FSH 和 E2与内分泌轴及子宫内膜的作用;通过比较实验组和对照组患者服用去氧孕烯炔雌醇前后的阴道出血量以及平均阴道出血时间,探究去氧孕烯炔雌醇治疗早期妊娠流产不全患者的临床效果。结果:实验组和对照组患者的 FSH、LH、E2、PRE 以及血 HCG 明显小于对照组患者,具有显著差异性(P <0.05);通过多普勒彩色超声检查看出实验组患者观察组子宫内膜明显修复较快,且宫腔明显缩小,具有统计学意义(P <0.05);实验组患者阴道出血量明显少于对照组,且平均出血时间小于对照组患者,有统计学意义。结论:通过观察实验组和对照组患者的血清内分泌物的变化、子宫内膜的变化、阴道出血量以及平均出血时间的变化,去氧孕烯炔雌醇片剂能够显著的预防和治疗早期妊娠流产不全疾病,明显提高临床治疗效果。%Objectives:To explore the clinical effects of marvelon in the prevention and treatment of pa-tients with incomplete abortion in early pregnancy.Methods:360 patients treated in our hospital from March 201 0 to May 201 3 were selected and randomly divided into experimental group and control group,with 1 80 patients in each group.Experimental group patients received marvelon tablet combined with routine use of antibiotics and drugs to promote uterine contractions;control patients

  19. Clinical Observation of 58 Cases of Incomplete Abortion Estradiol Valerate Combined Treatment of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate%戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗58例流产不全的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗58例流产不全的临床疗效。方法本研究于2009年1月至2011年12月采用戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮对58例流产不全者进行治疗,并与采用催产素治疗的对照组进行临床疗效对比研究。结果两组患者经过积极的治疗后,其中研究组患者中痊愈55例,占87.93%(51/58),而对照组患者中治愈29例,占50.00%(29/58);研究组的临床治愈率明显高于对照组,且差异具有统计学意义(χ2=19.49,P0.05)。结论戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗流产不全,提高了完全流产率,缩短了患者持续出血时间,值得临床推广使用。%Objective To pentanoic acid estradiol medroxyprogesterone acetate joint clinical curative effect for the treatment of 58 cases of incomplete abortion. Method This research in from January 2009 to December 2009 with pentanoic acid estradiol medroxyprogesterone acetate joint treatment of 58 cases of incomplete abortion, and with the use of oxytocin treatment control group in clinical effect comparison research. Results Two groups of patients after active treatment, of which the team patients recover 55 cases, 87.93%(51/58), while the control group were cured in 29 cases, accounting for 50.00%(29/58);Clinical cure rate of group was obviously higher than that of control group, and the difference is statistically signiifcant(chi-square=19.49, P0.05). Conclusion Pentanoic acid estradiol combined therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate abortion is not complete, improves the complete abortion rate, shorten the patients with continuous bleeding time, worthy of clinical use.

  20. Management of abortion complications at a rural hospital in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...

  1. Clinical observation of progynova and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of 104 cases of incomplete drug abortion%补佳乐和安宫黄体酮用于104例药物流产不全的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任成娥

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨补佳乐和安宫黄体酮应用于药物流产不全的临床效果。方法:2011年1月-2013年8月收治药物流产不全患者104例,随机分为观察组及对照组,各52例。观察组每天口服补佳乐片3 mg,10 d,后5 d每天加服安宫黄体酮片10 mg。对照组催产素针10 U,3 d,肌注;同时益母草冲剂20 g/次,2次/d,7 d,口服。比较两组临床疗效。结果:观察组治愈率90.38%,对照组治愈率28.84%,观察组优于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:补佳乐和安宫黄体酮在治疗药物流产不全时疗效显著,并具有安全、无痛苦的优点。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of progynova and medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of incomplete drug abortion.Methods:104 cases of incomplete drug abortion were selected from January 2011 to August 2013.They were divided into the observation group and the control group with 52 cases in each.The observation group were given oral progynova 3 mg/d for 10 days.After 5 days,they were added with the medroxyprogesterone 10 mg oral.The control group were given oxytocin needle 10 U for 3 days,intramuscular injection.At the same time,they were given motherwort medicine 20 g/time oral,2 times/day for 7 days.We compared the clinical effects of two groups.Results:The cure rate of the observation group was 90.38%, and the cure rate of the control group was 28.84%.The effect of the observation group was better than that of the control group. There was significant difference between two groups(P<0.01).Conclusion:The curative effect of progynova and medroxyprogesterone in the treatment of incomplete drug abortion is remarkable,and it has the advantages of safety and no pain.

  2. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  3. 戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗流产不全的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy of Estradiol Valerate Combined with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in the Treatment of Incomplete Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the clinical effect and untoward effects of estradiol valerate and medroxyproges-terone acetate in the treatment of incomplete abortion. Methods 200 patients with incomplete abortion diagnosed and treated in our hospital were selected and divided into two groups randomly. Estradiol valerate combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate was given to the observation group, and oxytocin was given to the control group for treatment. And the treatment effect of patients in the two groups was compared and analyzed. Results 88 patients are cured in the observation group, and the cure rate is 88.0%;48 patients are cured in the control group, and the cure rate is 48.0%. The difference between the two groups is obvious. The du-ration of colporrhagia of patients in the observation group is (7.22 ±3.11) d, which is significantly less than that of the control group's (12.33±3.79) d;and the difference in untoward effects between the two groups of patients has no significance. Conclusion The combination of estradiol valerate and medroxyprogesterone acetate has a significant treatment effect on incomplete abortion, by which the continuous bleeding time can be shortened obviously;the method is safe and reliable;the untoward effect is lighter, so it is worthy of being used widely.%目的:探讨分析戊酸雌二醇+醋酸甲羟孕酮治疗流产不全的临床效果及不良反应。方法选取该院确诊治疗的200例流产不全患者,以随机方式将其分为两组。观察组使用戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕酮进行治疗,对照组则使用催产素进行治疗,比较分析两组患者治疗效果。结果观察组共治愈88例患者,治愈率为88.0%,对照组共治愈48例患者,治愈率为48.0%,二者差异明显;观察组患者阴道出血持续时间为(7.22±3.11)d明显少于对照组(12.33±3.79)d;两组患者不良反应差异无统计学意义。结论戊酸雌二醇联合醋酸甲羟孕

  4. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  5. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kumar; L. Hessini; E.M.H. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  6. Self-reports of induced abortion: an empathetic setting can improve the quality of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete aborti...... previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion.......OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion...

  7. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  8. Formalizing Incomplete Knowledge in Incomplete Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈一栋

    1992-01-01

    Up to now,no satisfactory theory has been established for formalizing incomplete knowledge in incomplete databases.In this paper,we clarify why existing closed world approaches,such as the CWA,the GCWA,the ECWA,circumscription,predicate completion and the PWA,fail to do so,and propose a new method,The method is an augmentation of both the ECWA and circumscription with the mechanism to discriminate implicitly expressed positive knowledge,negative knowledge and truly unknown knowledge.

  9. Oligarchy and soft incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Duddy, Conal

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the social preference relation is complete is demanding. We distinguish between “hard” and “soft” incompleteness, and explore the social choice implications of the latter. Under soft incompleteness, social preferences can take values in the unit interval. We motivate interest in soft incompleteness by presenting a version of the strong Pareto rule that is suited to the context of a [0, 1]-valued social preference relation. Using a novel approach to the quasi-tr...

  10. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  11. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  12. Late-term abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  13. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coêlho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Santos, A P; Forte, E B; Morais, S M; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Herxheimer, A

    1993-05-15

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil, where abortion is legal only in cases of rape or incest, or to save the woman's life. Because misoprostol is an inefficient abortifacient, many women who use it have incomplete abortions and need uterine evacuation. We reviewed the records of women admitted to the main obstetric hospital of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Brazil, between January, 1990, and July, 1992, for uterine evacuation after induced abortion. The number of incomplete abortions induced by misoprostol increased substantially during the first half of 1990, and declined thereafter. Of the 593 cases in 1991, 75% were related to misoprostol, 10% to the use of other specified drugs, and 6% to unspecified drugs. For the remaining 9% the procedure used was not recorded; these included 3% in whom abortion had been induced by a clandestine abortionist. The number of uterine evacuations per month fell from 89 in August, 1990, to 62 in July, 1991, when sales of misoprostol in Ceará state were suspended. The fall continued after the sale of misoprostol ceased, to about 20 cases in December, 1991; numbers remained around this level until June, 1992, sustained by clandestine sales. The lack of access to contraception is the main reason for the large numbers of unplanned pregnancies and is a major public health issue for Brazilian women. The prohibition of abortion creates a void in which misuse of medicines is one extra complication, mainly because of the poor control of drug marketing. PMID:8098403

  14. Incomplete Delta Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gersten, A.

    1999-01-01

    By applying projection operators to state vectors of coordinates we obtain subspaces in which these states are no longer normalized according to Dirac's delta function but normalized according to what we call "incomplete delta functions". We show that this class of functions satisfy identities similar to those satisfied by the Dirac delta function. The incomplete delta functions may be employed advantageously in projected subspaces and in the link between functions defined on the whole space ...

  15. Making legal abortion available in Brazil: partnerships in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, W V; Araújo, M J

    2000-11-01

    This article describes the participation of feminist groups who work in the area of women's reproductive health and rights in campaigns for the provision of legal abortion in public hospitals in Brazil. Brazilian criminal law permits therapeutic abortion in cases where pregnancy is the result of rape or poses a serious risk to the life of the woman. Today, as a result of the combined efforts of feminists, health professionals and policymakers, more than 20 hospitals in Brazil are officially permitted to perform therapeutic abortions within the existing law. A model programme has also been developed to train service providers to do legal abortions, where the agreement of a hospital board can be obtained. This training has also improved care for illegally obtained, incomplete abortions in those hospitals but not in hospitals where doctors have not been trained. Problems with lack of access and concerns about the lack of public acceptance of abortion remain. Women not only need the right to abortion but also more services and health professionals who are trained to perform abortions across the whole country. PMID:11424253

  16. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, T F

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the ...

  17. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  18. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  19. Production in incomplete markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the ......In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  20. Production in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  1. Approximate and Incomplete Factorizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, T.F.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief overview of a particular class of preconditioners known as incomplete factorizations. They can be thought of as approximating the exact LU factorization of a given matrix A (e.g. computed via Gaussian elimination) by disallowing certain ll-ins. As opposed to other PD

  2. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  3. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  4. Abortion in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Coast, Ernestina; Freeman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The poster, based on 112 in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 with women in Zambia who had recently had an abortion, shows the complex pathways that some women take despite safe abortion being legal under a wide range of circumstances in Zambia.

  5. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  6. Access to legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  7. Abortion; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cartogram represents the crude rate of abortions (number of abortions per 1,000 inhabitants) in the individual districts, crude abortion rate in Slovakia: 0.54 %, number of all abortions (average of 1996 - 1998) is presented. The complicated mosaics reveals two main spatial cores of the highest abortion rate. The first is in the south-west of Slovakia, from Malacky to Komarno, and the second, the largest, is from Ziar nad Hronom and Velky Krtis as far as Michalovce. In contrary, the rate of abortions is registered in the northern districts of the eastern Slovakia, almost the whole region Presov and in the northern districts of the region of Zilina. The size of the sign expresses the absolute number of abortions and simultaneously the structure of abortions: spontaneous and induced abortions. The higher share of the spontaneous abortions (more than a quarter) generally occurs in the districts with the lowest abortion rate. (authors)

  8. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required.

  9. Reasoning in incomplete domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.

    1979-01-01

    Most real-world domains differ from the micro-worlds traditionally used in A.I. in that they have an incomplete factual data base which changes over time. Understanding in these domains can be thought of as the gneration of plausible infoerences which are able to use the facts available, and respond to changes in them. A traditional rule interpreter such as Planner can be extended to construct plausible inferences in these domains by allowing assumptions to be made in applying rules, resultsing in simplifications of rules which can be used in an incomplete data base; monitoring the antecedents and consequents of a rule so that inferences can be maintained over a changing data base.

  10. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theory. Thus deduction...

  11. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  12. Unintended Pregnancies, Restrictive Abortion Laws, and Abortion Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...

  13. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  14. Over the counter sale of abortion pills - time to act now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Results: 70 patients who bought abortion pills over the counter were included in the study group. 90% (63/70 patients were not using any kind of contraceptive method. Only 55.71% (39/70 patients took the abortion pills as per the recommended standard protocol. Gestational age was < 8 weeks in 45.71% (32/70 patients only. Most common presenting complaint was varying amount of bleeding per vaginum followed by abdominal pain met in 97.14% (68/70 and 30% (21/70 patients respectively. 7.14% (5/70 patients presented to emergency in shock. Final diagnosis was complete abortion in 21.42% (15/70 patients, incomplete abortion in 47.14% (33/70, missed abortion in 11.42% ( 8/70, septic abortion in 7.14% ( 5/70 , threatened abortion in 5.71% ( 4/70, ectopic pregnancy in 5.71% ( 4/70 and molar pregnancy in 1.42% ( 1/70 patients and they were managed accordingly as per standard guidelines. Conclusion: The women in India should be aware of their legal right to safe abortion. They should stop buying the drug without prescription as medical abortion facilities are being made easily available, accessible and affordable to all. However strict ban on over the counter availability of abortion pills can make the situation worse. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1053-1056

  15. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  16. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  17. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-01-01

    All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn t...

  18. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  19. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  20. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  1. Prematurity and Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jover-Díaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the pathogenic role of Coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy is controversial, some cases of stillbirth and abortion occurring after an acute or chronic infection have been mentioned in the literature. Recently, Q fever has been advocated as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy

  2. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elard Koch,1,2 Paula Aracena,1 Sebastián Gatica,1 Miguel Bravo,1 Alejandra Huerta-Zepeda,3 Byron C Calhoun41Institute of Molecular Epidemiology (MELISA, Center of Embryonic Medicine and Maternal Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 3Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla UPAEP, Puebla, México; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West Virginia University, Charleston, WV, USAAbstract: In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD. We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold, where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35% was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6% from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births. Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than

  3. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  4. [Chemical methods of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Matthiesen, H

    1979-07-20

    Medicaments are used to prepare for instrument abortions in the 1st trimester and as inducers of abortion in the 2nd trimester. The effects, side effects, and dangers depend on the substances used and the route of application, which can be vaginal, cervical, injection, instillation, extraamniotic, intraamniotic, intravenous, or intramuscular. In the past, intraamniotic instillation of a 20% salt solution was the most common 2nd trimester method in Japan, the US, and Eastern Europe, giving a success rate of 90%. Serious side effects prompted substitution of extraamniotic instillation, which rarely produces serious side effects. Instillation of a 60% urea solution into the amniotic fluid in combination with oxytocin or prostaglandin produces an abortion in 13-21 hours, with a failure rate of 3% and a frequency of cervical laceration of under 1%. Extraamniotic use of a .1% solution of rivanol yields a success rate of about 85%, with a relatively long average time to explusion of 24-41 hours. In case of failure the procedure can be repeated. The advantage of the Rivanol method is the rarity of infectious complications. Alcohol is not used as a human abortifacient because it produces necrosis in the decidua and placenta. Prostaglandins are used in most 2nd trimester abortions. Research is underway to identify derivatives that will have an extended uterine impact without serious side effects. Different routes of administration have different effectiveness rates and dangers. All prostaglandins cause side effects including pain during uterine contractions, gastro-intestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Specific preparations are associated with other effects, some of them life-threatening. Emergency treatment should be available when these substances are used. Adjuvant measures may be employed before adminstration of an abortifacient agent to soften the cervix, or after administration to hasten the procedure. The choice of procedure depends upon the

  5. Abortion Performance and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Candelario, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    “Performing abortion” typically refers to what health care providers do in clinics, private offices, and (rarely) hospitals 1.21 million times per year,every year, in the United States. At the same time, the phrase indicates what performance artists, choreographers, and activists have been doing on stages, in galleries, and on the streets for decades. Candelario is intrigued by this double meaning that invites us to take seriously what abortion means at this political and historical moment, b...

  6. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomplete information. Th...

  7. Altruistic Behavior Under Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Friedel; Kritikos, Alexander S.

    2004-01-01

    Models to the issue of altruism which rely on externalities of well-being are rarely used explicitly. In this paper we compare such utility-based approaches with the standard approach on altruism which is based on externalities of income. Testable differences of both types of models are derived in the case of incomplete information. More specifically, applied to the Dictator Game and the Impunity Game both played under incomplete information, the utility-based based approach predicts dictator...

  8. The abortion debate in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  9. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Vaginal Bleeding after Drug-induced Abortion by Yaoliuan Capsule and Its Effects on Menses Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhichun; HUANG Guangying

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period ≤ 49 days and without contraindication, were divided randomly into study group (168 cases, taking Yaoliuan capsule) and control group (155 cases, taking placebo capsule). The results showed that in the study group, there were 161 cases (95.8 %) of complete abortion, 7 cases (4.2 %) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2 %) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9 %) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9 %) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5±5.2 days and 33.8 d±8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1±3.5 days and 9.9±5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  11. Anti-abortion movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  12. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn the Shiite jurisprudence, the ensoulment occurs after about 4 months. Before this stage, all Shiite authorities regard abortion as forbidden (Hiram unless if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger or will be intolerable for her. But after that, they regard abortion as Hiram, unless in conditions in which continuing the pregnancy results in dying of both mother and fetus, but abortion will save the life of mother. However, the Shiite authorities have not accepted to legitimate abortion in unwanted pregnancies and even in pregnancies resulted from adultery (Zina or rape."nThe debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. There are some important and notable related Fatwas that make jurisprudical basis for some new and problem solving legal acts, showing the inherent and valuable flexibility of the Shiite jurisprudence in dealing with such important issues. Some related issues, such as the priority of saving the life of mother after ensoulment can be referred to jurisprudical authorities for more assessment.

  13. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  14. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MN Jali

    2001-01-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the argumen...

  15. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. PMID:26654497

  16. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  17. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  18. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive. PMID:12285925

  19. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  20. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bao; Y. Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differen

  1. Matriculation Research Report: Incomplete Grades; Data & Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joe

    The policy on incomplete grades at California's College of the Canyons states that incompletes may only be given under circumstances beyond students' control and that students must make arrangements with faculty prior to the end of the semester to clear the incomplete. Failure to complete an incomplete may result in an "F" grade. While incompletes…

  2. Incomplete Bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Tasci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials. In the case =1, =1, we obtain the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas -numbers. If =2, =1, we have the incomplete Pell and Pell-Lucas -numbers. On choosing =1, =2, we get the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal number and besides for =1 the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. In the case =1, =1, =1, we have the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. If =1, =1, =1, =⌊(−1/(+1⌋, we obtain the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Also generating function and properties of the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials are given.

  3. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  4. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...... wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept...... of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong...

  5. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  6. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  7. The Question of Abortion in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasevic, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Induced abortion has for a long time been a predominant method of birth control in Serbia. With spreading of contraception, significance of induced abortion became to a decrease. Besides this positive trend, estimated number of induced abortions about 200000 abortions per a year shows that a significant number of women mostly, and a certain number of women exclusively, relies on this method of birth control.Research findings discovered a complex array of factors of abortion problem, including...

  8. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  9. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  10. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  11. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  12. Kvinners reaksjoner etter spontan abort

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 15 percent of all verified pregnancies end in miscarriage. It is known that spontaneous abortion often cause psychological distress. The women are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, depression and other psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms could persist for years after the miscarriage and there is frequently no routine to identify psychiatric morbidity among the women. Research has been conducted to identify the consequences of abortion, but the stud...

  13. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  14. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  15. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  16. Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some instances, reconstruction radionuclide tomography must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting artifacts and inaccuracies are discussed

  17. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  18. Clinical Implications of Incomplete Pancreas Divisum

    OpenAIRE

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Kouji Tsuruta; Aatsutake Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    Context Incomplete pancreas divisum is a pancreatic anomaly that results in an inadequate communication between the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts. Although the relationship between complete pancreas divisum and pancreatitis has been contentious, clinical implications of incomplete pancreas divisum have not been noted. Objective This study was done to investigate the clinical significance of incomplete pancreas divisum. Patients and...

  19. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  20. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  1. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  2. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights.

  3. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, J.H. [Osler Hoskin and Harcourt, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs.

  4. “Right tool,” wrong “job”: Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Siri

    2015-01-01

    The “rightness” of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the “job” they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminat...

  5. Remembering Aborted Foetuses in a Japanese Shrine

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a shrine beside a temple in Kyoto there are a large number of small effigies. They commemorate aborted foetuses. In the absence of proper contraception, the Japanese for centuries have had to use abortion and, in the past, infanticide to control their population. These 'water children' (who return to the water world at abortion) are a source of great sadness in Japan.

  6. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  7. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  8. Cryptococcemia Resulting in an Incomplete Abortion in an HIV-Positive Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosh Rahimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exotic infections and unusual presentations are the norm in immunocompromised patients. An unusual case of cryptococcemia resulting in a miscarriage is reported. This was the first presentation of the disease and the sentinel infection in the patient who was found to be HIV positive. Histological evaluation of the dilation and curettage specimen showed numerous typical organisms of cryptococcus present within the products of conception. There was a focal granulomatous response to the organisms. An accompanying cryptococcal endometritis was not noted. Other concomitant infections were not seen.

  9. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  10. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Internationale undersøgelser viser, at sene provokerede aborter skaber en større bekymring hos sundhedspersonale end tidlige aborter. Den største bekymring er risikoen for, at det aborterede foster udviser livstegn efter fødslen. Undersøgelser peger desuden på, at indikationen for abort, religiøs...... tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  11. Plasma β-Endorphin Levels in Women with Early Threatened Abortion before and after the Treatment of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斐; 俞瑾

    1999-01-01

    To observe plasma β-endorphin(β-EP)and gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRM),human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),progesterone (P4) levels in women with early threatened abortion and with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions(RSA).Twenty patients with threatened abortion at 7-8 weeks of gestation were re-cruited,all of them had a history of 3 or more recurrent unexplained abortions.They were treated with psychological consultation accompanied by traditional Chinese herbs.Blood samples were taken to measure β-EP,GnRM,hCG and P4 levels by radioim-munoassay(RIA).The treatments were continued till 10-12 weeks,blood was taken during this period to compare changes in these peptides/hormones.Twenty normal pregnant women at 7-8 and 10-12weeks and 20patients with incomplete abortion at 10- 12weeks were recruited for comparative studies.Results:(1)In normal pregnant women,plasma β-EP,GnRH,hCG and P4 levels at 10-12 weeks were significantly higher than that at 7-8 weeks(P0.05).(3)Plasma β-EP levels in patients with incomplete abortions at 10-12 weeks were dramatically higher and GnRH,hCG and P4levels were lower than in normal pregnant women(P<0.01).β-EP might play a role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion.

  12. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  13. Incomplete convolutions in production and inventory models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we study incomplete convolutions of continuous distribution functions, as they appear in the analysis of (multi-stage) production and inventory systems. Three example systems are discussed where these incomplete convolutions naturally arise. We derive explicit, nonrecursive formulae f

  14. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  15. [Request for abortion during the 2d pregnancy trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, P E; Van den Berg, G R; Jager-van Gelder, P A; Van Oenen, J J

    1976-12-18

    156 women, 12-20 weeks pregnant, applied for abortion at the Wilhelmo Clinic in Amsterdam; 102 abortions were granted. The 156 late-abortion seekers were compared with 282 early-abortion seekers and 490 pregnant women. The late-abortion seekers were significantly younger (P .05). A significantly greater number of women over 30 applied for early abortion (P .001). Unmarried or divorced women were more likely to apply to abortion (P .001). Nulliparae applied more frequently for late abortion, compared to early-abortion seekers (P .001). Women with only one child were more likely to be in the pregnancy group (p .05), with 2 children in the early-abortion group (p .001). Women from Surinam and the Antilles were more likely to be in the early abortion group (p .001). Of the late-abortion seekers, 9 had medical indications. Many had psychosocial problems; 91 had problems with partner relations. In 24 cases the delay in seeking abortion was due to a doctor. An ambivalent attitude toward the abortion existed in 22 of the patients. 83% of the late-abortion seekers and 11.3% of the early-abortion seekers had previously had an abortion. The contraceptive use of the late-abortion seekers was not regular. 1.3% of the late-abortion seekers and 9.9% of the early-abortion seekers were using IUDs at the time of conception. PMID:1012384

  16. Comparison of manual vacuum aspiration and sharp curettage in the treatment of first trimester abortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the safety and efficacy of manual vacuum aspiration and sharp curettage in the treatment of first trimester abortions. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gynecology, Social Security Hospital Shahdra Lahore in collaboration with Family Health Hospital Johar Town Lahore, from May 2007 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: Six hundred women admitted with the diagnosis of first trimester less than or equal to 12 weeks abortions were randomly assigned, 300 to manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and 300 to traditional sharp curettage. Diagnosis of abortion was confirmed by last menstrual period, physical examination and ultrasonography. Results: In total of 600 patients, 300 randomly assigned to MVA and another 300 patients assigned to sharp curettage management were having mean age of 31.8 and 33 yrs respectively. Mean parity was in both groups, mean gestational age 8.9 and 8.2 weeks, mean duration of procedure was 6.4 and 5.8 minutes, duration of hospital stay was 4 and 40 hrs, missed abortion in 47% and 43% patients, incomplete abortion in 53% and 57% patients, cervical dilatation was needed in 1% against 53%, 10% against 8 % experienced mild pain in both groups, no patient of incomplete evacuation against 0.6%, uterine perforation in none against 0.3 %, excessive bleeding was experienced by 0.3% against 0.6% patients in both groups, and patient satisfaction rate was 99% against 99.4% in the two groups respectively. Conclusion: In the management of first trimester pregnancy loss, MVA offers a quick solution to the problem with reduced hospital stay and lower rate of complications. (author)

  17. Abortion Counselling in Britain: Understanding the Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature from a number of disciplines in order to provide an explanation of the political controversy attached to the provision of abortion counselling. It will show how this is an area of health policy debate in which women's reproductive bodies have become a setting for political struggle. The issue of abortion counselling in Britain has undergone a number of discursive shifts in response to political manoeuvring and changing socio-legal framing of abortion. In partic...

  18. Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourali L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit -hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

  19. Interference Alignment with Incomplete CSIT Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    De Kerret, Paul; Gesbert, David

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the impact of having only incomplete channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT) over the feasibility of interference alignment (IA) in a K-user MIMO interference channel (IC). Incompleteness of CSIT refers to the perfect knowledge at each transmitter (TX) of only a sub-matrix of the global channel matrix, where the sub-matrix is specific to each TX. This paper investigates the notion of IA feasibility for CSIT configurations being as incomplete as possible, as...

  20. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  1. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  2. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  3. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  4. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  5. Deaths from injuries and induced abortion among rural Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauveau, V; Blanchet, T

    1989-01-01

    Information about injuries and violence as causes of death of women is scarce and often incomplete, and particularly so regarding women in the rural areas of South Asia. This report provides detailed specific information collected in Matlab, a sub-district of rural Bangladesh. Of 1139 women (aged 15-44 yr) who died there during the 11-yr period from 1976 to 1986, 207 (18%) were victims of unintentional injuries or violence. In this study, unintentional injuries include domestic and traffic accidents, drowning and snake-bites, while violent deaths are defined as due to intentional injury and include homicide, suicide and lethal complications of induced abortion. Injuries and violence accounted for 31% of all deaths among women aged 15-19 yr. This proportion dropped significantly with age to 10% among women aged 35-44 yr. Unmarried women suffered a higher proportion of such deaths (36%) than married women (15%). Violent deaths during pregnancy and complications of induced abortion among young unmarried women deserve special attention. In the male-dominated society under study, suicide and homicide are observed to be two frequent consequences of illegitimate pregnancy. Although this study suffers from the absence of data on non-fatal injuries and attempted violence, it may serve as a basis for recommending preventive measures.

  6. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  7. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  8. The Evolution of Conventions under Incomplete Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Mogens; Sloth, Birgitte

    We formulate an evolutionary learning process in the spirit of Young (1993a) for games of incomplete information. The process involves trembles. For many games, if the amount of trembling is small, play will be in accordance with the games' (semi- strict) Bayesian equilibria most of the time...... to incomplete information of the prototype strategic conflict known as Chicken. The second is an incomplete information bilateral monopoly, which is also an extension to incomplete information of Nash's demand game, or a simple version of the so-called sealed bid double auction. For both games selection...... by evolutionary learning is in favor of Bayesian equilibria where some types of players fail to coordinate, such that the outcome is inefficient...

  9. Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

  10. Incomplete Contracts and the Product Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2005-01-01

    The incomplete nature of contracts governing international transactions limits the extent to which the production process can be fragmented across borders. In a dynamic, general-equilibrium Ricardian model of North-South trade, the incompleteness of international contracts is shown to lead to the emergence of product cycles. Because of contractual frictions, goods are initially manufactured in the North, where product development takes place. As the good matures and becomes more standardized,...

  11. Epistemological Consequences of the Incompleteness Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    After highlighting the cases in which the semantics of a language cannot be mechanically reproduced (in which case it is called inherent), the main epistemological consequences of the first incompleteness Theorem for the two fundamental arithmetical theories are shown: the non-mechanizability for the truths of the first-order arithmetic and the peculiarities for the model of the second-order arithmetic. Finally, the common epistemological interpretation of the second incompleteness Theorem is...

  12. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  13. J-2X Abort System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  14. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  15. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  16. Medical Abortion Provided by Nurse-Midwives or Physicians in a High Resource Setting: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp Kallner, Helena; Simeonova, Emilia; Madestam, Andreas; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of early medical abortion performed by nurse-midwifes in comparison to physicians in a high resource setting where ultrasound dating is part of the protocol. Non-physician health care professionals have previously been shown to provide medical abortion as effectively and safely as physicians, but the cost-effectiveness of such task shifting remains to be established. Study design A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted based on data from a previously published randomized-controlled equivalence study including 1180 healthy women randomized to the standard procedure, early medical abortion provided by physicians, or the intervention, provision by nurse-midwifes. A 1.6% risk difference for efficacy defined as complete abortion without surgical interventions in favor of midwife provision was established which means that for every 100 procedures, the intervention treatment resulted in 1.6 fewer incomplete abortions needing surgical intervention than the standard treatment. The average direct and indirect costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. The study was conducted at a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Results The average direct costs per procedure were EUR 45 for the intervention compared to EUR 58.3 for the standard procedure. Both the cost and the efficacy of the intervention were superior to the standard treatment resulting in a negative ICER at EUR -831 based on direct costs and EUR -1769 considering total costs per surgical intervention avoided. Conclusion Early medical abortion provided by nurse-midwives is more cost-effective than provision by physicians. This evidence provides clinicians and decision makers with an important tool that may influence policy and clinical practice and eventually increase numbers of abortion providers and reduce one barrier to women’s access to safe abortion. PMID:27362270

  17. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  18. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  19. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  20. The abortion culture issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a large number of abortions in our country was first pointed out as far back as 1935 at the 17th Congress of Yugoslav Physicians. The abortion problem in Serbia is still present today, even though modern science has provided new methods and means which are a logical solution to the dilemma on birth control methods from the health and social aspect. Namely, total abortion rate in Serbia was estimated at 2.76 in the year 2007. It is very high; double the number of the total fertility rate and among the highest in Europe and the world. The term abortion culture was first used, as far as we know, by Henry David in the introduction of the book From Abortion to Contraception - A Resource to Public Policies and Reproductive Behavior in Central and Eastern Europe from 1917 to the Present in 1999, without specifically determining it. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important factors of the deterministic basis of endemic induced abortions in Serbia together with indirectly estimating their connection with the existence, namely nonexistence, of the abortion culture in our country. In that sense, potential factors of abortion incidence in Serbia which emerge from the social system and those connected to the individual level have been considered. In other words, a series of laws and other legal and political documents have been analyzed which are significant for perceiving the abortion matter, as well as institutional frameworks for family planning, health services, educating the youth regarding reproductive health, including findings of numerous researches carried out among women of various age and doctors from 1990 till present day in Serbia. The following most significant factors for the long duration of the abortion problem have been singled out: insufficient knowledge of modern contraception, a belief that modern contraceptive methods are harmful to health and a number of psychological barriers as well as those arising from

  1. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  3. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828

  4. Practice of self-medication of mifepristone-misoprostol drug combination for medical abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Godara

    2014-06-01

    However, the use of mifepristone and ndash; misoprostol combination for medical abortion used as self-medication, is rising due to changing socio-cultural practices and increased awareness among women for the termination of early pregnancy up to 63 days. It is observed that many women indulge in the practice of self-medication for termination of pregnancy. They take medicines either from local pharmacists, nurses, on advice of relatives, friends, husband, neighbors, newspaper articles, radio, television, magazines or any other such unauthorized sources for termination of pregnancy which mostly leads to incomplete abortion or many complications. It is observed that only few number of women have complete abortion with self-medication from an unauthorized source and moreover they suffer from pain and heavy bleeding when compared to normal menstrual flow. It is noticed that now-a-days, these drugs are used irrationally and nonjudiciously. Women are thus advised to take proper regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol under the guidance of an authorized practitioner and if they still fail to abort, then they have to undergo surgical evacuation that is, vaccum aspiration for termination of pregnancy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 572-573

  5. Aborter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria; Warburg, Margit

    2008-01-01

    Mens nogle hospitaler nedgraver aborterede fostre på kirkegården, bortskaffer andre dem som vævsaffald. Tvetydig lovgivning er årsagen. Udgivelsesdato: 15. oktober......Mens nogle hospitaler nedgraver aborterede fostre på kirkegården, bortskaffer andre dem som vævsaffald. Tvetydig lovgivning er årsagen. Udgivelsesdato: 15. oktober...

  6. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  7. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  8. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  9. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  10. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  11. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  12. Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722

  13. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  15. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  16. The abortion debate: measuring gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, B; Henshaw, S K

    1992-01-01

    Abortion statistics are flawed by the lack of consistency in reporting gestational age. Several methods are generally used, and the number of abortions occurring before 12 weeks changes considerably depending upon the method used to determine gestational age. Pregnancy can be measured from the beginning of last menstruation or from fertilization, which is 14 days after the 1st day of the last menstrual period. Neither method accurately records pregnancy as determined by specialists in embryology and fetal development. Pregnancy actually begins with implantation, which begins 6-7 days after fertilization and ends 10-14 days later. Completion of fertilization and implantation occurs as much as 28 days after the 1st day of the last menstrual period. A report of an 8-week pregnancy is actually 6 weeks from fertilization and 4-5 weeks from implantation. The Centers for Disease Control and other abortion data collecting agencies use the 1st day of the last menstrual period. Statistics generally show that 50% of abortions occur before 8 weeks of gestation and 90% by 12 weeks. When gestation is considered at fertilization, 78% of abortions occur under 9 weeks, while 52% of abortions under 9 weeks are performed with data beginning at the 1st day of the last menstrual period. For abortions occurring under 12 weeks, 95% beginning at fertilization and 90% occur at the 1st day of the last menstrual period. 2/1000 vs. 5/1000 abortions occur under 20 weeks for data beginning at fertilization vs. at the onset of the last period. It is important to report abortion data accurately and to specify the method used to determine the gestational time period. PMID:1526273

  17. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF SEPTIC ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septic abortion is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Termination of pregnancy, although a safe and easy procedure in trained hands, can produce catastrophic outcomes when performed by unauthorized or untrained people and in improper settings. OBJECTIVE: To find out the association of various socio-demographic factors with septic abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal study, conducted in the indoor of obstetrics & gynaecology department of R.M.C.H & R.C, Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh from the period of Feb-2013 to April-2013, after selecting 100 septic abortion cases by simple randomization, who were admitted during the study period. Information of all these cases regarding their age, marital status, socio-economic status, literacy, parity and gestational age was obtained, and their association with septic abortion was studied accordingly. OBSERVATION: Out of the 100 cases of septic abortion studied, maximum percentage (66% of the cases was seen from the age group of 26 to 35 years. Most of the cases (97% were married, maximum (40% were belonging from low socio-economic status group (Group-IV, maximum (60% number of cases were illiterate, maximum (53% number of cases belonged to women group having parity five and above, and maximum (86% number of women were in the 1st trimester of pregnancy at the time of abortion. CONCLUSION: Present study confirms that unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected healthcare problems in India and more so in rural India. So, there is the need to strengthen quality abortion services to reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality due to septic abortion

  18. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  19. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act. PMID:3514547

  20. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Abolghasem Pourreza; Aziz Batebi

    2011-01-01

    "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respo...

  1. Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Pourreza, Abolghasem; Batebi, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and h...

  2. Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

  3. CLAIM HEDGING IN AN INCOMPLETE MARKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wangui; WANG Chunfeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we compare the performance of the optimal attainable payoffs (of a general claim) derived by the variance-optimal approach and the indifference argument under the mean-variance preference in an incomplete market.Both payoffs are expressed by the signed variance-optimal martingale measure.Our results are applied to the claim hedging under partial information.

  4. Quantum Games of Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi; QIN Gan; ZHOU Xian-Yi; DU Jiang-Feng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study two-player quantum games of incomplete information in which both the sides have partial information.The previous results of Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 016124] are incorporated in our more general formalism.Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits many interesting features.

  5. Thatcher condemns attacks on abortion mp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-19

    The Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, has stepped in to condemn a series of violent attacks on Liberal MP David Alton who is trying to reduce the [Illegible word] limit on abortions from 28 to 18 weeks.

  6. Sex-Selective Abortions to Be Outlawed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is to outlaw the selective abortion of female fetuses to correct an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls that has grown since the family planning policy was introduced more than 20 years ago.

  7. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.

  8. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴培

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt

  9. SEPTIC ABORTION: AN AVOIDABLE TRAGIC COMPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the incidence, demographic factors, clinical features, management, maternal morbidity, maternal mortality, surgical interventions with special emphasis on various contributing factors and unmet needs of septic abortion. In this study, 153 cases of septic abortions during six years periods, from January 2009 to December 2014 in the department of obstetrics and gynecology in Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, were included. All patients were evaluated with special reference to incidence, age incidence, marital status, socio economic status, residential distribution, gravida incidence, causes of septic abortion, grades of infection, clinical presentation, and management. Incidence of septic abortion was 3.88 % . Criminal interference was in 74 % of cases. Most of the cases (65 % were from low socioeconomic group. Sixty percent were from rural area. Fifty eight percent were tribal. Sixteen percent were admitted in septic shock. Laparotomy was required in seventeen percent of cases. Hysterectomy was require in five cases. Unfortunately, maternal death was nine. Cause of maternal death was septic shock in six and haemorrhagic shock in three. This incidence of septic abortion can be reduced by increasing awareness and making “safe abortion services” easily available, free of coast and also by providing family planning services.

  10. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  11. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion. PMID:12286344

  12. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755

  13. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  14. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  15. Cross-cultural attitudes toward abortion--Greeks versus Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J; Marcos, Anastasios C

    2003-04-01

    Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there are three major differences between Greece and the United States. First, in Greece religiosity has a smaller impact on sexual liberalism, and sexual liberalism has a much weaker impact on both types of abortion attitudes, particularly social abortion attitudes. Second, in Greece religiosity is more strongly related to abortion attitudes than in the United States, particularly to social abortion attitudes. Third, education has a weaker influence in Greece than in the United States.

  16. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...... present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected and globally an estimated 66...

  17. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  18. Quantum State Reconstruction From Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Buzek, V; Derka, R; Adam, G; Wiedemann, H

    1998-01-01

    Knowing and guessing, these are two essential epistemological pillars in the theory of quantum-mechanical measurement. As formulated quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. In general, a priori unknown states can be completely determined only when measurements on infinite ensembles of identically prepared quantum systems are performed. But how one can estimate (guess) quantum state when just incomplete data are available (known)? What is the most reliable estimation based on a given measured data? What is the optimal measurement providing only a finite number of identically prepared quantum objects are available? These are some of the questions we address. We present several schemes for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from measured data: (1) We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for an estimation of quantum states on incomplete observation levels. (2) We show how Bayesian inference can be used for reconstruction of quantum states when only a finite number ...

  19. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  20. Abigail’s Orphanhood and Incomplete Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐孟婕

    2015-01-01

    Abigail, the protagonist and vil ain in The Crucible, is manipulative, charismatic, and would attack anyone who stands in her way. However, reflecting on her orphanhood and incomplete personality, Abigail and her diabolic actions make more sense. This paper analyzes three facets of Abigail’s personality with a focus on her orphanhood and concludes that her wretchedness is related to her early loss of parents.

  1. Fuzzy sequential pattern mining in incomplete databases

    OpenAIRE

    Fiot, Céline; Laurent, Anne; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2008-01-01

    Recent widening of data mining application areas have lead to new issues. For instance, frequent sequence discovery techniques that were developed for customer behaviour analysis are now applied to analyse industrial or biological databases. Thus frequent sequence mining algorithm must be adapted to handle particular characteristics of these data. Among these specificities one should consider numerical attributes and incomplete data. In this paper, we propose a method for di...

  2. Cooperation Breakdowns under Incomplete Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Tranchant

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze conflict and cooperation between a State and a non ruling group in a general equilibrium, I unite pure rent-seeking models and economic models of conflict under an assumption of incomplete property rights. I show that a unique and globally stable Nash equilibrium exists in this game. Cooperation breakdowns appear to be twofold: generalized conflict driven by a collapse of the State and one- sided rebellion due to the coexistence between a strong State and a weak minority. ...

  3. Phase Transitions for Gödel Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiermann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Gödel's first incompleteness result from 1931 states that there are true assertions about the natural numbers which do not follow from the Peano axioms. Since 1931 many researchers have been looking for natural examples of such assertions and breakthroughs have been obtained in the seventies by Jeff Paris (in part jointly with Leo Harrington and Laurie Kirby) and Harvey Friedman who produced first mathematically interesting independence results in Ramsey theory (Paris) and well-order an...

  4. An Intuitively Complete Analysis of Godel's Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and rigorous analysis of Godel's proof of his first incompleteness theorem is presented. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. The first is to reveal what Godel actually proved to provide a clear and solid foundation upon which to base future research. The second is to construct a coherent explication of Godel's proof that is not only approachable by the non-specialist, but also brings to light the core principles underlying Godel's proof.

  5. Essential Incompleteness of Arithmetic Verified by Coq

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Russell

    2005-01-01

    A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. The weak axiom sys...

  6. Self Medication of Abortion Pill: Women’s Health in Jeopardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Thaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI recommends close monitoring of distribution of drugs that are used for medical abortion and that the medical profession and pharmaceutical industry should exercise due diligence in the promotion and usage of drugs that are used for medical abortion. Despite this, it has been perceived by the society that, medical abortions are extremely safe option even in hands of untrained personnel, leading to its over the counter dispensing and possibly increase in unsupervised terminations and life threatening complications. Objective: To study consequences of self medication of Abortion pill on women’s health Study Design: Retrospective Observational Study Duration of Study: One Year: August 2012 to July 2013 Material and Methods: After due permission from authority, data was collected from patients who had come for follow-up and treatment after self medication (purchased over the counter by self/family member without medical guidance/supervision for Medical method of Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP. Results: Data was collected in 37 patients, who had history of self medication of abortion pill. More than half, 20 (54% women were in age group of 20-29 years and married women were 35 (94.5%. Uneducated women were 12 (32.4%. Majority 33(89.1% of women had complaint of bleeding per vaginum. On Ultrasonography (USG, 26(70.2% women had incomplete abortion, 4 (10.8% women had intrauterine gestational sac with cardiac activity, 2(5.4% women had complete abortion and 1(2.7% woman had missed abortion. Surgical curettage was performed in 28(75.6% women. In 2(5.4% women, there was complete abortion after oxytocin and misoprostol. One woman (2.7% wanted to continue the pregnancy. Laparotomy was performed in 2 (5.4% women having ectopic pregnancy and in 1(2.7% woman who had perforation of uterus while undergoing surgical curettage at private hospital. Moderate and severe anaemia

  7. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  8. [Conscientious objection in the matter of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L

    1992-03-01

    The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition. PMID:1565971

  9. Comparison of Outcomes before and after Ohio's Law Mandating Use of the FDA-Approved Protocol for Medication Abortion: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combellick, Sarah L.; Kohn, Julia E.; Roberts, Sarah C. M.

    2016-01-01

    the rate of requiring an additional intervention. The most common subsequent intervention in both periods was an additional misoprostol dose and was most commonly administered to treat incomplete abortion. The percentage of women requiring two or more follow-up visits increased from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.0%–5.3%) in the prelaw period to 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5%–8.0%) in the postlaw period (p = 0.003). Continuing pregnancy was rare (0.3%). Overall, 12.6% of women reported at least one side effect during their medication abortion: 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8%–10.0%) in the prelaw period and 15.6% (95% CI: 13.8%–17.3%) in the postlaw period (p abortions fell from 22% (95% CI: 20.8%–22.3%) of all abortions the year before the law went into effect (2010) to 5% (95% CI: 4.8%–5.6%) 3 y after (2014) (p abortion protocol that is associated with a greater need for additional intervention, more visits, more side effects, and higher costs for women relative to the evidence-based protocol. There is no evidence that the change in law led to improved abortion outcomes. Indeed, our findings suggest the opposite. In March 2016, the FDA-protocol was updated, so Ohio providers may now legally provide current evidence-based protocols. However, this law is still in place and bans physicians from using mifepristone based on any new developments in clinical research as best practices continue to be updated. PMID:27575488

  10. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  11. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  12. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  13. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2015-06-01

    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care.

  14. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2015-06-01

    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care. PMID:25948127

  15. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  16. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandre, C., E-mail: chandre@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  17. Study of General Incomplete Star Interconnection Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云涛; 侯紫峰; 宋建平

    2002-01-01

    The star networks, which were originally proposed by Akers and Harel, have suffered from a rigorous restriction on the number of nodes. The general incomplete star networks (GISN) are proposed in this paper to relieve this restriction. An efficient labeling scheme for GISN is given, and routing and broadcasting algorithms are also presented for GISN. The communication diameter of GISN is shown to be bounded by 4n - 7. The proposed single node broadcasting algorithm is optimal with respect to time complexity O(n log2 n).

  18. Some results on resolvable incomplete block designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Minqian; FANG; Kaitai

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the uniformity of a certain kind of resolvable incomplete block (RIB for simplicity) design which is called the PRIB design here. A sufficient and necessary condition is obtained, under which a PRIB design is the most uniform in the sense of a discrete discrepancy measure, and the uniform PRIB design is shown to be connected. A construction method for such designs via a kind of U-type designs is proposed, and an existence result of these designs is given. This method sets up an important bridge between PRIB designs and U-type designs.

  19. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  20. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified

  1. Inflationary spacetimes are incomplete in past directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borde, Arvind; Guth, Alan H; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2003-04-18

    Many inflating spacetimes are likely to violate the weak energy condition, a key assumption of singularity theorems. Here we offer a simple kinematical argument, requiring no energy condition, that a cosmological model which is inflating--or just expanding sufficiently fast--must be incomplete in null and timelike past directions. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the integral of the Hubble parameter over a past-directed timelike or null geodesic. Thus inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime.

  2. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Page Content Article Body ... a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  3. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  4. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  5. Development of abort trigger system for SuperKEKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the new abort trigger system for SuperKEKB. The abort trigger system collects more than 130 abort signals and issues the abort kicker trigger signal. Since the response time of the system is required to be less than 20 μs, the abort signals are transmitted as optical signals. The system also has the timestamp function to record the abort signal received time with a 0.1 μs time resolution. Based on the performance tests, the response time of the modules is considered to be much shorter than cable delay. In the new system, the timestamp information gives the order of the received abort signals. This paper describes the design and the result of the performance test of the new abort trigger system. (author)

  6. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  7. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  8. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  9. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The...... difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age and that the...

  10. The politics of abortion and contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezgić Rada

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author challenges several dominant positions that are relevant for understanding demographic trends and contraceptive practices as well as their mutual relationship. First, the author rejects the assumed direct connection between high abortion rates and low fertility. Second, the author challenges the thesis according to which abortions come about because of the lack of contraception and proposes that high abortion rates result from failing contraception i.e. from high failing rates of coitus interruptus which is a preferred method of birth control by men and women in Serbia. Finally, the author argues that giving control over reproductive risk to men does not make women passive victims of male domination. Rather women are, it is argued, active agents in reproducing hegemonic gender roles and relations. In addition, the author shows how gender power relations formed at the micro level may be consequential for macro level politics.

  11. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  12. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

  13. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vosmaer

    2010-01-01

    Thomason [5] showed that a certain modal logic L⊂ S4 is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson [3] showed that L is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that L is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras wit

  14. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  15. Abortion Costs, Separation and Non-Marital Childbearing

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Beauchamp

    2012-01-01

    How do abortion costs affect non-marital childbearing? While greater access to abortion has the first-order effect of reducing childbearing among pregnant women, it could nonetheless lead to unintended consequences via effects on marriage market norms. Single motherhood could rise if lower-cost abortion makes it easier for men to avoid marriage. We identify the effect of abortion costs on separation, cohabitation and marriage following a birth by exploiting the "miscarriage-as-a-natural exper...

  16. Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Bajos; Mireille Le Guen; Aline Bohet; Henri Panjo; Caroline Moreau

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. Thi...

  17. Post-Abortion Syndrome: A Critical Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Unwanted pregnancy and abortion are common life events, with an estimated 1 in 5 women experiencing an abortion within their lifetime. Although abortion itself is a relatively minor, safe procedure with minimal physical impact, controversy exists regarding the psychological risks associated with the termination of a pregnancy. A key argument within this debate is whether or not there is such a phenomenon as post-abortion syndrome. Therefore, this study aimed to examine t...

  18. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  19. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  20. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  1. Social forces and the abortion law.

    OpenAIRE

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    This research analyses the social and political forces underlying the 1aws of abortion in Britain and the United States. It sets out to explain the apparent paradox that the United States now has an abortion law which is more liberal than Britain despite the fact that in many ways it is a more conservative society. Furthemore it aims to set this recent situation in a historical context and to examine recent and likely future developments. It analyses the major social forces on either si...

  2. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  3. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks...

  4. [The decision process in induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterstad, T S; Tollan, A

    1990-06-20

    This study describes the pattern of decision as reported by women undergoing elective abortion. The results are based on interviews with 45 of 67 women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Tromsø, during a two month period in 1988. All women had informed, and most often consulted, at least one person before making the decision, usually their partner and/or a female friend. The majority of the persons consulted supported her, whatever her decision. According to the women, they made the women, the final decision themselves. Two women were persuaded by their partner to decide to have an elective abortion.

  5. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  6. The Expression of Experience: Code's Critique of Gilligan's Abortion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Alice

    1991-01-01

    Presents a response to Lorraine Code's critique of Carol Gilligan's abortion study. Urges that abortion be read as a socially constructed experience based on more than women's moral decisions. Discusses language and experience to present abortion as an area of contested meaning in historical and ideological constructions of social life. (DK)

  7. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  8. ANTISPERM ANTIBODY IS A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChong; CHENFu; LIULi; ZHAOFei-Sha

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the possible correlation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and spontaneous abortion, 68 women, aged 23-37, experienced 2-9 times of spontaneous abortion were tested for ASA by ELISA. 38 fertile women, aged 24-40, without history of abortion were employed as control.

  9. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.;

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  10. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  11. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area.

  12. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  13. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  14. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (α particles, protons, neutrons), while γ multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are α particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two α particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be → 2α: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one α particle. Accordingly, 2αxn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  15. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Cerezo, Rafael; Rosa, João G.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the Universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  16. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Rosa, Joao G

    2015-01-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field-dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  17. Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; KOlda, Tamara G.;

    2011-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how...... to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP...... experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 × 1000 × 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP...

  18. Competitive Spectrum Management with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Noam, Yair; Messer, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies an interference interaction (game) between selfish and independent wireless communication systems in the same frequency band. Each system (player) has incomplete information about the other player's channel conditions. A trivial Nash equilibrium point in this game is where players mutually full spread (FS) their transmit spectrum and interfere with each other. This point may lead to poor spectrum utilization from a global network point of view and even for each user individually. In this paper, we provide a closed form expression for a non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point; i.e., an equilibrium point where players choose FDM for some channel realizations and FS for the others. We show that operating in this non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point increases each user's throughput and therefore improves the spectrum utilization, and demonstrate that this performance gain can be substantial. Finally, important insights are provided into the behaviour of selfish and rational wireless us...

  19. [Social hygiene aspects of abortion in Odessa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E

    1988-02-01

    The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727

  20. An alternate mechanism of abortive release marked by the formation of very long abortive transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Monica; Austin, Karyn M; Aye-Han, Nwe-Nwe; Sircar, Piya; Hsu, Lilian M

    2007-11-01

    The Esigma70-dependent N25 promoter is rate-limited at promoter escape. Here, RNA polymerase repeatedly initiates and aborts transcription, giving rise to a ladder of short RNAs 2-11 nucleotides long. Certain mutations in the initial transcribed sequence (ITS) of N25 lengthen the abortive initiation program, resulting in the release of very long abortive transcripts (VLATs) 16-19 nucleotides long. This phenomenon is completely dependent on sequences within the first 20 bases of the ITS since altering sequences downstream of +20 has no effect on their formation. VLAT formation also requires strong interactions between RNA polymerase and the promoter. Mutations that change the -35 and -10 hexamers and the intervening 17 base pair spacer away from consensus decrease the probability of aborting at positions +16 to +19. An unusual characteristic of the VLATs is their undiminished levels in the presence of GreB, which rescues abortive RNAs (abortive release at VLAT positions.

  1. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Pourreza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

  2. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  3. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  4. Comparative study of patients undergoing check curettage for first trimester incomplete and inevitable abortion under paracervical block versus no anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihita Pandey

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The mean pain scores of both the groups were on the lower spectrum of the pain scale with no difference in demand for higher anesthesia. In primary set ups where facilities of anesthesia are not available, curettage can be performed safely without anesthesia, which can prove to be life-saving. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 629-632

  5. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  6. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  7. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  8. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  9. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital.

  10. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2011-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event....... Results The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first...

  11. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days.

  12. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  13. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  14. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  15. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  16. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  17. Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

  18. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  19. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  20. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  1. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion.

  2. [The modern indications for abortion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, D

    1980-01-15

    Within the Swiss legal code, somatic and psychiatric indications for interruption of pregnancy are very well indicated and codified. These days, however, only 8% of indications for abortion are based on purely medical reasons; the great majority of indications are "modern", a clear manifestation of a slipping away from classical indications toward a much more liberal intervention which often has nothing to do with the corporal integrity of the mother, but with that of the child, or which simply takes into consideration the future quality of life of everybody involved. This evolution is a reflection of the new role of women in society, and also the result of the recent progresses of the science of neonatology. Such enlarged indications for abortion are accepted by most doctors concerned with these problems, and they include such different reasons as IUD failure, hormonal contraception failure, very young or too old age, exposure to X-rays, divorce and exposure to chemotherapy.

  3. [A glossary for discussion about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

  4. [Abortion: legal, deontological and ethical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy interruption before fetal viability limit is inherent to a multidisciplinary reflection, due to the conflicts involved. Portuguese laws have been altered along time in the way of women's health protection, allowing the needed information and support towards a free, informed and enlightened decision. Deontological determinants about health professionals towards abortion indicate the practice accordingly the law. Nevertheless, it is safeguarded their right to consciousness objection. Ethical discussion about abortion, in its different ways, includes the concern about the value of intrauterine human life, and also the respect for individual autonomy. Even though the debate about intrauterine human life moral status is viewed from different theories and points of view, it is concluded that different perspectives about this matter are acceptable, in an interpersonal diversity valorization point of view. PMID:22863486

  5. Residential Exposure to Traffic and Spontaneous Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rochelle S; Malig, Brian; Windham, Gayle C.; Fenster, Laura; Ostro, Bart; Swan, Shanna

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations between air pollution or traffic exposure and adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. However, very few studies have examined the effect of traffic emissions on spontaneous abortion (SAB). Objective The goal of this study was to determine whether residential exposure to vehicular traffic was associated with SAB. Methods Pregnant women from a prepaid health plan in California were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 1990–1991. Three...

  6. Women and men’s psychological adjustment after abortion: a six months prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...

  7. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  8. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  9. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  10. U.S. tries to defuse abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-01

    In an apparent attempt to defuse acrimony at the International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, the US delegation is softening its stance on abortion decriminalization. US Vice President Al Gore, the head of the delegation, has stated, "The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion, and we do not believe that abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning." The Vatican and Muslim fundamentalists remain concerned, however, that the Cairo gathering represents an opportunity for the US to impose its abortion rights agenda on other countries. The draft prepared for presentation to the conference makes no explicit mention of legal abortion. Rather, it advocates safe motherhood, complete reproductive health care, and fertility control-- phrases the Vatican insists mask an intent to promote the use of abortion for family planning. PMID:12318927

  11. Late abortion and the European convention for human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Braake, T A

    1999-01-01

    National abortion laws usually do not allow abortion when a foetus is independently viable, i.e. from a gestational age of about 24 weeks. Fetal anomalies, which may be a reason to seek abortion, are sometimes detected only in an advanced stage of pregnancy. National legislatures who want to allow 'late' abortion need to account for the protection the fetus may derive from the European Convention for the protection of human rights. As yet it remains unclear to what extent the fetus can in fact derive protection from the Convention, although several national abortion laws have been tested against it by the European Commission. The significance of the reports of the Commission on the question whether national legislation allowing abortion of a viable fetus is in conflict with the Convention, is explored. It is concluded that there is no European legal standard in terms of duration of pregnancy to which national legislatures are committed.

  12. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh;

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  13. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  14. How Danes evaluate moral claims related to abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion...... to at least one moral claim. Two hundred and fifty-eight responded to all four claims without using the option 'neither agree nor disagree' and were classified as 'morally engaged responders'. A majority of these had a pro-abortion moral. The general relationship between moral beliefs and attitudes towards...... abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. DISCUSSION: The direction of causality...

  15. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  16. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  17. Abortions, Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: A Quantitative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi Kocharkov

    2010-01-01

    In the last three decades over a million abortions are performed annually in the United States. Empirical studies such as Donohue and Levitt (2001) and Gruber, Levine and Staiger (1999) assess the impact of legalization of abortions on crime and living conditions of children. They argue that legalization of abortions provides better living conditions and human capital endowments to surviving children. This paper takes seriously the hypothesis that the improved living conditions of children du...

  18. Current abortion practices in India: a review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Naina Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Among issues related to reproductive health, none has more controversial connotations than abortion nor carries a heavier burden of stigmatization. Abortion, is a universal phenomenon and is defined as and has existed throughout recorded history, yet it continues to be a highly charged, controversial issue, raising extreme passions among lay people, as well as politicians, religious leaders, and health and rights advocates. Although abortion services in India were liberalized more than three ...

  19. Abortion among young women and subsequent life outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    This article will discuss the nature of the association between abortion and mental health problems. Studies arguing about both sides of the debate as to whether abortion per se is responsible will be presented. The prevalence of various psychiatric disorders will be outlined and where there is dispute between studies, these will be highlighted. The impact of abortion on other areas such as education, partner relationships and sexual function will also be considered. The absence of specific i...

  20. Impossible floodgates and unworkable analogies in the Irish abortion debate.

    OpenAIRE

    de Londras, Fiona; Graham, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the introduction and form of abortion legislation in Ireland is rife with floodgate arguments, suggesting (either implicitly or expressly) that the introduction of abortion legislation within current constitutional boundaries would only be a starting point, following which so-called ‘abortion on demand’ would flow. The recent discussions at the Oireachtas Committee on Health and Children showed little prospect of a break from this pattern. At those hearings, a number of parli...

  1. We Should Protect Women’s Right of Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Many countries have legalized abortion such as China,America,Japan,France and Italy,but still about one third women cannot have a legal abortion around the world(Debate on Legality).Although two thirds women are protected by law on abortion,some of them cannot get support from others due to the bondage of religions and morality.Some people,especially

  2. Coverage of abortion controversial in both public and private plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    During 1995-96, 17 of 50 US states used their own resources, either voluntarily or under state court order, to pay for all or most abortions for low-income women. Alaska, Maryland, New York, and Washington are the only states to voluntarily pay for these abortions. Anti-choice legislators in California, Illinois, New York, and West Virginia tried unsuccessfully to cut funding for these abortions. Arkansas is the only state to circumvent direct payment for abortions for low-income women. Alabama, Mississippi, and South Dakota still are not complying with the court order but remain in the Medicaid program. Massachusetts has passed legislation to allow health insurance to cover abortions for state and city employees, thereby undoing a 17-year ban on the use of public funds for abortions for employees or their spouses. On the other hand, Virginia's governor has unilaterally, via an executive order, eliminated health insurance coverage for most abortions for state employees and their dependents. Anti-choice legislators have shepherded legislation that prohibit private insurance coverage for abortion unless women pay an extra premium in Idaho, Kentucky, Missouri, and North Dakota. Legislators in Illinois and Minnesota have passed state subsidized health care reform programs that exclude abortion from coverage except when the mother's life is endangered. There appears to be a loophole in the MinnesotaCare program that allows women to obtain state-financed abortions for other reasons, so antifunding lawmakers will introduce a bill in 1997 to close the loophole. The loophole is a result of a conflict between state and federal laws as a result of a 1995 federal waiver granted to Minnesota. The waiver allows pregnant women who earn up to 275% of the federal poverty level to be eligible for either MinnesotaCare or Medicaid. Abortion-rights legislators find MinnesotaCare's exclusion of abortion coverage to be a violation of the court order. They plan to submit a bill in 1997 to

  3. Why women seek abortion? a qualitative study on perspectives of rural women on abortion and contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shanthini Navis

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to improve rural women's knowledge of fertility and contraception. Media and service providers should use every possible opportunity to educate women regarding the legal status of abortion and to promote contraceptive usage by creating awareness regarding safety and free availability of various contraceptives thereby clearing misconceptions regarding contraception. There is a need to educate rural women that use of a regular contraceptive method is better than undergoing repeated abortions. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1153-1157

  4. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, T.K.A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales ranging from 0 t

  5. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  6. The abortion-crime link: evidence from England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    L H Kahane; Paton, D; Simmons, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use panel data from 1983 to 1997 for the 42 police force areas in England and Wales to test the hypothesis that legalizing abortion contributes to lower crime rates. We provide an advance on previous work by focusing on the impact of possible endogeneity of effective abortion rates with respect to crime. Our use of U.K. data allows us to exploit regional differences in the provision of free abortions to identify abortion rates. When we use a similar model and estimation methodology, we are...

  7. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  8. Bowel injury: a rare but dreaded complication of unsafe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ramola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortions represent a preventable yet major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in India. Intestinal perforation is a rare dreaded complication of unsafe abortion. It is commonly seen in countries in which abortions are performed by people without proper training and proper instruments. Bowel perforation occurs when the posterior vaginal wall or the uterine wall is perforated. The ileum and the sigmoid colon are the most commonly injured portion of the bowel. Here, we report a case of ileal perforation following induced unsafe abortion which was managed successfully. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3223-3225

  9. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but

  10. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  11. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal.

  12. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. METHODS: We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010. RESULTS: 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75. CONCLUSION: Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the

  13. [Prevention of habitual abortion by buffycoat transfusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, H; Kuhn, W; Götze, O; Hinney, B

    1985-01-01

    From an immunological point of view the product of pregnancy may be regarded as a haplo-different allotransplant. A system possibly closely linked to the HLA-region is postulated to lead to the immunological recognition of the fetus by the mother and, paradoxically, to a take of the "transplant". The postulated system apparently codes for antigens present on both trophoblast and adult lymphocytes (TLX = trophoblast-lymphocyte-crossreacting). The prevention of rejection is thought to be effected by blocking factors (BF) present in the serum or plasma of the mother. There may be different kinds of BF: a specific BF (detectable only in an autologous assay system), appearing late in pregnancy, which inhibits several lymphocyte-dependent reactions (e.g. production of MIF, MLC). This BF has been identified as an IgG-class antibody. a nonspecific BF, appearing early in pregnancy which inhibits the MLC in vitro. c) may be a third BF, also specific, which is found only in plasma but not in serum. All described BF-activities were absent in women with habitual abortions. HLA-identity or partial identity could imply TLX-identity. The consequence of such an identity could be: non-detection of the trophoblast by the immune system of the mother, no production of BF, abortion. However several investigators could not find any HLA-identity of the partners with habitual abortions. A protective effect on the fetus has been seen when pregnant women were immunised with adult leukocytes, using either buffycoats from various HLA-different but bloodgroup-compatible donors or isolated leukocytes from the spouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4072314

  14. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival."

  15. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  16. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  17. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshkin, K R [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  18. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  19. International comparison of regulations on abortion after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible factors to consider when assessing the necessity of an abortion are: 1) Exposure in the highly sensitive phase (e.g. organogenesis); 2) after intake of radioactive substances, accumulation of this radioactive substance in critical organs; 3) doses higher than the dose limit of 1 rem; 4) the wish of the pregnant woman to have an abortion. (orig.)

  20. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today. PMID:25995361

  1. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  2. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  3. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  4. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  5. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices. PMID:12320388

  6. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita;

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  7. The incidence of gonorrhea in an abortion population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querido, L.; Haspels, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of gonorrhea was investigated in an abortion population. A total of 1021 women participated in this study. Three asymptomatic cases of gonorrhea were detected. None of these women had had gonorrhea before or had a previous abortion. No relation was found between the incidence of gonorr

  8. Contraception and Induced Abortion in the West Indies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.A.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion

  9. Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S H

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygienic conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced in the country in 1986. Purchased over the counter in pharmacies, misoprostol has became a popular abortifacient method among Brazilian women. By 1990, about 70% of women hospitalized with abortion-related diagnoses reported use of the drug. In 1991, the Ministry of Health restricted the sale of misoprostol, and in some states its use was totally banned. While the proportion of abortions induced with misoprostol has decreased, the drug continues to be sold on the black market at an inflated value. Research indicates that women have acquired more experience with the drug over time, resulting in lower doses and more effective administration. Several studies show that the rate and severity of complications are significantly less among women who used misoprostol compared with women who used invasive methods. Research also suggests that about half of the women have complete abortion with misoprostol, but seek medical care as soon as they have vaginal bleeding. The experience of Brazilian women with misoprostol is an example of how women when faced with unwanted pregnancy will resort to illegal abortion whatever the costs are to their health. PMID:10075223

  10. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  11. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle;

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... the control cohort. By register linkage all subsequent pregnancies were identified from 1980 to 1994. Only women who had a non-terminated pregnancy following the index pregnancy were selected to the study. Placenta complications were identified using either the Hospital Discharge Registry ICD-8 codes...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  12. Stumbling on status: abortion, stem cells, and faulty reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebacqz, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Common arguments from the abortion debate have set the stage for the debate on stem cell research. Unfortunately, those arguments demonstrate flawed reasoning-jumping to unfounded conclusions, using value laden language rather than careful argument, and ignoring morally relevant aspects of the situation. The influence of flawed abortion arguments on the stem cell debate results in failures of moral reasoning and in lack of attention to important morally relevant differences between abortion and human embryonic stem cells. Among those differences are whose interests are at stake and the difference between an embryo in and out of the womb. Stem cell research differs from abortion in morally relevant ways and should be freed from the abortion debate and its flawed reasoning. PMID:22209889

  13. Mexican women seeking safe abortion services in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Daniel; Garcia, Sandra G; Kingston, Jessica; Schweikert, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Except for in Mexico City, abortion is legally restricted throughout Mexico, and unsafe abortion is prevalent. We surveyed 1,516 women seeking abortions in San Diego, California. Of these, 87 women (5.7%) self-identified as Mexican residents. We performed in-depth interviews with 17 of these women about their experiences seeking abortions in California. The Mexican women interviewed were generally well-educated and lived near the U.S.-Mexican border; most sought care in the United States due to mistrust of services in Mexico, and the desire to access mifepristone, a drug registered in the United States for early medical abortion. Several reported difficulties obtaining health care in Mexico or reentering the United States when they had postabortion complications. Several areas for improvement were identified, including outreach to clinics in Mexico. PMID:23066967

  14. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether women’s unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their abortion rates. The empirical results remain robust for the abortion rates of teens ages 15-17 and for teens ages 15-19. Conclusion: The empirical results suggest that the behavioral modification induced by the prevalence of AIDS accounted for 21% of the decrease in abortion rates over the time period 1992-2005.

  15. Making legal abortion accessible in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Leocádio, Elcylene; Andalaft, Jorge

    2002-05-01

    Abortion is legal in Brazil if it is the only means to save the woman's life or if the pregnancy is the result of rape. Although this has been the law for over 60 years, it has almost never been applied until recent years. In the past five years, the number of hospitals providing care to women victims of sexual violence has increased from 4 to 63, of which 40 are currently providing legal abortions. This paper describes a sensitization project and advocacy work carried out from within the obstetric and gynaecology establishment which has succeeded in motivating many key individuals and hospital staff to provide services for pregnancy termination in cases of rape. The dialogue between medical leaders and women's rights advocates and the emphasis on comprehensive care of women who have suffered sexual violence are key elements in the success of this initiative. The support of medical professionals, the organization and strength of the women's health and rights movement, the political support at federal, state and city government levels, including from the Federal Ministry of Health, and ongoing advocacy within the medical establishment have all been important elements in making the provision of services a reality. PMID:12369314

  16. Characteristics of Induced Abortion in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chun QIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of induced abortion in China in the 1990s,and to find out the influential factors.Methods The overall number of induced abortions, calculate cohort induced abortion frequency, explore the impact of a child's sex and the number of previous children on induced abortions were estimated by using the data from the "National Population and Reproductive Health Survey" conducted by the National Family Planning Commission in November 1997.Results Induced abortions in China had their own characteristics, which were far different from other countries. The main difference was led by the fact that the country was driven by an implemented family planning program and nationwide population policies. The key cause of induced abortions was due to an inconsistency with the requirements of the family planning policy. However, as a result of effective and prevalent contraception, the rates of induced abortions were not quite high in the 1990s,when compared with other countries. Even though, in the early 1990s, the government had reinforced the family planning program through administration and legislation,unlike during the early 1980s when the one-child policy was implemented, the induced abortion rate and the number of induce abortions did not increase as the fertility rate substantially decreased.Concltsion This finding implies that the fertility declines in the 1990s were not caused by the number of induced abortions. The transition of the fertility ideology of the people has played an important role in the fertility decline, as institutional reform and socioeconomic development are implemented.

  17. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Podnieks, Karlis

    1992-01-01

    Published as: K. Podnieks. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem. European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Berlin, 1989. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 57, No. 1, March, 1992, pp.326-327

  18. A characterization of incomplete sequences in $F_p^d$

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hoi H

    2011-01-01

    A sequence $A$ of elements an additive group $G$ is {\\it incomplete} if there exists a group element that {\\it can not} be expressed as a sum of elements from $A$. The study of incomplete sequences is a popular topic in combinatorial number theory. However, the structure of incomplete sequences is still far from being understood, even in basic groups. The main goal of this paper is to give a characterization of incomplete sequences in the vector space $F_p^d$, where $d$ is a fixed integer and $p$ is a large prime. As an application, we give a new proof for a recent result by Gao-Ruzsa-Thangadurai on the Olson's constant of $\\F_p^2$ and partially answer their conjecture concerning $F_p^3$.

  19. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  20. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets...... are incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  1. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  2. On general systems with randomly occurring incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Hu, J.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the system and control community, the incomplete information is generally regarded as the results of (1) our limited knowledge in modelling real-world systems; and (2) the physical constraints on the devices for collecting, transmitting, storing and processing information. In terms of system modelling, the incomplete information typically includes the parameter uncertainties and norm-bounded non-linearities that occur with certain bounds. As for the physical constraints, two well-...

  3. Explaining the Incomplete Liberalization Reform of Italian Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rangoni Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an opportunity to test three regulatory capture theories against the incomplete liberalisation reform of the Italian energy markets. The incomplete privatisation of the incumbents ENEL and ENI set a trap to the liberalisation reform and at the same time offers an excellent test-bed for theories of regulatory capture, applied to decisions taken by the government rather than to the ones taken by the Independent Regulatory Agency (IRA). The conflict of interest arising from a...

  4. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We show that the existence of a finitely axiomatized theory which can prove all the true $\\Sigma_1$ sentences may imply Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by Detlefsen~2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth is Godel's first incompleteness theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is shown.

  5. Aggregation in Incomplete Market with General Utility Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chenghu Ma; Jiankang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper tackles the "aggregation problem" for stochastic economies with possibly incomplete market. An "aggregation theorem" is proved towards an analytic construction of the representative agent’s utility function. This is done within a general time-state setup with general utility functions and without restrictions on the initial resource allocations. Welfare implications, concerning the social welfare loss resulting from market incompleteness, are readily reflected from the constructed ...

  6. Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., E(lab) ∼ 4-7 MeV/nucleon) in 12C,16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, αxn/2αxn channels have been measured to probe entirely different γ-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles) during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay) to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states. (authors)

  7. House vote on Hyde changes dynamic of Congressional abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-27

    US Congressional action is summarized for actions taken on abortion amendments and abortion funding amendments during the month of July 1993. The Hyde Amendment was passed in the House on July 1, 1993; by a margin of 255 to 178; the Senate version will be voted on in August. The amendment was a victory for anti-abortion supporters, because it limited coverage of abortions under Medicaid to cases involving only life endangerment, rape, or incest. Both sides of the abortion debate were energized by the vote. The national Campaign for Abortion and Reproductive Equity (CARE) was launched on July 13 through support from a coalition of 130 organizations and Representatives Maxine Waters, Cynthia McKinney, and Nita Lowey. CARE aims to restore federal funding of abortion services for poor women and others using federally funded health care. The Freedom of Choice Act (FOCA) leaves abortion funding and parental involvement to the discretion of individual states. FOCA was characterized by Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, who withdrew her sponsorship of the bill, as not meeting the needs of the "marginalized, disrespected, and ignored population." 4 other Democratic women senators followed suit and promised to very strongly oppose all efforts to restrict abortions through amendments to appropriations bills. Senate appropriations bills were also considered during July. On July 15 the Senate Veterans Affairs (VA) Committee defeated an amendment that would have barred the use of federal funds for abortion services at VA hospitals, except in cases of rape, incest, or the saving of maternal life. Senate Committee members John Rockefeller and Tom Daschle contributed to the bill's defeat. Federal employee health insurance plans will continue to ban the coverage of abortion services due to passage by the Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government. An amendment introduced by Senator Bond to allow abortions in cases of rape, incest, or risk to maternal life was adopted

  8. The perspective of rural physicians providing abortion in Canada: qualitative findings of the BC Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Dressler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of Canadian induced abortions are performed in large urban areas. For unknown reasons the number of rural abortion providers in Canadian provinces, such as British Columbia (BC, has declined substantially. This study explored the experiences of BC rural and urban physicians providing abortion services. METHODS: The mixed methods BC Abortion Providers Survey employed self-administered questionnaires, distributed to all known current and some past BC abortion providers in 2011. The optional semi-structured interviews are the focus of this analysis. Interview questions probed the experiences, facilitators and challenges faced by abortion providers, and their future intentions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using cross-case and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty interviews were completed and transcribed, representing 13/27 (48.1% rural abortion providers, and 7/19 (36.8% of urban providers in BC. Emerging themes differed between urban and rural providers. Most urban providers worked within clinics and reported a supportive environment. Rural physicians, all providing surgical abortions within hospitals, reported challenging barriers to provision including operating room scheduling, anesthetist and nursing logistical issues, high demand for services, professional isolation, and scarcity of replacement abortion providers. Many rural providers identified a need to "fly under the radar" in their small community. DISCUSSION: This first study of experiences among rural and urban abortion providers in Canada identifies addressable challenges faced by rural physicians. Rural providers expressed a need for increased support from hospital administration and policy. Further challenges identified include a desire for continuing professional education opportunities, and for available replacement providers.

  9. Effectiveness of family planning policies: the abortion paradox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bajos

    Full Text Available The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use, followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates.Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i abortion rates, (ii unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest.The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.003. Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.000.

  10. Legal abortion services in Brazil--a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed methods study of 68 legal abortion services in Brazil. The services were analyzed in two stages. The first stage was a census, in which all the institutions were sent an electronic questionnaire about the organization of the legal abortion services. The second stage was conducted in a sample of 5 reference services, one for each region of the country. In this stage, a form was used to collect data about the women and the abortions in the medical records, and 82 interviews with health professionals were conducted. Thirty-seven of the services informed they performed legal abortions, and the services were inactive in 7 states. Police reports, forensic reports, and court orders were required by 14%, 8% and 8% of the services, respectively. Women who underwent abortions were predominantly aged 15-29, single and Catholic. Most abortions were performed until 14 weeks in the case of rape-related pregnancy, by means of manual vacuum aspiration. According to the health professionals, the main difficulties faced in the services are the low availability of physicians to perform abortions and the insufficient training of the staff. The data reveal a discrepancy between the legal provision and the reality of the services. The implementation of more services and the strengthening of the existing services available are necessary. PMID:26910163

  11. The individual level cost of pregnancy termination in Zambia: a comparison of safe and unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Parmar, Divya; Vwalika, Bellington

    2016-09-01

    Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g. hospital fees). This article estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It uses data collected in 2013 from a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, (n = 112) with women who had an abortion. Three treatment routes are identified: (1) safe abortion at the hospital, (2) unsafe clandestine medical abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital and (3) unsafe abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital. Based on these three typologies, we use descriptive analysis and linear regression to estimate the costs for women of seeking safe and unsafe abortion and to establish whether the burden of abortion care-seeking costs is equally distributed across the sample. Around 39% of women had an unsafe abortion, incurring substantial economic costs before seeking post-abortion care. Adolescents and poorer women are more likely to use unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion requiring post-abortion care costs women 27% more than a safe abortion. When accounting for uncertainty this figure increases dramatically. For safe and unsafe abortions, unofficial provider payments represent a major cost to women.This study demonstrates that despite a liberal legislation, Zambia still needs better dissemination of the law to women and providers and resources to ensure abortion service access. The policy implications of this study include: the role of pharmacists and mid-level providers in the provision of medical abortion services; increased access to contraception, especially for adolescents; and elimination of demands for unofficial provider

  12. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  13. [Nursing care of clients in an abortion clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstiaensen, J; Kruiswijk, C

    1981-08-25

    The nursing care of clients visiting an abortion clinic for induced abortion is discussed. Generally good care of patients, psychosocially as well as somatically, is essential. For clients in an abortion clinic it is important that psychosocial care is optimal and technical procedures are medically responsible. The initial contact is very important to the client because first impressions of the clinic can be significant in the further course of the entire treatment. Both nurse and doctor are usually involved in the admission interview and preliminary examination. After the physician's anamnesis and internal examination to determine gestational age, patient and doctor determine future contraception. Both abortion and contraception problems are discussed and the treatment procedure explained. It is important to recognize possible patient coercion or ambivalence in which case the client is sometimes advised to think things over. The actual intervention is generally fairly short, from 5 to 15 minutes. The abortion can be emotionally taxing for the client. The nurse's role in providing reassurance and understanding is important. 30 to 60 minutes following intervention the patient can go home. Follow-up, usually 3-5 weeks after intervention, is the final phase of treatment. During this check-up and internal examination the client can discuss her experience and progress in contraception. Case studies are included giving insight into the background of abortion seekers. Abortion clinic nurses must possess specific characteristics and attitudes, such as: 1) a nonjudgmental attitude towards sexuality and induced abortion; 2) empathy in her relationship with clients; 3) personal warmth and ability to help client overcome fear; 4) ability to discuss sexuality and abortion sympathetically; 5) assessment of possible interpersonal relational problems of client; 6) ability to relate to and understand different ethnic groups; 7) be informed on contraceptive methods and agents; and 8

  14. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates. PMID:25872616

  15. Advocacy for legal reform for safe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenafi, Meaza

    2004-04-01

    In Ethiopia, violation of women's reproductive rights is both a cause and a manifestation of women's disempowerment. Obstacles to full realisation of Ethiopian women's reproductive health and rights include the persistence of harmful traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, early marriage and abduction, as well as the disturbing prevalence of rape and HIV/AIDS. Unsafe abortion represents a particularly serious threat to women's health and lives. Ethiopia's status as a signatory to the Convention to Eliminate all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and its constitutional guarantee of women's equality demand more aggressive action to eradicate such practices and inequities. After years of lobbying by women's organisations, parliamentarians are now reviewing a draft of the 1957 penal code, which includes numerous provisions addressing some of these practices and other conditions that underlie women's poor social and health status. PMID:15487618

  16. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  17. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized...... or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5 or more...

  18. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During the...... first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  19. Abortion Law Reform in Ireland: A Model for Change

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Máiréad; de Londras, Fiona; Conway, Vicky; Donnelly, Mary; Fletcher, Ruth; Murray, Claire; McGuinness, Sheelagh; Ring, Sinead; Ui Chonnachtaigh, Sorcha

    2015-01-01

    Ireland has some of the most restrictive abortion laws in the world. Abortion has been criminalised since 1861, and the passage of the 8th Amendment in 1983 introduced ‘the right to life of the unborn’ into the Constitution. The effects of the 8th Amendment are felt on a daily basis by women leaving Ireland for abortion, by pregnant women receiving maternal care, by doctors caring for pregnant women, and by lawyers working for the health service. As predicted by the then-Attorney General Pete...

  20. SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTIONS IN INDIA: A BEHAVIOURAL EPIDEMIC

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Saurabh; Sitanshu Sekhar Kar; Dhruv Kumar Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Sex- selective abortions have been known to be a problem in India. A study titled “Trends in selective abortions of girls in India: analysis of nationally representative birth histories from 1990 to 2005 and census data from 1991 to 2011” by Jha P et al was published in Lancet in May 2011 presented the first nationally representative analysis of trends in sex-selective abortions in India. It came as an aftermath of the provisional 2011 census release which showed a fall in 0-6 year sex ratio ...

  1. Second-trimester abortions and sex-selection of children in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Danièle; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai

    2009-07-01

    Because sex-selective abortions are generally conducted during the second term of the pregnancy, timing of abortion can be used as an indirect way of studying sex-selection by abortion. We examined the likelihood of having a first-trimester vs. second-trimester abortion among a group of 885 married women who had an abortion in an obstetric hospital in Hanoi in 2003. In the absence of sex-selection by abortion, the number and sex of living children should not affect the timing of abortion. Results indicate that women with more children, particularly those with more daughters or without a son, were more likely to undergo a second-term abortion than a first-term abortion. We estimate that, in 2003, 2 per cent of all abortions to women with at least one living child were intended to avoid the birth of a female.

  2. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  3. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  4. Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.

  5. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information. PMID:25348676

  6. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  7. A Necessary Evil? : Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Abortion Discourse, 1910-1930

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The widespread reliance on abortion in the Soviet Union, occasionally even referred to as an “abortion culture”, has been documented in a number of studies. However, the notoriously high abortion rates are not the only reason why the Soviet case stands out in the global history of abortion. Having decriminalised abortion by decree in 1920, Soviet Russia became the first country in the world where the termination of pregnancy was discussed as a legalised phenomenon. Russian discussions on ...

  8. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  9. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  10. Fast assignment reduction in inconsistent incomplete decision systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Shaobo Deng; Shengzhong Feng; Jianping Fan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on fast algorithm for computing the assignment reduct in inconsistent incomplete decision systems. It is quite inconvenient to judge the assignment reduct directly ac-cording to its definition. We propose the judgment theorem for the assignment reduct in the inconsistent incomplete decision system, which greatly simplifies judging this type reduct. On such basis, we derive a novel attribute significance measure and construct the fast assignment reduction algorithm (F-ARA), intended for com-puting the assignment reduct in inconsistent incomplete decision systems. Final y, we make a comparison between F-ARA and the discernibility matrix-based method by experiments on 13 Univer-sity of California at Irvine (UCI) datasets, and the experimental results prove that F-ARA is efficient and feasible.

  11. Stigma in abortion care: application to a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Allyson

    2011-02-01

    A recent research study found that being more directly involved in medical abortion places greater demands on the nurses. The demands required by nurses working in abortion care may be increased by the stigma attached to such an antisocial action. This paper presents an application of stigma theory, as espoused by Goffman, based on a qualitative research study on abortion. It is argued that women attending for abortion are stigmatised and nurses, although 'wise', have an affiliate stigma through their close association with the procedure. It is proposed that the situation can be ameliorated by addressing stigma at policy, local and personal levels. Examples from other areas of practice are outlined for possible application to practice.

  12. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie;

    2006-01-01

    pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes...

  13. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  14. Do Induced Abortions Affect the First Birth Probability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.;

    and methods: The data are obtained by linking several national public registers in Denmark, using the unique personal identification number. Initially, a logistic regression analysis is employed in order to model the first birth probability in a given year. Secondly, the long-term effect of an induced......Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...

  15. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  16. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  17. A Revision to Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yuhua

    2008-01-01

    According to Smarandache’s neutrosophy, the G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem contains the truth, the falsehood, and the indeterminacy of a statement under consideration. It is shown in this paper that the proof of G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem is faulty, because all possible situations are not considered (such as the situation where from some axioms wrong results can be deducted, for example, from the axiom of choice the paradox of the doublin...

  18. Study on Aerobic Bacterial flora in Canine abortions

    OpenAIRE

    B.E Shambulingappa; G. Anand Manegar and K. J. Ananda

    2010-01-01

    Of the 125 bitches with reproductive disorder, 10 bitches which were aborted at different stages of gestation and presented to Veterinary hospitals for treatments were included in the present study. Total thirteen isolates were recovered from the aborted samples. The frequency of bacterial isolates in descending order were Escherichia coli (38.46%), Streptococcus canis (38.46%), Staphylococcus epidermedis (15.38%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.69%). [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000): 111-112

  19. Study on Aerobic Bacterial flora in Canine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Shambulingappa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the 125 bitches with reproductive disorder, 10 bitches which were aborted at different stages of gestation and presented to Veterinary hospitals for treatments were included in the present study. Total thirteen isolates were recovered from the aborted samples. The frequency of bacterial isolates in descending order were Escherichia coli (38.46%, Streptococcus canis (38.46%, Staphylococcus epidermedis (15.38% and Staphylococcus aureus (7.69%. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 111-112

  20. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether womens unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected) sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their a...

  1. "After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical.

  2. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  3. Abortion in America: A Consumer-Behavior Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hill, Ronald Paul; Maloy, Kate

    1995-01-01

    Abortion is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in this country, yet its provision to consumers remains one of the most contentious issues within our society. The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding of this problem by examining abortion from a consumer-behavior perspective. The phenomenological study described in this article revealed that (1) a wide gap exists between the language of the public debate and that of private decision making, (2) the language of p...

  4. The Abortion Issue in the Development Agenda of Latin American

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Lamas

    2008-01-01

    This article, which offers a regional overview of the feminist struggle for abortion rights in Latin America, begins by reminding the reader of the context, characterized by poverty and marginalization, in which the region's women become mothers, as well as the deadly consequences of illegal abortion. It subsequently outlines the political tension between some state governments and feminists, particularly the friction that results from interference by the Catholic church hierarchy. The articl...

  5. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender a...

  6. Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangement in Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Farhoodi, Zeinab; Amel, Roya; Mirzaee, Salmeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    One of the major causes of spontaneous abortion before the fourth month of pregnancy is chromosomal abnormalities. We report an unusual case of a familial balanced chromosomal translocation in a consanguineous couple who experienced 4 spontaneous abortions. Chromosomal studies were performed on the basis of G-banding technique at high resolution and revealed 46, XX, t (16; 6) (p12; q26) and 46, XY, t (16; 6) (p12; q26) in both partners, which induced such pregnancy complications. Chromosomal ...

  7. Future healthcare professionals’ knowledge about the Argentinean abortion law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oizerovich, Silvia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed healthcare students’ knowledge and opinions on Argentinian abortion law and identified differences between first- and final-year healthcare students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, self-administered anonymous questionnaires were administered to 760 first- and 695 final-year students from different fields of study (medicine, midwifery, nursing, radiology, nutrition, speech therapy, and physiotherapy) of the School of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, in 2011-2013. Results Compared to first-year students, a higher percentage of final-year students knew that abortion is legally restricted in Argentina (p < 0.001). A significantly higher percentage of final-year students could correctly identify the circumstances in which abortion is legal: woman´s life risk (87.4% last vs. 79.1% first year), rape of a woman with developmental disability (66.2% first vs. 85.4% last-year; p < 0.001). More final-year students chose severe foetal malformations (37.3% first year vs. 57.3% final year) despite its being illegal. Conclusions Although most final-year students knew that abortion is legally restricted in Argentina, misconceptions regarding circumstances of legal abortion were observed; this may be due to the fact that abortion is inadequately covered in the medical curricula. Medical schools should ensure that sexual and reproductive health topics are an integral part of their curricula. Healthcare providers who are aware of the legality of abortion are more likely to provide the public with sound information and ensure abortions are appropriately performed. PMID:27018552

  8. The abortion debate: can this chronic public illness be cured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D

    1992-12-01

    Abortion has provided one of the most noxious, disturbing, and unending of all American moral and legal struggles. The issue forces us to think about the most difficult kind of ethical issues, e.g., the moral status of the fetus and the meaning of human "life" and "personhood." The win-at-all-costs attitude among the leading advocacy groups has created gross stereotypes. While most arguments heard today were also heard prior to the Roe vs. Wade decision, the tone has radically changed. Better organization has meant hotter rhetoric and a nastier public style. We need to move the abortion debate along; it is now as stagnate as it is nasty. We need creative discussion and realistic compromise. The pre-Roe arguments in favor of choice have changed. Then, the movement to legalize abortion rested on the following: 1) illegal abortions were killing and maiming women; 2) women should have a backup to ineffective contraception; 3) the number of unwanted pregnancies should be reduced; only wanted children should be born, as a matter of child welfare; 4) women should have the right to make the abortion decision; 5) everything possible should be done to change the economic and domestic circumstances forcing women into unwanted pregnancies. The argument benefited women, children, and society. The many abortion myths that have since taken prominence cloud an already difficult issue. The ongoing tension rests with the conflict between the moral and legal issues. Is it possible to combine legal freedom and seriousness about the moral questions? Only if we recognize the equality of both positions' moral traditions, accept public discussion, the need for compromise, the need to do everything possible to change the economic and social circumstance leading to the abortion choice, and the need for meaningful counseling of women considering abortion. PMID:1451361

  9. Misperceptions about contraceptives keep abortion incidence high in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Only 13% of couples in Ghana practiced contraception in 1988. During the period of nursing following childbirth, it is traditional for the new mother to abstain from sexual intercourse. She is subject to considerable social scorn should she conceive too soon after a previous delivery. Conceiving in short order, nonetheless, women long resorted to clandestine, unsafe abortions during the postpartum interval. The government of Ghana legalized the practice of induced abortion in 1985 so that women could limit their fertility in safety with registered and certified medical practitioners. The author studied 900 women seeking an induced abortion or reporting complications resulting from induced abortion performed outside a hospital setting to see why, in spite of high knowledge of contraception, Ghanaian women resort to abortion instead of using contraception. Subjects were recruited from the KorleBu Teaching Hospital in Accra, the Tema General Hospital of Tema, the Nsawam Hospital of Nsawam, and two abortion clinics in Accra. 55% were married, 25% were teenagers, and 56% were residents of Accra, while the rest were from rural areas. Among those who were married, 45% were the third wives. Most of the women had some formal education and some degree of economic independence. 99% knew of at least one method of contraception, only 21% had ever used a modern method, 6% had used a condom, 4% had used withdrawal sometimes, and 3% had used the rhythm method. The women reported not using modern contraceptives mainly because of the belief that they cause harmful side-effects. For example, it was commonly thought that the oral contraceptive pill causes infertility and withdrawal causes stroke in men. Women also viewed contraceptives as messy, complicated, and/or difficult to use. 54% said they decided to abort their fetus because the pregnancy was out of wedlock; single parenthood is stigmatized in Ghana. 25% decided to abort to better space their children. PMID:12287987

  10. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa R Assifi

    Full Text Available Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services.To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law.A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis.Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively.This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  11. Cytogenetic analysis in 61 couples with spontaneous abortions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江静; 傅曼芬; 王德芬

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between spontaneous abortion and chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Couples who had one or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and had normal genitals were enrolled for cytogenetic karyotype analysis. Results In the 61 couples, the detected incidence was 11.5%, with five Robertsonian translocations, one reciprocal translocation, and one pericentric inversion of chromosome 7. Conclusion Chromosomal abnormalities may play an important role in fetal wastage.

  12. Abortion in Brazil: Contending Discourses and Women's Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Tussi, Fernanda P.

    2010-01-01

    It is a common practice for anthropologists to explore connections where scholars from different disciplines do not expect to search and find them. This is the theoretical and methodological orientation in which I was trained as an anthropologist and from which I approach the practice of abortion in Brazil in hope to reach an understanding of the constituent dimensions of this social fact. Before I move on the to discussion, I would like to provide some background on the practice of abortion ...

  13. Pesquisa sobre o aborto no Brasil: avanços e desafios para o campo da saúde coletiva Research on abortion in Brazil: gaps and challenges for the public health field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta um panorama dos estudos sobre aborto no país, no campo da Saúde Coletiva, apontando lacunas e desafios para a investigação. A maioria das pesquisas está concentrada em hospitais públicos, com mulheres admitidas para tratamento do aborto incompleto, restringindo-se portanto aos abortos que apresentaram complicações. Descrevem o perfil das mulheres, métodos e razões para o aborto e conseqüências imediatas para a saúde física. Entretanto, permanecem limites relacionados à necessidade de estudos para mensuração da incidência do aborto; para investigação das especificidades dos óbitos por aborto e casos de morbidade grave; para análise da relação do aborto com anticoncepção; para investigação das repercussões do aborto na saúde mental das mulheres e para incorporação da perspectiva masculina. É urgente o desenvolvimento de pesquisas de avaliação da atenção ao aborto nos serviços públicos. Os resultados dos estudos devem ser divulgados, contribuindo para superar a visão ideologizada da discussão do direito ao aborto no país.This paper provides a review of abortion studies produced in the field of public health in Brazil, highlighting current research gaps and challenges. Most studies focus on women admitted to public hospitals for treatment of incomplete abortion, so their scope is limited to abortions presenting complications. Women's profiles, abortion methods, motives, and immediate consequences for women's physical health are also included. However, there remains a need for studies on the following aspects: measuring abortion incidence; investigating cases of post-abortion complications and death; analyzing the relationship between abortion and contraception; investigating the impact of abortion on women's mental health; and incorporating men's perspectives. There is an urgent need for evaluative research on abortion care in public services. Research results should be disseminated widely

  14. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system.

  15. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

  16. From pragmatism to politics: a qualitative study of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-eight years after the United State Supreme Court issued its landmark Roe v. Wade, the struggle continues to ensure that all women have the full range of reproductive choices, including abortion. While the struggle can be addressed through its political, religious, and medical dimensions, it also can be examined through the perspectives of those who actually provide abortions. This paper examines the perspectives of physician abortion providers to understand more fully their motivations, the quality of their personal and professional lives, their views on the future of abortion services, and their recommendations for undergraduate and residency medical education. Such questions are often best answered through qualitative inquiry, particularly when the subject at hand has had little interpretive scrutiny, lacks theoretical understandings, and remains in general an under-investigated phenomenon. Because abortion providers and the work they do fit those criteria, a qualitative study of physician providers in Ohio was undertaken. This paper is divided into the following sections: a literature review of abortion services in the United States, methods, interview data and discussion, and last, recommendations and conclusions. PMID:12555805

  17. The effect of abortion on outcome of subsequent pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abortion

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In a historical cohort study we evaluated the effects of spontaneous abortion on subsequent pregnancy outcome. 1693 pregnant women were classifield in three groups: 1100: without any prior pregnancy, group 1; 550: with history of one spontaneous abortion (G2A1, group 2; 43: with two or more prior spontaneous abortions and no other prior pregnancies, group 3. We collected data through interview, patient's records and physical examination. We matched the patients according to their age subgroups, history of chronic disease, drug administration and radiation during current pregnancy and familial marriage. Then we compared adverse outcome of present pregnancy in group 1 and 2 with the women without prior pregnancy. We analysed the data with Chi-square and Fisher's exact methods. In this study we concluded that history of one spontaneous abortion had no effect on subsequent pregnancy except on prolonged ROM (P<0.000, but history of two or more abortions significantly affects occurrence of stillbirth (RR=29, P=0.003 and placenta previa (RR=8.5, P=0.03. These findings suggest that pregnant women with history of two or more spontaneous abortion need special prenatal care.

  18. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  19. Research on lidocaine in the application of induced abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Tong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of lidocaine in the application of induced abortion.Methods:A total of 120 pregnant women with 6-10 week gestational age and ASA I-II level who were volunteered to receive induced abortions from January, 2010 to January, 2013 were included in the study, among which 60 cases were given lidocaine during the operation and served as the observation group, while 60 cases were not given lidocaine during the operation and served as the control group. The heart rate, blood pressure, the change of oxygen saturation, pain, and the occurrence of abortion syndrome before and after operation between the two groups were compared.Results:The fineness rates of analgesia and anesthesia evaluation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P0.05). The postoperative heart rate and blood pressure in the control group were significantly lower than those before operation and in the observation group with a slow recovery (P0.05). The occurrence rate of abortion syndrome in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Application of lidocaine in the induced abortion can relieve the pain and reduce the occurrence rate of abortion syndrome with a simple and safe operation; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  20. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome.

  1. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (legal and legally-restricted contexts whether medical abortion was accessed through formal or informal systems. A review team of four identified 36 studies meeting inclusion criteria, extracted data from these studies, and synthesized review findings. Review findings were organized under the following themes: general perceptions of self-management, preparation for self-management, logistical considerations, issues of choice and control, and meaning and experience. The synthesis highlights that the qualitative evidence base is still small, but that the available evidence points to the overall acceptability of self-administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base. PMID:27578349

  2. Why Governments That Fund Elective Abortion Are Obligated to Attempt a Reduction in the Elective Abortion Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumsday, Travis

    2016-03-01

    If elective abortion is publicly funded, then the government is obligated to take active measures designed to reduce its prevalence. I present two arguments for that conclusion. The first argument is directed at those pro-choice thinkers who hold that while some or all elective abortions are morally wrong, they still ought to be legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument is directed at pro-choice thinkers who hold that there is nothing morally wrong with elective abortion and that it should be both legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument employs premises that generalize beyond the abortion debate and that may serve to shed light on broader questions concerning conscience and the requirements of political compromise in a democracy. PMID:26715048

  3. Profile of abortion seekers and decision makers of post abortion contraceptive acceptability in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yadav

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: All MTP seekers should be provided information and counseling for post abortal contraceptive use and enable these women and their spouse to make an informed and voluntary choice and thus avoid the need of a repeat abortion. Contraceptive services should also include emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy due to unprotected sex. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3491-3495

  4. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Wang, Chen; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Child Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    –Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy....

  6. Pareto Improving Price Regulation when the Asset Market is Incomplete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; Polemarchakis, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    When the asset market is incomplete, competitive equilibria are constrained suboptimal, which provides a scope for pareto improving interventions. Price regulation can be such a pareto improving policy, even when the welfare effects of rationing are taken into account. An appealing aspect of price r

  7. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspan...

  8. Minimal Martingale Measures for Discrete-time Incomplete Financial Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Jian-ming Xia

    2002-01-01

    In this note, we give a characterization of the minimal martingale measure for a general discretetime incomplete financial market. Then we concretely work out the minimal martingale measure for a specific discrete-time market model in which the assets' returns in different times are independent.

  9. CT brainscan in incomplete Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdeigel, M.

    1987-03-01

    The CT brain scan of a 17-year-old patient with primary hyperuricaemia and mental retardation is presented. The examination demonstrates subcortical and cortical atrophy of the brain. The HGPRTase level was below normal. Clinical evidence of selfmutilation or tophi was not found. This patient's condition was interpreted as an incomplete Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

  10. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finit

  11. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ∼ 4-7 MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, the fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry. (authors)

  12. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  13. Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  15. Incomplete molar pregnancy with live coexisting fetus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pourali

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The rate of pregnancy complications such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and obstetrics hemorrhage and also the risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN are increasing in incomplete molar pregnancy. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of molar pregnancy is very important to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Plural Form in Franchising: An Incomplete Contracting Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPlural form franchising is modeled from an incomplete contracting perspective. Complete franchising is the unique, efficient governance structure only when the plural form externality is limited and the costs of investment are low for both franchisees. Governance structure choice is irre

  17. Excess demand functions with incomplete markets, a global result

    OpenAIRE

    Momi, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a global characterization of excess demand functions in a two period exchange economy with incomplete real asset markets. We show that continuity, homogeneity and Walras� law characterize the aggregate excess demand functions on any compact price set which maintains the dimension of the budget set.

  18. Improvement of wheat in Zambia using incomplete resistance against rusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milliano, de W.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers, cropping methods,

  19. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  20. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult...

  1. Maternal mortality from septic abortions in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from March 1968 to February 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Sinnathuray, T A

    1975-09-01

    4 maternal deaths from abortion that took place during the 6-year period from March 1968 to February 1974 in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur are reviewed with focus on the avoidable causes and preventive aspects. The total maternal deaths from all causes for the 1699 admission was 13. The mortality rate from abortion during this period was 0.241/1000 pregnancies. The number of abortion cases admitted into the hospital during the 6-year period increased steadily. Of the 4 abortion deaths, 3 patients admitted to attempts at inducing abortion. 1 patient denied having induced abortion, although her husband felt that it could have occurred. All 4 cases of abortion deaths occurred in patients with septic abortions and were, theoretically, avoidable deaths. It is most important to prevent sepsis in a case of abortion. Patients with endotoxic shock are often given intravenous steroids in pharmacological doses every 4-6 hours.

  2. A project to improve the quality of abortion services in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comendant, Rodica

    2005-11-01

    Abortion has been available legally in Moldova since 1955, and since then the abortion rate has gradually declined. The quality of abortion care remains low, however, and there is a high level of maternal mortality related to unsafe abortion. The goals of the 2005-2015 National Reproductive Health Strategy are to reduce unwanted pregnancy, reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality, improve access to and quality of abortion care, including the methods of vacuum aspiration and medical abortion. This paper presents information on the current abortion law, policy and services in Moldova. It describes a project whose aim is to improve the quality of abortion services, including the introduction of medical abortion through training of service providers and community education. Manual vacuum aspiration has also recently been introduced. The drugs for medical abortion are officially approved, a clinical study evaluating the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion in a low-resource setting has been completed, and training of providers has been carried out. However, institutionalisation of medical abortion faces many problems in relation to organisation of service delivery, the higher cost of medical than aspiration abortion, and doctors' reluctance to use new methods.

  3. The political economy of abortion in India: cost and expenditure patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Ravi

    2004-11-01

    Access to abortion services is not difficult in India, even in remote areas. Providers of abortion range from traditional birth attendants to auxiliary nurse midwives and pharmacists, unqualified and qualified private doctors, to gynaecologists. Despite a well-defined law, there is a lack of regulation of abortion services or providers, and the cost to women is determined by supply side economics. The state is not a leading provider of abortions; services remain predominantly in the private sector. Abortions in the public sector are free only if the woman accepts some form of contraception; other fees may also be charged. The cost of abortion varies considerably, depending on the number of weeks of pregnancy, the woman's marital status, the method used, type of anaesthesia, whether it is a sex-selective abortion, whether diagnostic tests are carried out, whether the provider is registered and whether hospitalisation is required. A review of existing studies indicates that abortions cost a substantial amount--first trimester abortion averages Rs.500- 1000 and second trimester abortion Rs.2000-3000. Given the number of unqualified providers and with 15-20% of maternal deaths due to unsafe abortions, the costs of unsafe abortions must also be counted. It is imperative for the state to regulate the abortion economy in India, both to rationalise costs and assure safe abortions for women.

  4. Spontaneous abortions among women working in the pharmaceutical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskinen, H.; Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.

    1986-03-01

    A register based study was conducted on the pregnancy outcome of female workers in eight Finnish pharmaceutical factories to determine whether they had a higher risk of spontaneous abortion than the general population or matched controls. Information about all female workers who had been employed in the factories during the years 1973 or 1975 (four factories) to 1980 was obtained from the employers. The workers' pregnancy data were collected from the nation wide hospital discharge register and polyclinic data of hospitals from 1973 to 1981. The total number of 1795 pregnancies included 1179 deliveries, 142 spontaneous abortions, and 474 induced abortions. The spontaneous abortion rate (the number of spontaneous abortions X 100, divided by the number of spontaneous abortions plus the number of births) during employment was 10.9% and before/after employment 10.6%. The rate for all the women in the corresponding central hospital districts was 8.5% during the study period. A case-control study was also carried out in which the cases were 44 women who had a spontaneous abortion during employment in the pharmaceutical factory. Three age matched female pharmaceutical factory workers who had given birth to a child were chosen as controls for every case. The information about occupational exposures was collected from questionnaires completed by the occupational physician or nurse at the factory. The response rate was 93%. Exposure to chemicals was more common among the cases than among the controls. For methylene chloride, a solvent commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, the increase in odds ratio of borderline significance (odds ratio 2.3, p = 0.06). In a logistic regression model (which included oestrogen exposure, solvent exposure frequency of the usage, and heavy lifting) the odds ratio was increased for oestrogens and for heavy lifting.

  5. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  6. Abortion and moral development theory: listening with different ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E

    1989-01-01

    Listening to the reasons used by women to justify their action of having an abortion is a good way of determining its moral status. However, it must be remembered that the opinions one has about abortion cannot be separated from the manner in which questions are asked of these women. In fact the moral opinion of the researcher is interwoven with the methodology and questions used to interview women. This examination of the above mentioned issue takes place in the context of analyzing Carol Gilligan's book, In a Different Voice. This work will be used to illustrate how a researchers own opinions about abortion can be seen in the process of setting up a study to interview women to determine the moral value of abortion based on the moral justification of abortion seekers. There seems to be a difference of opinion about the use of the terms caring, responsible and non-violent by the women being interviewed. Gilligan states that the moral development of women occurs in 3 stages. Part of the transformation process involves women realizing the good does not necessarily involve self-sacrifice. Gilligan's treatment of the interviews is not always consistent with her own philosophical views; however, she routinely fails to ask rather obvious questions of women that may suggest that they did not reason well about their abortion decision. This ultimately is the weak link in Gilligan's analysis and theories. If you assume that women are the pivotal decision makers in determining the moral status of abortion, you must assume that they always reason correctly, which is of course not the case.

  7. Chromosomal rearrangements as the cause of habitual abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Habitual abortion is a spontaneous abortion occurring in three or more successive pregnancies with no intervening pregnancies. Chromosomal aberrations account for approximately 50% of fetal losses prior to 15 weeks. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the role of chromosomal rearrangements in etiology of habitual abortions in couples with a normal karyotype. Method We analyzed the karyotype of placental tissue, taken from spontaneously aborted fetuses from couples with normal karyotype and habitual abortions. The women tested were divided into two groups. In the first group, there were 23 women below 35, and in the second, 13 women above 35 years of age. Tissue samples were obtained from the abortions and processed using standard techniques. All specimens were G-banded using trypsin-Giemsa stain. Sixteen metaphase cells were analyzed for their chromosome constitution in each sample. For statistical analysis, we used χІ test. Results From 36 analyzed cases, there were 17 (47.2% with an abnormal chromosomal constitution and 19 (58.2% with a normal chromosomal constitution. Trisomy 16 was detected in 4 cases. Among sex chromosomal aberrations, only monosomy X was found in 3 cases. Two cases of triploidy and two cases of trisomy 8, 18 and 21 were detected. Trisomy 12 and trisomy 13 were found in one case each. In group of women under 35 (I group, the percentage of chromosomally abnormal fetuses was 34.8%, while in the group of women above 35 (II group, that percentage was 69.2, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups I and II (χІ=3.01< χІ(1 and 0.05=3.841. Conclusion Hereditary base defects are a significant cause of spontaneous abortions in early pregnancy. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities provides the opportunity to plan further treatment of reproduction disorders.

  8. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect. PMID:7549678

  9. States, Congress confront abortion services under Medicaid, health care plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-13

    Abortion coverage under various health care reform proposals has dominated the political reproductive rights debate, while poor women's access to abortion under Medicaid presents a current practical concern. Under the Clinton administration's proposed Health Security Act, abortion would be covered under "services for pregnant women," and Medicaid would eventually be incorporated into the national health plan. A final version is a long way off. For now, the Hyde amendment, limiting Medicaid coverage of abortion, controls the issue. Congress has made only negligible progress in freeing federal funds for Medicaid abortions: only in situations of life endangerment, rape, or incest. States are required to cover abortions that are medically necessary under the new guidelines, which now include pregnancy arising from rape and incest. The federal policy defers to state law on the definition of rape and incest, allowing for reasonable reporting or documentation requirements, while disallowing unduly burdensome regulations by allowing the treating physician reimbursement when the physician certifies that the patient was unable for physical or psychological reasons to comply with the requirement. States disagreeing with the new abortion policy immediately registered their opposition. Utah's health department, which has a "life only" law, has pledged not to implement the new federal policy until there is further clarification. The Health Care Financing Administrator responded by writing that "the decision to implement this policy nationwide was not discretionary." Congress chose not to add statutory language deferring to the states, and under U.S. Constitutional law, where state law or policy conflicts with federal law, federal law takes precedence. The next battle will certainly center on attempts to amend the Hyde amendment itself as well as health care legislation along the "states' option" lines. PMID:12345518

  10. Study quantifies problem of abortion in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Findings of a multicenter study that was discussed during the 1993 Health Ministers' Conference showed that about 30% of maternal deaths in east, central, and southern Africa were associated with complications of unsafe abortion. The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat in collaboration with the Support for Analysis and Research in Africa, a project funded by USAID and the Johns Hopkins Program on Training in Reproductive Health, has coordinated a study that will help guide the development of better policies on unsafe abortion. One phase involved the collection and analysis of all published and unpublished information from computer data bases dealing with the problem. The other phase involved interviews with health care workers, patients, and managers of health care facilities in Zambia, Malawi, and Uganda. In each of the 3 countries primary data was collected from a tertiary care hospital in the capital city, a provincial hospital, and 2 rural district hospitals. The results of the primary data component showed that services for the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and treatment of complications of abortion in this region are inadequate. Unsafe abortion was also a major public health problem in the region, costing national governments a lot of resources. Findings revealed that unsafe abortion is an enormous public health problem with staggering consequences for women and the health care system, which spend an inordinate amount of money, time, and other resources to treat the consequences of unsafe abortion. Complications leading to acute and chronic injuries and sometimes death, as a result of unsafe abortion, affect women at the prime of their lives. Postabortion family planning services, health care facilities, and counseling are lacking. The Recommendations and Policy Implications of the study will be discussed by the 22nd Conference of Health Ministers with a view to developing specific actions to avert the problem.

  11. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

  12. Exploring abortion knowledge and opinion among lawyers, an important yet overlooked stakeholder group in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kate S; Garcia, Sandra G; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; McMurtrie, Stephanie M; Valencia, Jorge Armando; Diaz de Leon, Fernanda; Sanchez Fuentes, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Lawyers are important actors shaping the abortion debate in Mexico. Of 250 private and public sector criminal lawyers surveyed from four regions, the majority knew about abortion laws in their states. At least 80% agreed with abortion in cases of rape, risk to a woman's life or health, and fetal malformations. Overall, 61% agreed with the Mexico City law and 84% would defend a woman denied a legal abortion. In multivariate analysis, being very knowledgeable of abortion laws was a significant predictor of more "progressive" abortion opinions, support for the Mexico City law, and support for the health indication. PMID:23066966

  13. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety. PMID:27062249

  14. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of Myoma, H-mole and Missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonography is very important in the diagnosis of various kinds of diseases in Obsterics and Gynecology. It has high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of pelvic masses and widely used for the detection of normal orpathologic pregnancy. But still it is difficult to differentiate degenerated myoma, H-mole and missed abortion by ultrasonography. So the authors analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 81 patients with myoma(29 cases), H-mole(23 cases), and missed abortion(29 cases) and the results are as follows; 1. Diagnostic accuracy was 8.6% in myoma, 87% in H-mole and 89% in missed abortion. 2. The most typical ultrasonographic finding of myoma was obulated mass contour with nonhomogenous internal echo. 3. The most characteristic finding of H-mole was fine vesicular pattern internal echo with globular enlargement of uterus. 4. The most frequent finding of missed abortion was deformed gestational sac with or without remained fetal echo. 5. Clinical correlation was very important for accurate diagnosis, especially when differential diagnosis was very difficult between myoma with marked cystic degeneration, missed abortion with large distorted gestational sac and H-mole with severe degeneration

  16. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Llorente-Marrón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.

  17. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  18. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  19. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (data from these studies, and synthesized review findings. Review findings were organized under the following themes: general perceptions of self-management, preparation for self-management, logistical considerations, issues of choice and control, and meaning and experience. The synthesis highlights that the qualitative evidence base is still small, but that the available evidence points to the overall acceptability of self-administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base.

  20. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  1. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  2. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  3. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadroncollider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications.

  4. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence. PMID:27007684

  5. ACLU: strict anti-abortion law could also ban contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In states that pass very restrictive abortion laws, contraceptives may be outlawed as well. A Louisiana law prohibits abortion, even to save the life of the mother, and defines the moment of conception to be contact between a spermatozoan and an ovum. The law carries a maximum 10 year prison sentence and a $100,000 maximum fine. According to this definition, oral contraceptives, IUDs and Norplant would all be considered abortifacient and would thus be illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has filled a suit on behalf of the women seeking abortions, the physicians performing abortions, and abortion clinics. There appear to be some problem with banning the contraceptives because the law stipulates that you must terminate the pregnancy with intent and if you don't know you are pregnant, then you can't have intent. Thus contraceptives work without knowledge of pregnancy and should not be included. The ACLU also claims that the definition of conception is not medically or scientifically accepted and as such it is faulty.

  6. ACLU: strict anti-abortion law could also ban contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In states that pass very restrictive abortion laws, contraceptives may be outlawed as well. A Louisiana law prohibits abortion, even to save the life of the mother, and defines the moment of conception to be contact between a spermatozoan and an ovum. The law carries a maximum 10 year prison sentence and a $100,000 maximum fine. According to this definition, oral contraceptives, IUDs and Norplant would all be considered abortifacient and would thus be illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has filled a suit on behalf of the women seeking abortions, the physicians performing abortions, and abortion clinics. There appear to be some problem with banning the contraceptives because the law stipulates that you must terminate the pregnancy with intent and if you don't know you are pregnant, then you can't have intent. Thus contraceptives work without knowledge of pregnancy and should not be included. The ACLU also claims that the definition of conception is not medically or scientifically accepted and as such it is faulty. PMID:12317309

  7. [Full-term pregnancy following failed induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, J; Hulkko, S

    1986-01-01

    This study introduces a case of an 18 year old student who developed a full-term pregnancy following failed induced abortion. The abortion was performed during the 7th week of pregnancy by dilating the cervix and suctioning with the tip of a number 8 aspirator. A regular amount of pregnancy material was obtained, and the uterus was checked with a normal curette. After 3 months, when the patient's period did not recommence, a diagnosis of normal pregnancy was made. Delivery was performed by section after 2 inductions because of weak contractions, maternal exhaustion and threatening fetal asphyxia. The baby was normal and satisfactorily developed on follow-up. In conclusion, it is rare for pregnancy to continue after an abortion by aspiration. In a previous study by Fielding (1978), only 3 cases similar to this were followed. 2 of them miscarried and 1 delivered a defective baby. Among the causes of failed abortion are severely retrograded uterus, growth and developmental problems of the uterus and defective cervix. The risks are greater in the earlier weeks of pregnancy. Inexperience and technical difficulties are also reported as factors in failed abortion, as well as aspiration on only 1 fetus in cases of twin pregnancy. The authors recommend consideration of the mentioned risk factors, using sonography in suspicious cases, examining the amount of pregnancy material an always performing a follow-up examination. PMID:3757838

  8. Consultant choice across decision contexts: are abortion decisions different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, L L; Jacobs, J E

    1996-04-01

    A survey conducted among college students in the midwestern US indicated that abortion decision-making consultation patterns differ substantially from those associated with other types of decisions. Surveyed were 169 predominantly White, middle-income students (68 males and 101 females) 18-20 years of age recruited from an introductory psychology class. Participants were presented with vignettes that pertained to four types of decisions: abortion (unplanned pregnancy), medical (cancer treatment type), future (career move), and interpersonal (crisis with a friend). For each decision, students were asked who they would consult (specific family members, significant others, friends, various professionals) and the order in which they would consult them. The mean number of consultants selected was 3.72 for abortion, 5.54 for medical, 4.90 for future-oriented, and 2.41 for interpersonal decisions. Significant others were selected most often for all decision scenarios; however, the highest frequency of consultation and lowest mean rank order for the significant other was on the abortion decision. The next most important consultant for abortion decisions was friends, then family members, and, finally, professionals. The only gender difference was a greater tendency for females to consult their mothers. For every category of consultant (except best friend), the pattern differed depending on the type of decision. These findings underscore the importance of considering context and multifaceted approaches in the design of programs aimed at enhancing adolescents' decision-making skills. PMID:12347375

  9. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  10. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

  11. Extracting Backbones from Weighted Complex Networks with Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The backbone is the natural abstraction of a complex network, which can help people understand a networked system in a more simplified form. Traditional backbone extraction methods tend to include many outliers into the backbone. What is more, they often suffer from the computational inefficiency—the exhaustive search of all nodes or edges is often prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we propose a backbone extraction heuristic with incomplete information (BEHwII to find the backbone in a complex weighted network. First, a strict filtering rule is carefully designed to determine edges to be preserved or discarded. Second, we present a local search model to examine part of edges in an iterative way, which only relies on the local/incomplete knowledge rather than the global view of the network. Experimental results on four real-life networks demonstrate the advantage of BEHwII over the classic disparity filter method by either effectiveness or efficiency validity.

  12. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  13. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong

    2013-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

  14. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  15. Incomplete nonextensive statistics and the zeroth law of thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhi-Fu; Ou Cong-Jie; Chen Jin-Can

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the entropy of incomplete statistics (IS) and the joint probability factorization condition,two controversial problems existing in IS are investigated:one is what expression of the intemal energy is reasonable for a composite system and the other is whether the traditional zeroth law of thermodynamics is suitable for IS.Some new equivalent expressions of the internal energy of a composite system are derived through accurate mathematical calculation.Moreover,a self-consistent calculation is used to expound that the zeroth law of thermodynamics is also suitable for IS,but it cannot be proven theoretically.Finally,it is pointed out that the generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics for incomplete nonextensive statistics is unnecessary and the nonextensive assumptions for the composite internal energy will lead to mathematical contradiction.

  16. Cooperation under Incomplete Information on the Discount Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, C

    2010-01-01

    In the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, when every player has a different discount factor, the grim-trigger strategy is an equilibrium if and only if the discount factor of each player is higher than some threshold. What happens if the players have incomplete information regarding the discount factors? In this work we look at repeated games in which each player has incomplete information regarding the other player's discount factor, and ask when a pair of grim-trigger strategies is an equilibrium. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for such strategies to be an equilibrium. We characterize the states of the world in which the strategies are not triggered, i.e., the players cooperate, in such equilibria (or $\\epsilon$-equilibria), and ask whether these "cooperation events" are close to those in the complete information case, when the information is "almost" complete, in several senses.

  17. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  18. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cemal Yazici; John Losurdo; Michael D Brown; Scott Oosterveen; Robert Rahimi; Ali Keshavarzian; Leila Bozorgnia

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status.METHODS:We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005.Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure.CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses.After retrospective analysis,21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction,prior gastric surgery,endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data.Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP),70 in-patient (IP)],CE indications,findings,location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed.Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago,IL).Chi-square,t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams.RESULTS:The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years.Sixty-one percent of the study population was female,and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P =0.07).The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study.Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P =0.0001),while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P =0.002 and P =0.01,respectively).Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs.The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264OPs (P =0.04).The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001).The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to OPs,98.5 ±139.5 min vs 60.4

  19. Online Identification and Tracking of Subspaces from Highly Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Balzano, Laura; Nowak, Robert; Recht, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This work presents GROUSE (Grassmanian Rank-One Update Subspace Estimation), an efficient online algorithm for tracking subspaces from highly incomplete observations. GROUSE requires only basic linear algebraic manipulations at each iteration, and each subspace update can be performed in linear time in the dimension of the subspace. The algorithm is derived by analyzing incremental gradient descent on the Grassmannian manifold of subspaces. With a slight modification, GROUSE can also be used ...

  20. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in 16O + 169Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, α/2αxn-channels have been measured at E∼5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt γ-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-α-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-α/2αxn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/αxn-channels, and increases with direct-α-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/αxn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered

  1. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pushpendra P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: pushpendrapsingh@gmail.com; Singh, B.P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India)], E-mail: bpsinghamu@gmail.com; Sharma, M.K.; Gupta, Unnati [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Kumar, Rakesh [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, D. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Singh, R.P.; Murlithar, S. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: ranjan@iuac.ernet.in

    2009-01-12

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in {sup 16}O + {sup 169}Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, {alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been measured at E{approx}5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt {gamma}-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-{alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels, and increases with direct-{alpha}-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered.

  2. ANALYSIS OF INCOMPLETE STOCK MARKET WITH JUMP-DIFFUSION UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuli Chao; Indrajit Bardhan

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies incomplete stock market that includes discontinuous priceprocesses. The discontinuity is modeled by very general point processes admitting onlystochastic intensities. Prices are driven by jump-diffusion uncertainty and have randombut predictable jumps. The space of risk-neutral measures that are associated with themarket is identified and related to fictitious completions. The construction of replicatingportfolios is discussed, and convex duality methods are used to prove existence of optimalconsumption and investment policies for a problem of utility maximization.

  3. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income ...... both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....

  4. Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

  5. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation. PMID:24718110

  6. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  7. Influence of the target deformation in incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By bombarding spherical (124Sn and 144Sm) and deformed (154Sm and 181Ta) targets with different projectiles (16O, 19F, 20Ne) we have shown the influence of the target deformation on the entrance channel angular momenta Isub(i) of incomplete fusion reactions where direct α particles are emitted. We have shown that lsub(i)/lsub(cr) (lsub(cr) being the limiting value for complete fusion) is higher for a deformed target than for a spherical one

  8. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully discuss this in the p...

  9. Hilbert's Incompleteness, Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number and Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kieu, Tien D.

    2001-01-01

    To explore the limitation of a class of quantum algorithms originally proposed for the Hilbert's tenth problem, we consider two further classes of mathematically non-decidable problems, those of a modified version of the Hilbert's tenth problem and of the computation of the Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number, which is a representation of the G\\"odel's Incompletness theorem. Some interesting connection to Quantum Field Theory is pointed out.

  10. Einstein, incompleteness, and the epistemic view of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Nicholas; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. Indeed, representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the quantum state has ...

  11. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  12. Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite permutation and relat...

  13. Distributed control systems with incomplete and uncertain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingpeng

    Scientific and engineering advances in wireless communication, sensors, propulsion, and other areas are rapidly making it possible to develop unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with sophisticated capabilities. UAVs have come to the forefront as tools for airborne reconnaissance to search for, detect, and destroy enemy targets in relatively complex environments. They potentially reduce risk to human life, are cost effective, and are superior to manned aircraft for certain types of missions. It is desirable for UAVs to have a high level of intelligent autonomy to carry out mission tasks with little external supervision and control. This raises important issues involving tradeoffs between centralized control and the associated potential to optimize mission plans, and decentralized control with great robustness and the potential to adapt to changing conditions. UAV capabilities have been extended several ways through armament (e.g., Hellfire missiles on Predator UAVs), increased endurance and altitude (e.g., Global Hawk), and greater autonomy. Some known barriers to full-scale implementation of UAVs are increased communication and control requirements as well as increased platform and system complexity. One of the key problems is how UAV systems can handle incomplete and uncertain information in dynamic environments. Especially when the system is composed of heterogeneous and distributed UAVs, the overall system complexity is increased under such conditions. Presented through the use of published papers, this dissertation lays the groundwork for the study of methodologies for handling incomplete and uncertain information for distributed control systems. An agent-based simulation framework is built to investigate mathematical approaches (optimization) and emergent intelligence approaches. The first paper provides a mathematical approach for systems of UAVs to handle incomplete and uncertain information. The second paper describes an emergent intelligence approach for UAVs

  14. ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Kelechi Acha

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s) and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s). The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike, Abia Sta...

  15. Quantum correlations from the conditional statistics of incomplete data

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T. J.; Donati, G.; Barbieri, M.; Jin, X. -M.; Datta, A.; Vogel, W.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correl...

  16. Testing option pricing models: complete and incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Olesia Verchenko

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical performance of several complete and incomplete market models of stock price dynamics using S&P 500 options and stock market data. The main contribution of this work is that it suggests and implements an empirical approach to estimating a complete model with uncertain volatility, and then judges it against other popular option pricing processes. The performance of alternative models is evaluated from four perspectives: (1) in-sample fit to stock returns data, ...

  17. Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

  18. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  19. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215

  20. 57.1% of Unmarried Women Undergoing Abortion Have RTI:Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 2,002 unmarried women under 24 years of age who requested abortions in four Chinese cities indicates that reproductive tract infection (RTI) has become a major factor affecting the reproductive health of unmarried women having abortions.

  1. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  2. Association Study of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms with Spontaneous Abortion: Is This a Possible Reason for Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Anousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen plays a crucial role in fetal and placental development through estrogen receptors. Association of estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1 polymorphisms with spontaneous abortion has been shown in some studies. Our main goal was to study the potential association of spontaneous abortion with the ESR1 gene variations (PvuII and XbaI in fetal tissue. Totally, 161 samples were recruited including 80 samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded fetal tissue from spontaneous abortion and 81 samples of normal term placental tissue. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method was performed for genotyping the rs2234693 (A/G XbaI and rs9340799 (T/C PvuII single nucleotide polymorphisms located in intron 1 of ESR1. The results have been confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. The different genotypes distribution was detected in two study groups. Haplotype analysis indicated that ppxx is protective genotype against spontaneous abortion (P = 0.01. In conclusion, the potential role of ESR1 genetic variation in spontaneous abortion might be valuable in high-risk subjects, and that needs to be confirmed with future studies.

  3. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Silke G

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights. PMID:17457727

  4. The challenges procuring of safe abortion care in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie Samantha

    2013-12-01

    Botswana's national healthcare system has experienced substantial investment as a result of a growing economy and stable government, and improvements in quality and access are notable. Despite these advances, women's reproductive health continues to suffer as a result of unsafe abortion. The personal, financial, and health costs of women seeking dangerous illegal terminations, or crossing national borders to procure a legal abortion, are evident. Twenty-one in-depth, qualitative interviews with Batswana were conducted to gain some insight into the factors which make terminating an unwanted pregnancy difficult in Botswana. This small study demonstrates that there are important socio-cultural constraints, in addition to the legal barriers, that make abortion problematic. These constraints are entrenched in the wider issue of women's rights and status in society. PMID:24558781

  5. The FIGO initiative for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-07-01

    Unsafe abortion is a recognized public health problem that contributes significantly to maternal mortality. At least 13% of maternal mortality is caused by unsafe abortion, mostly in poor and marginalized women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) launched an initiative in 2007 to prevent unsafe abortion and its consequences, building on its work on other major causes of maternal mortality. A Working Group was identified with collaborators from many international organizations and terms of reference provided direction from the FIGO Executive Board as to possible evidence-based interventions. A total of 54 member associations of FIGO, representing almost half its member societies, requested participation in the initiative, with 43 subsequently producing action plans that are country specific and involve the national government and multiple collaborators. Obstetrician/gynecologists have demonstrated the importance of the initiative by an unprecedented level of engagement in efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in country and by sharing experiences regionally.

  6. Divergent views on abortion and the period of ensoulment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitamy, Badawy A B

    2013-02-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  7. [Celiac disease and abortion: focusing on a possible relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramaschi, P; Biasi, D; Carletto, A; Randon, M; Pacor, M L; Bambara, L M

    2000-02-01

    Celiac disease represents one of the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases. In Italy the prevalence among school-age population has been calculated in 1:180 subjects. Along with typical forms of the disease characterized by overt symptoms and signs of malabsorption, many cases are undiagnosed because they are subclinical, atypical or even symptomless. In adults, the disease may present with infertility; in particular celiac disease may be responsible of multiple abortions. These manifestations, whose pathogenesis is unknown, are not related to the severity of the disease; the gluten-free diet strongly ameliorates the fertility. In this paper we have focused the connection between abortion and celiac disease. A better knowledge of this relationship may lead to correctly diagnose and consequently to treat the cause of some cases of abortion, previously labelled as cases of unidentified origin. PMID:10748651

  8. A study of the ethics of induced abortion in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Y R

    1999-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the ethical aspects of induced abortion from the viewpoint of Korean women, and to compare and contrast their ethical considerations and values with the views of western ethical scholars. The two extremes of ethical arguments about induced abortion are pro-life and pro-choice. However, the Korean women who participated in this study showed that conflicting ethical values were raised between the principle of caring and the sanctity of life or the principle of respect for the person, not between the right of self-determination and the sanctity of life. The results of the study suggest that it would be better to include the viewpoints of women in any ethical discussion on abortion in order for ethicists and health professionals to understand more fully the dimensions of moral clinical problems and be in a better position to discuss them in a practical manner.

  9. Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions- An Update on Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pildner von Steinburg S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA, defined as three or more consecutive miscarriages, affect 1 % of couples trying to conceive. Risk of abortion is 15 % in every pregnancy, increasing with the number of previous miscarriages. While 50–70 % of sporadic abortions are attributed to chromosomal defects, mostly trisomies, in RSA there are different underlying disorders of uterine, genetic, infectious, endocrine, immune or thrombophilic etiology, but about 25–40 % are of still unknown etiology. While specific therapy for uterine, infectious, and endocrine disorders may be applied, treatment options for some immunologic and thrombophilic disturbances are still under examination. Careful counseling must be offered to patients with RSA of unknown etiology, as not all treatment options widely offered are based on sufficient evidence yet.

  10. [Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

    2012-07-01

    This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women.

  11. The Abortion Issue in the Development Agenda of Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lamas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which offers a regional overview of the feminist struggle for abortion rights in Latin America, begins by reminding the reader of the context, characterized by poverty and marginalization, in which the region's women become mothers, as well as the deadly consequences of illegal abortion. It subsequently outlines the political tension between some state governments and feminists, particularly the friction that results from interference by the Catholic church hierarchy. The article outlines a few paradigmatic cases that exemplify the Vatican's sensationalist strategy as well as feminist responses by means of networks and taking advantage of regional and international arenas. It argues that abortion rights are a question of social justice and public health and form part of aspirations for democracy. It also makes mention of the theoretical debate on how differences between the sexes are handled by legal systems.

  12. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions....... Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle...... of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared...

  13. Abortive lytic Epstein–Barr virus replication in tonsil-B lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis and a subset of the chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerner AM

    2012-11-01

    . Abortive lytic replication may be a pathogenic mechanism for EBV disease. EBV (HHV4 is a gamma herpesvirus composed of dsDNA about 170 Kb in length. For this discussion, there are early genes (including expressions of encoded proteins EBV dUTPase, DNA polymerase, and nuclear proteins and late genes (including expressions of capsid and membrane proteins. Abortive infection infers incomplete virion expressions of either early or late proteins, but the virion is incomplete. The lytic virus infers a complete virion. The pathologic consequences of EBV abortive replication are currently being investigated by authors.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, chronic fatigue syndrome, subset chronic fatigue syndrome, abortive lytic replication

  14. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 60% of all first trimester abortions are associated with derangement of one or more chromosomal complements. Aim: - The aim of this study was to assess frequency and increasing the awareness of physician about the nature of chromosomal aberration that contribute to the occurrence of repeated abortions. Material & Methods: - Patient of recurrent abortion was investigated by history taking, examination and investigations. For present study 20 women having two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, who attended outdoor & indoor patient department, were selected and karyotyping was done. In 10 of the above cases karyotype study of both partners was done. So in total 30 individuals (20 females & 10 males were selected for Cytogenetic study. In all cases relevant history and clinical findings and other investigations were noted. Blood samples were obtained and karyotype study was performed at Genetic Laboratory, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: - Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotypes revealed robertsonian translocation in one (5% female; this patient had a history of 2 spontaneous abortions and two times IVF failure, she had history of chocolate cyst of ovary and family history of infertility. No numerical anomaly; mosaicism or inversions were found in this study; 23 cases had normal karyotype and remaining 6 cases came out inconclusive.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of hydatidiform mole and missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the sonographic characteristics of the hydatidiform mole and the missed abortion with placental degeneration, we have retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of complete mole, 10 cases of partial mole, and 10 cases of missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration, collected at Taegu Catholic General Hospital, from January 1986 to December 1989. The results were as follows : 1. Of 12 cases of complete mole, all demonstrated diffuse intrauterine vesicular pattern of internal echo without a gestational sac. Two cases were recurred after D and E. 2. The partial mole was characterized by focal (70%) or diffuse (20%) distribution of hydatidiform placental change and a gestational sac (100%) with or without a macerated fetus. But the striking hydatidiform placental change was not present in one cases of partial mole. 3. The uterus was larger for dates in 9 cases (90%) of complete mole, but smaller for dates in 7 cases (70%) of partial mole. 4. The missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration was indistinguished from a partial mole due to their similar sonographic appearance : focal or diffuse cystic change of a placenta, a distorted gestational sac with or without a fetus, and a smaller uterus for dates. On conclusion, the complete mole could be easily distinguished from a partial mole or a missed abortion by sonography : a gestational sac or an area of noncystic placenta was not identified in a complete mole. The partial mole was indistinguished from a missed abortion, but if there is the suspicion of trophoblastic proliferation, such as a convex placental surface or a larger uterus for dates, then the diagnosis is probably a partial mole rather than a missed abortion

  16. Estimating the incidence of induced abortion in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figa'talamanca, I

    1976-01-01

    This attempts to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in Italy using a number of reproductive models and estimates of contraceptive use and effectiveness. The models of Henry and Metiner are based on assumptions of uncontrolled fertility of all women of reproductive age with single women assumed to be as much at risk as married women. These yield abortion estimates of 2.78-3.64 million a year. The actual situation is probably closer to the method of Larsen, which eliminates single women and women over age 44 but assumes uncontrolled fertility. Surveys have shown that contraceptive use, especially among working-class Italian couples, is irregular and most traditional methods such as coitus interruptus. This method estimates .98 million abortions a year. If the same assumptions are made but corrected for shorter birth intervals, the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques method, an estimate of 1.45 million is obtained. The Larson method was then modified for 2/3 of all married women using contraception with 60% efficiency, with 30% efficiency, and 2/3 at 30% with 2% using contraception 100% efficiently. These estimates are .22, .60, and .50 million. The method of Tietze and Bongaarts with fertility adjusted to age groups and various assumptions of fertility control gives .96 million abortions in the contraception dominant model, 2.26 million in the abortion dominant model, and .63 million in the abortion used after contraceptive failure model. Actual data on contraceptive usage is unavailable so it is impossible to make an accurate estimate.

  17. House again passes ban on abortions at military facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-31

    Voting 192-225 on May 14, the House defeated an effort to reverse the current prohibition on privately funded abortions at military facilities except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest. Introduced by pro-choice Representatives Rosa DeLauro (D-CT), Jane Harman (D-CA), and Mike Ward (D-KY) and mixed record Representative Peter Torkildsen (R-MA), the amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act (HR 3230) would have repealed restrictive language in the statute that governs the Department of Defense (DOD). Floor action on the provision of non-government-funded abortions mirrored Representative DeLauro's failed attempts to strike the onerous provision during the mark-up process for HR 3230, which received final House approval in a 272-153 vote on May 15. The House National Security Committee voted 26-20 against removing the abortion restriction on May 1, six days after a similar 11-5 vote by the Subcommittee on Military Personnel. The near ban on abortion services has been in effect since December of last year, when the DOD spending bill was implemented; President Clinton signed the legislation permanently encoding the restriction into law in February (see RFN IV/22, V/3-4). Upon taking office in January 1993, President Clinton had issued an executive memorandum directing the Secretary of Defense to reverse the ban on the performance of non-lifesaving, privately funded abortions at military facilities, which had been instituted through agency action in mid-1988 (see RFN II/3, IV/13). The DOD authorization statute has prohibited the use of federal funds for abortions except in cases of life endangerment for more than a decade.

  18. Second trimester abortion- mifepristone and misoprostol or misoprostol alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Patel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: From historical times termination of pregnancy was practiced with or without legal and social sanctions. Over the last few years, induced abortions have gained more popularity because of safe techniques and medications available. Induced abortion means willful termination of pregnancy before the period of viability. Medical abortion in the second trimester with misoprostol alone has been shown to be affective, although in comparison with the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol, misoprostol-only protocols have required higher doses, side effects are more common and the time to complete the abortion is longer. Methods: Total of 50 eligible women were enrolled for this study and were divided in two groups of 25 each of the case group and control group. This study was conducted in the Dhiraj General Hospital, Piparia, Waghodia. Women in the case group were given Tablet Mifepristone (200 mg orally followed by Tablet Misoprostol (200 mcg vaginally after 24 hours which may be repeated every 6 hrs till 5 doses. Women in control group were given Tablet Misoprostol (200 mcg vaginally which may be repeated every 6 hrs till 5 doses. Results: The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is now an established and highly effective and safe method for medical method second trimester abortion. The combination of mifepristone with misoprostol significantly reduces the abortion to induction interval and also have fewer side effects and complications and also reduces the dose of misoprostol. Where mifepristone is not available or affordable, misoprostol alone has also been shown to be effective, although a higher total dose is needed and efficacy is lower than for the combined regimen. Therefore, whenever possible, the combined regimen should be used. Conclusions: Mifepristone followed by misoprostol was more effective and has a shorter IAI and fewer side effects. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 315-319

  19. The discourses on induced abortion in Ugandan daily newspapers: a discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Sofia; Eliasson, Miriam; Klingberg Allvin, Marie; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Atuyambe, Lynn; Fritzell, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ugandan law prohibits abortion under all circumstances except where there is a risk for the woman's life. However, it has been estimated that over 250 000 illegal abortions are being performed in the country yearly. Many of these abortions are carried out under unsafe conditions, being one of the most common reasons behind the nearly 5000 maternal deaths per year in Uganda. Little research has been conducted in relation to societal views on abortion within the Ugandan society. Thi...

  20. Correlation between missed abortion and insertional translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Husseiny; Neveen Ashaat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Missed abortion (Silent miscarriage) is defined as intrauterine fetal death before twenty weeks gestation. One of the most common causes of early missed abortions (before 10 weeks gestation) is cytogenetic abnormalities. Objective: To asses if there is a correlation between chromosomal aberrations (especially in chromosome 7) and missed abortion among at least two generations. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of direct causes of missed abortion, this study included 60 women ...

  1. Risks, reasons and rights:The european convention on human rights and english abortion law

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely...

  2. Awareness regarding abortions and medical termination of pregnancy act among medical students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Bahadur Palo

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Legalization of abortions through the MTP Act in India resulted in a considerable decrease in maternal mortality through the decline in abortions but it has failed to ensure effective implementation and access to medically safe abortion services. Training in basic contraceptive counseling and abortion care should be incorporated in basic medical education in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2729-2733

  3. Interferon-γ promotes abortion due to Brucella infection in pregnant mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Hiroshi; Furuoka Hidefumi; Watanabe Kenta; Lee Dong; Kim Suk; Watarai Masahisa

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The mechanisms of abortion induced by bacterial infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated abortion induced by Brucella abortus, a causative agent of brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen, in a mouse model. Results High rates of abortion were observed for bacterial infection on day 4.5 of gestation, but not for other days. Regardless of whether fetuses were aborted or stayed alive, the transmission of bacteria into the fetus and bacte...

  4. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  5. Degloving Injury of Bowel: An Unheard Complication of Surgical Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sandhya; Suneja, Amita; Guleria, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. Various types of intestinal injury in form of haematoma, perforation, contusion and transection have been reported. Degloving injury of intestine is one of the rarest complications. We report a case of 32-year-old lady Gravida 4, para 3 admitted with history of induced surgical abortion by a quack with degloving injury to bowel. Though there was no fecal soiling of peritoneal cavity but large segment of bowel was lost. She was managed by end ileostomy and discharged in stable condition.

  6. Abortion and Crime: Cross-Country Evidence from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Abel François; Raul Magni-Berton; Laurent Weill

    2013-01-01

    The publication of Donohue and Levitt (2001)’s paper on the impact of legalized abortion on the decline of crime in the US has created a wide debate in the literature. However, the vast majority of papers have been implemented in the US setting, and the few other works were single-country studies. In this research, we aim to provide new evidence on the abortion-crime link by examining this issue using a sample of 16 Western European countries. The cross-country investigation allows the exploi...

  7. Is there a ‘new ethics of abortion'?

    OpenAIRE

    Gillon, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that the central issue in the abortion debate has not changed since 1967 when the English parliament enacted the Abortion Act. That central issue concerns the moral status of the human fetus. The debate here is not, it is argued, primarily a moral debate, but rather a metaphysical debate and/or a theological debate—though one with massive moral implications. It concerns the nature and attributes that an entity requires to have "full moral standing" or "moral inviolability" i...

  8. Concurrent conjunctivitis and placentitis in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R D

    1991-11-01

    Consistent histopathological lesions were found in 10 out of 136 aborted fetuses examined during a three year period, using a multi-disciplinary diagnostic investigation technique. Fetuses exhibited a generalized mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, accompanied by distinctive lesions of conjunctival hyperplasia and goblet cell formation, alveolitis, and necrotic placentitis. In two cases where amnion was also examined, a chronic amnionitis was present. No consistent laboratory findings could be related to these cases. The fetal and placental lesions described were similar to those associated with experimental inoculation of Ureaplasma diversum in pregnant cows, and with field isolations of the same organism in aborting cattle.

  9. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pai, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sandberg, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  10. Physicians targeted as abortion debate in US turns violent.

    OpenAIRE

    Korcok, M.

    1995-01-01

    The last 2 years have marked a dramatic escalation in the level of abortion-related violence in both Canada and the US. Two physicians and two clinic workers have been murdered since 1993, and last November the violence may have moved north of the border with the shooting of Dr. Garson Romalis in Vancouver. Milan Korcok looks at the threats facing American abortion clinics and the people who work in them, and discusses steps that have been taken to protect them. He warns that the violence tha...

  11. Physicians targeted as abortion debate in US turns violent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcok, M

    1995-03-01

    The last 2 years have marked a dramatic escalation in the level of abortion-related violence in both Canada and the US. Two physicians and two clinic workers have been murdered since 1993, and last November the violence may have moved north of the border with the shooting of Dr. Garson Romalis in Vancouver. Milan Korcok looks at the threats facing American abortion clinics and the people who work in them, and discusses steps that have been taken to protect them. He warns that the violence that has plagued the US because of this issue may now be moving across the border to Canada and other countries. PMID:7882233

  12. Knowledge and feelings of women who experienced an abortion process

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Cristina Vidal Menezes; Francisca Elisângela Teixeira Lima; Karla Maria Carneiro Rolim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the knowledge and feelings of women in face of the loss of their child by an abortion process. Methods: It was a descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, carried out in a maternity-school of Fortaleza-CE. Ten women, in the age group between 22 and 39 years, who had been interned at the maternity after induced or spontaneous abortion, joined in the study. Data collection was performed with a semi-structured interview containing guiding questions related to the kno...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT AND CLINICAL RESEARCH OF THREATENED ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-xia; XIE Gan-gong

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors review recent development of acupuncture treatment of threatened abortion from 1) clinical application of "Linggui Bafa"(灵龟八法Eight Methods of Intelligent Turtle), 2) body acupoints, and 3) acupuncture combined with Chinese materia medica, and clinical study from 1) effect of acupuncture on the blood flow of uterus, and 2) effect of acupuncture on plasma progesterone level. In addition, acupuncture therapy is also used to help women in gestation and can effectively raise the pregnant rate. "Linggui Bafa" is rather effective in preventing threatened abortion and should be studied further.

  14. Determination of the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of incompletely coupled fluxes. Stoichiometry of incompletely coupled reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    A rationale is formulated for the design of experiments to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of any two incompletely coupled fluxes J1 and J2. Incomplete coupling results when there is a branch at some point in the sequence of reactions or processes coupling the two fluxes. The upper limit of the mechanistic stoichiometry is given by the minimum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are systematically varied by changes in steps after the branch point. The lower limit is given by the maximum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are varied by changes in steps prior to the branch point. The rationale for determining these limits is developed from both a simple kinetic model and from a linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic treatment of coupled fluxes, using the mechanistic approach [Westerhoff, H. V. & van Dam, K. (1979) Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 9, 1-62]. The phenomenological stoichiometry, the flux ratio at level flow and the affinity ratio at static head of incompletely coupled fluxes are defined in terms of mechanistic conductances and their relationship to the mechanistic stoichiometry is discussed. From the rationale developed, experimental approaches to determine the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are outlined. The principles employed do not require knowledge of the pathway or the rate of transmembrane leaks or slippage and may also be applied to analysis of the stoichiometry of other incompletely coupled systems, including vectorial H+/O and K+/O translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport. PMID:3015612

  15. Uncomplicated abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol in a hemophilia A carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Melody Y

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence exists regarding medical abortion for women with inherited bleeding disorders. A 21-year-old primigravid hemophilia A carrier desired a medical abortion. After counseling, she chose medical abortion, which occurred without excess bleeding or surgical intervention. PMID:27085601

  16. Factors affecting abortion frequency in dairy herd improvement herds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency of abortions among lactating cows during 1995-2005 was studied. Only lactations with breeding dates were used. Abortion frequency was 1.51% among 2,980,527 lactations (>151d pregnant by end of lactation). Observed frequency of abortion was 1.6% in 2005. Analyses were conducted to determine...

  17. Understanding the Effects of Personal and School Religiosity on the Decision to Abort a Premarital Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has examined the relationship between religion and abortion attitudes, few studies have examined whether religion influences abortion behavior. This study looks at whether individual and school religiosity influence reported abortion behavior among women who become pregnant while unmarried. Hierarchical Logistic Models are…

  18. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  19. Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Curacao women : Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Marian; Boersma, Adriana A.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; de Bruijn, Jeanne G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In Curacao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curacao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curacao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of conn

  20. Delays in seeking an abortion until the second trimester: a qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mosotho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the South African abortion legislation in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortions still exist. Second trimester abortions, an inherently more risky procedure, continue to be 20% of all abortions. Understanding the reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester is important for informing interventions to reduce the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews were conducted in 2006 with women seeking a second trimester abortion at one public sector tertiary hospital and two NGO health care facilities in the greater Cape Town area, South Africa. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Almost all women described multiple and interrelated factors that influenced the timing of seeking an abortion. Reasons why women delayed seeking an abortion were complex and were linked to changes in personal circumstances often leading to indecision, delays in detecting a pregnancy and health service related barriers that hindered access to abortion services. Conclusion Understanding the complex reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester can inform health care interventions aimed at reducing the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa.