Sample records for abortion incomplete

  1. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  2. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No problems were encountered with the use ofsuction curettage in the presence ofuterine sepsis. In an era where blood transfusions should be kept to an absolute minimum, suction curettage will help to save blood in several ways. S Air Med J 1993; 83: 13-15. Evacuation of the uterus for incomplete abortion is one of the ...

  3. Management of incomplete abortions at South African public hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abortions at South African public hospitals. S Fawcus. J Mclntyre, R K Jewkes, H Rees,. J M Katzenellenbogen, R Shabodien. C J Lombard,. H Truter and the National Incomplete Abortion Study. Reference Group. Objective. The objective of this report was to review and describe the management of incomplete abortion by.

  4. Management of incomplete abortions at South African public hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The objective of this report was to review and describe the management of incomplete abortion by public sector hospitals. Design. A descriptive study in which data were collected prospectively from routine hospital records on all women admitted with incomplete abortion to a stratified random sample of hospitals ...

  5. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) and Sekou ... Cite as: Kitange B, Matovelo D, Konje E, Massinde A, Rambau P. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in Mwanza ..... Seckl, M. J., & Newlands, E. S. Risk of recurrent hy-.

  6. The epidemiology of incomplete abortion in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    black and one had two children. All died of complications of illegal abortion, with one reporting having used a mixture of. Oettol, blue soap and Super Rose lotion to induce the abortion. Discussion. This study revealed that each year a large number of women present to public hospitals with incomplete abortion. Many.

  7. A Study of Incomplete Abortion Following Medical Method of Abortion (MMA). (United States)

    Pawde, Anuya A; Ambadkar, Arun; Chauhan, Anahita R


    Medical method of abortion (MMA) is a safe, efficient, and affordable method of abortion. However, incomplete abortion is a known side effect. To study incomplete abortion due to medication abortion and compare to spontaneous incomplete abortion and to study referral practices and prescriptions in cases of incomplete abortion following MMA. Prospective observational study of 100 women with first trimester incomplete abortion, divided into two groups (spontaneous or following MMA), was administered a questionnaire which included information regarding onset of bleeding, treatment received, use of medications for abortion, its prescription, and administration. Comparison of two groups was done using Fisher exact test (SPSS 21.0 software). Thirty percent of incomplete abortions were seen following MMA; possible reasons being self-administration or prescription by unregistered practitioners, lack of examination, incorrect dosage and drugs, and lack of follow-up. Complications such as collapse, blood requirement, and fever were significantly higher in these patients compared to spontaneous abortion group. The side effects of incomplete abortions following MMA can be avoided by the following standard guidelines. Self medication, over- the-counter use, and prescription by unregistered doctors should be discouraged and reported, and need of follow-up should be emphasized.

  8. Introducing Misoprostol for the Treatment of Incomplete Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite legal restriction, induced abortions and resulting complications are common in Nigeria. Misoprostol administration for incomplete abortion was introduced in 3 Nigerian hospitals. The feasibility of the hospitals, patient and provider acceptability were assessed using questionnaire and interview guides administered ...

  9. The epidemiology of incomplete abortion in South Africa | Rees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An estimated 44 686 (95% Cl 35 633 - 53 709) women per year were admitted to South Africa's public hospitals with incomplete abortion. An estimated 425 (95% Cl 78 - 735) women die in public hospitais from complications of abortion. Fifteen per cent (95% Cl 13 18) of patients have severe morbidity while a further 19% ...

  10. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) and Sekou. Toure Regional ... of conception were collected and analyzed using Haemotoxylin and Eosin staining technique for hydatidiform moles. Results: ... countries (North America, Australia, New Zealand and.

  11. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence of hydatidiform mole is not clearly defined, partly because most studies have reported different prevalence rates from different regions. However, there is no previous study that has determined the prevalence and associated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at ...

  12. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients undergoing suction curettage had a significantly lower intra-operative blood loss (P < 0,0001) and a significantly higher mean ...

  13. Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc


    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis.

  14. An analysis of the cost of incomplete abortion to the public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To analyse the medical costs incurred in treating women for incomplete abortion. This stUdy was performed in conjunction with a nationwide survey of women who presented to public hospitals with incomplete abortion in 1994. Design. Cost analysis with two modified Delphi panels used to develop models of ...

  15. Pattern of Microbial Flora in Septic Incomplete Abortion in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    ABSTRACT. Background: Septic abortion occurs when there is colonization of the upper genital tract by micro organisms following termination of pregnancy usually before the age of viability. This can result from ascending infections from the lower genital tract or direct inoculation of micro organisms from contaminated and ...

  16. Pattern of Microbial Flora in Septic Incomplete Abortion in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Septic abortion occurs when there is colonization of the upper genital tract by micro organisms following termination of pregnancy usually before the age of viability. This can result from ascending infections from the lower genital tract or direct inoculation of micro organisms from contaminated and poorly ...

  17. Misoprostol for treatment of incomplete abortion- providers practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remnant products of conception in the uterine cavity following a miscarriage or induced abortion presents a serious threat to a woman because it increases the risk of infection or continued bleeding and therefore uterine evacuation in such cases is imperative. Surgical and medical methods using drugs like misoprostol may ...

  18. An analysis of the cost of incomplete abortion to the public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women who presented to public hospitals with incomplete abortion in ... costs to the pUblic health sector of treating women in South. Africa for the .... The respondent was asked to identify personnel attending the patient at various points and to estimate the length of time they were in contact with the patient. Space for listing.

  19. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial

  20. Acceptance and use of the female condom among women with incomplete abortion in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose


    offered to 548 women admitted to the Kagera Regional Hospital for incomplete abortion. The counseling included information about STI/HIV and the use male or female condom. In total, 521 (95%) women accepted contraception. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was assessed 3 months after abortion among 475 (91......BACKGROUND: This study describes the outcome of a postabortion care intervention aimed at introducing the female condom as a means of preventing women from having unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. METHODS: Postabortion contraceptive counseling and services were...... intended to use it again. CONCLUSION: Postabortion care programs provide an excellent entry point for introducing the female condom as a contraceptive method for the prevention of both repeat unwanted pregnancies and STI/HIV infection....

  1. Are women with complications of an incomplete abortion more likely to be HIV infected than women without complications? (United States)

    Othieno, Carolyn; Babigumira, Joseph B; Richardson, Barbra


    There is limited published evidence about the status of HIV among women who have had abortions or suffered from abortion complications. Understanding this connection is critical for building the evidence base and for guiding strategies to manage the sexual and reproductive health needs of women living with HIV. The purpose of this study is to determine whether women who suffered incomplete abortion complications are more likely to be HIV infected than those without complications. We hypothesized that women with incomplete abortion complications have higher rates of HIV infection than women who attended clinic for other obstetric reasons. The analysis used a secondary dataset from a published case-control study that enrolled 1) 70 women at discharge after receiving in-patient care for complications resulting from induced abortion, and 2) 69 women (the comparison group) who visited the same hospital during the same time period for other obstetric needs. The primary outcome was seeking care for complications of incomplete abortion versus seeking care for other obstetric needs (dichotomous). The primary exposure variable was self-reported HIV status which was categorized into three groups: HIV positive, HIV negative, and HIV unknown. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between being in the abortion complications group, HIV status and other selected population characteristics were estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Of 139 women enrolled in this study. Seventy (50.4 %) women had abortion complications and 69 (49.6 %) did not. Of the total study population, 18 (12.9 %) were HIV positive, 50 (36.0 %) were HIV negative, and the HIV status of 71 women (51.1 %) was unknown. Compared to women who were HIV negative, women who were HIV positive had similar odds of being in the abortion complications group in both univariate and multivariate analyses (ρ =0.62 and ρ = 0.76). However, compared to HIV-negative women, those women who did not know


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Behjatnia


    Full Text Available In the period from May, 1973 to April, 1974, one hundred patients were trea ted for incomple te abortion at the ]ahanshah Saleh Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients admitted to th e hospital were from 4 to 28 weeks' gestation and were routinely administered analgestics before the abortion was completed by D&C. The D&C took about 10 minutes and the patient was usually able to go home that same day: Twenty-four women (24 .0% experienced complicatio n(s including blood loss, fever requiring antibiotic treatment, and pelvic infection.

  3. Abortion (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.

  4. Abortion


    Timothy T. Jantzen


    Abortion pertains to the expulsion or removal of the embryo or fetus from the uterus thus, annihilating the pregnancy before it is suitable. It can either be induced on purpose, or happen spontaneously, and the condition is generally known as a miscarriage. These terms usually refers to the abortion of a human pregnancy. The process of abortion may be carried in safe or unsafe manners (Sedgh, et. al., 2012). The concept of induced abortion is made possible by numerous processes...

  5. Abortion. (United States)

    Hume, K


    The review by Aileen F. Connon of Abortion by Potts, Diggory and Peel (Journal, February 10) made interesting reading, especially her quotation of the "facinating statistical information" that Australia has 11.5 million people and 45,000 to 90,000 criminal abortions a year. These are rather wide upper and lower confidence limits. One wonders what other information the authors have included that is of the same standard of accuracy. On the other hand, Malcolm Potts told me some years ago that the experience of his parent organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, with the IUD in India was a disaster. That I could well believe. Seeing some of the victims, the sight would indeed be enough to stir the stony heart of the most inhuman consultant gynaecologist. There is in Australia, and indeed in the world, an increasing number of doctors who are revolted by the activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its affiliates which aggressively promote abortion as "an acceptable method of fertility control," and even as the primary method. These are a cross-section of the profession and include some of its most distinguished and erudite members who would be both competent and happy to review a book such as Abortion by Potts et alii from a pro-life point of view. Could I suggest that in future your book reviews and editorials include some well informed commentaries from doctors representing that heretofore silent group? I am holding a long and growing list of Australian doctors who have signed the "Declaration of Doctors," thus explicitly spelling out their respect for human life from the first moment of biological existence to that of natural death. Their services are available on request.

  6. Elevated mRNA expression of PGF2α receptor splice variant 2(FP-V2) in human decidua is associated with incomplete mifepristone-misoprostol-induced early medical abortion by regulation of interleukin-8. (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Feng, Wenhua; Han, Weitian; Lu, Yongping; Liu, Wei; Sui, Yu; Zhao, Ning; Lye, Stephen J; Li, Jianxin


    The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is an established method for the induction of early abortion, but 15% of women still experience the unpleasant side effect of incomplete medical abortion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin (PG) F2α receptor (FP) and its two isoforms (FP-V1 and FP-V2) in human decidua are associated incomplete abortion. Forty women who underwent medical abortion were recruited. Among them, there were 20 cases of incomplete abortion. The other 20 cases of complete abortion were used as controls. The expression levels of FP, FPV1 and FP-V2 in the decidua between of the two groups was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, FP-V2 was knocked down using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in the primary cultures of decidual cells. The expression levels of cytokines in FP-V2 knockdown primary decidual cells and control decidual cells were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The FP and FP-V2 mRNA expression in the incomplete group was significantly higher than that in the complete group (p abortion and that IL-8 could be lined to this process.

  7. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cleeve

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians.This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1 was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14-28 days following treatment. Analysis of women's overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at, NCT 01844024.From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician. 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904 of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded.Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to NCT01844024.

  8. Abortion - medical (United States)

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  9. Differential expression of circulating Th1/ Th2/ Th17 cytokines in serum of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women undergoing incomplete spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Singh, Namita; Das, Banashree; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Dudeja, Mridu; Rastogi, Sangita


    The study aimed to elucidate role of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of spontaneous abortion in Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct)-positive first-trimester aborters. Endometrial curettage tissue and serum were collected from 145 aborters (spontaneous abortion (SA) group, n = 85; recurrent miscarriage (RM) group, n = 60) and 120 controls attending Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi (India). Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Ct plasmid/MOMP, while commercial cytometric bead array kit was utilized to estimate circulating serum cytokines. 13.7% aborters were Ct-positive, however, none was found to be infected among controls. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17A cytokines were significantly increased in SA group/RM group (Ct-infected) versus controls. IL-4 showed no difference between groups, while IL-10 was significantly elevated in controls versus Ct-infected subjects in SA group/RM group. Furthermore, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A cytokines were significantly elevated in Ct-positive RM group versus Chlamydia-infected SA group. However, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines showed no significant difference between Ct-positive SA group versus infected RM group. Positive correlation was found between few cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ/IL-17A; IL-17A and IFN-γ/IL-6) in Ct-positive aborters. Our study clearly established the role of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion in Ct-infected subjects and found that Chlamydia-positive recurrent aborters had a predominant Th1/Th17 bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Induced Abortion (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  11. Ley de matrimonio igualitario y aborto en Argentina: notas sobre una revolución incompleta Egalitarian marriage law and abortion in Argentina: notes on an incomplete revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Belgrano Rawson


    context, in appearance so favourable to sexual equality, I believe this new law does not match the sexual order that today regulates the bodies of Argentine women. As from 1920 abortion is illegal in Argentina and it is reckoned as a crime against human life. Nevertheless, abortion is still the major cause of death among women in this country. Given this situation, in this article I will analyze the gap I find between homosexual and reproductive politics in the country. Unlike Europe, where reproductive rights preceded homosexual rights, in Argentina the opposite situation is observed. In this country, the legal recognition of same sex couples matches measures taken by other democracies and aimed at reaching what certain authors call sexual citizenship. Nevertheless, as long as Argentina does not recognize the right to free and safe abortion, this notion, which legitimates the universal applicability of sexual rights, will continue to be problematic. I believe that without the right of self-ownership, which comprehends sexual freedom and the right to decide to terminate a pregnancy, in the current Argentine context the gay marriage act represents an isolated event.

  12. Abortion - surgical (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  13. abortion at gondar college hospital, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2001 ... with the pregnancy. Previous history of abortion was obtained in 10.6% of the patients. The mean gestational ages for ..... education and communication on issues relevant to abortion. As in other studies(1 7-19), we have ... of incomplete abortion in Kenya and Mexico. Soc. Sci. Med. 1993;. 36:1443- 1453. 4.

  14. [Legal abortion]. (United States)

    Tarnesby, H P


    The English abortion law, passed in 1967, is the most liberal in Europe. Abortion can be had on request up to the 12th week of pregnancy if the pregnancy can be dangerous to the mental or physical health of the mother or of the newborn, and if there are risks of abnormalities. These conditions must be witnessed by 2 doctors, one of whom will have to report the abortion to the medical authorities. No parental consent is necessary for minors, and foreigners can be assisted in English hospitals. Other European countries with liberal abortion laws are Austria, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark. More conservative laws are to be found in Switzerland, Holland, and Norway. Abortion is absolutely forbidden in all catholic countries, except for strict medical reasons. Russia introduced abortion on request in 1955 not only for medical reasons, but for social and economic ones as well. Most other east European countries also have liberal abortion laws. Complications after abortion are about 2/20 abortions; the percentage increases considerably if abortion is performed after the first trimester. Procedures for 2nd trimester abortion include injection of saline solution, of urea, or of prostaglandins. Psychological consequences of abortion are even more important than medical or pathological ones. An even more serious problem is the emotional health of children from an unwanted pregnancy.

  15. [Induced abortion]. (United States)

    Sasaki, S


    It is recommended that adopt an Abortion Law in place of its Eugenic Protection Law. At present 560,000 cases of abortion are performed yearly in Japan in spite of the fact that 90% of married couples are practicing birth control. That means that each year 1 out of 50 women at childbearing age (between 15-44 years of age) has an abortion. Induced abortion is illegal in Japan in accordance with Article 29 of the Criminal Law which came into effect in 1881. However, based on the Eugenic Protection Law put into effect in 1948, induced abortions performed by Eugenic Protection Law designated doctors are legal. Since the 1975 Declaration of International Year of Women Projects in 38% of the countries around the world, legalized abortion is available during the 1st trimester. In such countries as England, Sweden, and East Germany a woman's right to abortion is protected by an Abortion Law. Japan should follow their steps. Abortion, however, does leave emotional as well as physical scars on women. More expanded sex education which deals with teenage pregnancy, male/female relationships leading to unwanted pregnancy, morality of sex, contraception, etc., is needed.

  16. Self-Reports of Induced Abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E


    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion......, and phase 2 included 823 such patients. RESULTS: In phase 1, in which cases were classified by clinical criteria and information from the patient, 3.9% to 16.1% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. In phase 2, in which the structured interview was changed to an empathetic dialogue...... and previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recurrent abortion and intrauterine foetal deaths are not uncommon due to paucity of information on LA and its obstetrics manifestations. Our aim therefore was to determine the prevalence of LA in women with recurrent abortions in our community, with view of proffering therapeutic interventions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS.

  18. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  19. Management of abortion complications at a rural hospital in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.


    BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...

  20. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth


    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  1. Factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol


    Jiang, Wen-Xiao; He, Fang-Fang; Shen, Qi; Tao, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Chu-Chu; Shen, Zhao-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Qiong


    Background: Medical abortion that occurs in early pregnancy is generally safe and successful, but incomplete medical abortion can result in complications. This study aimed to examine factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol, and then to provide a new direction for research into establishing complete abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Methods: Sixty-three patients with early pregnancy requesting medical abortion with mifepristone and mis...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Introduction. Septic sacroilitis is a rare complication of abortion. 1 . Pregnant women are often at risk of developing varying degree of sacroiliac joint dysfunction due to laxity of the ligaments; this laxity is hormonally induced. Pregnancy arthropathy, which is the commonest cause of hip and pelvic pain in pregnancy, must be ...

  3. Comparison of rates of adverse events in adolescent and adult women undergoing medical abortion: population register based study


    Niinimäki, Maarit; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Hemminki, Elina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gissler, Mika


    Objective To determine the risks of short term adverse events in adolescent and older women undergoing medical abortion. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish abortion register 2000-6. Participants All women (n=27 030) undergoing medical abortion during 2000-6, with only the first induced abortion analysed for each woman. Main outcome measures Incidence of adverse events (haemorrhage, infection, incomplete abortion, surgical evacuation, psychiatric morbidity, inj...

  4. Abortions at KCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    " prior to legalised abortion were actually the result of surreptitious attempts at induced abortion 1. Induced abortion has been used by women of all cultures and religions since time immemorial, to rid themselves of unwanted pregnancy.

  5. Is ward evacuation for uncomplicated incomplete abortion under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare evacuation under systemic analgesia (fentanyl and midazolam) in a treatment room (ward group) with evacuation under general anaesthesia in theatre. Design. A prospective randomised clinical trial. Setting. A tertiary medical centre serving a black urban population. Subjects. One hundred and ...

  6. Is ward evacuation for uncomplicated incomplete abortion under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed to clarify which are the best antibiotic regimens for secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. The findings of this study suggest that benzathine penicillin 1,8 MU. 4-weekly may protect against recurrences even though patients may not have therapeutic serum penicillin concentrations. Such studies should include ...

  7. Management of incomplete abortions at South African public hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . J Mclntyre, R K Jewkes, H Rees,. J M Katzenellenbogen, R Shabodien. C J Lombard,. H Truter and the ... Public sector hospitals in South Africa. Patients. Women with ..... and length of stay for low-risk patients tended to be longer. The aim of ...

  8. Introducing Misoprostol for the Treatment of Incomplete Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    contraception, among other topics. Adequacy of training was confirmed with pre- and post-testing of ... quantitative and open-ended questions, after which women were discharged. Participants received a .... participant required blood transfusion outside of the two-week follow-up period. After additional investigation by the ...

  9. Abortion rights down under. (United States)

    Kirkby, M


    State and federal governments in Australia fear actively trying to ensure access to abortion. No federal abortion law in Australia exists. Abortion is a state matter. The federal government's health care system does reimburse women for abortion services, however. State laws prohibit unlawful abortions but they do not define what they mean by unlawful abortion. Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland have had common law interpretations of their Crimes Acts, which allow greater access to abortion. Tasmania and Western Australia have not had common law interpretations. Thus, even though abortion is available, women and providers are not secure. Abortion reform in South Australia and the Northern Territory has made access to abortion more difficult. A woman must be a resident in South Australia for 2 months before she can obtain an abortion. Abortions are allowed only in a clinic or a hospital. Women in metropolitan Melbourne and Sydney have good access to abortion services, while those in the country or in an isolated part of NSW or Victoria may have an antiabortion physician serving their area. Women in Queensland, Tasmania, and Western Australia pay a lot for an abortion because they also have to pay for airfare to a large city. Only a gynecologist can perform abortions in the Northern Territory. Social workers often coerce Aboriginal women into an abortion. The few antiabortion physicians have a big impact on whether women receive abortion information or not. Research at Adelaide and Flinders Universities show that abortion-related trauma is linked to obtaining information and access to abortion services. Physicians are nervous about performing abortions because abortion is still in the Crimes Acts and Criminal Codes, making it difficult to recruit high quality and empathetic practitioners. Antiabortion groups are small and tend not to adopt extreme tactics. The Abortion Rights Network of Australia has recently been formed.

  10. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.


    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  11. Production in incomplete markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich


    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  12. Production in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  13. Approximate and Incomplete Factorizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, T.F.; Vorst, H.A. van der


    In this chapter, we give a brief overview of a particular class of preconditioners known as incomplete factorizations. They can be thought of as approximating the exact LU factorization of a given matrix A (e.g. computed via Gaussian elimination) by disallowing certain ll-ins. As opposed to other

  14. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts


    Jean Tirole


    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  15. Comparison of rates of adverse events in adolescent and adult women undergoing medical abortion: population register based study. (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Hemminki, Elina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gissler, Mika


    To determine the risks of short term adverse events in adolescent and older women undergoing medical abortion. Population based retrospective cohort study. Finnish abortion register 2000-6. All women (n = 27,030) undergoing medical abortion during 2000-6, with only the first induced abortion analysed for each woman. Incidence of adverse events (haemorrhage, infection, incomplete abortion, surgical evacuation, psychiatric morbidity, injury, thromboembolic disease, and death) among adolescent (abortion and linked with data from the abortion register for 2004-6. During 2000-6, 3024 adolescents and 24,006 adults underwent at least one medical abortion. The rate of chlamydia infections was higher in the adolescent cohort (5.7% v 3.7%, P abortion (0.69, 0.59 to 0.82), and surgical evacuation (0.78, 0.67 to 0.90) were lower in the adolescent cohort. In subgroup analysis of primigravid women, the risks of incomplete abortion (0.68, 0.56 to 0.81) and surgical evacuation (0.75, 0.64 to 0.88) were lower in the adolescent cohort. In logistic regression, duration of gestation was the most important risk factor for infection, incomplete abortion, and surgical evacuation. The incidence of adverse events after medical abortion was similar or lower among adolescents than among older women. Thus, medical abortion seems to be at least as safe in adolescents as it is in adults.

  16. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion]. (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E


    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  17. Reasoning in incomplete domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.


    Most real-world domains differ from the micro-worlds traditionally used in A.I. in that they have an incomplete factual data base which changes over time. Understanding in these domains can be thought of as the gneration of plausible infoerences which are able to use the facts available, and respond to changes in them. A traditional rule interpreter such as Planner can be extended to construct plausible inferences in these domains by allowing assumptions to be made in applying rules, resultsing in simplifications of rules which can be used in an incomplete data base; monitoring the antecedents and consequents of a rule so that inferences can be maintained over a changing data base.

  18. Abortion - surgical - aftercare (United States)

    ... this page: // Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  19. Post abortion contraception. (United States)

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner


    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  20. Contraception after medical abortion. (United States)

    Mittal, Suneeta


    This study's objectives were to examine current evidence on contraception after abortion and to formulate guidelines for the use of different contraceptives after medical abortion based on current evidence. This study was based on review of published literature and guidelines on postabortion use of contraception. Contraception needs to be initiated early following a first-trimester abortion. Postabortion family planning is an integral part of comprehensive abortion care. Concurrent contraception with surgical abortion has been found to be practical and effective, with high contraception usage following abortion. Most methods can be safely used following medical abortion and can be initiated either on the day of misoprostol administration (oral pills, condoms and injectable contraceptives) or after the next menstrual cycle (intrauterine device and sterilization). With proper precautions, almost all contraceptive methods can be effectively used following medical abortion.

  1. The post abortive syndrom


    Fojtíková, Kateřina


    The issue of the post abortive syndrome is new and inadequately discussed. The syndrome itself is a set of symptoms and troubles that a certain number of women develop after an abortion, be it a miscarriage or an induced termination of pregnancy. The syndrome is regarded as a special form of posttraumatic stress disorder. The term of post abortive syndrome is rather divisive, a fact attributable primarily to the important role that the term plays in the prolife and pro-abortion controversies....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 1, 2014 ... unwanted pregnancy, abortion and adoption of children, and the laws relating to them.. Results: Participants felt that there was high prevalence of unwanted pregnancy and abortion particularly among youths. ..... Some participants claimed that some adolescents and married women regard abortion as a ...

  3. Abortion - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... español) Expand Section Abortion: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Aborto: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's ...

  4. Abortion among Adolescents. (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne


    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  5. Global overview of abortion. (United States)

    Ketting, E


    At present, there are 50 countries where abortion is either prohibited or permitted only to save the mother's life, 44 countries with strictly defined justifications over and above a threat to the mother's life (e.g. rape or incest), 13 countries that permit abortion for social or sociomedical as well as medical reasons, and other 22 whether abortion is available on request. In Africa and Latin America, strict abortion laws remain the norm; however, several countries in Asia and Eastern Europe have demonstrated a trend toward liberalization of abortion laws. The annual number of abortions worldwide is estimated at 36-53 million; about 25% of all pregnancies are terminated. The abortion rate is actually higher in countries where abortion is illegal (30-60/1000 women in Latin America) than areas where it is available (14/1000 in Western Europe). The rate of abortion is primarily a reflection of the availability and quality of family planning services and sex education in a country. In countries where abortion is legal, the mortality rate is under 1/100,000 procedures. About a quarter to a third of maternal deaths are attributable to complications of illegal abortions. If abortion were legal on a global level, the current 150,000 abortion-related maternal deaths/year would drop to 250/year. Other consequences of illegal abortion include permanent infertility, the need for 50% of maternity hospital budgets to be allotted to treatment of complications of abortion, and a diversion of a large share of scarce blood supplies.

  6. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania ¿ the use of traditional medicine from a patient and a provider perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R


    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...... the traditional methods used to induce abortion, in-depths interviews and focus group discussions were performed among traditional providers and nurses. Finally, the plant specimen¿s effectiveness as abortion remedies was assessed through pharmacological analyses.ResultsAmong women admitted with incomplete...... abortions, 67% had had an unsafe abortion. Almost half of the women who had experienced an unsafe abortion had resorted to traditional providers and plant species were in these cases often used as abortion remedies. In all 21 plant species were identified as potential abortion remedies and analysed, 16...

  7. Abortion: a reader's guide. (United States)

    Hisel, L M


    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  8. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence]. (United States)

    Ortiz Ortega, A


    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  9. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.


    Murphy, T F


    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the ...

  10. Abortion in the media. (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Cahill, Erica


    To review updates in how abortion care is depicted and analysed though various media outlets: news, television, film, and social media. A surge in recent media-related abortion research has recognized several notable and emerging themes: abortion in the news media is often inappropriately sourced and politically motivated; abortion portrayal in US film and television is frequently misrepresented; and social media has a new and significant role in abortion advocacy. The portrayal of abortion onscreen, in the news, and online through social media has a significant impact on cultural, personal, and political beliefs in the United States. This is an emerging field of research with wide spread potential impact across several arenas: medicine, policy, public health.

  11. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania - the use of traditional medicine from a patient and a provider perspective. (United States)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R; Tibazarwa, Flora; Jäger, Anna K


    The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants are used and their potential effect. Data were obtained among women admitted with incomplete abortion at Kagera Regional Hospital during the period January - June, 2006. The women underwent an empathetic interview to determine if they had experienced an unsafe abortion prior to their admission. In all 125/187 women revealed having had an unsafe abortion. The women identified as having had an unsafe abortion underwent a questionnaire interview where information about abortion provider and abortion method used was obtained through open-ended questions. To get more detailed information about the traditional methods used to induce abortion, in-depths interviews and focus group discussions were performed among traditional providers and nurses. Finally, the plant specimen's effectiveness as abortion remedies was assessed through pharmacological analyses. Among women admitted with incomplete abortions, 67% had had an unsafe abortion. Almost half of the women who had experienced an unsafe abortion had resorted to traditional providers and plant species were in these cases often used as abortion remedies. In all 21 plant species were identified as potential abortion remedies and analysed, 16 of the species were found to have a uterine contractive effect; they significantly increased the force of contraction, increased the frequency of contractions or did both. Unsafe abortion is common in rural Tanzania where many women use plant species to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. The plants have a remarkable strong uterine contractive effect. To further understand the consequences of unsafe abortion there is a need for further analyses of the plants' potential toxicity and mutagenicity.

  12. Oral contraception following abortion (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan


    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  13. Misinformation on abortion. (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam


    To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.

  14. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate]. (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C


    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  15. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries. (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M


    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  16. [Clinical efficacy and safety of mifepristone in the treatment of abortive remnants of induced abortion]. (United States)

    Zhuge, Ting; Li, Bin; Huang, Zi-rong


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treating abortive remnants of induced abortion with different doses of mifepristone. A total of 101 women undergoing post-abortion treatment at our family planning clinic from October 2009 to February 2011 were recruited and divided randomly into 4 groups. They were diagnosed as abortive remnants by ultrasound and blood level of β-HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin). Three test groups received different doses of mifepristone and one group as control. The efficacy and safety of four groups were evaluated by clinical observations, ultrasonic examinations and blood level of β-HCG. The effective rates of mifepristone test and control groups were 61.60% and 21.40% respectively. And there were statistical significances between two groups (P 0.05). There was statistical significance in pairwise comparison on reduction of residual size tested by ultrasound among test groups (P 0.05). Mifepristone is effective in the treatment of induced incomplete abortion. And a short-term large dose offers a better efficacy.

  17. Abortion in Adolescence. (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others


    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  18. "Conservative" views of abortion. (United States)

    Devine, P E


    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position.

  19. Reducing late abortions. (United States)

    Diggory, P


    The report of a meeting organized by the Birth Control Trust and focusing on reducing late abortion indicates that referral and assessment for abortion takes longer within the National Health Services (NHS) than in the private and charitable sectors. The NHS performs only 21% of all its abortions prior to the 9th week in comparison with 44% in the private sector. The NHS emerges as reluctant to perform 2nd-trimester abortion when the indications are social factors threatening mental health. The report covers many specific issues including the need for better provision of early pregnancy testing in general practice and in community clinics, the early detection of fetal abnormality, and the great regional variations in the provision of abortion within the NHS. It describes how NHS can provide good abortion facilities and includes examples from several centers in England. There is considerable difference between abortion performed early in pregnancy and when a delay has occurred. The woman's feelings change. Initially, she knows only that her period is late, realizing subsequently she is pregnant and only later coming to feel that she is going to have a baby. This is why, until modern times, abortion was not viewed as a crime up until the time when the woman felt quickening. Regarding the actual procedures, abortion using suction is a simple and safe procedure best performed on an outpatient basis within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Early abortion uses fewer health resources, involves less time off work or away from the family, and is far more acceptable to the woman. When considering the basic causes of delay, the attitude and behavior of the woman herself is important, but much responsibility for delay lies with the medical profession. That the medical profession is failing to cope is shown by the fact that the NHS performs fewer than half of all those abortions performed in women who are UK residents. Politicians who genuinely want to minimize late abortion

  20. Abortion in proportion. (United States)

    Gregory, M G


    Patients who seek abortions, and especially those who seek them for medical reasons should be treated with compassion. Frequently these patients are not only denied compassion but are treated with disdain. Although pregnancy terminations are performed for a variety of reasons, including legitimate medical reasons, many individuals fail to discrimination between abortions sought for legitimate reasons and those sought for less legitimate reasons. These individuals view all abortions negatively and attribute immoral motives to all women who request abortions. In 1973 the Supreme Court upheld the right of women to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. Pregnancies with clearly acceptable indications for termination include those resulting from rape and incest and those in which there is an increased risk of giving birth to child with a congenital abnormality or an inherited disease. Physicians are urged to set aside their personnel prejudices in dealing with abortion patients.

  1. Abortion: a history. (United States)

    Hovey, G


    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  2. Factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Xiao; He, Fang-Fang; Shen, Qi; Tao, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Chu-Chu; Shen, Zhao-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Qiong


    Medical abortion that occurs in early pregnancy is generally safe and successful, but incomplete medical abortion can result in complications. This study aimed to examine factors related to completeness of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol, and then to provide a new direction for research into establishing complete abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Sixty-three patients with early pregnancy requesting medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol were selected. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression and location of progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor in chorionic villi among these women. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was then used to determine the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. According to the outcome of medical abortion, the women were divided into either the incomplete medical abortion group (n=34) or the complete medical abortion group (n=29). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor protein expression was not detected in chorionic villi in the two groups. However, compared with the complete abortion group, there was a marked decrease in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and a significant increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (pabortion group. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression between the incomplete and complete abortion groups. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 protein and vascular endothelial growth factor protein in chorionic villi may be related to the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  3. [Post-abortion contraception]. (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C


    To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Abort Flight Test Project Overview (United States)

    Sitz, Joel


    A general overview of the Orion abort flight test is presented. The contents include: 1) Abort Flight Test Project Overview; 2) DFRC Exploration Mission Directorate; 3) Abort Flight Test; 4) Flight Test Configurations; 5) Flight Test Vehicle Engineering Office; 6) DFRC FTA Scope; 7) Flight Test Operations; 8) DFRC Ops Support; 9) Launch Facilities; and 10) Scope of Launch Abort Flight Test

  5. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria (United States)


    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  6. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria. (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob


    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion

  7. Abortion Facility Closings and Abortion Rates in Texas. (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Gonzalez, Fidel; Ziemba, Robert


    From 2004 to 2014, the overall abortion rate in Texas fell by almost a third from 10.7 to 7.2 abortions per 1000 women aged 10 to 49 years. During this same period, the number of abortion clinics operating at least 6 months in the year fell from 40 to 27. We examined the relationship between the abortion rate and the proximity of abortion facilities. We matched annual, county-level data on abortion rates in Texas from 2004 through 2014 with the distance from the county centroids to the nearest abortion facility in operation. Linear regressions were used to estimate the association between abortion rates and proximity to abortion facilities. The regressions controlled for county-level and state-level characteristics as well as the availability of abortion services in neighboring US states and Mexico. We found that a 100-mile increase in distance to the nearest abortion facility was associated with a 10% decrease in the overall abortion rate. The relationship appeared to be driven largely by distances of 200 miles or more. The overall relationship was generally present for whites and blacks, whereas the pattern was less clear for Hispanics. The analysis indicated that the overall association was driven largely by women aged 20 to 34 years. Decreased access to abortion facilities was associated with decreases in the abortion rate, yet the relationship varied by race/ethnicity and age. As such, regulations that affect the operational status of abortion facilities likely have differential effects on women.

  8. [Abortion in Korea since 1945]. (United States)

    Jeon, Hyo Suk; Seo, Hong Gwan


    Since prehistorical era, the human has desired to control reproduction artificially. However, abortion, one of the productive methods has been prohibited to a certain degree by law in some countries, but the operation of abortion has been done in practice. Also, controversial arguments on legitimacy of abortion have been raised. In Korea, physicians operates abortions more than 2 million times each year. In spite of serious social problems, arguments on abortion have not been common yet. The efforts to find a good solution for abortion have not been very sufficient. Therefore, this study is to investigate the concerns for the conditions of abortion since 1945 (this year is the independent one from Japan's government) through a historical perspective and to suggest the efficient direction in policy. Since 1945, many women have had no choice but abortion for their basic life. The Korean government of legislated the Crimes of Abortion in Criminal Law in 1953. However, the number of women who underwent abortion increased since 1962 due to the governmental Family Planning Policy. In addition, the Mother and Fatherless Child Health Act was enacted in 1973 that tolerated abortion to some extent. The disparate treatment of abortion between Criminal Lam and the governmental policy fueled the confusion to potentially pregnant women. The first reason why Korean women choose abortion is wrongful pregnancy. Compared to other counties, in Korea, abortion were operated for sex selection. To conclude, it is important to be implement positive sex education, proper contraception education by government and social publicization of arguments on abortion.

  9. Abortion: pro and contra. (United States)

    Jebereanu, Laura; Jebereanu, Diana; Alaman, Roxana; Tofan, Andra; Jebereanu, Sorin; Pauncu, Sebastian


    To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for 400 people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. The group is composed of 320 (80%) women and 80 (20%) men. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects.

  10. [Toxoplasmosis and threatened abortion]. (United States)

    Romero Cabello, R; Buitrón García, R; Amancio Chasin, O; Tay Zavala, J; Sánchez Vega, J T


    To know the situation of the toxoplasmosis in Comitán Chiapas, we made a serological indirect inmunofluorecent antibody test (IFA) to the population of this city and to fifty women with abortion in evolution. The results show us that around five percent of the population in general have positive title of antitoxoplasma gondii antibiodies, and 18% in the women with abortion evolution case. The statistics concluded that seropositive for this parasitic disease is real higher between cases of abortion than population in general (P < 0.006), as well as it is significantly higher in abortion cases than women of the general population of Comitán Chiapas (P < 0.01).

  11. Complete Tubal Abortion: A Rare Form of Ectopic Pregnancy. (United States)

    Chirculescu, Bogdan; Chirculescu, Raluca; Ionescu, Mioara; Peltecu, Gheorghe; Panaitescu, Anca


    Tubal abortion is characterized by the extrusion of an ectopic product of conception implanted in the fallopian tube through the abdominal ostium into the peritoneal cavity. It can be either complete or incomplete and may lead to severe bleeding. Recognition of a complete tubal abortion may be challenging but is essential because it allows conservative management which make possible preservation of tubal function and fertility without the need for further cytostatic therapy. A case of a 30 years-old woman admitted for lower abdominal pain is reported.The level of hCG was 659.2 mU/mL and transvaginal ultrasound reveled a fluid collection in the pouch of Douglas. Laparoscopy was subsequently performed for the suspicion of ectopic pregnancy with hemoperitoneum. Corroborating the hCG dynamics with the laparoscopic findings, the diagnosis of complete tubal abortion was established. The histopathological examination confirmed the presence of intermediate trophoblastic cells in the tissue collected during laparoscopy. Ultrasound examination helps recognition of hemoperitoneum but adds little value to the diagnosis of tubal abortion. Laparoscopic findings alone are only suggestive for complete tubal abortion but in combination with hCG dynamics, the diagnosis can be established. Conservative management might be sufficient in complete tubal abortion and ensures preservation of tubal function and fertility. Celsius.

  12. Contraceptive practice, unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion in Southwest Nigeria. (United States)

    Omideyi, Adekunbi Kehinde; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun; Aina, Olabisi Idowu; Adeyemi, Adebanjo Babalola; Fadeyibi, Opeyemi Abiola; Bamiwuye, Samson Olusina; Akinbami, Catherine Abiola; Anazodo, Amechi


    Despite widespread awareness of and access to modern contraception, high rates of unwanted pregnancies and abortions still persist in many parts of the world, even where abortion is legally restricted. This article explores perspectives on contraception and abortion, contraceptive decision-making within relationships, and the management of unplanned pregnancies. It presents findings from an exploratory qualitative study based on 17 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions conducted in 2 locations in Nigeria in 2006. The results suggest that couples do not practice contraception consistently because of perceived side effects and partner objections. Abortion is usually resorted to because pregnancy was unwanted due to incomplete educational attainment, economic hardship, immaturity, close pregnancy interval, and social stigma. Males usually have greater influence in contraceptive-decision making than females. Though induced abortion is negatively viewed in the community, it is still common, and women usually patronise quacks to obtain such services. An abortion experience can change future views and decisions towards contraception. Family planning interventions should include access to and availability of adequate family planning information. Educational campaigns should target males since they play an important role in contraceptive decision-making.

  13. The problem of illegally induced abortion: results from a hospital-based study conducted at district level in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E


    Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly...... to describe the circumstances which characterized the abortion. The population of this cross-sectional questionnaire study comprised patients from Temeke District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. After an in-depth confidential interview, 603 women with incomplete abortion were divided into two groups: 362...

  14. Jewish views on abortion. (United States)

    Jakobovits, I


    In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense.

  15. [Psychological aspects of abortion]. (United States)

    Attali, L


    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  17. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.


    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  18. Abortion and human rights. (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy


    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incomplete Bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Tasci


    Full Text Available We define the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials. In the case =1, =1, we obtain the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas -numbers. If =2, =1, we have the incomplete Pell and Pell-Lucas -numbers. On choosing =1, =2, we get the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal number and besides for =1 the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. In the case =1, =1, =1, we have the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. If =1, =1, =1, =⌊(−1/(+1⌋, we obtain the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Also generating function and properties of the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials are given.

  20. [Psychiatric complications of abortion]. (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores


    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  1. Abortion — facts and consequences


    Perinčić, Robert


    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  2. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.


    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  3. Orion Abort Flight Test (United States)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue


    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  4. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph W.


    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  5. An Incomplete Definition of Reality


    Boris DeWiel


    A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive subst...

  6. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 1, 2014 ... Objective: To obtain information on societal attitude to the issues of family planning, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, adoption of children and laws relating to them. Design: Focused group discussions. Setting: Twelve subgroups in the urban and rural areas of Ogun State, Nigeria were identified, and focus ...

  8. [Abortion and conscientious objection]. (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek


    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  9. [Complications of induced abortions]. (United States)

    Duprez, D; Fortuna, P


    All physicians should be aware of the possible complications of induced abortions if only because the procedure is so commonplace. Some 250,000 induced abortions occur annually in France, amounting to 24.4 abortions per 100 live births. The rates of different complications of induced abortions before 12 weeks are .5-5/1000 for uterine perforation, .5-3.4% for hemorrhage with or without placental retention, 1% for endometritis, .3% for salpingitis .5% for continuing pregnancy, and .006 to .3/10,000 for death. A well done curettage is preferable to a poorly performed aspiration procedure. If an aspiration is done, the practitioner should bear in mind that retention of 50-200 cc of blood clots may occur if dilatation is insufficient. Symptoms appear 1-5 days after the abortion and end with expulsion of the clots or aspiration. Curettage is useless, as the clots do not represent a true retention. Uterine contractions during the aspiration can occasionally prompt a premature decision that evacuation is complete. Retention is difficult to diagnose immediately after aspiration but can be sonographically confirmed after the 8th day. Aspiration should be done after the 6th week and before the 12th week. Aspiration before the 6th week is often painful and is associated with higher rates of partial retention and of complete failure. Endouterine aspiration, regardless of technical proficiency, establishes a pathway between the vagina and the uterine cavity, which exposes the latter to the risk of trauma, endometrial lesions, and perforation. Induced abortion promotes infection by 2 mechanisms. Latent infections that were not detected in the medical history or physical examination can emerge and cause endometritis, which should be treated by ice, rest, and antibiotics. Or contamination of the passage by an infected cervical mucus can lead to salpingitis, abscess, and pelviperitonitis, or even general peritonitis. More often, these conditions develop from inadequately treated

  10. Abortion and pregnant adolescents. (United States)

    Trad, P V


    More than one million teenage girls become pregnant annually and 31,000 are younger than 15 years old. 400,000 of these annual pregnancies in the US are aborted. These high rates of adolescent pregnancy and abortion have failed to significantly decline despite school curricula which instruct students in sex education and birth control. Adolescents often need counseling to evaluate the possible outcomes which may be associated with their behaviors. Abortion, in particular, can awaken strong emotions in those who undergo the procedure. Previewing, an interpersonal technique derived from caregiver-infant interactions, is a strategy which may be effective in counseling adolescents who are undergoing abortions. The process involves a caregiver representing through imagery a developmental skill the prospective infant is likely to achieve in the near future such as crawling. An enactment exercise is then devised during which the new skill may be practiced with the potential infant. The sequelae of previewing include an enhanced ability to predict and respond to upcoming developmental changes as well as changes in the interpersonal relationship between mother and infant. Previewing techniques may be used analogously with adolescents confronting abortion to help them represent alternatives for handling the pregnancy, predict the most beneficial alternatives, envision and work through negative emotions, and devise more adaptive behaviors to be enacted in the future so that pregnancy becomes a planned event rather than an accident. Three case studies, each focusing upon a different phase of the teenager's cognitive and emotional development, are presented in addition to the general discussion of the previewing approach.

  11. Exploring the determinants of unsafe abortion: improving the evidence base in Mexico. (United States)

    Sousa, Angelica; Lozano, Rafael; Gakidou, Emmanuela


    Despite the realized importance of unsafe abortion as a global health problem, reliable data are difficult to obtain, especially in countries where abortion is illegal. Estimates for most developing countries are based on limited and incomplete sources of data. In Mexico, studies have been undertaken to improve estimates of induced abortion but the determinants of unsafe abortion have not been explored. We analysed data from the 2006 Mexican National Demographic Survey. The sample comprises 14 859 reported pregnancies in women between 15 and 55 years old, of which 966 report having had an abortion in the 5 years preceding the survey. We use logistic regression to explore the relationship between unsafe abortion and various socio-economic and demographic characteristics. We estimate that 44% of abortions have been induced and 16.5% of those were unsafe. We find three variables to be positively and significantly associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: (1) whether the woman reported that the pregnancy was mistimed (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.95-10.95); (2) whether the woman reported that the pregnancy was unwanted (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = -1.40-5.88); and (3) if the woman had three or more children at the time of the abortion (OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.20-11.65). There is a steep socio-economic gradient in the probability of having an unsafe abortion: poorer women are more likely to have an unsafe abortion than richer women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.09-5.63); women with 6-9 years of education (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11-0.81) and with more than 13 years of education are less likely to have an unsafe abortion (OR = 0.065, 95% CI = 0.01-0.43), and women with indigenous origin are more likely to have an unsafe abortion (OR = 5.44, 95% CI = 1.91-15.51). Thus, the probability for poor women with less than 5 years of education and indigenous origin is nine times higher compared with rich, educated and not indigenous women. We also find marked geographical inequities as

  12. Demystifying incomplete neutralisation during final devoicing | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , particularly as far as the reliability of the data and the proper explanation of incompleteness are concerned. This paper approaches final devoicing and incompleteness from the perspective of the functions they perform in the phonological ...

  13. Abortion: taking the debate seriously. (United States)

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo


    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula


    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  15. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases]. (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua


    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P abortion stays high.

  16. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France. (United States)

    Spinelli, A


    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  17. Prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion by Yaoliuan capsule and its effects on menses recovery. (United States)

    Jin, Zhichun; Huang, Guangying


    In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period abortion, 7 cases (4.2%) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2%) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9%) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9%) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5+/-5. 2 days and 33.8 d+/-8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1+/-3. 5 days and 9.9+/-5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  18. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Escobar García


    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  19. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical ...

  20. The Evolution of Conventions under Incomplete Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Mogens; Sloth, Birgitte

    to incomplete information of the prototype strategic conflict known as Chicken. The second is an incomplete information bilateral monopoly, which is also an extension to incomplete information of Nash's demand game, or a simple version of the so-called sealed bid double auction. For both games selection...

  1. Toxoplasmosis and habitual abortion. (United States)

    Qublan, H S; Jumaian, N; Abu-Salem, A; Hamadelil, F Y; Mashagbeh, M; Abdel-Ghani, F


    We set out to determine the role of toxoplasmosis, detected by serological tests, in habitual abortion. A total of 280 pregnant women aged 15-46 years with parity ranged from 0-9 were studied prospectively between January 2000 and May 2001 at King Hussein Medical Center. Analyses for IgG and IgM anti-toxoplasma were carried out using indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Titres of the order of 1:16-1:2048 were considered positive. According to the results, women were divided into two groups; seropositive (n=132) and seronegative (n=148). One hundred and thirty-two (47.1%) pregnant women showed seropositivity to IgG anti-toxoplasma; of them, two (1.5%) developed IgM anti-toxoplasma during the second trimester. A statistically significant increase in the rate of seropositivity to toxoplasma with increasing age and parity was found (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of habitual abortion between seropositive and seronegative women. The seropositivity was higher among women living in rural areas (P<0.02), who are using rainwater to drink (P<0.02), ingesting undercooked meat (P<0.001) and who have contact with soil (P<0.02). Toxoplasma antibodies detected by positive serological tests tend to be higher with increased age and parity. It seems that they have no role in habitual abortion.

  2. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women. (United States)

    Edwards, R B


    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  3. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.


    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  4. Abortion and compelled physician speech. (United States)

    Orentlicher, David


    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion. (United States)

    Stotland, N L


    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  6. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  7. [Medical induced abortion]. (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D


    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  8. Abortion-related stigma and unsafe abortions: perspectives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, women who could not afford private facilities chose to self-induce and present in a health facility to seek post abortion (PAC) care as the only way to access services, regardless of the dangers. Young single women seeking abortion services reported higher levels of stigma from health providers compared to ...

  9. [Surgical methods of abortion]. (United States)

    Linet, T


    A state of the art of surgical method of abortion focusing on safety and practical aspects. A systematic review of French-speaking or English-speaking evidence-based literature about surgical methods of abortion was performed using Pubmed, Cochrane and international recommendations. Surgical abortion is efficient and safe regardless of gestational age, even before 7 weeks gestation (EL2). A systematic prophylactic antibiotics should be preferred to a targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (grade A). In women under 25 years, doxycycline is preferred (grade C) due to the high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Systematic cervical preparation is recommended for reducing the incidence of complications from vacuum aspiration (grade A). Misoprostol is a first-line agent (grade A). When misoprostol is used before a vacuum aspiration, a dose of 400 mcg is recommended. The choice of vaginal route or sublingual administration should be left to the woman: (i) the vaginal route 3 hours before the procedure has a good efficiency/safety ratio (grade A); (ii) the sublingual administration 1 to 3 hours before the procedure has a higher efficiency (EL1). The patient should be warned of more common gastrointestinal side effects. The addition of mifepristone 200mg 24 to 48hours before the procedure is interesting for pregnancies between 12 and 14 weeks gestations (EL2). The systematic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended for limiting the operative and postoperative pain (grade B). Routine vaginal application of an antiseptic prior to the procedure cannot be recommended (grade B). The type of anesthesia (general or local) should be left up to the woman after explanation of the benefit-risk ratio (grade B). Paracervical local anesthesia (PLA) is recommended before performing a vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia (grade A). The electric or manual vacuum methods are very effective, safe and acceptable to women (grade A). Before 9 weeks gestation

  10. [Abortion explained by a nurse]. (United States)

    Bastit i Costa, M A


    Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of

  11. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor. (United States)

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  12. Partner violence and abortion characteristics. (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian


    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning.

  13. Th·erapeutic Abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 14, 1971 ... aspects. In Sweden, the medical indication for operation was extended in the 1938 Act to include ... from Sweden initially indicated Ihat the number of abortions were not significantly reduced. It has only .... gists found reluctance in nursing staff for the performance of therapeutic abortion; not only was lack of ...

  14. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion]. (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie


    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Advice in the Abortion Decision (United States)

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.


    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  16. How do women seeking abortion choose between surgical and medical abortion? Perspectives from abortion service providers. (United States)

    Newton, Danielle; Bayly, Chris; McNamee, Kathleen; Hardiman, Annarella; Bismark, Marie; Webster, Amy; Keogh, Louise


    Depending on availability, many Australian women seeking an abortion will be faced with the choice between surgical or medical abortion. Little is known about the factors that influence Australian women's choice of method. Through the perspectives of abortion service providers, this study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to Australian women's decision to have a surgical or medical abortion. In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen Victorian-based key informants (KIs) directly providing or working within a service offering medical abortion. Ten KIs were working at a service that also provided surgical abortion. Interviews were semi-structured, conducted face-to-face or over the telephone, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. KIs described varying levels of awareness of medical abortion, with poorer awareness in regional areas. When it comes to accessing information, women were informed by: their own research (often online); their own experiences and the experiences of others; and advice from health professionals. Women's reasons for choosing surgical or medical abortion range from the pragmatic (timing and location of the method, support at home) to the subjective (perceived risk, emotional impact, privacy, control, and physical ability). Women benefit from an alternative to surgical abortion and are well-placed to choose between the two methods, however, challenges remain to ensure that all women are enabled to make an informed choice. KIs identify the need to: promote the availability of medical abortion; address misconceptions about this method; and increase general practitioner involvement in the provision of medical abortion. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Compensatory mechanisms of incomplete adaptation. (United States)

    Krivoschekov, S G


    "Incomplete adaptation" (IA), as a phenomenon, is characterised by the replacement of adaptive state for compensatory physiological reactions and by the production of a suboptimal strategy of adaptation. Some laboratory investigations modulating the effect of extreme environmental factors (cold, hypoxia, shift of biological rhythms) on healthy persons as well as psychophysiological investigations of transit workers at northern plants were performed. IA is maintaining due to high plasticity of neurophysiological mechanisms of regulation, connection of central mechanisms of compensation and use of functional reserves of main homeostatic systems (cardiovascular, respiratory, oxygen-saturating, thermoregulating). The condition of IA is characterised by reactive anxiety, inversion of inter-hemisphere domination, features of psycho-somatic tiredness, increased reactivity of breathing and cordial functioning, occurrences of hvpermetabolism and unstable breathing background. New correlational interactions develop between patterns of EEG-activity and indexes of breathing and cardiovascular system. Most often IA occurs when a persons activity occurs under extreme conditions, in particular, when there is a transit organization of work in the North (oil and gas complex), increasing the risk of morbidity.

  18. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia. (United States)

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin


    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abortion and the pregnant teenager (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.


    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  20. Situation analysis of patients attending TU Teaching Hospital after medical abortion with problems and complications. (United States)

    Ojha, Neebha; Bista, Kesang D B


    In Nepal medical abortion has been approved for use since 2009. There were many cases coming to Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital coming with problems and complications following medical abortion. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the cases that came to TUTH following medical abortion with problems and complications. This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Study was carried from 1st August 2011 to 30th November 2012. Women who came to TUTH with any complaints following medical abortion were interviewed, examined and treatment provided. Relevant clinical finding were noted. There were a total of 57 cases during the study. Most (66.6%) of the women were in age group 20-29 years age. There were 45 (79%) women who had abortion up to 9 weeks. Medical shop was the main place where most of the women (45.6%) directly come to know about medical abortion. More than 34 (77.2%) received the service from medical shops without any supervision. Most 31 (54.4%) presented with incomplete abortion. There were three cases of continuing pregnancy and four presented with ectopic pregnancy. Eighteen (31.6%) cases needed admission. Fifty six percent of the cases were treated with manual vacuum aspiration, six cases underwent laparotomy and there was one maternal mortality. There is a need for proper dissemination and implementation of guideline for management of these women and adequate supervision to reduce the problems and complications.

  1. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette


    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma(*) ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia. (United States)


    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.

  3. [Searching of truth on abortion]. (United States)

    Hervet, E


    This is a personal opinion of the status of contraception and abortion in France, an attempt to find a middle ground between the situation as seen by proponents of abortion or contraception and by those opposed to one or both. The French have resorted to clandestine abortion and traditional methods of contraception such as withdrawal, having stabilized their family size to 2.4 since about 1900. The advent of the pill and the legalization of contraception have had little effect on these practices. Phyicians and women alike fear the side effects of the pill and reject the idea of artificially blocking ovulation. In a 1969 survey, 6% of French women used pills, 50% withdrawal and 20% condoms, compared to 26% using pills in U.S. The author concluded that repealing an ineffective anticontraception law will have no effect on contraceptive practice. He then summarized the myths about abortion. I n his view, estimates of up to 20,000-35,000 deaths per year from illegal abortion are unrealistic, since total female mortality from 17-42 years in 1967 was 9005. He believes that most gynecologists overestimate the pathology resulting from illegal abortion; for example sterility, which is common in multiparas, yet only 1 in 4 consult for sterility. Psychological trauma from illegal abortion is minimal because the church has confession, the law seldom prosecutes, and physicians are reforming their hostile, hypocritical attitudes in the face of new safe techniques like vacuum aspiration. Estimates of monetary losses from illegal abortion are exaggerated, since most patients do not require hospitalization at public expense, and the wealthy pay for private care. Repealing the 1920 abortion law, therefore, would probably have no effect on illegal abortion in France, just as liberalizing contraception had no effect on contraceptive practice.

  4. The advent of legal abortion and surgical abortion techniques. (United States)

    Wilson, P T


    The 4 principle abortion techniques are 1) dilation and curettage (D and C), 2) vacuum aspiration, 3) amniocentesis (saline injection), and 4) hysterotomy. The curettage and vacuum methods are used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Both require dilation of the cervix. The fetal material is removed with a curette or suction applied to the uterine wall. First trimester abortions usually do not require hospitalization. No abortion should be performed between 12-14 weeks. After 14 weeks, ideally 20 weeks, amniocentesis is the preferred method. It is a more complicated procedure involving removal of amniotic fluid and replacement with hypertonic saline solution, resulting in fetal death and expulsion. Oxytocin may also be used to induce labor. Reported complications run from 5-15% Hospitalization is up to 48 hours. A hysterotomy requires exposure of the uterus by a surgical opening in the abdomen. The uterus is opened and fetal material delivered. Once a hysterotomy is performed, all other pregnancies must be delivered by caesarean section. The psychological considerations of abortion have not been carefully studied under the new laws. No clear consensus exists as to the psychological aftereffect of abortion. If a woman desires an abortion and does not receive one, there is a likelihood of psychological effects, as for a woman who does not desire an abortion and receives one. Conflict occurs only when a woman is not sure of her own decision. Moral considerations imposed by abortion service personnel will also set up a conflict for the patient. The abortion seeker must know her own attitudes regarding the sanctity of life and her social role as a woman and be psychologically prepared to actually arrange for the operation.

  5. Czechoslovakia 1991: abortion and contraception. (United States)

    Buresova, A


    In January 1958 the 1st abortion law was passed in Czechoslovakia. At that time it was a progressive law. However, as time went on and other European countries developed their own abortion policies, the law become more outdated. The main failing was that women were not in charge of the final abortion decision, it had to be made by a commission. As a result, a new law went into effect in January 1987 that was more liberal. This new law allowed abortion twice a year for free unless the woman was more than 8 weeks pregnant. Between 8 and 12 weeks there was a fee of 500 crowns. For women under 16 parental permission is required and for women 16-18 parents are notified after the procedure. After the law was passed there was an increase in reported numbers of abortions, but the figures are not very accurate because of unusual recording methods. Abortion (42-55 days) is contrasted with menstrual regulation (42 days) and the figure of 157,912 also includes extrauterine pregnancies. After the democratic reforms of November 1989, strong anti-choice groups began a campaign to end abortion. To date this has resulted in a Advisory Commission that is charged with the responsibility of looking at the abortion issue with the Federal Deputy Prime minister. The commission's recommendations were: 1) the situation is considered critical (that abortion is still allowed and government funded), 2) absolute prohibition of abortion is not recommended, 3) the majority of citizens should be able to adopt any legal measures, 4) abortion should not be government supported except to save the woman's life or in cases of sexual crimes, 5) the law should also serve an educational function, 6) artificial interruption of pregnancy should be renamed to artificial termination of pregnancy. Finally the commission recommended that longterm preventive measures should focus on education. Public opinion indicates that 61% of citizens recognize a woman's right to abortion, while only 4% favor absolute

  6. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...

  7. Contraceptive Use, Unwanted Pregnancies and Abortions among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... induced abortion; 21.5.0 % of singles, 26% of married. Being married; OR=5.2, 95% CI (2.2-11.9) was the only predictor of induced abortion. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and abortions were high especially among married hairdressers. Keywords: contraception, female hairdressers, apprentices, induced abortion ...

  8. Provision of medical abortion by midlevel healthcare providers in Kyrgyzstan: testing an intervention to expand safe abortion services to underserved rural and periurban areas. (United States)

    Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Maksutova, Elmira; Boobekova, Aigul; Davletova, Ainura; Kazakbaeva, Chinara; Kondrateva, Yelena; Landoulsi, Sihem; Lazdane, Gunta; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Seuc Jo, Armando H


    To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of training midlevel healthcare providers (midwives and family nurses) to provide medical abortion and postabortion contraception in underserved areas in Kyrgyzstan. This was an implementation study at four referral facilities and 28 Felsher Obstetric Points in two districts to train their midwives and family nurses to deliver safe and effective abortion care with co-packaged mifepristone-misoprostol and provide contraceptives postabortion. The outcome of abortion - complete abortion, incomplete abortion or o-going pregnancy - was the primary end point measured. An international consultant trained 18 midwives and 14 family nurses (with midwifery diplomas) to provide medical abortion care. Supervising gynecologists based in the referral centers and study investigators based in Bishkek provided monthly monitoring of services and collection of patient management forms. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire at the follow-up visit documented women's acceptability of medical abortion services. All study data were cross-checked and entered into an online data management system for descriptive analysis. Between August 2014 and September 2015, midwives provided medical abortion to 554 women with a complete abortion rate of 97.8%, of whom 62% chose to use misoprostol at home. No women were lost to follow-up. Nearly all women (99.5%) chose a contraceptive method postabortion; 61% of women receiving services completed the acceptability form, of whom more than 99% indicated a high level of satisfaction with the service and would recommend it to a friend. This study demonstrates that trained Kyrgyz midwives and nurses can provide medical abortion safely and effectively. This locally generated evidence can be used by the Kyrgyz Ministry of Health to reduce unintended pregnancy and expand safe abortion care to women in underserved periurban and rural settings. Success in scaling up midwife/nurse provision of medical abortion in

  9. Abortion: Defending Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana


    Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  10. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...... wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept...... of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong...

  11. [Medical abortion provided by telemedicine to women in Latin America: complications and their treatment]. (United States)

    Larrea, Sara; Palència, Laia; Perez, Glòria


    To analyze reported complications and their treatment after a medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol provided by a telemedicine service to women living in Latin America. Observational study based on the registry of consultations in a telemedicine service. A total of 872 women who used the service in 2010 and 2011 participated in the study. The dependent variables were overall complications, hemorrhage, incomplete abortion, overall treatments, surgical evacuation, and antibiotics. Independent variables were age, area of residence, socioeconomic deprivation, previous children, pregnancies and abortions, and week of pregnancy. We fitted Poisson regression models with robust variance to estimate incidence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Complications were reported by 14.6% of the participants: 6.2% reported hemorrhage and 6.8% incomplete abortion. Nearly one-fifth (19.0%) received postabortion treatment: 10.9% had a surgical evacuation and 9.3% took antibiotics. Socioeconomic deprivation increased the risk of complications by 64% (95%CI: 15%-132%), and, among these, the risk of incomplete abortion by 82% (95%CI: 8%-206%) and the risk of surgical intervention by 62% (95%CI: 7%-144%). Previous pregnancies increased the risk of complications and, specifically, the risk of hemorrhage by 2.29 times (95%CI: 1.33-3.95%). Women with a pregnancy of 12 or more weeks had a 2.45 times higher risk of receiving medical treatment and a 2.94 times higher risk of taking antibiotics compared with women with pregnancies of 7 or less weeks. Medical abortion provided by telemedicine seems to be a safe and effective alternative in contexts where it is legally restricted. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eleven-year-old stallion was referred for adjuvant treatment of an incompletely excised, recurring penile fibrosarcoma. The horse was bright, alert and responsive with a 15 x 12 cm ulcerated lesion on the ventral side of the penis. The lesion was the tumor bed of an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma. After complete ...

  13. [Umberto Eco and abortion]. (United States)


    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  14. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto


    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  15. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010. (United States)

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh


    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  16. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria


    Awoyemi, Bosede O.; Novignon, Jacob


    Background: While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major ...

  17. Denial of abortion in legal settings


    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene


    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  18. An analysis of the cost of incomplete abortion to the public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment settings. Setting. Public hospitals in South Africa. Participants. A panel of 15 senior level obstetricianJ gynaecologists and a second panel of 11 patient care managers representing district, regional and tertiary level ..... colpopuncture, hysterectomy. Postoperative care could take place ;n the ICU if one is available.

  19. Personal morals and abortion legislation. (United States)

    Konig, G


    Among the many vexing issues raised by the abortion debate is the argument of whether or not it is possible to support the legality of abortion while believing that it is immoral. By relating this issue to the broader goals of legislation, it is pointed out that this is indeed possible because there are distinct differences between what grounds logical justification of public policy and what grounds personal morality.

  20. Abortion law reform in Nepal. (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa


    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paris court attacks abortion law. (United States)

    Dorozynski, A


    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines.

  2. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion. (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L


    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  3. Misperceptions about the risks of abortion in women presenting for abortion. (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L


    Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.

  4. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview (United States)

    Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike


    One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

  5. On abortion philosophy. (United States)

    Crum, G


    The journal's reply to Mr. Fischer accurately pointed out that the journal had been misquoted but the addition of the word "human" to the journal's statement fails to alter the comments unless it is incorrectly maintained that the unborn child is not a biologically distinct entity or he or she is a member of another species. Consequently, Fischer's conclusions remain valid and unaddressed by the journal's response. The only exception that this writer would take to Fischer is his assertion that the pro-abortion-on-demand movement claims to have an internally consistent philosophy. In the final analysis, the crux of the matter is neither biological accuracy nor internal consistency. The basic question is whether 1 human being ever has the right to define and the inherent ability to discern the personhood of another human being. If the response is affirmative, then everyone, rather than the pregnant female only, should be permitted the right to determine whether another live human being is a "subperson" eligible for euthanasia. All individual human beings have an unalienable right to life and must be granted personhood until a scientific technique which can measure the abstract qualities of humanity is developed.

  6. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Jali


    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  7. Denial of abortion in legal settings. (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene


    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  8. Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola


    Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

  9. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang


    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  10. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions]. (United States)

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan


    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  11. Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourali L


    Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit -hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

  12. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015. (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert


    In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our

  13. Induced abortion and psychological sequelae. (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon


    The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aborto e democracia Abortion and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Miguel


    Full Text Available A luta pela legalização do aborto pouco tem avançado no Brasil. O artigo observa a importância política da questão. Por um lado, é um índice da laicidade do Estado, que, por sua vez, é condição necessária para a vigência da democracia. Por outro, na ausência desse direito a cidadania das mulheres é incompleta. O forte peso da Igreja Católica na vida política brasileira não é suficiente para explicar a paralisia no que se refere à questão.The struggle to legalize abortion in Brazil has advanced very little. The article focuses on the political importance of the issue. On the one hand, it is an index of the laicism of the State, which in turn is a necessary condition for the exercise of democracy. On the other hand, in the absence of this right, the citizenship of women is incomplete. The weight of the Catholic Church in Brazilian political life is not enough to explain the paralysis with regard to the question.

  15. To abort or not to abort: that is the question. (United States)

    Thomison, J B


    Abortion is not a medical issue, as the law would like to make it when requesting definitions of when life begins. To medicine, life begins at conception. conception is the 1st step in the miracle of life. It is up to the law and society to determine when life begins legally. Doctors have responsibilities as citizens to do what they can to support laws they believe in. The American Medical Association has remained neutral on the issue. Abortion can be ethical if the mother's life is threatened. But it is unethical and unconstitutional when it is done out of convenience to correct indiscretions.

  16. Locus of control and decision to abort. (United States)

    Dixon, P N; Strano, D A; Willingham, W


    The relationship of locus of control to deciding on an abortion was investigated by administering Rotter's Locus of Control Scale to 118 women immediately prior to abortion and 2 weeks and 3 months following abortion. Subjects' scores were compared across the 3 time periods, and the abortion group's pretest scores were compared with those of a nonpregnant control, group. As hypothesized, the aborting group scored significantly more internal than the general population but no differences in locus of control were found across the 3 time period. The length of delay in deciding to abort an unwanted pregnancy following confirmation was also assessed. Women seeking 1st trimester abortions were divided into internal and external groups on the Rotter Scale and the lengths of delay were compared. The hypothesis that external scores would delay the decision longer than internal ones was confirmed. The results confirm characteristics of the locus of control construct and add information about personality characteristics of women undergoing abortion.

  17. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. Generally, elective abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  18. Marquis: a defense of abortion? (United States)

    Gelfand, S D


    This is a reply to Don Marquis' "Why Abortion is Immoral." Marquis, who asserts that abortion is morally wrong, bases his argument on the following premise: Killing a being is morally wrong if that being is the sort of being who has a valuable future. I argue that this premise is false. I then assert that if I am correct about this premise being false, Marquis is faced with a dilemma. If he does not alter the premise in a way that makes it true, his argument is unsound. However, if he does make such an alteration, he must also alter a second premise in his argument, and this second change opens him to the charge of question begging. In addition, I conclude that such an alteration requires Marquis to adopt a position much like that taken by Judith J. Thompson in "A Defense of Abortion," a position he initially states is indefensible.

  19. Abortion and the church's ministry. (United States)

    Mays, L H


    There is a difference between ethics and morals. Morality represents an absolute, whereas ethics and ethical behavior are decided by a cultural consensus. Legality equates with ethical but not necessarily moral behavior. Even 1, such as a clergyman, who believes that killing is wrong morally can and should participate in counseling women regarding abortion. For 1 reason, it is a decision to be made by the woman involved not by the clergyman who has never stood in her position. Secondly, humans live in this world and are sinful. They can strive for perfection without achieving it. The church can state that abortion is immoral, even when it is the only or the best solution in certain circumstances. The church must also offer forgiveness if an individual chooses abortion.

  20. A third alternative : to make abortion rare



    M.A. This dissertation evaluates the concept of a third alternative surrounding abortion which focuses on making abortion rare by addressing contemporary arguments. This third alternative recognises abortion as morally problematic but contends that it should be both legal and rare. Its aim is to address the overly narrow focus of the usual debate on either just the foetus or just the maternal body. In doing this it evaluates some of the current contemporary arguments surrounding abortion t...

  1. [Philosophical perspectives of iatrogenic abortion]. (United States)

    de Muelenaere, C W


    The doctor's task is to heal where possible, to relieve suffering and always to comfort. He attempts to prevent illness and to promote health, within the framework of primum non nocere ('do no harm'). Therapeutic abortion for fetal indications cannot be considered therapeutic, and should therefore be called iatrogenic abortion. The doctor has sufficient responsibilities of his own, and should not take over the responsibilities of other people or help them shirk their own. The philosophies of materialism, totalitarianism and hedonism are evil, and very dangerous for society.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributed to the knowledge of physiological aspects of abortion, the origin and the genetic basis ... Reproduction dota of normally reproducing and aborting Angora goat does and their progeny ... Reproduction data of an Angora goat stud from 1961 to 1969 where aborters were called. 1969. 1967. 1966. 1967. 1965. 1964.

  3. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn


    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  4. Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dominandy pertains to young and childless urban women, because "it is die fact of bearing children which may change life courses by forcing marriage or cessation of ..... Abortion in Ле Nòrie of Burkina Fase 47. Observation of an induced Abortion. The Gurmance interviewer observed an attempted abortion in a 17-year-old ...

  5. Abortion as Fatherhood Lost: Problems and Reforms. (United States)

    Shostak, Arthur B.


    Reports on emotions of males when a near-fatherhood experience ends in a legal abortion. A sizeable minority of males find their abortion experience more frustrating, trying, and emotionally costly than public and academic neglect of this subject would suggest. Options are suggested to help males deal with abortion's aspects. (Author)

  6. Is Abortion Incidence Rising In Nigeria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Unsafe abortion remains a major public health problem in Nigeria. Although the national law is largely restrictive of abortion, the practice continues with dire consequences for women's reproductive health. Abortion is probably the fourth leading cause of maternal mortality in Nigeria and accounts for significant proportions of ...

  7. [Epidemiology of induced abortion and contraception]. (United States)

    Manuilova, I A; Sotnikova, E I; Troitskaia, I A; Krut'kovskaia, N P


    This article describes prevalence and distribution patterns of induced abortion and contraception in various regions of the USSR. Selective studies have elucidated a spectrum of factors of abortion and contraception prevalence, their roles in birth control and priorities in implementation of updated methods of induced abortion prevention.

  8. Disparities in Abortion Experience and Access to Safe Abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    seeking experience, equity of access, and barriers to accessibility and utilisation of reproductive, maternal and newborn healthcare services. A number of ..... linked to a number of supply-side and demand-side factors, whereby there is urban-bias in the availability of, quality of, and ease of access to, abortion services.

  9. Latin American women?s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted


    Zamberlin Nina; Romero Mariana; Ramos Silvina


    Abstract Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restri...

  10. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria


    Mustafa Adelaja Lamina


    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/cli...

  11. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  12. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)


    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  13. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I. (United States)

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N


    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  14. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas


    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  15. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete manifest; incomplete export...'s itinerary, the master, or the vessel's agent on behalf of the master, shall deliver to the... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's...

  16. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania. (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola


    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  17. Young Mexicans' hopes and fears about abortion and abortion law: a qualitative study in two cities. (United States)

    Tatum, Carrie E; Garcia, Sandra G; Yam, Eileen A; Becker, Davida


    In Mexico, abortion is legal only in limited, specific circumstances and unsafe abortion complications are estimated to be the fourth leading cause of maternal mortality. Our study sought to understand the opinions Mexicans hold about abortion and sexuality and to learn about their fears and hopes about more liberalized abortion laws in Mexico. We carried out 12 focus groups with a total of 87 women and men, aged 18-24. Six focus groups took place in Mexico City and six in Merida, Yucatan. One reader thematically analyzed and coded discussion transcripts. Participants favoring highly restrictive abortion laws generally felt that pregnant women should "face the consequences" of having a baby, whereas those who favored less restrictive laws focused less on culpability and more on the woman's right to control her future. Mexico City participants generally had more liberal abortion opinions. Most Merida participants thought abortion was never legal, despite the fact that their state has the country's most liberal abortion laws. Many felt that, if abortion were legal, there would be more abortions but that it would likely be a safer procedure. Merida participants' more conservative attitudes may be a reflection of their lower educational levels and largerproportion of Catholic participants compared to the Mexico City groups. It is critical to introduce more balanced information that emphasizes the safety of abortions performed under legal conditions and address fears of greatly elevated abortion rates if abortion laws were liberalized. Mexican young adults need more scientific, balanced sources of information on abortion and abortion law.

  18. [Is a sociology of abortion possible?]. (United States)

    Isambert, F A


    Abortion is a thorny problem whose study is problematic because it is a source of social and juridical discord, of moral incertitude, of medical and psychiatric confusion, and of personal anguish. The question arises of whether a single perspective can be found which allows comprehension of the entire phenomenon. This work uses published sources to examine the abortion debate, beginning with the varying views of abortion expressed in the struggles to liberalize abortion legislation in France, Europe, and the US. 4 particular views of abortion were identified in the Paris press; the traditional religious view, which condemns abortion because the fetus is regarded as fully human from conception; the view of abortion as a means of fertility regulation; the view of abortion as a cause of public health problems that could be alleviated through legalization and medical control; and the view that abortion allows women to control their own bodies. The law is obliged to reconcile these diverse positions. Abortion legislation in different countries ranges along a continuum from severe to lenient, but regional variations are also evident. Abortion trials in the US and France shortly before liberalization of the laws of either country showed striking similarities but also notable differences due largely to dissimilarities in the social structures of the 2 countries. The relations between the individual and the state, morality, and the law, as reflected in the abortion debate, rested on inverse bases in the 2 countries. The typically American doctrine of privacy occupied a prominent place in the American legislation, while the French was more concerned with the humanitarian goal of reducing health damage from illegal abortions. Tension and ambiguity nevertheless unavoidably characterize the abortion regulations in the 2 countries. Abortion as an institution is a controlled and practical compromise between 2 poles, those giving primacy to individual interests, as in the US, and

  19. Abortion, infanticide and moral context. (United States)

    Porter, Lindsey


    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  20. Contraception for adolescents after abortion. (United States)

    Sedlecky, Katarina; Stanković, Zoran


    Preventing repeated unplanned pregnancy among adolescents is still a challenge because many of them fail to use effective contraception after abortion. To review currently recommended options of methods and counselling for effective prevention of repeat pregnancies in adolescents. Review of the literature that was identified through the Medline, ScienceDirect, Google and Popline databases and relevant expert opinions. Counselling needs to be adapted to the needs, values and lifestyle of adolescents. The best results are achieved with nondirective or active contraceptive counselling, followed by regular check-ups and cautious and attentive approach in the management of doubts, prejudices and side effects related to the contraceptive chosen. Adolescents should initiate contraception immediately after abortion: the motivation for choosing an efficacious method is highest at that time; resumption of ovulation following induced abortion occurs on average after three weeks; more than half of these girls will resume sexual activity within two weeks after pregnancy termination. Long-acting reversible contraception use during adolescence is safe and most effective. However, achieving a high long-term continuation rate is especially challenging in adolescents; this is due to developmental and environmental characteristics that influence their contraceptive behaviour. Adolescents should immediately after abortion initiate a reliable contraceptive method, preferably one whose efficacy is not user-dependent. Providing an appropriate health care would contribute to achieving continuity in the prevention of repeat pregnancy.

  1. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Michigan, Department of Women's Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 7University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, Ann Arbor, MI USA ..... personal spending habits of physicians who were known to provide abortion – a new ..... characterized by safe space for speaking can improve physician's resilience to ...

  2. Legal Regulation of Adolescent Abortion. (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.


    Legislators often have established special procedures for judicial or parental involvement in adolescent abortion decisions. While ostensibly protecting pregnant minors' psychological health, and increasing the competency of decision making, judicial bypass and parental notification promote neither goal. At best, they are benign but costly and…

  3. [Update in current care guidelines: induced abortion]. (United States)


    The rate of induced abortions (9/1000 women aged 15-49 y in 2011) is low in Finland. Ninety-two per cent of them are performed on grounds of social reasons. Use of medical abortion (combination of mifepristone and misoprostol) has increased to nearly 90 % of abortions, also in abortions of 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Intrauterine contraception started at the time of abortion lowers the risk of future unplanned pregnancies. Prophylactic antibiotics are recommended in cases of surgical evacuation of the uterus. Written instructions for patients and professionals are introduced in the guideline.

  4. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion. (United States)

    Laanpere, Made; Ringmets, Inge; Part, Kai; Allvee, Kärt; Veerus, Piret; Karro, Helle


    The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996-2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996-2003 and 2004-2011. Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996-2003 to 58.0% during 2004-2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups--non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children--vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion.

  5. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion (United States)


    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  6. Contraceptive Provision after Medication and Surgical Abortion. (United States)

    Laursen, Laura; Stumbras, Katrina; Lewnard, Irene; Haider, Sadia

    This study sought to compare contraception provided to patients after medication and surgical abortion. Women who underwent first trimester induced abortion at a university-based urban clinic between May 2009 and May 2014 were identified. Medical records were reviewed to determine the method of contraception provided by the clinic to patients after medication and surgical abortion. Postabortal contraception was defined as any contraception administered or prescribed from our health system within 4 weeks of surgical abortion or mifepristone administration. We reviewed 824 women who were 9 weeks gestational age or less and able to choose between medication and surgical termination of pregnancy. Overall, 587 (71.1%) had a surgical abortion and 237 (28.9%) had a medication abortion. Women who had surgical abortions were more likely to initiate long-acting reversible contraception (41.9% vs. 23.2%; p abortion was 71.7%. Women who had surgical abortions had a greater odds of receiving long-acting reversible contraception than those who had medication abortions. Surgical abortion patients were also more likely to be provided contraception overall. Further prospective research is needed to determine the reasons for this difference and to ensure that all patients obtain the contraception that they desire. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.


    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti –free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  8. Demystifying incomplete neutralisation during final devoicing | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data indicate that under more natural speaking conditions, final devoicing is complete, but various reflexes of incomplete neutralisation are observed under different types of experimental conditions. When they are present, some of these reflexes do play a role in the perception of the difference between word pairs ...

  9. Another look at the second incompleteness theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert


    In this paper we study proofs of some general forms of the Second Incompleteness Theorem. These forms conform to the Feferman format, where the proof predicate is fixed and the representation of the axiom set varies. We extend the Feferman framework in one important point: we allow the

  10. Revising incompletely specified convex probabilistic belief bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G


    Full Text Available We propose a method for an agent to revise its incomplete probabilistic beliefs when a new piece of propositional information is observed. In this work, an agent’s beliefs are represented by a set of probabilistic formulae – a belief base...

  11. Full and Incomplete Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The clinical features and hospitalization rates of children with full or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS were compared in retrospective case-controlled studies of affected Northern Plains American Indian children attending Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service hospitals, South Dakota.

  12. [Extend the indications of medical abortion]. (United States)

    Zaidman, H


    This is a personal viewpoint resulting in part from the author's doctoral thesis on widening the indications for therapeutic abortion France. After praising the stand for medical abortion taken by Prof. Fruhinsholz, his advisor, and giving a brief history of the concept of therapeutic abortion, the authro concludes that most writers agree on the principle of such abortion, but disagree on indications. The French law of 1939 permits abortion only to save the mother's life if it is ser iously and immediately endangered. No mention is made of necessary functions such as sight, of disorders that can only be treated by procedures injurious to fetal development, of health endangered by pregnancy, or of subsequent social or economic impairment. The author believes that abortion is a social, not moral problem, but concluded by saying that to abandon a child to public assistance is more immoral than abortion.

  13. Medication abortion knowledge among adolescent medicine providers (United States)

    Coles, Mandy S; Makino, Kevin K; Phelps, Rachael


    Purpose Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy and abortion. The purpose of this study is to understand if providers caring for adolescents have the knowledge to counsel accurately on medication abortion, a suitable option for many teens seeking to terminate a pregnancy. Methods Using an online questionnaire, we surveyed US providers in the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine on medication abortion. We conducted chi-squared analyses to evaluate medication abortion knowledge by adolescent medicine fellowship training, and to compare responses to specific knowledge questions by medication abortion counseling. Further, we examined the relationship between providers’ self-assessed and actual knowledge using ANOVA. Results We surveyed 797 providers, with a 54% response rate. Almost a quarter of respondents incorrectly believed medication abortion was not very safe, 40% misidentified that it was pregnant teens receive accurate counseling on all options, adolescent medicine providers need better education on medication abortion. PMID:22443843

  14. [Repeat induced abortion: A multicenter study on medical abortions in France in 2014]. (United States)

    Opatowski, M; Bardy, F; David, P; Dunbavand, A; Saurel-Cubizolles, M-J


    To describe the social characteristics of women seeking a medical abortion, and the conditions of that abortion, according to whether they had one or more previous induced abortions. An observational study was carried out in 11 French units in 2013-2014, among women 18 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire on the abortion context and social situation was given to them, as well as a diary to record the pain level for each of five days following the mifepristone intake. The sample included 453 women. Among the respondents, 22% had had one previous abortion and 8% had had two or more. Women having had a previous voluntary abortion were more often isolated and in a poorer social situation than women having their first abortion. Better support for contraception after abortion could reduce the number of repeated abortions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting protein functions using incomplete hierarchical labels. (United States)

    Yu, Guoxian; Zhu, Hailong; Domeniconi, Carlotta


    Protein function prediction is to assign biological or biochemical functions to proteins, and it is a challenging computational problem characterized by several factors: (1) the number of function labels (annotations) is large; (2) a protein may be associated with multiple labels; (3) the function labels are structured in a hierarchy; and (4) the labels are incomplete. Current predictive models often assume that the labels of the labeled proteins are complete, i.e. no label is missing. But in real scenarios, we may be aware of only some hierarchical labels of a protein, and we may not know whether additional ones are actually present. The scenario of incomplete hierarchical labels, a challenging and practical problem, is seldom studied in protein function prediction. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to Predict protein functions using Incomplete hierarchical LabeLs (PILL in short). PILL takes into account the hierarchical and the flat taxonomy similarity between function labels, and defines a Combined Similarity (ComSim) to measure the correlation between labels. PILL estimates the missing labels for a protein based on ComSim and the known labels of the protein, and uses a regularization to exploit the interactions between proteins for function prediction. PILL is shown to outperform other related techniques in replenishing the missing labels and in predicting the functions of completely unlabeled proteins on publicly available PPI datasets annotated with MIPS Functional Catalogue and Gene Ontology labels. The empirical study shows that it is important to consider the incomplete annotation for protein function prediction. The proposed method (PILL) can serve as a valuable tool for protein function prediction using incomplete labels. The Matlab code of PILL is available upon request.

  16. Telling stories about abortion: abortion-related plots in American film and television, 1916-2013. (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina


    Popular discourse on abortion in film and television assumes that abortions are under- and misrepresented. Research indicates that such representations influence public perception of abortion care and may play a role in the production of social myths around abortion, with consequences for women's experience of abortion. To date, abortion plotlines in American film and television have not been systematically tracked and analyzed. A comprehensive online search was conducted to identify all representations of pregnancy decision making and abortion in American film and television through January 2013. Search results were coded for year, pregnancy decision and mortality outcome. A total of 310 plotlines were identified, with an overall upward trend over time in the number of representations of abortion decision making. Of these plotlines, 173 (55.8%) resulted in abortion, 80 (25.8%) in parenting, 13 (4.2%) in adoption and 21 (6.7%) in pregnancy loss, and 16 (5.1%) were unresolved. A total of 13.5% (n=42) of stories ended with the death of the woman who considered an abortion, whether or not she obtained one. Abortion-related plotlines occur more frequently than popular discourse assumes. Year-to-year variation in frequency suggests an interactive relationship between media representations, cultural attitudes and policies around abortion regulation, consistent with cultural theory of the relationship between media products and social beliefs. Patterns of outcomes and rates of mortality are not representative of real experience and may contribute to social myths around abortion. The narrative linking of pregnancy termination with mortality is of particular note, supporting the social myth associating abortion with death. This analysis empirically describes the number of abortion-related plotlines in American film and television. It contributes to the systematic evaluation of the portrayal of abortion in popular culture and provides abortion care professionals and

  17. Anti-abortion policy leads to more abortions. (United States)

    Jacobson, J L


    In 1984, the Reagan administration announced in Mexico City a reversal in the US international family planning policy. The new policy strictly forbids any international family planning group that receives US funds from providing abortion services or counseling. An immediate impact on family planning programs in developing countries was that it prevented the opening of much needed clinics in the poorest, most rapidly growing countries in the world, such as Bangladesh. The University of Michigan School of Public Health estimates an additional 380,000 unwanted pregnancies, resulting in 311,000 births, 69,000 abortions, and 1200 maternal deaths in the next 3 years. Not only did the US change its policy, but congress decreased funding for international family planning programs 20% between 1985 and 1987. The majority of the funding goes to the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and in 1988 the Reagan administration allowed USAID to funnel about $75 million of this money to other projects, e.g. general African development fund. Fewer contraceptives are available due to the reduced funding, and therefore more women seek an abortion as a last resort against unwanted pregnancy. An additional effect of this 1984 policy reversal is that fewer nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are eligible for grants, so USAID gives its family planning funds to government agencies who are not the most effective users of funds and are not always trusted by the people served.

  18. Departure phase aborts for manned Mars missions (United States)

    Dissel, Adam F.

    NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction

  19. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia? (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor


    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  20. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014. (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna


    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  1. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal. (United States)

    Suh, Siri


    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  2. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor


    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis with Incomplete Double Ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Hayashi


    Full Text Available Introduction. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP is a type of chronic renal inflammation that usually occurs in immunocompromised middle-aged women with chronic urinary tract infection or ureteral obstruction induced by the formation of ureteral stones. XGP with an incomplete double ureter is extremely rare. Case Presentation. A 76-year-old woman was referred to our department to undergo further examination for a left renal tumor that was detected by ultrasonography. Dynamic contrast computed tomography (CT revealed an enhanced tumor in the upper renal parenchyma. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed based on a preoperative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Histological sections showed the aggregation of foam cells; thus, XGP was diagnosed. Conclusion. We herein report a rare case of XGP in the upper pole of the kidney, which might have been associated with an incomplete double ureter.

  4. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  5. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos. (United States)

    Purvis, Dara E


    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  6. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block


    Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  7. Incomplete information, idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns


    Berrada, Tony Nicolas; Hugonnier, Julien


    We develop a q-theoretic model of investment under incomplete information that explains the link between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. When calibrated to match properties of the US business cycles as well as various firms and industry characteristics, the model generates a negative relation between idiosyncratic volatility and stock returns. We show that conditional on earning surprises, the link is positive after good news and negative after bad news. This result provides new i...

  8. Abortion and the Nigerian woman: a select bibliography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is a common and widespread form of fertility regulation the world over. Legal and illegal abortion is very common throughout the developing countries. Since abortions are often not legal in the developing countries, unsafe abortions are an important cause of female mortality. The widespread incidence of abortions ...

  9. Therapy for Severe Gestoses in Incomplete Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Pavlova


    Full Text Available Objective: to improve pregnancy outcomes in severe gestosis. Subjects and methods: Sixty-five women with incomplete pregnancy in presence of severe gestosis were examined and the status of 65 neonatal babies was evaluated in the early neonatal period. The women were allocated into 3 groups: 1 19 pregnant women were urgently operated on for severe admission condition (preeclampsia; 2 22 pregnant women received standard therapy for gestosis; 3 24 had standard therapy for gestosis in combination with 6% solution of the hydroxyethyl starch Stabisol®. Results. During gestosis therapy, pregnancy prolongation was 4.5±1.2 bed/days in Group 2 and averaged 7.6±1.6 bed/days in Group 3. The rate of neonatal referral to an intensive care unit was 63.1, 50.0, and 37.5% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Referral to a neonatal pathology unit at the second stage of nursing was required in 100, 77.2, and 62.5% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Conclusion. The use of 6% solution of the hydroxyethyl starch Stabisol® in complex therapy for gestosis in incomplete pregnancy prolongs pregnancy, accelerates rehabilitation in puerperas, prevents respiratory distress syndrome in full measure, and improves the neonatal adaptation period and perinatal outcomes as a whole. Key words: severe gestosis, incomplete pregnancy, 6% solution of Stabisol®.

  10. Fostering Informed Choice: Alleviating the Trauma of Genetic Abortions. (United States)

    Asbury, Bret D


    Each year, thousands of pregnant women learn of fetal abnormalities through prenatal genetic analysis. This discovery--made after a woman has initially declined to exercise her right to abort an unwanted pregnancy—raises the difficult and heart-wrenching question of whether to terminate on genetic grounds. Women considering a genetic abortion rely on information and support from health care providers to assist them in making their choice. Though intended to be objective and nondirective, the support women receive frequently provides them within complete and incomprehensible information having the effect of encouraging them to abort genetically anomalous fetuses. As a result, genetic terminations--which cause severe and long-standing psychological impacts such as pathological grief, depression and post-traumatic stress—are often the result of something other than a fully informed choice.Congress and eleven states have recognized the importance of better informing choice by passing legislation aimed at providing clearer and more balanced information to expectant mothers learning of fetal genetic abnormalities. But existing legislative remedies do not adequately address this problem, and this inadequacy will become more pronounced in future years as increases in access to prenatal genetic analysis further stretch the capabilities of the available support services.This Article describes the unique characteristics of terminations for a fetal abnormality, their troubling and persistent psychological impacts,and the reasons why they will become more common in future years. It then offers proposals for how to reconfigure the prenatal genetic counseling landscape in order to reduce the incidence of genetic terminations based on incomplete or misleading information, thereby alleviating their distinct psychological costs. Its overall objective is to ensure that women learning of prenatal genetic abnormalities have access to complete and comprehensible information prior to

  11. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard


    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  12. An unusual complication of unsafe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gupta


    Full Text Available Unsafe abortion is a significant medical and social problem worldwide. In developing countries, most of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained personnel leading to high mortality and morbidity. Case Report: A 30 year-old female, gravida 7, para 6 underwent uterine evacuation for heavy bleeding per vaginum following intake of abortifacient to abort a 14 weeks gestation. The procedure was performed at a rural setup and her bowel was pulled out of the introitus through the perforated wound, an unusual complication of unsafe abortion. Illiteracy, unawareness about health services, and easy accessibility to untrained abortion providers lead to very high mortality and morbidity in India. There is unmet need to bring awareness among the people about the safe and effective methods of contraception and abortion services to avoid such complications.

  13. Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data (United States)

    Williams, David P.

    In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the

  14. Standardizing the classification of abortion incidents: the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting and Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework. (United States)

    Taylor, Diana; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Fjerstad, Mary; Battistelli, Molly F; Weitz, Tracy A; Paul, Maureen E


    To develop and validate standardized criteria for assessing abortion-related incidents (adverse events, morbidities, near misses) for first-trimester aspiration abortion procedures and to demonstrate the utility of a standardized framework [the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting & Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework] for estimating serious abortion-related adverse events. As part of a California-based study of early aspiration abortion provision conducted between 2007 and 2013, we developed and validated a standardized framework for defining and monitoring first-trimester (≤14weeks) aspiration abortion morbidity and adverse events using multiple methods: a literature review, framework criteria testing with empirical data, repeated expert reviews and data-based revisions to the framework. The final framework distinguishes incidents resulting from procedural abortion care (adverse events) from morbidity related to pregnancy, the abortion process and other nonabortion related conditions. It further classifies incidents by diagnosis (confirmatory data, etiology, risk factors), management (treatment type and location), timing (immediate or delayed), seriousness (minor or major) and outcome. Empirical validation of the framework using data from 19,673 women receiving aspiration abortions revealed almost an equal proportion of total adverse events (n=205, 1.04%) and total abortion- or pregnancy-related morbidity (n=194, 0.99%). The majority of adverse events were due to retained products of conception (0.37%), failed attempted abortion (0.15%) and postabortion infection (0.17%). Serious or major adverse events were rare (n=11, 0.06%). Distinguishing morbidity diagnoses from adverse events using a standardized, empirically tested framework confirms the very low frequency of serious adverse events related to clinic-based abortion care. The PAIRS Framework provides a useful set of tools to systematically classify and monitor abortion-related incidents for first

  15. Doubts about a classic defence of abortion. (United States)

    Difford, Jo


    Professor Judith Jarvis Thomson's seminal paper "A defence of abortion" published in 1971 has formed part of higher education syllabi for decades. In the paper Thomson criticizes one of the fundamental arguments against abortion, that is, the right of the foetus to life by denying that the foetus is a person. This article argues that her thought experiments do not compare to the reality of abortion and focuses on the influence of the paper on arguments concerning personhood.

  16. Sex-selective abortion: a relational approach. (United States)

    Weiss, G


    A critical application of Ruddick's model of maternal thinking is the best way to grapple with the ethical dilemmas posed by sex-selective abortion which I view as a "moral mistake." Chief among these is the need to be sensitive to local cultural practices in countries where sex-selective abortion is prevalent, while simultaneously developing consistent international standards to deal with the dangers posed by the use of sex-selective abortion to eliminate female fetuses.

  17. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes


    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy. (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R


    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  19. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam. (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K


    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  20. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history. (United States)

    Baird, Barbara


    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health. (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M


    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  2. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review. (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda


    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  3. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.


    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  4. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.


    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  5. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  6. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (United States)

    Allanson, Susie


    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  7. Medical Students Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective: e52116

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nai-peng Tey; Siew-yong Yew; Wah-yun Low; Lela Su'ut; Prachi Renjhen; M S L Huang; Wen-ting Tong; Siow-li Lai


    .... Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools...

  8. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su'ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M S L; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li


    .... Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools...

  9. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of ... of abortion in urban Botswana in order to understand the social and cultural obstacles ... This article constitutes a review of the abortion issue in Botswana based on my.

  10. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities (United States)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  11. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar


    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  12. Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants.


    Suzuki, T; Komeda, Y


    Escherichia coli mutants with defects in 29 flagellar genes identified so far were examined by electron microscopy for possession of incomplete flagellar structures in membrane-associated fractions. The results are discussed in consideration of the known transcriptional interaction of flagellar genes. Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure. An intact basal body appeared in flaK mutants. Putative ...

  13. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.


    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  14. J-2X Abort System Development (United States)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.


    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  15. [Induced abortion in Cartagena, Colombia: estimation using Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology]. (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel J; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel


    Estimating induced abortion incidence in a reference hospital and the city of Cartagena, Colombia. This was an ecological study that used Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM). Data from the Rafael Calvo Maternity Clinic (CMRC) was used for estimating post-abortion attention in Cartagena, Colombia. Induced abortion rates and ratios were estimated in the CMRC and the city of Cartagena from CMRC data using the AICM model. The estimated induced abortion ratio in Cartagena was 261/1,000 births in 2005, 244 in 2006 and 259 in 2007. The estimated rate per 1,000 females aged 15-44 for induced abortion was 22 in 2005, 22 in 2006 and 21 in 2007. The estimated rate was similar to the rate found in previous research using Colombian data from 1989. Public health measures should be focused on reducing unwanted pregnancies and thereby reduce induced abortion rates.

  16. Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan. (United States)

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan


    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.

  17. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?]. (United States)

    Divay, Sophie


    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring South African adolescents' knowledge of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the Eastern Cape Province,[5] research studies aimed at gauging knowledge of abortion legislation among the youth in this country appear to be rather limited. The aim of the present study was to explore gender differences in knowledge of CTOP legislation and attitudes to abortion in a small sample of adolescents from a ...

  19. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors. (United States)

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.


    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    lowest physical risks for women of any significant medical intervention(8). However, for most women in the developing world, abortions are often conducted in unsanitary conditions by untrained personnel. It is estimated that between 10 and 50% of women who undergo unsafe abortions need medical care for complications.

  1. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion. (United States)

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen


    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.


    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  3. [Illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe]. (United States)

    Manouana, M; Kadhel, P; Koffi, A; Janky, E


    The aim of this study was to describe the typical profile, and to assess the motivations of women who underwent illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a 1-year prospective study on women who consulted after failure or complication of an illegal abortion with misoprostol. Fifty-two cases of illegal abortion with misoprostol were recorded. The most common profile was an unemployed woman, who was unmarried, foreign-born, had no medical insurance, and a low level of education; the median age was 28 (range 17 to 40). The justifications given were that the legal procedure was considered to be too slow, the young age of the woman, the ease of the self-medication procedure, a history of illegal abortion by misoprostol in the woman's country of origin, ignorance of the legal process, and financial and/or administrative problems. The problem of illegal abortion is probably underestimated in Guadeloupe and possibly France. This description of the profile of the population concerned and the justifications for choosing illegal abortion by misoprostol provides elements allowing better focus of education concerning abortion, contraception and family planning. Access to legal abortion centers should also be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion. (United States)

    Furedi, A


    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  5. How women anticipate coping after an abortion. (United States)

    Foster, Diana Greene; Gould, Heather; Kimport, Katrina


    There has been some study of women's emotional and psychological well-being after an abortion but no research into women's expectations, at the time of seeking an abortion, of how they will cope after the abortion. We abstracted counseling needs assessment forms of 5109 women who sought an abortion at a clinic in 2008. The most common emotions that women anticipate feeling after their abortion are relieved (63%) and confident (52%). A significant minority anticipate feeling a little sad (24%) and a little guilty (21%); 3.4% anticipate poor coping. Women with fetal abnormalities, women who do not have high confidence in their decision, women who have spiritual concerns about abortion, women with a history of depression, women who feel that they were pushed into having an abortion and teenagers are more likely to anticipate poor coping postabortion. The vast majority of women expect to cope well after their abortion. A small number make the decision to terminate their pregnancies even though they anticipate difficulty coping after the procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Abortion Incidence Rising In Nigeria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    N, Cuca YP. The incidence of induced abortion in. Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1998; 24: 4, 156-164. 2. Okonofua FE, Odimegwu C, Ajabor H, Daru H and Johnson. A: Assessing the prevalence and determinants of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in South West. Nigeria. Studies in Family ...

  7. Lupus Anticoagulatiuon African Women With Recurrent Abortions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The presence of the lupus anticoagulant (LA) an auto antibody has been implicated as a marker for first trimester spontaneous abortions as well as second and third trimester foetal death in the Caucasians. There is paucity of information on LA in African women where recurrent abortion and obstetrics ...

  8. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmaer, J.


    Thomason [5] showed that a certain modal logic L⊂ S4 is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson [3] showed that L is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that L is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras

  9. Muslim women having abortions in Canada (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya


    Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of

  10. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A


    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  11. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal. (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif


    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  12. [Conditions of induced abortion in France]. (United States)

    Hassoun, D


    In France, each woman will have an average of one unintended pregnancy in her life and she'll decide to abort once out of two. 21 years after the vote of the law which authorized the abortion, according to certains conditions, the abortion rate decreases slightly. The socioeconomics characteristics of women requesting an abortion are very similar to those found in 1976. The medical and psychological complications are very low. The law is applied except that some difficulties persist: to recruit professionals becomes more difficult, inadequate solutions of public hospitals, inappropriate and not always comprehensive towards the clients, no possibility to choose the methods. The law is limited for the minors, the foreigners and the pregnancies up to 10 weeks which increases the social inegalities. It is a major public health concern to make abortion as safe as possible because it gives accessibility to choose freely motherhood which is the best way for safe pregnancy, birth and parent and child relationship.

  13. [Counter-acception or abort and lie]. (United States)

    Maruani, G


    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct.

  14. "Ethics surrounding the provision of abortion care". (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Miranda, Laura


    The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion. Both unethical behaviors may be associated with severe consequences for the health of women whose care was refused or delayed. Less attention is given to the ethical obligation to prevent induced abortion from recurring by offering postabortion contraception to comply with the ethical obligation of preventing harm to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Legalization of abortion in India. (United States)

    Pande, N L; Gupta, O P


    The 1972 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in India legalized abortion in order to reduce the incidence of illegal abortions. A survey of attitudes toward the legislation was conducted in Moradabad District. Generally urban attitudes were more favorable. 64.4% rural and 57.6% urban had unfavorable attitudes. The younger age groups were more favorable than the older. Indifference registered higher among older rural people (30.4%) and younger urban people (26.4%). In the rural area favorable attitudes increased with amount of education: 3.3% among illiterates, 32.1% among higher educated. Income size also contributed to attitude: favorable attitudes increased from 12.5% to 33.3% as income increased. Rural respondents having 2-3 children were more favorable (20.7%); urban respondents of low parity were more favorable (26.5%). 161 rural and l44 urban respondents were against the legislation, believing it wrong and immoral, harmful to mother's health, or against God's will.

  16. If war is "just," so is abortion. (United States)

    Kissling, F


    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  17. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion. (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G


    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  18. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija


    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  19. Incomplete muscle activation after training with electromyostimulation. (United States)

    Hortobágyi, T; Lambert, J; Scott, K


    Training with voluntary or electromyostimulation (EMS)-evoked eccentric contractions should produce complete muscle activation, since EMS and eccentric contractions preferentially recruit large motor units. Subjects (22 women ages 18-40) were randomly assigned to a voluntary (VOL; n = 8), EMS (n = 8), or control group. VOL and EMS groups trained the quadriceps at the same, increasing force levels 4 times/week for 6 weeks using voluntary or EMS-evoked eccentric contractions. VOL improved voluntary more than EMS-evoked eccentric strength. EMS improved EMS-evoked strength more than voluntary. EMS training improved EMS-evoked eccentric strength more than VOL training improved voluntary eccentric strength. EMS-evoked to voluntary force ratio increased from 0.57 (+/- 0.11) to 1.20 (+/- 0.35) in EMS and did not change in VOL (all changes p < .05). Six of eight EMS subjects produced greater EMS-evoked force posttraining, suggesting incomplete muscle activation after EMS training.

  20. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.


    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  1. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja


    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  2. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria. (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja


    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  3. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Adelaja Lamina


    Full Text Available Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  4. Likelihood of repeat abortion in a Swedish cohort according to the choice of post-abortion contraception: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Kilander, Helena; Alehagen, Siw; Svedlund, Linnea; Westlund, Karin; Thor, Johan; Brynhildsen, Jan


    Despite high access to contraceptive services, 42% of the women who seek an abortion in Sweden have a history of previous abortion(s). The reasons for this high repeat abortion rate remain obscure. The objective of this study was to study the choice of contraceptive method after abortion and related odds of repeat abortions within 3-4 years. This is a retrospective cohort study based on a medical record review at three hospitals in Sweden. We included 987 women who had an abortion during 2009. We reviewed medical records from the date of the index abortion until the end of 2012 to establish the choice of contraception following the index abortion and the occurrence of repeat abortions. We calculated odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. While 46% of the women chose oral contraceptives, 34% chose long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC). LARC was chosen more commonly by women with a previous pregnancy, childbirth and/or abortion. During the follow-up period, 24% of the study population requested one or more repeat abortion(s). Choosing LARC at the time of the index abortion was associated with fewer repeat abortions compared with choosing oral contraceptives (13% vs. 26%, OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.24-0.52). Subdermal implant was as effective as intrauterine device in preventing repeat abortions beyond 3 years. Choosing LARC was associated with fewer repeat abortions over more than 3 years of follow up. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Post-abortion and induced abortion services in two public hospitals in Colombia. (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I


    Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. More British abortions for Irish women. (United States)

    Payne, D


    Abortion is illegal in Ireland except when a pregnant woman is judged by physicians to be suicidal. According to early estimates for 1998 soon to be released by Ireland's Office for National Statistics, more than 6000 Irish women are therefore now traveling each year to Britain for induced abortion, the largest number of such women thus far recorded in Ireland. However, Tony O'Brien, head of the Irish Family Planning Association, believes that it is not so much that the abortion rate is rising, but that a larger percentage of women traveling to the UK for abortion are telling people about their journey and abortion. This new liberalism is reflected in an Irish newspaper poll released last week which shows that 59% of Irish adults over age 18 years, and 86% of adults under age 25 years, approve of couples having sex before marriage. Meanwhile, the government of Ireland has yet to publish the report of its working group on abortion, which it promised to do last summer. O'Brien condemns the recent Irish governments for failing to amend or repeal the country's criminal law against abortion.

  7. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law. (United States)


    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing. full text

  8. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban. (United States)


    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.


    Ankara, Hasan Giray


    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  10. Abortion, embryonic stem cell research, and waste. (United States)

    Jensen, David A


    Can one consistently deny the permissibility of abortion while endorsing the killing of human embryos for the sake of stem cell research? The question is not trivial; for even if one accepts that abortion is prima facie wrong in all cases, there are significant differences with many of the embryos used for stem cell research from those involved in abortion--most prominently, many have been abandoned in vitro, and appear to have no reasonably likely meaningful future. On these grounds one might think to maintain a strong position against abortion but endorse killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research and its promising benefits. I will argue, however, that these differences are not decisive. Thus, one who accepts a strong view against abortion is committed to the moral impermissibility of killing human embryos for the sake of stem cell research. I do not argue for the moral standing of either abortion or the killing of embryos for stem cell research; I only argue for the relation between the two. Thus the conclusion is relevant to those with a strong view in favor of the permissibility of killing embryos for the sake of research as much as for those who may strongly oppose abortion; neither can consider their position in isolation from the other.

  11. Use of combined oral contraceptives post abortion. (United States)

    Gaffield, Mary E; Kapp, Nathalie; Ravi, Anita


    Providing combined oral contraceptives (COCs) following surgical or medical induced abortion offers women an opportune moment to initiate a reliable contraceptive method. We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library for articles in any language concerning COC use following spontaneous, induced (medical or surgical) or septic abortion, from 1966 through June 2008. Seven articles were identified and evaluated using the United States Preventive Services Task Force system. Immediate COC initiation after first-trimester medical or surgical induced abortion did not increase side effects or prolong vaginal bleeding compared with use of a placebo, copper-bearing intrauterine device (IUD), nonhormonal contraceptive method or COC initiation at a later time. Initiating COCs after first-trimester surgical abortion produced small increases in coagulation parameters compared with IUD use; although they are statistically significant, their clinical relevance is unlikely. No study examined second-trimester induced or spontaneous abortion, or septic abortion. Evidence shows that COCs can be safely initiated immediately following surgical and medical abortion in the first-trimester of pregnancy.

  12. [Current epidemiologic features of septic abortion]. (United States)

    Spina, V; Bertelli, S; Bartucca, B; Bonessio, L; Aleandri, V


    This article deals with the current epidemiological features of septic abortion. Forty-two of 431 abortions (9,74%) were diagnosed as septic abortions during 1998 at the I and II Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rome La Sapienza , and are retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-four women (81%) came from an EEC country, whereas 8 (19%) from a developing country. Their mean age was 31,4 years (range: 18-43 years). Eighteen patients (43%) were nulliparous; 24 (57%) multiparous; 14 (33%) had previous abortions, none had previous septic abortions. Among risk factors, premature rupture of membranes was found in 5 cases (12%); whereas amniocentesis, HIV positivity, diabetes, positive urine culture and illegal pregnancy termination procedures were found in 5 further cases. No risk factors were found in 76% of patients. It is observed that, due to medical-scientific advances, previously unknown risk factors have emerged during the last three decades in Western Countries, such as invasive procedures of prenatal diagnosis, IUD contraception and AIDS immunodepression. However, other previously frequent risk factors, such as sepsis from illegal abortion, may emerge again in Countries where abortion is legal (such as Italy), due to massive immigration of clandestine women from developing Countries.

  13. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Smith. Abortion in Botswana. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2013; 17(4):26. REVIEW ARTICLE. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in ..... 2009;35:114-121. 31. UN. Botswana: Abortion Policy. [2011 Nov 19] Available from 32. Benson J. Evaluating abortion-care programs: Old.

  14. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall


    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  15. Fertility Profile Following Induced Abortion in Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The incidence of induced abortion in Nigeria is high. Pelvic infection as a complication of this abortion is also common and with the rising prevalence of infertility in the population, there is a need to assess the impact of induced abortions on fertility in our women. Objective: To establish the impact of induced abortion ...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...

  17. Why Women are dying from unsafe Abortion: Narratives of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  18. Pattern and Outcome of Induced Abortion in Abakaliki, Southeast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Unsafe abortion mainly endangers women reproductive health in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws and in those where though legalized, safe abortion is not yet universally accessible.[1] In Nigeria and most parts of Africa, abortion is highly restricted.[2] Consequently, women sought.

  19. Factors Associated with Choice of Post-Abortion Contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high demand for abortion related services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicates a reliance on abortion to control fertility and highlights an opportunity to increase access to contraceptives and improve post-abortion care. We analyzed the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion related services. Logistic ...

  20. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion | Buga |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. Objectives: To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that ...

  1. Does abortion reduce self-esteem and life satisfaction? (United States)

    Biggs, M A; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Steinberg, Julia R; Foster, Diana G


    This study aims to assess the effects of obtaining an abortion versus being denied an abortion on self-esteem and life satisfaction. We present the first 2.5 years of a 5-year longitudinal telephone-interview study that follows 956 women who sought an abortion from 30 facilities across the USA. We examine the self-esteem and life satisfaction trajectories of women who sought and received abortions just under the facility's gestational age limit, of women who sought and received abortions in their first trimester of pregnancy, and of women who sought abortions just beyond the facility gestational limit and were denied an abortion. We use adjusted mixed effects linear regression analyses to assess whether the trajectories of women who sought and obtained an abortion differ from those who were denied one. Women denied an abortion initially reported lower self-esteem and life satisfaction than women who sought and obtained an abortion. For all study groups, except those who obtained first trimester abortions, self-esteem and life satisfaction improved over time. The initially lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction among women denied an abortion improved more rapidly reaching similar levels as those obtaining abortions at 6 months to one year after abortion seeking. For women obtaining first trimester abortions, initially higher levels of life satisfaction remained steady over time. There is no evidence that abortion harms women's self-esteem or life satisfaction in the short term.

  2. Adoption Decision Making among Women Seeking Abortion. (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Ralph, Lauren; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana Greene

    Little is known about how adoption factors into pregnancy decision making, particularly when abortion is unavailable. We used data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking abortion, including 231 women denied abortions owing to gestational limits. Through semiannual quantitative interviews, we assessed the frequency with which women denied abortion consider and choose adoption, and, among adoption participants, decision satisfaction. We compared differences in the demographic profiles of parenting and adoption participants using mixed effects regression models. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 women who received or were denied wanted abortions, including 2 adoption participants, focused on understanding pregnancy decision making and feelings about their choice. Interviews were coded using inductive and deductive methods. Most women who received abortions were aware of but uninterested in adoption. A minority of women denied abortions (n = 231; 14%) were considering adoption at 1 week after denial. Of participants who gave birth (n = 161), most (91%) chose parenting. Parenting participants (n = 146) did not differ from adoption participants (n = 15) on measures of age, race, or poverty status, although adoption participants were somewhat less likely to be employed (20% vs. 43%; p = .1), and somewhat more likely to have completed high school (87% vs. 74%; p = .08). Although satisfaction with their decision was high among adoption participants, in-depth interviews revealed mixed emotions. Among women motivated to avoid parenthood, as evidenced by abortion seeking, adoption is considered or chosen infrequently. Political promotion of adoption as an alternative to abortion is likely not grounded in the reality of women's decision making. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abortion, church and politics in Poland. (United States)

    Jankowska, H


    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  4. Artificial Wombs and Abortion Rights. (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn


    In a study published in late April in Nature Communications, the authors were able to sustain 105- to 115-day-old premature lamb fetuses-whose level of development was comparable to that of a twenty-three-week-old human fetus-for four weeks in an artificial womb, enabling the lambs to develop in a way that paralleled age-matched controls. The oldest lamb of the set, more than a year old at the time the paper came out, appeared completely normal. This kind of research brings us one step closer to providing excellent quality of life for premature newborns, but it also portends major legal and ethical questions, especially for abortion rights in America. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  5. A family medicine training collaborative in early abortion. (United States)

    Bennett, Ian; Johnson, Margaret; Wu, Justine P; Kalkstein, Karin; Wolff, Elizabeth; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan


    This study's objective was to assess participation and perceived benefits of abortion training among residents at programs with integrated early abortion care. We developed a collaborative early abortion training network. Residents at training sites had high participation (71%) and were more likely to report familiarity and comfort with providing early abortion care than comparison sites. Residents reported benefits to overall training (78%), satisfaction (55%), and plans to provide abortion care (40%). This collaborative abortion training program was valued by residents and was associated with greater self-assessed skills and positive attitudes toward providing early abortion care than at comparison sites.

  6. USA aborts international family planning. (United States)

    Potts, M


    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  7. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D


    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  8. Against the golden rule argument against abortion. (United States)

    Boonin-Vail, D


    R.M. Hare and Harry J. Gensler have each argued that abortion can be shown to be immoral by appealing to a version of the golden rule. I argue that both versions of the golden rule argument against abortion should be rejected: each rests on a version of the golden rule which is objectionable on independent grounds, each is unable to support its conclusion when the rule is satisfactorily modified, and each is unable to avoid the implication that contraception is as wrong as abortion and for the same reason. In addition, some further problems particular to each position are identified.

  9. [Psychosociology of the demand for abortion]. (United States)

    Duprez, D


    3 preliminary observations are relevant to an analysis of the psychosociology of abortion. All pregnancies, regardless of the outcome, are meaningful for the woman and/or the couple. On the other hand, the debate for or against abortion is meaningless to the extent that most women seeking abortions are to some degree "against" abortion. Finally, beyond a certain point the use of contraception and the demand for abortion are not related, as shown by the stability of abortion rates in France over the past 20 years during which rates of contraceptive usage changed greatly and by the high level of contraceptive information among women seeking repeat abortions. In the psychic realm, being pregnant is positive if only as a indication of the power to become pregnant. It is known that women suffering a recent loss are more likely to become pregnant. PRegnancy under circumstances of loss or mourning signifies that something other than death or loss is possible. The idea of pregnancy as a compensation for loss can refer to a range of situations such as death of a close relative, end of a union, divorce, unemployment, or educational or professional failure, to name a few. The unconscious utilization of pregnancy as a proof of power can be repeated each time doubt arises as to the reality of this power. Not pregnancy, but bringing a child into the world is what is impossible in voluntary pregnancy termination. Abortion is chosen because it allows the mother or the couple to avoid an investment for which they are unprepared. Becoming a mother means to stop being a child and also forces an encounter with the images of one's own parents internalized during childhood. Such images are not always good, which caused problems in the psychic work of identification with the parent that accompanies childbirth. Choosing to have a child and joining the chain of generations is impossible for some persons, because the filiation is too difficult or the parental images are too negative

  10. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab


    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  11. Psychosocial correlates of delayed decisions to abort. (United States)

    Bracken, M B; Kasl, S V


    Two samples of women aborting in New York and Connecticut during 1972 and 1973 were studied. In all, six hundred and fifty eight women about to undergo first and second trimester procedures completed a self-administered questionnaire. Items include: demographic, psychosocial and personality parameters, and a detailed review of the decision process leading to abortion. Analyses of the correlates of delay are organized around four components: acknowledgment of pregnancy; seeing a physician ; deciding to abort; and locating a clinic. Other analyses focus on the role of decisional conflict in delay. Methodological issues, implications for educational practice and for theory of decision-making are discussed.

  12. Aborto. Responsabilidad compartida/Abortion. Shared responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernesto Betancourt


    Full Text Available The father and the mother are involved in the act of procreation, therefore in abortion should also be considered is the father figure in some way and not let you load psychological, emotional and physical exclusively women. Similarly, when she decides to have an abortion he is not observed or questioned integral form to family and society to which she belongs, in short, the stigmatization affects only to the woman in question when there are several actors and circumstances that come into the Act of abortion.

  13. How technology is reframing the abortion debate. (United States)

    Callahan, D


    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act.

  14. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case. (United States)

    Diniz, Debora


    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  15. Unsafe abortion in Tanzania : An empathetic approach to improve post-abortion quality of care


    Rasch, Vibeke


    Background Unsafe abortion constitutes a major public health problem throughout the world, leading to high levels of maternal morbidity and mortality. To address the problem of unsafe abortion, there is need of reliable data that document the magnitude of the problem and describe the population at risk. In addition there is a need of welldocumented and evaluated intervention studies that focus on reducing the high maternal mortality, which is associated with unsafe abortion....

  16. Constructing abortion as a social problem: ?Sex selection? and the British abortion debate


    Lee, Ellie J.


    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate a...

  17. Post abortion contraception and its effect on repeat abortions in Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Roberts, Helen; Silva, Martha; Xu, Sylvia


    Many misconceptions still prevail about the appropriateness of use of the intrauterine device (IUD), particularly for younger women. This study examines the factors associated with post abortion IUD use as compared to the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC). It then examines the effect of type of post abortion contraception with the likelihood of seeking subsequent abortions. This prospective cohort study followed, for a period of 3 years, 1422 women who had a first trimester surgical abortion between November 2004 and January 2005 in Auckland's public abortion clinic. Compared to women who left the clinic with COC, those leaving with an IUD (OR 0.3) at baseline were less likely to return for a subsequent abortion. Among women who had not had a previous termination, younger women were less likely than older women to have had an IUD inserted post abortion. With every additional live birth, women were three times as likely to have left the abortion clinic with an IUD. Among women who had had a previous termination, age was no longer significantly associated with post abortion IUD insertion. However, parity was still significantly associated, as was having a negative sexually transmitted infection test. Young and nulliparous women are less likely to use an IUD as a method of contraception following an abortion. However, those women who have an IUD inserted following an abortion are much less likely to return for a subsequent abortion. IUDs are a safe and effective method of contraception that are currently still underused among the younger population. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Why don?t humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion services?


    McGinn, Therese; Casey, Sara E


    Background Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors? observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: ?There?s no need?; ?Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises?; ?Donors don?t fund abortion services?; and ?Abortion is illegal?. Discussion However, each of these reasons is based on false premises. Unsafe abortion is a...

  19. Natality and abortion rate in Czech republic since 1960


    Klubalová, Markéta


    The Czech Republic fights a declining birth rate as almost every European country. The declining birth rate is a phenomenon that affects the future development of a state. For several years it has been under the protection of natural reproduction with no changes in mortality rates. The birth rate closely relates to abortion. The development of abortion is affected by abortion laws. The first abortion law was issued in 1958 and the second in 1988. Another factor that affects the abortion rate ...

  20. Induced abortion in developed countries:trends and law


    Pachlová, Tereza


    Induced abortion in developed countries: trends and law Abstract The objective of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of law and trends in induced abortion in developed countries and to analyse and to evaluate patterns, which are typical for selected countries. In the first part, approaches to induced abortion are discussed and development in abortion law is described, in the second part, trends of induced abortion are analysed over time and by age of woman. As a tool, methods of d...

  1. Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights


    Erdman, Joanna N.


    Abstract The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, healt...

  2. Indberetning af provokerede aborter i 1994. En sammenligning mellem data i Registeret over Legalt Provokerede Aborter og Landspatientregistere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K


    Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions...... Register, and the missing number of registration of induced abortions calculated by capture-recapture methods. Of these 18,429 abortions 96.4% were registered in the National Patient Register and 93.5% in the Register of Induced Abortions. There were some regional variations. In some counties more...

  3. Abortion choices among women in Cambodia after introduction of a socially marketed medicated abortion product. (United States)

    Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D


    To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. A comparison of women with induced abortion, spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in Ghana. (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Creanga, Andreea A; Danso, Kwabena A; Adanu, Richard M K; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Hindin, Michelle J


    Despite having one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, complications from induced abortion are the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Ghana. The sample is composed of patients with pregnancy termination complications in Ghana between June and July 2008. The majority of patients report having had a spontaneous abortion (75%; n=439), while 17% (n=100) and 8% (n=46) report having had an induced abortion or an ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Factors associated with women in each of the three groups were explored using multinomial logistic regression. When compared to women with spontaneous abortions, women with induced abortions were younger, poorer, more likely to report no religious affiliation, less likely to be married, more likely to report making the household decisions and more likely to fail to disclose this pregnancy to their partners. Within the induced abortion subsample, failure to disclose the most recent pregnancy was associated with already having children and autonomous household decision making. Identifying the individual and relationship characteristics of induced abortion patients is the first step toward targeted policies and programs aimed at reducing unsafe abortion in Ghana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Abortion providers' experiences with Medicaid abortion coverage policies: a qualitative multistate study. (United States)

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly


    To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Protein Function Prediction with Incomplete Annotations. (United States)

    Yu, Guoxian; Rangwala, Huzefa; Domeniconi, Carlotta; Zhang, Guoji; Yu, Zhiwen


    Automated protein function prediction is one of the grand challenges in computational biology. Multi-label learning is widely used to predict functions of proteins. Most of multi-label learning methods make prediction for unlabeled proteins under the assumption that the labeled proteins are completely annotated, i.e., without any missing functions. However, in practice, we may have a subset of the ground-truth functions for a protein, and whether the protein has other functions is unknown. To predict protein functions with incomplete annotations, we propose a Protein Function Prediction method with Weak-label Learning (ProWL) and its variant ProWL-IF. Both ProWL and ProWL-IF can replenish the missing functions of proteins. In addition, ProWL-IF makes use of the knowledge that a protein cannot have certain functions, which can further boost the performance of protein function prediction. Our experimental results on protein-protein interaction networks and gene expression benchmarks validate the effectiveness of both ProWL and ProWL-IF.

  7. Trisomy 18 Syndrome with Incomplete Cantrell Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Hou


    Full Text Available The pentalogy of Cantrell was first described in 1958 by Cantrell and coworkers, who reported five cases in which they described a pentad of findings including a midline supraumbilical thoracoabdominal wall defect, a defect of the lower sternum, abnormalities of the diaphragmatic pericardium and the anterior diaphragm, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Trisomy 18 has an incidence of about 0.3 per 1000 newborns. We present a case of trisomy 18 with incomplete Cantrell syndrome. The patient presented with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia (Dandy-Walker variant, ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, a defect of the lower sternum, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect with omphalocele, congenital left posterior diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek hernia, micrognathia, low-set and malformed ears, rocker-bottom feet, dorsiflexed hallux, hypoplastic nails, short neck, and wrist deformity. Trisomy 18 syndrome was unusually combined with the pentalogy of Cantrell. We present this case because of its rarity and high risk of mortality.

  8. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use. (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene


    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  9. Abortion care needs in Darfur and Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Fetters


    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of sexual and gender-basedviolence in Darfur, why are safe abortion services andtreatment of complications resulting from unsafeabortions or miscarriages not provided at all refugee/IDP health facilities?

  10. Obstetric performance following an induced abortion. (United States)

    Lowit, Alison; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya


    Abortion has been legalised in most of the Western world for the past four decades. In areas where abortion practices are legal and easy to access, the risk of short-term complications is very low. As most women requesting induced abortion (IA) are young, potential adverse effects on subsequent reproductive function are important to them. This review investigates obstetric performance following IA and highlights methodological problems associated with research in this area. Some data suggest that IA may be linked with an increased risk of low birth weight, miscarriage and placenta previa but could be protective for pre-eclampsia. Current evidence also suggests an association between IA and pre-term birth. Large prospective cohort studies, which permit meaningful subgroup analyses, are needed to provide definitive answers on outcomes following alternative methods of IA and the impact of gestational age at abortion on future obstetric outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contraceptive Use, Unwanted Pregnancies and Abortions among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Reproductive Health Behavior of Hairdressers. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2017; 21 (1): 114. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Contraceptive Use, Unwanted Pregnancies and Abortions among. Hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Folashade O. Omokhodion. 1. * and Mary O. Balogun. 1.

  12. Gynecologists and the abortion issue in Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasevic, Mirjana; Sedlecki, Katarina


    ...: traditional contraception and abortion have a firm social confirmation; there is a trans-generational transfer of psychological resistance towards the use of combined oral contraception pills and intrauterine...

  13. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan. (United States)

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z


    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings.

  14. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem


    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran


    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  15. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  16. Abortion and women's rights in Poland, 1994. (United States)

    David, H P; Titkow, A


    In 1993, a restrictive abortion law was enacted in Poland. The law allows abortion in public hospitals when 3 physicians certify that the life or health of the woman is at stake, the fetus has a serious and irreversible malformation (supported by prenatal tests in cases of known history of genetic conditions), or a public prosecutor formally proves that a criminal act (i.e., rape or incest) caused the pregnancy. Physicians who perform illegal abortions can be imprisoned up to 2 years and, in cases where the woman dies from complications, up to 10 years. The law calls for the government to offer sex education and to guarantee access to contraceptives nationwide, to which the Catholic Bishops object. Schools have yet to implement sex education. Interviews show that much political and governmental instability exists in Poland. Politicians tend to be passive to prevent political conflict and reduce tensions with the Catholic Church. Women who have enough money and have an unwanted pregnancy can still obtain an abortion within Poland or across the border. Infanticide and infant abandonment are increasing. Illegal adoption is occurring. No one has been arrested for performing clandestine abortions. Young, poor, and rural women are confused and anxious. Many physicians fear referring women for legal abortions. Some hospitals refuse to allow any abortion. Poland is still a patriarchal, conservative country. Most women who use birth control use the rhythm method and withdrawal. Counseling centers are closing. Public educational resources are scarce. Recorded miscarriages have risen from 51,802 in 1992 to 53,027 in 1993. The Ministries of Health and Justice object to the new law. In 1994, the president vetoed a law that would have allowed abortions on social grounds. The birth rate fell from 13.4 to 12.8 births/1000 between 1992 and 1993. The public now ranks the Church behind the military, the police, and the government ombudsman in public trust.

  17. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens


    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...... and neglect, psychiatric disorder, and being in care during childhood. Results show a significant social gradient for teenage pregnancies. The teenage mothers were in a more disadvantaged position than pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion...

  18. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.


    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  19. Er fri abort stadig er feministisk krav?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørup, Karen


    Bliver den fri abort snarere brugt til at tæmme kvinden og hendes fertilitet, så hun kan yde en effektiv indsats i uddannelsesræset og på arbejdsmarkedet?......Bliver den fri abort snarere brugt til at tæmme kvinden og hendes fertilitet, så hun kan yde en effektiv indsats i uddannelsesræset og på arbejdsmarkedet?...

  20. Beam dumping system and abort gap

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J


    The performance of the beam dumping systems and the abort gap cleaning are reviewed in the context of the general machine protection system. Details of the commissioning experience and setting up, encountered equipment problems, the experience with and status of the eXternal Post Operational Checks (XPOC) and the importance of operational procedures are presented for the beam dumping system. The brief experience with the abort gap cleaning is also presented.

  1. An attention economy perspective on the effectiveness of incomplete information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geri, Nitza; Schocken, Rebecca; Neumann, Seev; Tobin, Yishai


    This study suggests an attention economy perspective on incomplete information, asserting that people use partial information as basis for action, hence an effective information system should provide...

  2. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic. (United States)


    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion.

  3. From abortion to contraception: Tbilisi, 1990. (United States)

    David, H P


    Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths.

  4. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn


    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  5. Contraception and abortion: the deadly connection. (United States)

    Brown, J


    The American Life League, based in Stafford, Virginia, is against all artificial contraceptive methods. It only endorses natural family planning as a means to space births. Even anti-abortion groups discount this stand because of the League links contraception and abortion. The League counters by stressing that contraception makes it easier for people to have immoral relationships. Further, contraception-users discount sexual intercourse's role in producing babies. The sexual revolution, fueled by contraception, even intrudes in the lives of kindergartners in New York City who are being taught that gay and lesbian families are the same as heterosexual families. If anti-abortionists do not understand the link between contraception and abortion, millions more babies will die in the next 20 years. Pro-choice groups ask anti-abortion groups to join them in promoting new and better contraception to prevent abortion, but the League rebukes them. The pro-choice groups want reproduction freedom, but this freedom, according to the League, is to do whatever one wants and not the freedom to define what is good and true; it will keep people from remembering that conception may occur after sexual intercourse. The emergence of RU-486 and implants should lead anti-abortionists to stand up and say that they are against abortion and contraception.

  6. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion. (United States)


    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. full text

  7. Preconception care in therapeutic abortion applicants. (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Farzaneh; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Bahadoran, Parvin; Montazery, Gita


    Some risk factors that would lead to therapeutic abortion do even exist before pregnancy and could be resolved or corrected through appropriate interventions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the condition of preconception care among therapeutic abortion applicants. This research was a descriptive, cross-sectional study that was conducted on 200 applicants for therapeutic abortion at the Forensics Medicine Center of Isfahan (Iran) who were selected convenience sampling from October 2014 to March 2015. Data were gathered using a researcher made checklist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 through descriptive statistics and Chi-square and independent t-test. Eighty-five percent of the participants were applicants for therapeutic abortion due to fetal problems, and the other 15% were due to maternal issues. About 41.7% of participants with fetal problems and all of the participants with maternal issues had not received preconception care. In 93.3% of the applicants with maternal issues, the disease existed before the pregnancy. About 48.2% of participants needed genetic counseling, but 28.6% had not received any. Results showed that in most of the participants, the risk factor for therapeutic abortion existed before the pregnancy. Providing preconception care along with the elimination of risk factors before the pregnancy could prevent some of the pregnancies with the indication of therapeutic abortion.

  8. Mifepristone-induced abortion and vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Gao, Er-sheng; Chen, Ai-min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-min; Yuan, Wei


    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion on vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. This observational cohort study was conducted during 1998-2001 at antenatal clinics in Beijing, Chengdu, and Shanghai, China. The study enrolled 4,931 women with one previous mifepristone-induced abortion, 4,925 women with no history of induced abortion, and 4,800 women with one previous surgical abortion and followed them through pregnancy and childbirth. The rates of vaginal bleeding in pregnant women with a history of medical abortion, no abortion, and surgical abortion were 16.5%, 13.9%, and 17.3%, respectively. The women with medical abortion had a higher risk (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.29) of vaginal bleeding compared with those with no abortion but similar risk to prior surgical abortion. When the correlation between medical abortion and vaginal bleeding was examined by period, increased risk was observed only in the early period (abortion and no abortion showed that the observed risks increased particularly in those with abortion at gestational age ≤ 7 weeks (aRR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.49), those followed by a postabortion curettage (aRR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.84) or complications (aRR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.37). There was no difference between women with medical abortion and women with surgical abortion in the occurrence of vaginal bleeding for either period. One previous mifepristone-induced abortion increased the risk of vaginal bleeding in early gestation period of subsequent pregnancy compared with no abortion, especially if abortion occurred before 7 weeks of gestation and was followed by a curettage or complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M


    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. Incomplete cortical reorganization in macular degeneration. (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Schuchard, Ronald A; Glielmi, Christopher B; Hu, Xiaoping; He, Sheng; Legge, Gordon E


    Activity in regions of the visual cortex corresponding to central scotomas in subjects with macular degeneration (MD) is considered evidence for functional reorganization in the brain. Three unresolved issues related to cortical activity in subjects with MD were addressed: Is the cortical response to stimuli presented to the preferred retinal locus (PRL) different from other retinal loci at the same eccentricity? What effect does the role of age of onset and etiology of MD have on cortical responses? How do functional responses in an MD subject's visual cortex vary for task and stimulus conditions? Eight MD subjects-four with age-related onset (AMD) and four with juvenile onset (JMD)-and two age-matched normal vision controls, participated in three testing conditions while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). First, subjects viewed a small stimulus presented at the PRL compared with a non-PRL control location to investigate the role of the PRL. Second, they viewed a full-field flickering checkerboard compared with a small stimulus in the original fovea to investigate brain activation with passive viewing. Third, they performed a one-back task with scene images to investigate brain activation with active viewing. A small stimulus at the PRL generated more extensive cortical activation than at a non-PRL location, but neither yielded activation in the foveal cortical projection. Both passive and active viewing of full-field stimuli left a silent zone at the posterior pole of the occipital cortex, implying a lack of complete cortical reorganization. The silent zone was smaller in the task requiring active viewing compared with the task requiring passive viewing, especially in JMD subjects. The PRL for MD subjects has more extensive cortical representation than a retinal region with matched eccentricity. There is evidence for incomplete functional reorganization of early visual cortex in both JMD and AMD. Functional reorganization is more prominent

  11. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...... present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected and globally an estimated 66...

  12. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent drug use. (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Rocca, Corinne H; Foster, Diana Greene


    Some research finds that women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent drug use and drug use disorders. This literature is rife with methodological problems, particularly inappropriate comparison groups. This study used data from the Turnaway Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of women who sought abortions at 30 sites across the U.S. Participants included women presenting just prior to an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n=452), just beyond the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n=231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n=273). This study examined the relationship between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent drug use over two years. Trajectories of drug use were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Any drug use, frequency of drug use, and marijuana use did not change over time among women in any group. There were no differential changes over time in any drug use, frequency of drug use, or marijuana use between groups. However, Turnaways who ultimately gave birth increased use of drugs other than marijuana compared to women in the Near Limit Abortion Group (p=.041), who did not increase use. Women receiving abortions did not increase drug use over two years or have higher levels of drug use than women denied abortions. Assertions that abortion leads women to use drugs to cope with the stress of abortion are not supported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abortion and public health: Time for another look. (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A


    Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly supportive of its wide availability. Absence of substantive debate on abortion separates the public health community from the public we serve, jeopardizing the trust placed in us. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable groups and opposition to the politicization of science-together with the principle of reciprocity weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life. Lay Summary: Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly divisive. Public sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split, yet fundamental debate is largely absent in the public health community, which supports abortion's wide availability. Absence of substantive debate separates the public health community from the public it serves. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable populations and opposition to politicization of science-and the principle of reciprocity ("the Golden Rule") weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life.

  14. Induced abortion and relevant factors among women seeking abortion in Nanjing, China. (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Tian, Linwei; Xu, Fei


    This study aimed to determine the sociological characteristics of abortion seekers according to marital status and previous induced abortions in a major regional hospital in Nanjing, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire in women seeking abortion at Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in China in 2003. The average age of the participants was 26.0 ± 4.5 years. Of the 462 abortion seekers, 95.9% had one previous induced abortion. The majority (49.6%) of the ever-married women were in the age group of 25-29 while the majority (76.9%) of the unmarried women were aged 20-24 years. Unprotected intercourse (53.6%) and contraception failure (43.9%) were the primary reasons given for the current induced abortion for ever-married women. Unmarried women terminated their current pregnancies mainly because they did not want children (62.1%). Of the 182 unmarried subjects, 86.8% had psychological problems in their premarital pregnancy. Education and communication about sexual morality, contraception and reproductive health, as well as post-abortion counseling and services, especially for young women, are needed to reduce the rate of induced abortions. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Abortion related stigma: a case study of abortion stigma in regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abortion accounts for 35% of maternal mortality in Kenya. Kenya has reported an increase in the rate of unsafe abortions from 32 to 48 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 and 2012 respectively. During the same period, women presented in public health facilities with severe complications indicating ...

  16. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970. (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  17. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  18. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamberlin Nina


    Full Text Available Abstract Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1 a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2 complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it

  19. A case of incomplete and refractory Kawasaki disease: Diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD) – i.e. cases that do not full all the diagnostic criteria – requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of incomplete KD that was refractory to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequently responded to treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone.

  20. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16 O· 165 Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the ...

  1. Thoracopagus: a first case of incomplete conjoint twins in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight hour old boy with incomplete duplication of the head was admitted in a tertiary paediatric referral hospital in Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea. The incompletely developed head with the neck of one twin was attached to the much larger and more fully developed one on the anterior aspect (ventral) of the chest. This

  2. Global Identification from the equilibrium Manifold under Incomplete markets


    Carvajal, Andreas; Riascos, Alvaro


    We show that, even under incomplete markets, the equilibrium manifold identifies individual demands everywhere in their domains. For this, we assume conditions of smoothness, interiority and regularity, and avoid observational requirements at the individual level. It is crucial that there be date-zero consumption. As a by-product, we develop some duality theory under incomplete markets.

  3. A case of incomplete and refractory Kawasaki disease : diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease.[4,5] Not all cases ful l all the diagnostic criteria, and these are termed incomplete KD.[6,7] We report a case of incomplete KD that was refractory to the recommended standard treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), but responded to treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone. e case highlights the.

  4. A comparison of incomplete data methods for categorical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Palm, D.W.; van der Ark, L.A.; Vermunt, J.K.


    We studied four methods for handling incomplete categorical data in statistical modeling: (1) maximum likelihood estimation of the statistical model with incomplete data, (2) multiple imputation using a loglinear model, (3) multiple imputation using a latent class model, (4) and multivariate

  5. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France]. (United States)

    Vigoureux, S


    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Septic/unsafe abortion: a preventable tragedy. (United States)

    Sultana, Ruqqia; Noor, Shehla; Fawwad, Ali; Abbasi, Nasreen; Bashir, Rubina


    Unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected problems of health care in developing countries like Pakistan. In countries where abortions are restricted women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have an unwanted pregnancy terminated. The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of septic induced abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality and to highlight the measures to reduce it. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Obs/Gyn B Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2007 to December 2011. During this period all the patients presenting with pyrexia lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, acute abdomen, septic or hypovolaemic shock after undergoing some sort of intervention for abortion outside the hospital were included. After thorough history, examination and detailed investigations including high vaginal and endocervical swabs for culture and sensitivity and pelvic ultrasound supportive management was given followed by antibiotics, surgical evacuation of uterus/ major laparotomy in collaboration with surgeon as required. Patients with DIC or multiple system involvement were managed in High Dependency Unit (HDU) by multidisciplinary team. During the study period out of a total 6,906 admissions 968 presented with spontaneous abortion. There were 110 cases (11.36%) of unsafe abortion, 56.4% presented with vaginal discharge, 34.5% with vaginal bleeding, 21.8% with acute abdomen, while 18.9% in shock and 6.8% with DIC. Forty-nine percent patients used termination as a method of contraception. Mortality rate was 16.36%, leading cause being septicaemia. Death and severe morbidity from unsafe abortions and its complications is avoidable through health education, effective contraception, early informed recognition and management of the problem once it occurs.

  7. [Conscientious objection in the matter of abortion]. (United States)

    Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L


    The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition.

  8. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal. (United States)

    Suh, Siri


    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of emergency department visits and complications after abortion. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Desai, Sheila; Zlidar, Vera; Weitz, Tracy A; Grossman, Daniel; Anderson, Patricia; Taylor, Diana


    To conduct a retrospective observational cohort study to estimate the abortion complication rate, including those diagnosed or treated at emergency departments (EDs). Using 2009-2010 abortion data among women covered by the fee-for-service California Medicaid program and all subsequent health care for 6 weeks after having an abortion, we analyzed reasons for ED visits and estimated the abortion-related complication rate and the adjusted relative risk. Complications were defined as receiving an abortion-related diagnosis or treatment at any source of care within 6 weeks after an abortion. Major complications were defined as requiring hospital admission, surgery, or blood transfusion. A total of 54,911 abortions among 50,273 fee-for-service Medi-Cal beneficiaries were identified. Among all abortions, 1 of 16 (6.4%, n=3,531) was followed by an ED visit within 6 weeks but only 1 of 115 (0.87%, n=478) resulted in an ED visit for an abortion-related complication. Approximately 1 of 5,491 (0.03%, n=15) involved ambulance transfers to EDs on the day of the abortion. The major complication rate was 0.23% (n=126, 1/436): 0.31% (n=35) for medication abortion, 0.16% (n=57) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 0.41% (n=34) for second-trimester or later procedures. The total abortion-related complication rate including all sources of care including EDs and the original abortion facility was 2.1% (n=1,156): 5.2% (n=588) for medication abortion, 1.3% (n=438) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 1.5% (n=130) for second-trimester or later procedures. Abortion complication rates are comparable to previously published rates even when ED visits are included and there is no loss to follow-up. II.

  10. Induced abortion in Tehran, Iran: estimated rates and correlates. (United States)

    Erfani, Amir


    Abortion is severely restricted in Iran, and many women with an unwanted pregnancy resort to clandes-tine, unsafe abortions. Accurate information on abortion incidence is needed to assess the extent to which women ?experience unwanted pregnancies and to allocate resources for contraceptive services. Data for analysis came from 2,934 married women aged 15-49 who completed the 2009 Tehran Survey of Fertility. Estimated abortion rates and proportions of known pregnancies that end in abortion were calculated for all women and for demographic and socioeconomic subgroups, and descriptive data were used to examine women's contraceptive use and reasons for having an abortion. Annually, married women in Tehran have about 11,500 abortions. In the year before the survey, the estimated total abortion rate was 0.16 abortions per woman, and the annual general abortion rate was 5.5 abortions per 1,000 women; the general abortion rate peaked at 11.7 abortions among those aged 30-34. An estimated 8.7 of every 100 known pregnancies ended in abortion. The abortion rate was elevated among women who were employed or had high levels of income or education, as well as among those who reported a low level of religiosity, had two children or wanted no more. Fertility-related and socioeconomic reasons were cited by seven in 10 women who obtained an abortion. More than two-thirds of pregnancies that were terminated resulted from method failures among women who had used withdrawal, the pill or a condom. Estimated abortion rates and their correlates can help policymakers and program planners identify subgroups of women who are in particular need of services and counseling to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  11. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform. (United States)

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie


    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  12. Spontaneous abortion and maternal work in greenhouses. (United States)

    Settimi, Laura; Spinelli, Angela; Lauria, Laura; Miceli, Giuseppe; Pupp, Nicoletta; Angotzi, Giuliano; Fedi, Aldo; Donati, Serena; Miligi, Lucia; Osborn, John; Figà-Talamanca, Irene


    A positive association between maternal occupational exposure to pesticide and spontaneous abortion has been reported in some studies. Work in greenhouses may imply exposure of pregnant women to pesticides continuously and at elevated level. A total of 717 women working in greenhouses provided information on 973 pregnancies, including 110 spontaneous abortions. These pregnancies were classified as exposed or not exposed according to maternal occupation, re-entry activities and application of pesticides in greenhouses during at least 1 month in the first trimester of pregnancy. The ORs for spontaneous abortion were estimated through a generalised estimate equations model for all orders of pregnancy together, and through a logistic regression model limited to first pregnancies. Increased risks of spontaneous abortion were found for maternal re-entry activities within 24 hr after pesticides were applied (all orders of pregnancy: OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.7; first pregnancies: OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.0-13.9) and for those who applied pesticides (all orders of pregnancy: OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.6; first pregnancies: OR 3.7, 95% CI 0.7-20,6) The observed results support the hypothesis of an association between maternal work in greenhouses and spontaneous abortion. The main limitations of the study are lack of information on the specific chemicals used and the small number of pregnancies heavily exposed to pesticides. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Abortion Law and Policy Around the World (United States)


    Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable—when it is available on the woman’s request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, advocates will need to study the political, health system, legal, juridical, and socio-cultural realities surrounding existing law and policy in their countries, and decide what kind of law they want (if any). The biggest challenge is to determine what is possible to achieve, build a critical mass of support, and work together with legal experts, parliamentarians, health professionals, and women themselves to change the law—so that everyone with an unwanted pregnancy who seeks an abortion can have it, as early as possible and as late as necessary. PMID:28630538

  14. The epidemiology of cattle abortion in Algeria. (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa


    In Algeria, the epidemiology of cattle abortions is not well understood. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate the prevalence of abortion in 75 Algerian cattle herds and correlate its possible association with brucellosis positivity and some managerial risk factors. The cattle abortion herd prevalence was 41.33% [95% CI 30.16-52.5%]. As for brucellosis, the serological evidence of brucellosis exposure was observed in 9 out of 75 herds accounting for 12% [95% CI 4.65-19.35] herd seroprevalence. The risk factor analysis using the univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression did confirm that brucellosis positivity (OR = 5.19), mixed herd (OR = 2.5), contact with other herd (OR = 2.91), presence of dog in the herd (OR = 2.89), imported cattle (OR = 1.91), and farmers with less than 2 years' experience (OR = 2.69) as risk factors for abortion in Algerian cattle herds. Targeting these factors using a comprehensive control measure is needed to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with abortion in dairy cattle.

  15. Induced abortion and adolescent mental health. (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L


    Induced abortion is widely believed - by the public, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers - to lead to adverse mental health sequelae. This belief is false, as it applies both to adult women and adolescents. However, it has been used to rationalize, and been quoted in, restrictive and intrusive legislation in several states and in proposed federal legislation. It is essential for gynecologists to have accurate information, as clinicians, for their patients, and, as key experts, for policy makers. New articles concluding that there are adverse psychological outcomes from induced abortion continue to be published. The methodological flaws in these articles are so serious as to invalidate those conclusions. Several recent scholarly analyses detail these flaws. Methodologically sound studies and reviews continue to demonstrate that psychosocial problems play a role in unwanted conception and the decision to abort unwanted pregnancies but are not the result of abortion. Clinicians may have to reassure patients making decisions about their pregnancies that abortion does not cause psychiatric illness. They can do so on the basis of recent analyses substantiating that finding. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  16. [Prescribing of ergometrine for abortion without physical examination]. (United States)


    The report of the Board of Medical Discipline in the Hague considering a case in which the complainant is a woman who went to the toilet in her 11th week of pregnancy, heard a splash and began to hemorrhage. The complainant called the defendant physician and requested an immediate visit. The physician found that a visit was not necessary and gave a telephone diagnosis of a miscarriage and prescribed ergometrine (Ermitrine) 1 tablet 3 X daily. About an hour later the complainant became sick and was admitted to the hospital with what turned out to be an incomplete gemelli miscarriage. The complainant held that the physician was negligent on 2 occasions, 1st during the telephone conversation; 2d when the complainant picked up the prescription from the physician, in that he made a diagnosis without a physical examination and prescribed ergometrine. The board ruled that the physician should have determined by means of a vaginal examination whether the abortion had been complete. He was also in error in prescribing ergometrine since this always causes contraction of the uterus and this action is not indicated if there are remnants still in the uterus. By failing to make an examination before prescribing ergometrine the physician was guilty of an action which undermined confidence in medicine. The board voted to issue a letter of caution to the physician and directed that the case be registered with the Ministry of Welfare, Public Health and Culture and published in the medical journals.

  17. Recurrent Abortion and Tethered Cord Syndrome Caused by Anterior Sacral Meningocele: A Report of a Rare Case with a Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Chunnilal, Jayesh; Mehrotra, Manasi; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K; Das, Kuntal K


    Anterior sacral meningocele is a rare congenital anomaly. This rare anomaly is described in a young woman who presented with recurrent abortion and later with a huge palpable mass of pelvic origin, measuring 14 × 12 cm. The various radiologic features, associations such as presacral dermoid as a part of incomplete Currarino syndrome, and the management options available are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Constructing abortion as a social problem: "Sex selection" and the British abortion debate. (United States)

    Lee, Ellie


    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering "feminised" re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about "gendercide" as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of "medical power" in the light of what took place.

  19. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate (United States)


    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000

  20. Alcohol, tobacco and drug use as reasons for abortion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Sinkford, Danielle; Foster, Diana Greene


    .... This study examines how women describe alcohol, tobacco and/or drug use (ATOD) as reasons for deciding to have abortions and assesses the differences between women reporting and not reporting ATOD as reasons for deciding to have an abortion...

  1. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  2. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne


    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  3. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke


    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  4. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle


    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  5. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie


    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  6. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  7. Policy on Abortion in the Nigerian Society : Ethical considerations


    Ilobinso, Louis-Kennedy


    Abortion is clearly one of the most controversal and divisive contemporary moral problems. This thesis is an investigation upon significant number of important, fundemental ethical questions in relation to policy of abortion in Nigeria.

  8. Abortion and women's roles in society: opinions from Tlaxcala, Mexico. (United States)

    Palermo, Tia M; Wilson, Kate S; García, Sandra G; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia


    We aim to assess the opinions of Mexicans in the state of Tlaxcala on abortion and other topics concerning women's reproductive health and status in society. We summarize opinions on abortion and women's roles in society and perform logit regressions to assess characteristics correlated with support for abortion rights. A majority of respondents were against a woman's right to abortion when asked generally, but when asked about specific circumstances, a majority supported the right to abortion in five of the nine hypothetical circumstances proposed. In multivariate analysis, age, education, religion, religious service attendance, and views regarding women's roles in society had significant effects on support for the right to abortion. Our results demonstrate that residents of Tlaxcala view abortion as a personal decision and support a woman's right to abortion in more circumstances than currently allowed under state law.

  9. Unsafe abortion: a cruel way of birth control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 2, 2014 ... Unsafe abortion refers to a procedure for terminating an unintended ... has been accounted as a significant cause of ill-health ... to different political and social structures;2 infrastructure ... problem of unsafe abortions.

  10. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 613: Increasing access to abortion. (United States)


    Safe, legal abortion is a necessary component of women's health care. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the availability of high-quality reproductive health services for all women and is committed to improving access to abortion. Access to abortion is threatened by state and federal government restrictions, limitations on public funding for abortion services and training, stigma, violence against abortion providers, and a dearth of abortion providers. Legislative restrictions fundamentally interfere with the patient-provider relationship and decrease access to abortion for all women, and particularly for low-income women and those living long distances from health care providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists calls for advocacy to oppose and overturn restrictions, improve access, and mainstream abortion as an integral component of women's health care.

  11. Therapeutic abortion and its psychological implications: the Canadian experience. (United States)

    Greenglass, E. R.


    Approximately 9 months after a legal therapeutic abortion, 188 Canadian women were interviewed. One half were single and the rest were married, separated or divorced. They were matched closely for a number of demographic variables with control women who had not had abortions. Neurotic disturbance in several areas of personality functioning was assessed from questionnaire responses. Out of 27 psychological scales, differences between the abortion and control groups were found on only 3: in general, women who had had abortions were more rebellious than control women, abortion tended to be associated with somewhat greater depression in married women, and single women who had had abortions scored higher on the shallow-affect scale. However, all the personality scores were well within the normal range. Perceived social support was strongly associated with favourable psychological reactions after abortion. Use of contraceptives improved greatly after the abortion, when over 90% of women reported using contraceptives regularly. PMID:803127

  12. Access to abortion and secular liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arriada Lorea


    Full Text Available In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to legislators to reform the present law and decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments Brazil has assumed with international human-rights organizations, thus assuring the efficacy of civil liberties.

  13. Induced abortion frequency in Ankara, Turkey, before and after the legal regulation of induced abortion. (United States)

    Maral, Işil; Durukan, Elif; Albyrak, Selda; Oztimur, Neşe; Biri, Aydan; Bumin, M Ali


    To determine the effects of the 1983 law that legalized induced abortion on the number and place of abortions, and on the use of family planning (FP) methods before and after abortion, and to determine the demographic characteristics and reproductive health features according to the order of abortion. This study included 2455 married, widowed or divorced women presenting at Mother and Child Health-Family Planning Centres in Ankara. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Nearly three out of 10 (28.7%) of the women had undergone at least one induced abortion. In the age groups 45-54 and 55-64, 49 and 37.3%, respectively, had had one or more terminations of pregnancy (TOPs). The induced abortion rate increased following the enacting of the law. In the 15-24 and in the 55-64 age group, 55.6 and 89%, respectively, of the women had been aborted by a private physician. Before the index pregnancy, 63.1% were not using contraception compared with 37.3% thereafter. The rate of use of FP increased after the law was passed. Although the most common reason for having an abortion was unwanted pregnancy in all age groups and nearly 60.0% of the women aged less than 55 reported that they were not using any FP method at the time of the TOP, the proportion of women having undergone at least one of these procedures increased after the law was passed, indicating that abortion is used as a FP method.

  14. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization. (United States)


    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  15. Catholic options in the abortion debate. (United States)

    Maguire, D C


    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled.

  16. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita


    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  17. Factors associated with repeat induced abortion in Kenya. (United States)

    Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M


    Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.

  18. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion


    Bisera Mavrić


    This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challan...

  19. Policies Affect Preferences: Evidence from Random Variation in Abortion Jurisprudence


    Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan


    Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in th...

  20. Post-Abortion Syndrome: A Critical Review of the Literature


    Robins, Melanie


    Background and Aim Unwanted pregnancy and abortion are common life events, with an estimated 1 in 5 women experiencing an abortion within their lifetime. Although abortion itself is a relatively minor, safe procedure with minimal physical impact, controversy exists regarding the psychological risks associated with the termination of a pregnancy. A key argument within this debate is whether or not there is such a phenomenon as post-abortion syndrome. Therefore, this study aimed to examine t...

  1. Abortion and public health: Time for another look


    McCurdy, Stephen A


    Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly...

  2. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences. (United States)

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida


    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute pancreatitis following medical abortion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Hashem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis rarely complicates pregnancy. Although most pregnant women with acute pancreatitis have associated gallstones, less common causes such as drugs have been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who underwent medical abortion with mifepristone and gemeprost and received codeine as pain-relief during the induction of abortion. She developed a severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis which required 14 days of intensive care. Other possible etiological factors, i.e. gallstone, alcohol intake and hyperlipidemia, were excluded. Conclusions The reported case of acute pancreatitis was most likely drug-induced.

  4. Human rights dynamics of abortion law reform. (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M


    The legal approach to abortion is evolving from criminal prohibition towards accommodation as a life-preserving and health-preserving option, particularly in light of data on maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern momentum for liberalization comes from international adoption of the concept of reproductive health, and wider recognition that the resort to safe and dignified healthcare is a major human right. Respect for women's reproductive self-determination legitimizes abortion as a choice when family planning services have failed, been inaccessible, or been denied by rape. Recognition of women's rights of equal citizenship with men requires that their choices for self-determination be legally respected, not criminalized.

  5. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  6. Factor analysis of attitudes toward abortion. (United States)

    Corenblum, B; Fischer, D G


    700 Ss rated the concept abortion on a series of bipolar adjectives. Factor analysis of the ratings suggested (a) that Ss judged the concept along four orthogonal dimensions, immoral-repelling, cruel-destructive, emotional-serious, and rational-impulsive and (b) that males and females had similar factor structures. Polarity analysis showed that abortion was seen as immoral, repelling, bad, cruel, destructive, ugly, sinful, emotional, serious, rational and impulsive. Although this is highly unfavorable compared to the results of previous research, it appears to represent a liberal trend.

  7. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke


    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Unsafe Abortion and Alternative First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion in Nigeria and Ghana, we developed a computer-based decision analytic model which simulates induced abortion and its potential complications in a cohort of women, and comparatively assessed the cost-effectiveness of unsafe abortion and three ...

  10. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion | Buga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare ...

  11. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing secondtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively ...

  12. Teachers speak their minds about abortion during adolescence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Debates on abortion have escalated following the implementation in 1997 of the new law that legalises abortion from the age of twelve years in South Africa. Very often the person that opts for an abortion is merely an adolescent, who is still en route to adulthood. The adolescent's teacher shares the responsibility of the ...

  13. Characteristics of patients presenting with complications of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Abortion is associated with significant healthproblem with short- and long-term complications that affect the quality of life of those who are fortunate enough to escape mortality. This study evaluated the population of patients with complications of abortion, identified the abortion providers and the pattern of ...

  14. The Determinants and Outcomes of Second Trimester Abortion at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mid trimester abortion constitutes 10-15% of all induced abortions worldwide and accounts for the majority of complications. In Africa, studies demonstrating the proportion of second trimester abortions are few. However to appropriately intervene with a view to reducing the morbidity and mortality due to mid ...

  15. Factors Associated with Induced Abortion among Women in Hohoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment ...

  16. Induced abortion in Nigeria: findings from focus group discussion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is carried out daily in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion law. This study was carried out to obtain information on societal attitude to the issues of family planning, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, adoption of children and laws relating to them. Focus group discussions were held in south-western Nigeria among 11 ...

  17. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US


    Biggs, M.; Gould, Heather; Foster, Diana


    Abstract Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evalu...

  18. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...

  19. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review (United States)

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman


    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  20. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (United States)


    ... necessary to save the life of the mother. (2) Rape or incest. FFP is available in expenditures for abortion... care entities provide abortions in addition to those specified in paragraph (b) of this section, those abortions must be provided under a separate contract using non-Federal funds. A State may not set aside a...

  1. Pathology of Abortion-Related Deaths in Port Harcourt Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Mortality from abortion is usually preceded by septic or haemorrhagic shock. Aggressive resuscitative measures may help to salvage some of the patients, but the social and economic factors driving the increasing rates of unsafe abortions in the society must be tackled to reduce abortion-related maternal ...

  2. Teachers speak their minds about abortion during adolescence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Debates on abortion have escalated following the implementation in 1997 of the new law that legalises abortion from the age of twelve years in South Africa. Very often the person that opts for an abortion is merely an adolescent, who is still en route to adulthood. The adolescent's teacher shares the responsibility of the ...

  3. Women and abortion: the religious challenges | Yemisi | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is a passionate issue within the society. This paper discussed different perceptions about abortion, and since it is a medical issue there is discussion on abortion from the health angle, this work also consists of ethical arguments from different scholars., there is evaluation of issues such as the relation of the foetus ...

  4. Factors Associated with Induced Abortion among Women in Hohoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; ...

  5. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS) (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer


    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  6. Quantum Mechanics is Incomplete but it is Consistent with Locality (United States)

    Perlman, H. S.


    Quantum mechanics is seen to be incomplete not because it cannot explain the correlations that characterize entanglement without invoking either non-locality or realism, both of which, despite special relativity or no-go theorems, are at least conceivable. Quantum mechanics is incomplete, in a perhaps broader than hidden variable sense, because it fails to address within its theoretical structure the question of how even a single particle, by being in a given quantum state, causes the frequency distribution of measurement values specified by the state. This incompleteness of quantum mechanics as it is currently conceived is both fundamental and indefeasible. Failure to address the question of how the states of entangled particles are given effect to yield the correlations they specify is simply a particular albeit attention arresting instance of this incompleteness. But if that is so then quantum mechanics cannot be held to be inconsistent with locality.

  7. Incomplete Behçet's syndrome with unusual manifestations. (United States)

    Akoğlu, T; Paydaş, S; Sarpel, S; Tunali, N; Tuncer, I


    We report a case of incomplete Behçet's syndrome with two major criteria plus interstitial pneumonia. The patient had also hypoplastic bone marrow and disseminated intravascular coagulation developed during the terminal stage. PMID:3662652

  8. Reversible synthesis of incompletely specified Boolean functions using functional decomposition (United States)

    Rawski, Mariusz; Szotkowski, Piotr


    Conventional microelectronic technology reaches its limits, and reversible logic circuits might address at least one of the problems: unwanted energy dissipation. Unfortunately, current methods of reversible function synthesis have certain limitations, including suboptimal handling of incompletely specified Boolean functions and yielding circuit sizes (and costs) that can be vastly improved upon. This paper presents the application of functional decomposition as a crucial step in synthesis of reversible logic that cost-efficiently implements incompletely specified Boolean functions. A decomposition of an incompletely specified Boolean function into a network of smaller sub-functions, subsequently synthesized into reversible blocks and composed into a reversible system, yields significantly better results than direct reversible synthesis of the original, incompletely specified Boolean function. The experimental results presented in this paper demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach.

  9. Genetic etiology and clinical consequences of complete and incomplete achromatopsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Slingerland, N.W.; Roosing, S.; Schooneveld, M.J. van; Lith-Verhoeven, J.J. van; Moll-Ramirez, N.G. van; Born, L.I. van den; Hoyng, C.B.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Klaver, C.C.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic causes of complete and incomplete achromatopsia (ACHM) and assess the association between disease-causing mutations, phenotype at diagnosis, and visual prognosis. DESIGN: Clinic-based, longitudinal, multicenter study. PARTICIPANTS: Probands with complete ACHM (n

  10. Comparison of Outcomes before and after Ohio's Law Mandating Use of the FDA-Approved Protocol for Medication Abortion: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Johns, Nicole E; Combellick, Sarah L; Kohn, Julia E; Keder, Lisa M; Roberts, Sarah C M


    intervention. The most common subsequent intervention in both periods was an additional misoprostol dose and was most commonly administered to treat incomplete abortion. The percentage of women requiring two or more follow-up visits increased from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.0%-5.3%) in the prelaw period to 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5%-8.0%) in the postlaw period (p = 0.003). Continuing pregnancy was rare (0.3%). Overall, 12.6% of women reported at least one side effect during their medication abortion: 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8%-10.0%) in the prelaw period and 15.6% (95% CI: 13.8%-17.3%) in the postlaw period (p law went into effect (2010) to 5% (95% CI: 4.8%-5.6%) 3 y after (2014) (p law. Ohio law required use of a medication abortion protocol that is associated with a greater need for additional intervention, more visits, more side effects, and higher costs for women relative to the evidence-based protocol. There is no evidence that the change in law led to improved abortion outcomes. Indeed, our findings suggest the opposite. In March 2016, the FDA-protocol was updated, so Ohio providers may now legally provide current evidence-based protocols. However, this law is still in place and bans physicians from using mifepristone based on any new developments in clinical research as best practices continue to be updated.

  11. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets...... are incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  12. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally


    Salehi, Saeed


    We present a version of Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem for recursively enumerable consistent extensions of a fixed axiomatizable theory, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by M. Detlefsen 2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the Undefinability of Truth is Godel's First Incompleteness Theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is given.

  13. Incomplete Miller-Fisher Syndrome with Advanced Stage Burkitt Lymphoma. (United States)

    Özdemir, Zeynep Canan; Kar, Yeter Düzenli; Yarar, Coþkun; Þaylýsoy, Suzan; Bör, Özcan


    Lymphoma-associated incomplete Miller-Fisher syndrome is very rare. An 11-year-old boy who initially presented with headache, left ptosis, diplopia and weakness. Neurologic examination indicated left sided ptosis with ophthalmoplegia. Cerebral imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examinations were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed a mass lesion in the ileal loops. A bone marrow biopsy showed infiltration by Burkitt's lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma may present with incomplete Miller Fisher syndrome.

  14. Incomplete Stevens–Johnson syndrome secondary to atypical pneumonia


    Ramasamy, Anantharaman; Patel, Chiraush; Conlon, Christopher


    Steven-Johnson syndrome is a common condition characterised by erythematous target lesions on the skin and involvement of the oral mucosa, genitals and conjunctivae. It has been documented as one of the extra-pulmonary manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Recently, there has been several documentation of an incomplete presentation of this syndrome – without the typical rash but with mucosal, conjunctival and genital involvement. Our case illustrates that the incomplete Steven-Jo...

  15. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja


    ...%) end in abortion [1]. More than 200 million women in developing countries would like to delay their next pregnancy or even stop bearing children altogether [2], but many of them still rely on t...

  16. Time to second abortion or continued pregnancy following a first abortion: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Rose, Sally B; Stanley, James; Lawton, Beverley A


    What proportions of women have a second abortion or continued pregnancy within 12-46 months of a first abortion? Estimated return rates for a second abortion were 5, 10.9 and 19.8% at 12, 24 and 46-months, respectively, and rates of continued pregnancy were 5.6, 12.9 and 24.3% at the same intervals. Studies attempting to identify women at risk for 'repeat abortion' for intervention purposes have described a range of demographic and behavioural characteristics associated with presentation for more than one abortion, but few have taken timing of abortions into account. Retrospective cohort study involving women presenting for a first abortion at a public hospital abortion clinic in New Zealand (2007-2010). Electronically stored records were analysed for women discharged from a public hospital abortion clinic in New Zealand. Outcome measures were the proportion of women having a second abortion or continued pregnancy within 24 months of a first abortion, and characteristics associated with shorter time to subsequent pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to detect factors associated with time to a second abortion or continued pregnancy, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to estimate time to one of these two pregnancy outcomes. A total of 6767 women had a first abortion between 2007 and 2010. Some data were missing for 11 women so were excluded from the cohort and analyses. Return rates for a second abortion estimated from survival analyses were 5, 10.9 and 19.8% at 12, 24 and 46 months, respectively. Estimated rates of continued pregnancies were 5.6, 12.9 and 24.3% at 12, 24 and 46 months, respectively. Younger age, non-European ethnicity and greater parity were significantly associated with shorter time to a second abortion and to a subsequent continued pregnancy (P values). Hazard ratios (HR) for a second abortion were highest among those aged 16-19 years (HR 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-1.9, Reference 20-24), of Pacific Island (HR

  17. Distance traveled for Medicaid-covered abortion care in California. (United States)

    Johns, Nicole E; Foster, Diana Greene; Upadhyay, Ushma D


    Access to abortion care in the United States is limited by the availability of abortion providers and their geographic distribution. We aimed to assess how far women travel for Medicaid-funded abortion in California and identify disparities in access to abortion care. We obtained data on all abortions reimbursed by the fee-for-service California state Medicaid program (Medi-Cal) in 2011 and 2012 and examined distance traveled to obtain abortion care by several demographic and abortion-related factors. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors associated with traveling 50 miles or more. County-level t-tests and linear regressions were conducted to examine the effects of a Medi-Cal abortion provider in a county on overall and urban/rural differences in utilization. 11.9% (95% CI: 11.5-12.2%) of women traveled 50 miles or more. Women obtaining second trimester or later abortions (21.7%), women obtaining abortions at hospitals (19.9%), and rural women (51.0%) were most likely to travel 50 miles or more. Across the state, 28 counties, home to 10% of eligible women, did not have a facility routinely providing Medi-Cal-covered abortions. Efforts are needed to expand the number of abortion providers that accept Medi-Cal. This could be accomplished by increasing Medi-Cal reimbursement rates, increasing the types of providers who can provide abortions, and expanding the use of telemedicine. If national trends in declining unintended pregnancy and abortion rates continue, careful attention should be paid to ensure that reduced demand does not lead to greater disparities in geographic and financial access to abortion care by ensuring that providers accepting Medicaid payment are available and widely distributed.

  18. Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (United States)

    Dastgiri, Saeed; Yoosefian, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Kalankesh, Leila R


    Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide. Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women and identifying needs for appropriate related health policies and programs. Researchers searched Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID), Iranian biomedical journals (Iranmedex), and Iranian Research Institute of Information and Documentation (Irandoc) between January 2000 and June 2013, which reported induced abortion. Search terms from two categories including abortion and termination of pregnancy were compiled. The search terms were "induced abortion", "illegal abortion", "illegal abortion", "unsafe abortion", and "criminal abortion". The search was also conducted with "induced termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "unsafe termination of pregnancy" and "criminal termination of pregnancy". Meta-analysis was carried out by using OpenMeta software. Induced abortion rates were calculated based on the random effect model. Overall induced abortion rate was obtained 58.1 per 1000 women (95%CI: 55.16-61.04). In continental level, rate of induced abortion was 14 per 1000 women (95%CI: 11-16). Nation-wide and local rates were obtained 67.27 per 1000 women (95% CI: 60.02-74.23) and 148.92 (95% CI: 140.06-157.79) respectively. Induced abortion is a major public health problem that occurs worldwide whether under the legal restriction or freedom, and it remains as reproductive health concern globally. To eliminate the need for induced abortion is at the core of any effort for preventing this issue. Option with the highest priority is to prevent unwanted pregnancies through promoting reproductive health plans for women of reproductive age. In case the prevention strategies fail, universal provision of

  19. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability (United States)

    Tedesco, Mark B.


    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  20. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion. (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Clayton


    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.

  1. Streptococcus milleri and second trimester abortion. (United States)

    MacGowan, A P; Terry, P B


    Review of 214 fetal necropsies performed in the department of pathology, University of Aberdeen, showed 40 cases of chorioamnionitis or intrauterine pneumonia, five of which were associated with Streptococcus milleri. In two cases there was good evidence to implicate S milleri as the cause of infected abortion while in the other cases its pathogenic role was less clear. PMID:3558861

  2. Exploring South African adolescents' knowledge of abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored adolescents' knowledge of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act (No 92 of 1996) and attitudes toward abortion. A sample of 150 secondary school learners (aged 15 - 19 years), from a low socioeconomic area in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa was surveyed. Twenty percent of the ...

  3. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  4. Counseling View of Abortion in Nigeria (United States)

    Ogwokhademhe, M. C.; Sowho, Paulina O.


    Guidance and counseling are twin words that help people adjust to their psychological, emotional, social and psychosocial problems which tend to occur in human life. Abortion, which is a prevalent problem in Nigeria mostly among the teenage girls, has drawn the attentions of the counselors, teachers, guardians, administrators, researchers and the…

  5. Emergency Contraception Among Women With Abortion At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally between 15 – 30% of the maternal deaths are due to unsafe abortions. According to the Zambian demographic health survey (ZDHS), the contraceptive prevalence rate was 34% (CSO, 2003). The unmet need for family planning was 27%. Emergency contraception pill (ECP) was officially launched in Zambia in ...

  6. Motherhood and induced abortion among teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    February 2004. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 61. EDITORIAL. UNSAFE ABORTION AND MATERNAL MORTALITY: IS AFRICA PREPARED. TO FACE THE REALITY? Sub-Saharan Africa has, by far, the highest maternal mortality ratio today. It is estimated that the risk of dying from pregnancy-related cause for a girl ...

  8. The Psychological and Emotional Effects of Abortion. (United States)

    Arafat, Ibtihaj S.; Chireau, Ruby M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological and emotional effects of abortion on women who terminated their pregnancies for social, economic, or personal reasons. These effects were determined, in part, by an analysis of the woman's concept of self, the external support given, and the various coping mechanisms utilized in the…

  9. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion. (United States)

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others


    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  10. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke


    Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks. The differe......Medical abortion was performed in 461 consecutive women with gestational age LT /= 63 days using a regimen of mifepristone 600 mg followed 2 days later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginally. Success, defined as no surgical intervention, declined from 98.7% after 2 weeks to 94.6% after 15 weeks....... The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  11. Induced abortion among Jimma comprehensive high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the induced abortion cases were reported among individuals who were 25 years and less, the peak incidence being among 20–24 years age group (4). Because so many adolescents do not understand how the human body works and because they do not have access to health and family planning services, many ...

  12. Abortion: A Problem-Solving Approach (United States)

    Campbell, Lloyd P.


    The purpose of this article is to use the vehicle of a controversial issue--abortion--as a means of illustrating the advantages of teaching such issues through a problem-solving method. Discussion ideas and resources are presented. (Author/JR)

  13. Limb reduction anomaly after failed misoprostol abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uterine contractility and inductIon of abortion in early pregnancy by misoprostol and mifeprlstone. Lancet 1991; 338: , 233-1236. 2. Schonhofer PS. MIsuse of mlsoprostol as an abortifacient may induce malformations. Lancet 1991; 337: 1534-1535. 3. Coelho HLL, MIsago C. da Fonseca WVC, Sousa DSC, de ArauJo JML.

  14. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.


    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  15. Pregnancy and abortion in breast cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer in pregnancy is by itself not an indication for abortion. We document the case histories of 2 patients with breast cancer (recurrent or advanced) who elected to carry pregnancies to term. Pregnancy concurrent with or subsequent to breast cancer is not associated with a worse prognosis than would be observed ...

  16. Psychosocial factors influencing attitude towards abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the psychosocial factors capable of influencing abortion among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Two hundred (200) students consisted of 63(31.5%) males and 137(68.5%) females participated in the survey. The study adopted ex-post facto design. Their age ranged between 16 to 40 years with ...

  17. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage (United States)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.


    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  18. Attitudes toward the level of men's involvement in abortion decisions. (United States)

    Nelson, E S; Coleman, P K; Swager, M J


    College students completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward the level of male responsibility in abortion decisions. Overall, both men and women thought that men should have some degree of involvement in the abortion decision. However, as expected by the first hypothesis, men indicated a desire for more responsibility in the abortion decision than women thought the men should have. A second hypothesis predicted women would feel more strongly than men that abortion was strictly a woman's issue. Contrary to the hypothesis, women tended to disagree that abortion was strictly a women's issue. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument. (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H


    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  20. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Pourreza


    Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

  1. A New Approach to Abortion Informed Consent Laws: How An Evidence Law Framework Can Clarify Casey’s Truthful, Non-Misleading Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Jaswal


    Full Text Available United States Supreme Court doctrine has, for a quarter century, permitted regulations designed—through facts or nudges, but not force—to persuade pregnant women to choose childbirth over abortion. States have increasingly exceeded the bounds of this persuasive power by subjecting women to emotive and potentially distressing ‘information’ like real-time fetal images, heart beat recordings, or state-mandated directives by their doctors that abortion would “terminate the life of a whole, separate, unique, living human being.” This article advances a novel approach to informed consent in abortion that draws on established principles in the U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE. Evidentiary rules requiring “completeness”, exempting “common knowledge”, and prohibiting evidence that is “more prejudicial than probative” provide a sounder way for courts to determine which informed consent regulations on abortion mislead and demean a woman in ways that violate her constitutional right to make the ultimate decision about whether to continue a pregnancy. This evidence law framework would resolve conflicts between a woman’s right and the state’s interest by forbidding mandatory disclosures of incomplete, unnecessary, and emotionally charged information designed to promote childbirth over abortion.

  2. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms (United States)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam


    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  3. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective. (United States)

    David, H P


    This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services.

  4. Induced abortion in Iran: prevalence, reasons, and consequences. (United States)

    Ranji, Azar


    The aims of this descriptive study were to determine the prevalence of illegal induced abortion among participants, the factors that influence decision making to have an abortion, and the health consequences of abortion in Iran. Women who attended health centers or an antenatal clinic in Iran were interviewed to complete a questionnaire. Among the 2705 participants, 17% had experienced at least 1 illegal induced abortion. Education level, family income, religion, ethnicity, number of children, and age at marriage are associated with having an induced abortion. One-third of abortions (33%) were performed by nonmedical providers. The desire to stop or postpone childbearing and family economic problems were the most common reasons for having an abortion. Most women (84%) experienced a complication of abortion that required hospitalization. Strategies to prevent abortion complications are needed and could include training midwives and general physicians to perform abortions and promoting the availability of post-abortion care. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. Developments in laws on induced abortion: 1998-2007. (United States)

    Boland, Reed; Katzive, Laura


    Women's lack of access to legal abortion is a major contributing factor to high rates of worldwide maternal mortality and morbidity. This article describes changes in the legal status of abortion in countries around the world since 1998. The complete texts of new abortion legislation, most often obtained directly from government Web sites, were reviewed to determine changes. Background information was, where possible, also based on a review of complete legal texts. Other sources include the International Digest of Health Legislation (published by the World Health Organization) and Abortion Policies: A Global Review (published in 2002 by the Population Division of the United Nations). Since 1998, 16 countries have increased the number of grounds on which abortions may be legally performed; in two other countries, state jurisdictions expanded grounds for abortion. Two countries have removed grounds for legal abortion. Other countries maintained existing indications for abortion but adopted changes affecting access to the procedure. The worldwide trend toward liberalization of abortion laws observed in 1998 has continued. Recognition of the impact of abortion restrictions on women's human rights has played an increasing role in efforts to provide access to abortion.

  6. Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights. (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna N


    The legal regulation of abortion by gestational age, or length of pregnancy, is a relatively undertheorized dimension of abortion and human rights. Yet struggles over time in abortion law, and its competing representations and meanings, are ultimately struggles over ethical and political values, authority and power, the very stakes that human rights on abortion engage. This article focuses on three struggles over time in abortion and human rights law: those related to morality, health, and justice. With respect to morality, the article concludes that collective faith and trust should be placed in the moral judgment of those most affected by the passage of time in pregnancy and by later abortion-pregnant women. With respect to health, abortion law as health regulation should be evidence-based to counter the stigma of later abortion, which leads to overregulation and access barriers. With respect to justice, in recognizing that there will always be a need for abortion services later in pregnancy, such services should be safe, legal, and accessible without hardship or risk. At the same time, justice must address the structural conditions of women's capacity to make timely decisions about abortion, and to access abortion services early in pregnancy.

  7. Abortion practice in Mexico: a survey of health care providers. (United States)

    Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E; Haider, Sadia


    Little is known about abortion practice in Mexico postlegalization of abortion in Mexico City in 2007. In 2009, we anonymously surveyed 418 Mexican health care providers at the Colegio Mexicano de Especialistas en Ginecologia y Obstetricia meeting using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology. The majority of respondents were obstetrician gynecologists (376, 90%), Catholic (341, 82%), 35-60 years old (332, 79%) and male (222, 53%) and worked with trainees (307, 74%). Prior to 2007, 11% (46) and 17% (71) provided medical and surgical abortions; now, 15% (62) and 21% (86) provide these services, respectively. Practitioners from Mexico City were more likely to provide services than those from other areas. Most medical abortion providers (50, 81%) used ineffective protocols. Surgical abortion providers mainly used either manual vacuum aspiration (39, 45%) or sharp curettage (27, 32%). Most abortion providers were trained in residency and wanted more training in medical (54, 87%) and surgical (59, 69%) abortion. Among nonproviders, 49% (175) and 27% (89) expressed interest in learning to perform medical and surgical abortion, respectively. Given the interest in learning to provide safe abortion services and the prevalent use of ineffective medical abortion regimens and sharp curettage, abortion training in Mexico should be strengthened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters. (United States)

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B


    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B


    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event....... Results The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first...

  10. Unsafe Abortion- A Tragic Saga of Maternal Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Regmi


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite provision of adequate care and legalization of abortion. The aim of this study was to find out the contribution of unsafe abortion in maternal mortality and its other consequences. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in BPKIHS between 2005 April to 2008 September analyzing all the unsafe abortion related admissions. RESULTS: There were 70 unsafe abortion patients. Majority of them (52.8% were of high grade. Most of them recovered but there were total 8maternal deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Unsafe abortion is still a significant medical and social problem even in post legalization era of this country. Keywords: abortion, legalization, maternal death, unsafe.

  11. [History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979]. (United States)

    Manniche, E


    History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role.

  12. Induced abortion amongst undergradute students of University of Port Harcourt. (United States)

    Oriji, Vaduneme K; Jeremiah, Israel; Kasso, Terhemen


    Induced abortion is the termination of pregnancy through a deliberate intervention intended to end the pregnancy. This practice is widespread in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion laws in Nigeria. Many women still undergo induced abortion every year and endanger their health and lives as induced abortion can only be procured illegally in Nigeria. We hope to determine the proportion of undergraduate students who had induced abortion in the past and the contributing factors. To determine the proportion of the undergraduate students who support the restrictive abortion laws in Nigeria. A cross sectional questionnaire survey of undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt was done through a cluster sampling method along with focus group discussion with some of the respondents. 451 out of 500 administered questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The incidence of induced abortion amongst the respondents was 47.2%. About 40% had never used an effective form of contraception in the past and 13% were unaware of contraception. 77.9% of the induced abortion was by dilation and curettage and 1% by manual vacuum aspiration. Up to two third of the respondents were against legalization of abortion. Up to 47% of these undergraduates had performed abortion in the past. Protecting educational career was the single most important reason for this. Although most of these undergraduates are against legalizing abortion, they highly patronize unsafe abortion. Improving contraceptive awareness and usage will reduce unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion. This option appears next to total abstinence in reducing the morbidity and mortality from induced abortion in this country.

  13. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries. (United States)

    Boland, R


    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws.

  14. Abortion and the public opinion polls. 1. Morality and legality. (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Martire, G


    Analysis of 2 recent surveys of the attitudes of US women on the morality and legality of abortion and the political implications of those attitudes, and on the characteristics of women who report having had abortions. About 70% of women surveyed believed legal abortion should be available for any woman who wants 1, but only 1/3 believed abortion to be morally justified under all circumstances. Only a minority believed that abortion was wrong under the most commonly given reasons for abortion, and a substantial majority believed it is justified for reasons of health or in cases of rape or incest or a defective fetus. Because there was no single circumstance among the 10 choices which were held to be immoral by a majority of the women, a legal restriction which would not violate the consciences of a majority of women would be difficult to construct. While opponents of abortion are more likely than supporters to support political candidates solely on the abortion issue, supporters so far outnumber opponents that single issue voters are twice as likely to be prochoice than antiabortion. Little differences were found among Catholics and nonCatholics in the proportions that support legal abortions, although Catholics were more likely to have moral reservations. Strongest support for legal abortion was found among women who had had abortions, blacks, and from women who attend religious services less than once a month. Majorities in opposition to legal abortions were found in none of the subgroups. Comparison with surveys of abortion providers showed that the truthfulness with which women reported their abortion experience in these polls was greater among younger women: 80% and 60% of women under age 25 reported truthfully, while 32% and 53% of those aged 25-44 underreported abortion experience. Among other findings of the polls: at least 4 million US women now living have had illegal abortions; Catholic and Protestant women are about as likely to obtain an abortion

  15. Has mifepristone medical abortion expanded abortion access in New Mexico? A survey of OB-GYN and Family Medicine physicians. (United States)

    Espey, Eve; Leeman, Larry; Ogburn, Tony; Skipper, Betty; Eyman, Candace; North, Mariah


    The FDA approval of mifepristone in 2000 broadened the available options for abortion. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether physicians in New Mexico have integrated the use of mifepristone into their practice. We performed a mail-out survey of New Mexico Obstetrician Gynecologists (Ob-Gyn) and Family Medicine (FM) physicians in 2001 and 2008. Questions addressed integration of abortion services, attitudes towards providing abortion in different scenarios and barriers to offering abortion services. The response rates were 59% for the 2001 survey and 54% in 2008. In 2001 and 2008, 11% and 15% (p=.26) of physicians, respectively, provided any abortion - medical or surgical. Similarly, in 2001 and 2008, 5% and 10% (p=.07) provided medical abortion. Commonly cited barriers to provision of abortion in both years were beliefs against abortion and lack of training. The number of physicians offering any abortion or medical abortion in New Mexico has not changed since the FDA approval of mifepristone. Residency training programs in FM and in Ob-gyn should include training in medical abortion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The story of abortion: issues, controversies and a case for the review of the Nigerian national abortion laws. (United States)

    Omo-Aghoja, L O; Omo-Aghoja, V W; Feyi-Waboso, P; Onowhakpor, E A


    Abortion continues to be a major public health issue that evokes social, political, legal, cultural and religious sentiments and debates in all societies. This is particularly so in countries with restrictive abortion laws. It is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Despite variations in the legal status of abortions in favor of restrictiveness in developing countries compared with developed countries, overall rates are quite higher in the developing countries. This review article therefore, examines the historical perspectives of induced abortion as well as the issues and controversies associated with induced abortion. Also, a review of the Nigeria national abortion law is made. We believe that this is capable of identifying useful interventions for designing programs that will lead to a reduction in the burden of unsafe abortion in developing countries.

  17. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis. (United States)

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M


    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information.

  18. Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu


    Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.

  19. Gynecologists and the abortion issue in Serbia

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    Rašević Mirjana


    Full Text Available Traditional inefficient contraception, incorporated to a large extent in the system of values, has become a natural part of sexual relations in Serbia and represents a rational preventive choice from the individual standpoint. However, when pregnancy is unwanted or cannot be accepted out of any reasons abortion is used as a resort. For this reason there is a long history of a large number of abortions in Serbia. Research findings in our country identify the following, as the most important factors for not accepting modern values in this sphere: traditional contraception and abortion have a firm social confirmation; there is a trans-generational transfer of psychological resistance towards the use of combined oral contraception pills and intrauterine devices; sexual education has never become a natural way of growing up in the family, nor is a constituent part of school programs and that distinct obstacles of various nature exist regarding contraception availability. A developed network of various types of family planning counseling is an important determinant of the accessibility of contraceptive means and methods. There are, however, numerous conditions which have to be fulfilled in order for the contraception counseling services to function properly. Among them, motivated personnel who acquired general and specific knowledge for work in this field are an especially important prerequisite. This theoretical assumption opens the question -whether gynecologists represent an important factor of slow transition of birth control in Serbia? We searched for the answer in the research analyses obtained through two in-depth surveys which either had to do with this theme or tried to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of gynecologists. The first research regarding the determination of the causes for a large number of abortions in our country, was directed towards women who decided on abortion. Gynecologists were the target group in the second

  20. Biblical views on abortion: an Episcopal perspective. (United States)

    Wilson-kastner, P; Blair, B


    Much scholarly work has been done to determine the biblical and traditional attitudes about abortion. One must ask what was said and why, what was its context, and inquire about what was not said as well. This discussion identifies some of the conclusions reached in scholarly literature. The word "abortion" is not mentioned in the Bible, but much in the Bible speaks to the issue. The most obvious passage is from Exodus 21:22-25. This part of the Covenant Code legislates the case of a pregnant woman who becomes involved in a brawl between 2 men and has a miscarriage. A distinction is then made between the penalty that is to be exacted for the loss of the fetus and injury to the woman. For the fetus, a fine is paid as determined by the husband and the judges. However, if the woman is injured or dies, "lex talionis" is applied -- life for life, eye for eye, etc. The story has somewhat limited application to the current abortion debate since it deals with accidental and not willful pregnancy termination. Even so, the distinction made between the woman and the fetus is important. The woman is valued as a person under the convenant; the fetus is valued as property. Its status is certainly inferior to that of the woman. This passage gives no support to the parity argument that gives equal religious and moral worth to woman and fetus. The bibilical portrait of person does not begin with an explanation of conception but with a portrayal of the creation of Adam and Eve. Thus, the biblical portrait of a person is that of a complex, many-sided creature with the god-like ability and responsibility to make choices. The fetus does not meet those criteria. When considering the issue of abortion, the one who unquestionably fits this portrait of personhood is the pregnant woman. The abortion question focuses on the personhood of the woman, who in turn considers the potential personhood of the fetus in terms of the multiple dimensions of her own history and the future. In biblical

  1. Previous induced abortion among young women seeking abortion-related care in Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis. (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Ushie, Boniface A; Mutua, Michael M; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O


    Unsafe abortion is a leading cause of death among young women aged 10-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Although having multiple induced abortions may exacerbate the risk for poor health outcomes, there has been minimal research on young women in this region who have multiple induced abortions. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the prevalence and correlates of reporting a previous induced abortion among young females aged 12-24 years seeking abortion-related care in Kenya. We used data on 1,378 young women aged 12-24 years who presented for abortion-related care in 246 health facilities in a nationwide survey conducted in 2012. Socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and clinical histories, and physical examination assessment data were collected from women during a one-month data collection period using an abortion case capture form. Nine percent (n = 98) of young women reported a previous induced abortion prior to the index pregnancy for which they were receiving care. Statistically significant differences by previous history of induced abortion were observed for area of residence, religion and occupation at bivariate level. Urban dwellers and unemployed/other young women were more likely to report a previous induced abortion. A greater proportion of young women reporting a previous induced abortion stated that they were using a contraceptive method at the time of the index pregnancy (47 %) compared with those reporting no previous induced abortion (23 %). Not surprisingly, a greater proportion of young women reporting a previous induced abortion (82 %) reported their index pregnancy as unintended (not wanted at all or mistimed) compared with women reporting no previous induced abortion (64 %). Our study results show that about one in every ten young women seeking abortion-related care in Kenya reports a previous induced abortion. Comprehensive post-abortion care services targeting young women are needed. In particular, post-abortion

  2. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion. (United States)

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor


    Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women's health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion.

  3. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora


    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion. (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla


    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  5. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion (United States)

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor


    Background: Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women’s health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. Methods: After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Results: Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Conclusion: Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion. PMID:25349851

  6. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions. (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy


    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisera Mavrić


    Full Text Available This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challanging topic for those who find themselves facing the moral dilemma of whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. Problems of controversy are numerous. Is abortion a murder or not? Is fetus a person or not? When it becomes the one if ever till the birth? If abortion is not morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's right to have an abortion. If abortion is morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it is always impermissible to have an abortion. The comon dilema is whether having an abortion is less wrong than the alternatives. These are some of the questions this paper deals with.

  8. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira Madeiro


    Full Text Available Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  9. Abortion law, policy and services in India: a critical review. (United States)

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak S


    Despite 30 years of liberal legislation, the majority of women in India still lack access to safe abortion care. This paper critically reviews the history of abortion law and policy in India since the 1960s and research on abortion service delivery. Amendments in 2002 and 2003 to the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, including devolution of regulation of abortion services to the district level, punitive measures to deter provision of unsafe abortions, rationalisation of physical requirements for facilities to provide early abortion, and approval of medical abortion, have all aimed to expand safe services. Proposed amendments to the MTP Act to prevent sex-selective abortions would have been unethical and violated confidentiality, and were not taken forward. Continuing problems include poor regulation of both public and private sector services, a physician-only policy that excludes mid-level providers and low registration of rural compared to urban clinics; all restrict access. Poor awareness of the law, unnecessary spousal consent requirements, contraceptive targets linked to abortion, and informal and high fees also serve as barriers. Training more providers, simplifying registration procedures, de-linking clinic and provider approval, and linking policy with up-to-date technology, research and good clinical practice are some immediate measures needed to improve women's access to safe abortion care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca


    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  11. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms. (United States)

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio


    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause.

  12. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion. (United States)

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva


    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  13. Abortion training in Canadian obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. (United States)

    Liauw, J; Dineley, B; Gerster, K; Hill, N; Costescu, D


    To evaluate the current state of abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs. Surveys were distributed to all Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residents and program directors. Data were collected on inclusion of abortion training in the curriculum, structure of the training and expected competency of residents in various abortion procedures. We distributed and collected surveys between November 2014 and May 2015. In total, 301 residents and 15 program directors responded, giving response rates of 55% and 94%, respectively. Based on responses by program directors, half of the programs had "opt-in" abortion training, and half of the programs had "opt-out" abortion training. Upon completion of residency, 66% of residents expected to be competent in providing first-trimester surgical abortion in an ambulatory setting, and 35% expected to be competent in second-trimester surgical abortion. Overall, 15% of residents reported that they were not aware of or did not have access to abortion training within their program, and 69% desired more abortion training during residency. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, and residents desire more training in abortion. This suggests an ongoing unmet need for training in this area. Policies mandating standardized abortion training in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are necessary to improve delivery of family planning services to Canadian women. Abortion training in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynecology residency programs is inconsistent, does not meet resident demand and is unlikely to fulfill the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada objectives of training in the specialty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NSAIDs and spontaneous abortions - true effect or an indication bias? (United States)

    Daniel, Sharon; Koren, Gideon; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Levy, Amalia


    The aim of the study was to characterize the extent of indication bias resulting from the excessive use of NSAIDs on the days preceding a spontaneous abortion to relieve pain. We used data from a retrospective cohort study assessing the risk for spontaneous abortions following exposure to NSAIDs. Three definitions of exposure for cases of spontaneous abortions were compared, from the first day of pregnancy until the day of spontaneous abortion and until 3 and 2 days before a spontaneous abortion. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate time programmed Cox regression. A sharp increase was observed in the dispensation of indomethacin, diclofenac and naproxen, and a milder increase was found in the use of ibuprofen during the week before a spontaneous abortion. Non- selective COX inhibitors in general and specifically diclofenac and indomethacin were found to be associated with spontaneous abortions when the exposure period was defined until the day of spontaneous abortion (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.28; HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08, 1.59 and HR 3.33, 95% CI 2.09, 5.29, respectively). The effect disappears by excluding exposures occurring on the day before the spontaneous abortion for non-selective COX inhibitors and on the last week before the spontaneous abortion for indomethacin. In general, decreasing HRs were found with the exclusion of exposures occurring on the days immediately before the spontaneous abortion. The increased use of NSAIDs during the last few days that preceded a spontaneous abortion to relieve pain associated with the miscarriage could bias studies assessing the association between exposure to NSAIDs and spontaneous abortions. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  16. Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia. (United States)

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse


    In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.


    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  18. Tsallis Entropy, Escort Probability and the Incomplete Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Non-extensive statistical mechanics appears as a powerful way to describe complex systems. Tsallis entropy, the main core of this theory has been remained as an unproven assumption. Many people have tried to derive the Tsallis entropy axiomatically. Here we follow the work of Wang (EPJB, 2002 and use the incomplete information theory to retrieve the Tsallis entropy. We change the incomplete information axioms to consider the escort probability and obtain a correct form of Tsallis entropy in comparison with Wang’s work.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Considering the way that the world economy has evolved over the last 30-40 years, there was a transition from a predominant real economy to a predominant financial economy. Once, there were prevalent economic crises (when the real economy was important; today, the economies all around the world face prevalent financial crises; therefore, it is extremely important to study the role of financial markets, especially the incomplete markets feature (given by the imperfect information. The paper aims to analyze the relationship between imperfect information and incomplete financial markets and the way they are affecting the financial stability.

  20. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens


    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem......–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy....