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Sample records for abortifacients

  1. Abortifacient and antioxidant activities of different extracts of Musa rosacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Srikanth; T. Rajananda Swamy; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; B. Ganga Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate abortifacient and antioxidant activity of Musa rosacea (M. rosacea).Methods:Abortifacient activity was evaluated in rats, compared with standard drug (Mifepristone) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by using three free radicals (Superoxide, Hydroxyl and DPPH). Results: The extracts showed preimplantation loss, postimplantation loss of implantations and decreased the survival ration of foetuses. Among all extracts hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity. The selected plant extracts showed concentration dependent percentage inhibition of free radicals. Among four extracts hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity with IC50 values on superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH radicals were 180 µg, 218 µg and 116 µg. Conclusion:From the results obtained during the study it could be concluded that M. rosacea extracts have abortifacient and antioxidant components and the results support its folklore usage as abortifacient plant. Further is necessary for isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules which are responsible for these activities.

  2. Abortifacient activity of a medicinal plant "moringa oleifera" in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, N; Nath, D; Shukla, S C; Dyal, R

    1988-01-01

    Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated.

  3. ABORTIFACIENT ACTIVITY OF A MEDICINAL PLANT “MORINGA OLEIFERA” IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated.

  4. Antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of Areca catechu (betel nut in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To study the antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of ethanolic extract of Areca catechu in female rats. Materials and Methods : For antiovulatory effect, ethanolic extract of A. catechu at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses was administered orally for 15 days. Vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for estrus cycle. Rats were sacrificed on 16 th day. Ovarian weight, cholesterol estimation, and histopathological studies were done. Abortifacient activity was studied in rats at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses administered orally from 6 th to 15 th day of pregnancy. Rats were laparotomised on 19 th day. The number of implantation sites and live fetuses were observed in both horns of the uterus. Results : The extract of A. catechu showed a significant decrease in the duration of estrus at 100 mg/kg (P = 0.015 and 300 mg/kg doses (P = 0.002 as compared with control. Metestrus phase was also significantly reduced at 100 mg/kg (P = 0.024 and 300 mg/kg doses (P = 0.002. There was a significant increase in proestrus (P < 0.001 phase. However, diestrus phase was unchanged. Histopathological study of the ovaries showed mainly primordial, primary, and secondary follicles in the test groups as compared to control. There was also a significant (P = 0.002 decrease in ovarian weight and a significant (P = 0.021 increase in ovarian cholesterol level at 100 mg/kg dose. In the study to evaluate abortifacient effect, the mean percentage of abortion with 100 and 300 mg/kg doses were 75.5% and 72.22%, respectively, which was significantly (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively increased when compared with control. Conclusion : The ethanolic extract of A. catechu at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg has antiovulatory and abortifacient effects.

  5. The first finding of Neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilovská, S; Reiterová, K; Kovácová, D; Bobáková, M; Dubinský, P

    2009-10-14

    Neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern Slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. Sera of 382 sheep, mainly the Improved Valachian and Merino breed, were tested for the presence of anti-Neospora and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA, anti-Leptospira sp. by micro-agglutination-assay and anti-Chlamydophila antibodies using the complement fixation test. The mean seroprevalence of N. caninum was 3.7% and of T. gondii, 24.3%. This phenomenon of higher susceptibility of sheep to T. gondii is in the opposite of N. caninum infection in cattle. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were observed in 2.9% of serum samples with titres from 800 to 1600, whereas IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus were found in 13.6% with titres from 64 to 1024. Half of N. caninum positive sera were simultaneously positive for T. gondii and one sample for C. abortus. From examined abortifacient agents the most important, from the frequency point of view, were toxoplasmosis (24.3%) and chlamydiosis (13.6%). No significant association between the frequencies of the abortions and mean seroprevalence of the abortifacient agents in Kosice region was determined. Likewise, no significant differences between the mean seroprevalence of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis in the two regions were detected. The first survey of neosporosis in aborting sheep from eastern Slovakia revealed a low prevalence resulting in a lower impact on reproduction losses in these small ruminants.

  6. A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Zieglar, J; Hall, J O

    2012-12-01

    Isocupressic acid (ICA) is the abortifacient compound in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) needles, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle (Bos taurus). However, cattle rapidly metabolize ICA to agathic acid (AGA) and subsequent metabolites. When pine needles are dosed orally to cattle, no ICA is detected in their serum, whereas AGA is readily detected. Recent research has demonstrated that AGA is also an abortifacient compound in cattle. The observation has been made that when cattle are dosed with labdane acids for an extended time, the concentration of AGA in serum increases for 1 to 2 d but then decreases to baseline after 5 to 6 d even though they are still being dosed twice daily. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize ICA, and its metabolites, faster than naïve cattle. Agathic acid was readily detected in the serum of naïve cattle fed ponderosa pine needles, whereas very little AGA was detected in the serum of cattle conditioned to pine needles. We also compared the metabolism of ICA in vitro using rumen cultures from pine-needle-conditioned and naïve cattle. In the rumen cultures from conditioned cattle, AGA concentrations were dramatically less than rumen cultures from naïve cattle. Thus, an adaptation occurs to cattle conditioned to pine needles such that the metabolism AGA by the rumen microflora is altered.

  7. Progress with contraceptives and abortifacients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, A

    1992-10-01

    In Canada and most other comparatively rich countries, the total fertility rate (TFR) declined from approximately 2.5 in 1970 to 1.6-1.9 in 1990. The reduction was even greater in some countries such as China, Korea, Singapore, Mauritius, Barbados, Cuba, Guadeloupe, and Puerto Rico. TFR, however, has fallen little, if at all, in many poor countries; it remains at 8.1 in Kenya and has increased from already previously high levels in Somalia, Benin, Malawi, and Rwanda. The use of contraception has been instrumental in reducing fertility. An estimated 70% of married women in rich countries use contraceptives, and a larger proportion in Eastern Asia, but only less than 15% in Africa. Education for women generally increases the level of contraceptive use. Rates, however, depend upon the degree of both acceptance and availability. An estimated 20% of births in developing countries are unwanted, so it would seem that greater availability and variety of contraceptives could lead to reductions in fertility. Research into better contraceptive technology is frustrated by paternalism, most organized religions, concern over possible future legal liability, and fear of adverse health side effects, especially in North America. Depo-Provera and RU-486, for example, have yet to be licensed in Canada for use as contraceptive agents. Research nonetheless moves forward. A vaccine against pregnancy is reportedly being developed which may be available before the turn of the century. Clinical trials have been held, and the vaccine has been found to be effective in most women, lacking in side effects, and reversible. The prototype requires a series of injections. Elsewhere, the Alza Corporation of California is working on a transdermal patch to control fertility, while some success has been reported in trials of testosterone, alone or combined with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone, to suppress sperm production in men.

  8. Implication of Agathic Acid from Utah Juniper Bark as an Abortifacient Compound in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshly ground Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) bark was given via gavage at a dosage of 2.3 kg/cow twice daily to three pregnant cows starting on day 255 of gestation. All three cows aborted the calves after four, five and six days of treatment. A fourth cow was dosed Utah juni...

  9. Fusobacterium necrophorum determined as abortifacient in sheep by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, Bent; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2006-01-01

    at late pregnancy by a technique that combines laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (LCM-FISH). Cultural bacteriological examination had failed to identify an infectious agent but by histological examination, large colonies of bacteria associated with tissue......Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been extensively used for identification of individual microbial cells within their natural environment. The present work describes the identification of Fusobacterium necrophorum in formalin-fixed tissue samples from three sets of ovine twins aborted......RNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe specific for F. necrophorum was used in a FISH assay. In situ hybridization showed a high density of F. necrophorum in all examined tissue sections. Simultaneous probing with a general bacterial probe EUB338 and the specific probe for F. necrophorum showed that no other bacteria could...

  10. A novel highly divergent protein family identified from a viviparous insect by RNA-seq analysis: a potential target for tsetse fly-specific abortifacients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Benoit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In tsetse flies, nutrients for intrauterine larval development are synthesized by the modified accessory gland (milk gland and provided in mother's milk during lactation. Interference with at least two milk proteins has been shown to extend larval development and reduce fecundity. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of tsetse milk proteins using lactation-specific transcriptome/milk proteome analyses and to define functional role(s for the milk proteins during lactation. Differential analysis of RNA-seq data from lactating and dry (non-lactating females revealed enrichment of transcripts coding for protein synthesis machinery, lipid metabolism and secretory proteins during lactation. Among the genes induced during lactation were those encoding the previously identified milk proteins (milk gland proteins 1-3, transferrin and acid sphingomyelinase 1 and seven new genes (mgp4-10. The genes encoding mgp2-10 are organized on a 40 kb syntenic block in the tsetse genome, have similar exon-intron arrangements, and share regions of amino acid sequence similarity. Expression of mgp2-10 is female-specific and high during milk secretion. While knockdown of a single mgp failed to reduce fecundity, simultaneous knockdown of multiple variants reduced milk protein levels and lowered fecundity. The genomic localization, gene structure similarities, and functional redundancy of MGP2-10 suggest that they constitute a novel highly divergent protein family. Our data indicates that MGP2-10 function both as the primary amino acid resource for the developing larva and in the maintenance of milk homeostasis, similar to the function of the mammalian casein family of milk proteins. This study underscores the dynamic nature of the lactation cycle and identifies a novel family of lactation-specific proteins, unique to Glossina sp., that are essential to larval development. The specificity of MGP2-10 to tsetse and their critical role during lactation suggests that these proteins may be an excellent target for tsetse-specific population control approaches.

  11. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  12. Powder microscopy of bark--poison used for abortion: moringa pterygosperma gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J; Guha, G; Bhattacharya, B

    1978-01-01

    Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. (Moringaceae) is a soft white wood tree with a gummy juice which grows all over India. The bark of the tree, powdered, produces an abortifacient which causes violent uterine contractions giving fatal results. This abortifacient agent is used in the Bengali area of India. Laboratory preparation and analysis of the powdered bark is described.

  13. Effects of Inula viscosa leaf extracts on abortion and implantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dissi, N M; Salhab, A S; Al-Hajj, H A

    2001-09-01

    The anti-implantation and mid-term abortifacient effects exhibited by administration of Inula viscosa leaf extracts, were studied in rats. The aqueous extract administered i.p. on day 1-6 of gestation, totally diminished fetal implantation and caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the number of corpora lutea and blood progesterone levels. Meanwhile, administration on day 13-15 of gestation exhibited mid-term abortion. Furthermore, petroleum ether and dichloromethane, but not methanol, extracts exhibited pronounced abortifacient effects. The results of this study are in agreement with the traditional reputation of this plant as abortifacient. Further, the plant possesses anti-implantational and luteolytic effects.

  14. How safe are over the counter abortion pills-differences between its intended and practical usage and its implications - a study conducted in a tertiary care centre in Shillong, Meghalaya, India

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    Manika Agarwal

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Over the counter purchase of medical abortifacients without proper knowledge causes unprecedented maternal morbidity and mortality. National bodies should impose strict legislations to stop this. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3036-3040

  15. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    aborted fetuses from a single sow. The high prevalence of arcobacters in Danish pig abortions may account for at least some of the >90% of cases in which no established abortifacient agent is detected, but further studies are needed to define the role of each species, especially where co...... to examine pooled tissue samples for Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. Routine microbiological, immunological, and histopathological examinations were also performed to identify concurrent infections or histopathological change. The abortions tested negative for established abortifacient...

  16. The biomedicalisation of illegal abortion: the double life of misoprostol in Brazil

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    Silvia De Zordo

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the double life of misoprostol in Brazil, where it is illegally used by women as an abortifacient and legally used in obstetric hospital wards. Based on my doctoral and post-doctoral anthropological research on contraception and abortion in Salvador, Bahia, this paper initially traces the “conversion” of misoprostol from a drug to treat ulcers to a self-administered abortifacient in Latin America, and its later conversion to aneclectic global obstetric tool. It then shows how, while reducing maternal mortality, its use as an illegal abortifacient has reinforced the double reproductive citizenship regime existing in countries with restrictive abortion laws and poor post-abortion care services, where poor women using it illegally are stigmatised, discriminated against and exposed to potentially severe health risks.

  17. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is distributed throughout the western half of North America, where it is the most widely adapted and ubiquitous conifer. Ponderosa Pine contains isocupressic acid, a diterpene acid, which has been shown to be responsible for its abortifacient activity. The objectiv...

  18. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  19. Artifacts, intentions, and contraceptives: the problem with having a plan B for plan B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Philip A

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly proposed that artifacts cannot be understood without reference to human intentions. This fact, I contend, has relevance to the use of artifacts in intentional action. I argue that because artifacts have intentions embedded into them antecedently, when we use artifacts we are sometimes compelled to intend descriptions of our actions that we might, for various reasons, be inclined to believe that we do not intend. I focus this argument to a specific set of artifacts, namely, medical devices, before considering an extended application to emergency contraceptive devices. Although there is some debate about whether emergency contraception has an abortifacient effect, I argue that if there is an abortifacient effect, then the effect cannot normally be a side effect of one's action.

  20. Anti-fertility effect of flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd.Azeemuddin Mukhram; H.Shivakumar; ViswanathaG.L.; S.Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the anti-fertility effect of methanolic (MeTD) and aqueous (AqTD) flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in rats.METHODS:The anti-fertility activity of the extracts was evaluated using two experimental animal models:1) Estrogenic activity was carried out in immature female rats using ethinyl estradiol as standard.The evaluation parameters includes changes in uterine weight and histopathology of uterus.2) Anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity was performed in female Wistar rats.The number of implants and resorbtions were compared to vehicle control.RESULTS:Phytochemical analysis of MeTD and AqTD revealed the presence of carbohydrates,amino acids,steroids,glycosides,flavonoids,alkaloids and tannins.In estrogenic activity,the MeTD and AqTD were offered significant estrogen-like activity at 500 mg·kg-1,p.o.by increasing the uterine weight compared to vehicle control group.In Anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity study,MeTD (500 mg·kg-1,p.o.) showed significant effect and it was evident by decrease in the number of implants and increase in the number of resorbtions compared to vehicle control group.CONCLUSION:The MeTD at 500 mg·kg-1,p.o.possess significant estrogenic,anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity,while the AqTD at 500 mg·kg-1,p.o.was found to possess significant estrogenic activity and the results are in consistent with the literature reports related to anti-fertility effect of flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata.

  1. The effect of Bromelia pinguin extract on the pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matadial, L; West, M E; Gossell-Williams, M; The, T L

    1999-12-01

    A non proteinaceous extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit was examined for activity on the rat uterus in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo experiments involved pregnant rats given the extract intraperitoneally. These rats did not abort nor were any foetal deformities observed. The extract inhibited spontaneous activity of the pregnant rat uterus in vitro. These results do not support the claimed folklore use of the plant as an abortifacient. The extract of Bromelia pinguin fruit may have some utero-active compound which inhibits uterine motility.

  2. Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tanise Gonçalves; Augusto, Patrice Martins; Montanari, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is used in many countries, including Brazil, as an abortifacient. To determine its effect on pregnancy, the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of its aerial parts was administered orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day to mice between the first and third day of pregnancy (DOP), between the fourth and sixth DOP or between the seventh and ninth DOP. The extract did not cause preimplantation embryonic loss or reabsorptions. Fetal death was found. Estrogenic activity was not exhibited by the extract.

  3. Biological activities of ribosome-inactivating proteins and their possible applications as antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-pest agents and in neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Sha, Ou; Shaw, Pang Chui; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes which depurinate ribosomal RNA (rRNA), thus impeding the process of translation resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. They are produced by various organisms including plants, fungi and bacteria. RIPs from plants are linked to plant defense due to their antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities in which they can be applied in agriculture to combat microbial pathogens and pests. Their anticancer, antiviral, embryotoxic, and abortifacient properties may find medicinal applications. Besides, conjugation of RIPs with antibodies or other carriers to form immunotoxins has been found useful to research in neuroscience and anticancer therapy.

  4. Unfinished feticide.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, R P

    1990-01-01

    A fetus may survive an intentional interference with its intrauterine environment (1) if gestational age is mistaken and the procedure of induced abortion does not kill the fetus, (2) if a change of heart takes place after abortifacient drugs are taken and the abortion does not proceed, and (3) if a high-multiple pregnancy is reduced to a singleton or a twin pregnancy to improve the likelihood that the remaining fetuses will reach viability. In each case, through cause or coincidence, an abno...

  5. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits

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    Gözde R. Özalp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10–14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5 whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5 were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl. The treatment dose was 10 mg⁄kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating. Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits.

  6. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde R. Özalp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10–14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5 whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5 were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl. The treatment dose was 10 mg⁄kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating. Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits.

  7. A comparative analysis of methylome profiles of Campylobacter jejuni sheep abortion isolate and gastroenteric strains using PacBio data

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    Kathy T Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejuni sheep abortion clone (clone SA in the United States, and that strain’s association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences’ Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902 and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176. Several notable differences were discovered that distinguished the methylome of IA3902 from that of 11168 and 81-176: identification of motifs novel to IA3902, genome-specific hypo- and hypermethylated regions, strain level variability in genes methylated, and differences in the types of methylation motifs present in each strain. These observations suggest a possible role of methylation in the contrasting disease presentations of these three C. jejuni strains. In addition, the methylation profiles between IA3902 and a luxS mutant were explored to determine if variations in methylation patterns could be identified that might explain the role of LuxS-dependent methyl recycling in IA3902 abortifacient potential.

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Isocupressic Acid Supresses MA-10 Cell Steroidogenesis

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    Kuan-Hao Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of ponderosa pine needles causes late-term abortions in cattle and is a serious poisonous plant problem in foothill and mountain rangelands. Isocupressic acid (IA is the component of pine needles responsible for the abortifacient effect, its abortifacient effect may be due to inhibition of steroidogenesis. To investigate the more detail molecular mechanism, we used MA-10 cell, which is wild used to investigate molecular mechanism of steroidogenesis, to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of IA in more detail. In this report, we focus on the function of IA on important steroidogenic genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD. We found that IA does not affect enzyme activities of these genes but inhibits transcription of P450scc and translation of StAR and P450scc through attenuating cAMP-PKA signaling. Thus, steroid productions of cells were suppressed.

  9. The unique pharmacological characteristics of mifepristone (RU486): from terminating pregnancy to preventing cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Wang, Jichuang; Shao, Jingwei; Gao, Yu; Xu, Jianguo; Yu, Suhong; Liu, Zhenhua; Jia, Lee

    2014-09-01

    Mifepristone (RU486) is a born-for-woman molecule discovered three decades ago. Unlike those antihypertensive and antipsychotic pharmaceutical blockbusters, this abortifacient offers relatively low profit potential. Current understanding of mechanism of action of mifepristone and its on-going clinical trials are changing our views on the drug beyond its abortifacient scope. Here we briefly review its metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties including its unique enterohepatic circulation, its mechanisms of actions involving antiprogesterone and antiglucocorticoid, growth inhibition of various cancer cell lines, suppression of invasive and metastatic cancer potential, downregulation of Cdk2, Bcl-2, and NF-kappa B, interference of heterotypic cell adhesion to basement membrane, and cell migration. We comprehensively analyze recent results from preclinical and clinical studies using mifepristone as an anticancer drug for breast, meningioma, and gliomas tumors in the central nervous system, prostate cancer, ovarian and endometrial cancer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Although mifepristone has more benefits for global public health than we originally thought, its effect as a postmetastatic chemotherapeutic agent is limited. Nonetheless, owing to its unique safe, metabolism and other pharmacological properties, metapristone (the primary metabolite of mifepristone) may have potential for cancer metastatic chemoprevention.

  10. Antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb): an ethnomedicines used by tribals of Nilgiris region in Tamilnadu.

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    Ravichandran, V; Suresh, B; Sathishkumar, M N; Elango, K; Srinivasan, R

    2007-05-30

    The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in Nilgris is based on the use of plant medicine for many years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb (Simaroubaceae) (HEA) has been studied in rats to explore its antifertility activity. A strong antiimplantation (72%) and abortifacient activity (56%) was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.). The extract shows further more, significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. Simultaneous administration of extract with ethinyl estradiol cause significant antiestrogenic activity. All these observations suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa has antifertility effect.

  11. Phytochemical and biological studies of Ochna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Anil Kumar Reddy; Lee, Dong-Ung; Tih, Raphaël Ghogomu; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Bodo, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    The genus Ochna L. (Gr, Ochne; wild pear), belonging to the Ochnaceae family, includes ca. 85 species of evergreen trees, shrubs, and shrublets, distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Several members of this genus have long been used in folk medicine for treatment of various ailments, such as asthma, dysentery, epilepsy, gastric disorders, menstrual complaints, lumbago, ulcers, as an abortifacient, and as antidote against snake bites. Up to now, ca. 111 constituents, viz. flavonoids (including bi-, tri-, and pentaflavonoids), anthranoids, triterpenes, steroids, fatty acids, and a few others have been identified in the genus. Crude extracts and isolated compounds have been found to exhibit analgesic, anti-HIV-1, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its traditional uses. The present review compiles the informations concerning the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Ochna.

  12. MEDICINAL USES AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF PAEONIA OFFICINALIS

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    Ahmad F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia officinalis (European peony, Common peony has been cultivated in Europe for years. The root has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years mainly in the treatment for epilepsy and to promote menstruation. Root is also antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative and tonic and has been successfully employed in the treatment of convulsions and spasmodic nervous affections such as epilepsy. It has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough whilst suppositories are sometimes made of the root to relieve anal and intestinal spasms, hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Experimentally it has been proved to have antihypertensive, abortifacient action and anti-ulcer activity. The roots of this plant are of great medicinal significance in unani system and homeopathy. The roots contain asparagin, benzoic acid, flavonoids, paeoniflorin, paeonin, paeonol, protoanemonin, tannic acid, triterpenoids, and volatile oil. This review covers botany, traditional uses and the phytoconstituents of the roots of Paeonia officinalis.

  13. Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairwa, Ranjan; Sodha, R S; Rajawat, B S

    2012-01-01

    Trachyspermum ammi commonly known as 'Ajwain' is distributed throughout India and is mostly cultivated in Gujarat and Rajasthan. The fruit possesses stimulant, antispasmodic and carminative properties and is used traditionally as an important remedial agent for flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pains, piles, and bronchial problems, lack of appetite, galactogogue, asthma and amenorrhoea. Medicinally, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, broncho-dilating actions, antilithiasis, diuretic, abortifacient, antitussive, nematicidal, anthelmintic and antifilarial. Further, studies reveal the presence of various phytochemical constituents mainly carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, volatile oil (thymol, γ-terpinene, para-cymene, and α- and β-pinene), protein, fat, fiber and mineral matter containing calcium, phosphorous, iron and nicotinic acid. These studies reveal that T. ammi is a source of medicinally active compounds and have various pharmacological effects; hence, it is encouraging to find its new therapeutic uses.

  14. An unusual complication of unsafe abortion

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    Sunita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortion is a significant medical and social problem worldwide. In developing countries, most of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained personnel leading to high mortality and morbidity. Case Report: A 30 year-old female, gravida 7, para 6 underwent uterine evacuation for heavy bleeding per vaginum following intake of abortifacient to abort a 14 weeks gestation. The procedure was performed at a rural setup and her bowel was pulled out of the introitus through the perforated wound, an unusual complication of unsafe abortion. Illiteracy, unawareness about health services, and easy accessibility to untrained abortion providers lead to very high mortality and morbidity in India. There is unmet need to bring awareness among the people about the safe and effective methods of contraception and abortion services to avoid such complications.

  15. Daphne Genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. Water-Soluble Extracts Act on Enterovirus 71 by Inhibiting Viral Entry

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    Chia-Wen Chang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dried flowers of Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae are a Chinese herbal medicine used as an abortifacient with purgative, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the activity of this medicine against enteroviral infections has not been investigated. The water-extract of dried buds of D. genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DGFW was examined against various strains of enterovirus 71 (EV71 by neutralization assay, and its initial mode of action was characterized by time-of-addition assay followed by attachment and penetration assays. Pretreatment of DGFW with virus abolished viral replication, indicating that DGFW inhibits EV71 by targeting the virus. GFW exerts its anti-EV71 effects by inhibiting viral entry without producing cytotoxic side effects and thus provides a potential agent for antiviral chemotherapeutics.

  16. Antifertility efficacy of the plant Balanites roxburghii (balanitaceae in female rats

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    Padmashali B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and distilled water extracts of the fruits of the plant Balanites Roxburghii (Balanitaceae were tested for antifertility activity in female albino rats at a dose of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight orally. Among these, the ethanol extract was found to be most effective in causing significant abortifacient activity. The antifertility activity was found to be dose dependent and reversible on withdrawal of the treatment. Phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract showed positive tests for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavones, and phenolic compounds. The histological studies of the uterus and ovary were carried out to confirm the estrogenic activity. Acute toxicity studies of the crude extracts in mice revealed the non-toxic nature of the crude extracts.

  17. The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices.

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    Rivera, R; Yacobson, I; Grimes, D

    1999-11-01

    Modern hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices have multiple biologic effects. Some of them may be the primary mechanism of contraceptive action, whereas others are secondary. For combined oral contraceptives and progestin-only methods, the main mechanisms are ovulation inhibition and changes in the cervical mucus that inhibit sperm penetration. The hormonal methods, particularly the low-dose progestin-only products and emergency contraceptive pills, have effects on the endometrium that, theoretically, could affect implantation. However, no scientific evidence indicates that prevention of implantation actually results from the use of these methods. Once pregnancy begins, none of these methods has an abortifacient action. The precise mechanism of intrauterine contraceptive devices is unclear. Current evidence indicates they exert their primary effect before fertilization, reducing the opportunity of sperm to fertilize an ovum.

  18. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  19. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

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    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  20. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga.

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    Kaushik, Dhirender; Yadav, Jyoti; Kaushik, Pawan; Sacher, Disha; Rani, Ruby

    2011-10-01

    Traditional medicine systems consist of large numbers of plants with medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represent an invaluable reservoir of new bioactive molecules. Alpinia galanga (family Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as galangal and has been used for its emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, carminative, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory qualities and used in the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, heart diseases, chronic enteritis, renal calculus, diabetes, rheumatism and kidney disorders. It was reported to contain, among other components, essential oils, tannins, phenol, glycosides, monoterpenes and carbohydrates. In the last few years, new compounds such as gallic acid glycoside, galangoisoflavonoid,β-sitosterol, galangin, alpinin, zerumbone and kampferide have been isolated from various parts of A. galanga. Therefore, the present review is aimed to summarize the information regarding A. galanga concerning the new phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses that have appeared in recent years.

  1. Misoprostol and attempted self-induction of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M M; Fraser, K

    1998-04-01

    Sporadic reports have documented the use, in countries such as Brazil and Mozambique, of misoprostol to self-induce pregnancy termination (PT). This paper presents the case of a young woman from Mozambique who presented to a UK surgery requesting PT . She stated she was concerned about medication she had taken for epigastric pain in early pregnancy. She reluctantly acknowledged the medication was misoprostol obtained from a friend from Portugal. The patient had taken a total dose of 1000 mcg of misoprostol on the same day. After counseling on the potential adverse effects of misoprostol during pregnancy, specifically miscarriage and fetal abnormalities, the woman accepted but later declined a referral for induced abortion. She gave birth to a healthy infant. There is concern that the access to medical information from unregulated sources through the Internet will increase the potentially dangerous use of misoprostol as an abortifacient.

  2. Confirmation of Chlamydophila abortus in infected cell culture using Indirect Immunofluorescence technique

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    Krishnan Nair G

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus is an important abortifacient agent in bovines and ovines. Clinical diagnosis of the disease is often difficult. An early diagnosis can be achieved based on direct demonstration of the organism in clinical material and through the cultural recovery of the organism in embryonated chicken egg. For confirmatory diagnosis antigen detection methods or serological techniques can be adopted. The present study is aimed at the confirmatory diagnosis of C. abortus infection by indirect immunofluorescence technique following the isolation of the organism in cell culture. Specific apple green fluorescing inclusions of C. abortus in McCoy cell lines was detected from 72 h to 96 h post infection employing anti-chlamydial group specific monoclonal antibodies. Thus, a confirmatory diagnosis of the infection was possible with this study. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 473-474

  3. The contribution of environmental teratogens to embryonic and fetal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, R L; Beckman, D A

    1994-09-01

    Environmental causes of human malformations account for approximately 10% of malformations, and less than 1% of all human malformations are related to prescription drug exposure, chemicals, or radiation. Malformations caused by drugs and other therapeutic agents are important, however, because these exposures are preventable. As we better understand the mechanisms of teratogenesis from all etiologies, we may learn how best to predict and test for teratogenicity and apply this knowledge to the prevention of human birth defects. Spontaneous abortions account for a much higher percentage of reproductive failure than do congenital malformations, but a very high proportion of aborted fetuses are malformed or defective. Therefore, the consequences of abortion are much different than the consequences of having a survival malformed infant, from both the medical and psychologic perspectives. We are less certain about the contribution of environmental, physical, and chemical agents to the incidence of spontaneous abortion. Although we realize that spontaneous abortions are a significant medical and emotional burden to a family, a surviving malformed infant can be greater burden to that family. We do not have an accurate picture of the contribution of environmental agents to the incidence of spontaneous abortion. At the present time, it would appear that only a very small proportion of abortions can be attributed to exposure to environmental toxicants during pregnancy (Tables 1 and 2). Conversely, it is the scientific and medical community's responsibility to prevent the introduction and use of agents that cause unwanted embryonic and fetal loss. Because the teratogenic and abortigenic effects of environmental agents differ, one cannot conclude that an agent is an abortifacient because it is teratogenic, nor can one conclude that an agent is not an abortifacient because it is not teratogenic (Table 2).

  4. Evaluation of the oxytocic activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Alchornea cordifolia

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    Zuleikha Nworgu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea cordifolia has been used traditionally for the induction of labour as an abortifacient. This study is aimed at verifying the folkloric use of the plant by investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of the root bark on the isolated stilboestrol pretreated uteri of non-pregnant female rats. The extract (1, 10, 50 g/l, oxytocin (4Χ10−5 to 8Χ10−3 g/l, acetylcholine (4Χ10−6 to 8Χ10−4 g/l, atropine (4Χ10−3 g/l, phenoxybenzamine (4Χ10−3 g/l, diphenhydramine(2Χ10−1 g/l, and verapamil (12Χ10−2 g/l were used. Log concentration response curves were plotted and EC 50 and Emax were obtained. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Dunnet corrections using Graph pad Instat version 2.05a was used for statistical analysis. The extract produced dose-dependent contraction of the uterus. Its potency was less than that of oxytocin and acetylcholine (P<0.05, but the Emax showed no significant difference (P>0.05. The Emax values of the extract in the presence of all antagonists were significantly reduced (P<0.01. The EC 50 in the presence of atropine showed no significant increase (P>0.05; however, in the presence of phenoxybenzamine, the increase was significant (P<0.05. The presence of diphenhydramine and verapamil produced an inhibition such that the EC 50 was unattainable. A. cordifolia stimulates the uterus possibly by binding to alpha-adrenergic or histaminergic receptors or both. This indicates the existence of active principles in the plant, which may be responsible for some of the applications in traditional medicines as an abortifacient and in the induction of labour.

  5. Effect of plumbagin free alcohol extract ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. root on reproductive system of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gupta Sandeep; Ahirwar Dheeraj; Sharma Neeraj Kumar; Jhade Deenanath; Ahirwar Bharti

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of plumbagin-free alcohol extract (PFAE) ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae) (P. zeylanica) root, on female reproductive system and fertility of adult female wistar rats.Methods: After the oral acute toxicity study, thePFAE was administered at two dose levels to perform the estrous cycle study, anti-implantation and abortifacient activity and hormonal analysis. However, the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity was evaluated at only one most effective dose.Results:LD50cut-off was5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract exhibited significant anti-implantation and abortifacient activity at the tested dose levels (300 and500 mg/kg,p.o.) (P<0.01). The extract dose-dependently decreased the levels of serum progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, while a dose-dependent increase was observed in the concentration of serum prolactin. The extract did not show any significant changes in structure and function of uterus when given alone, but when given along with ethinyl estradiol, it exhibited significant antiestrogenic activity in immature overiectomized female rats(P<0.001). Biochemical parameters in the serum/blood and haematological parameters did not show appreciable changes throughout and after the course of investigation. However, all the altered parameters returned to normalcy within30 days following withdrawal of treatment. Conclusions: All findings suggest that the antifertility activity of extract could possibly be through the changes in the implantation site, altered hormonal levels, prolonged estrous cycle and anti-estrogenic activity. Hence, the extract possesses reversible antifertility activity without adverse toxicity in female rats.

  6. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

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    Nick Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus. This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity.Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i. and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways.W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  7. Efeito embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo de plantas medicinais Embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortive effects of medicinal plants

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    H.G. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso milenar de plantas medicinais mostrou ao longo dos anos, que determinadas plantas apresentam substâncias potencialmente perigosas. Do ponto de vista científico, algumas pesquisas mostraram que muitas dessas plantas possuem substâncias agressivas e por essa razão devem ser utilizadas com cuidado, respeitando seus riscos toxicológicos. Os efeitos mais preocupantes do uso indiscriminado de plantas medicinais são embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo, uma vez, que os constituintes da planta podem atravessar a placenta, chegar ao feto e gerar um desses efeitos. Este estudo objetiva fornecer uma listagem das principais plantas medicinais que tenham efeitos embriotóxicos, teratogênicos e abortivos comprovados, conhecendo as partes da planta utilizadas e seus respectivos nomes científicos, com a finalidade de alertar gestantes quanto aos riscos de seu uso. Realizou-se buscas nas bases eletrônicas de dados SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES e Google acadêmico. Nos resultados encontrados, plantas como Arnica (Arnica montana, Artemísia (Artemisia vulgaris, Arruda (Ruta chalepensis/ Ruta graveolens, Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron polyphyllum, Boldo (Vernonia condensata dentre outras, podem vir a gerar um desses efeitos. A partir deste estudo comprova-se que para a maioria das plantas medicinais não há dados a respeito da segurança de seu uso durante a gravidez.The ancient use of medicinal plants has shown over the years that certain plants have potentially dangerous substances. From a scientific point of view, some studies have shown that many of these plants contain aggressive substances and therefore should be used with caution, respecting their toxicological risks. The most important effects of the indiscriminate use of medicinal plants are embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortifacient since the plant constituents can cross the placenta, reaching the fetus and leading to one of these effects. This study aimed to provide a list of

  8. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles

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    Soledad Díaz

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.

  9. Incidence of ovine abortion by Coxiella burnetii in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, B; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; Aduriz, G; Moreno, B; Garcia-Perez, A L

    2006-10-01

    The infectious causes of ovine abortion occurring in 148 farms in northern Spain between 1999 and 2003 were investigated. Laboratory analysis included microbiological, serological, pathological and molecular techniques. Border disease was diagnosed in 16% of the flocks, toxoplasmosis in 15%, chlamydiosis in 12%, salmonellosis in 10%, Q fever in 3%, miscellaneous infections in 7% (Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Brucella spp.), and inflammatory lesions compatible with an infectious cause were seen in 7% of the flock. In an additional 1% of the flocks non-infectious causes were identified, and a diagnosis was not reached in 38% of the flocks. When a PCR retrospective study was carried out to investigate the possible implication of Coxiella burnetii in the cases without diagnosis, including those with inflammatory lesions, the prevalence of this pathogen increased from 3% up to 9% of the flocks, revealing the importance of this zoonotic pathogen as a small-ruminant abortifacient agent. Placenta was the most commonly positive sample, but other fetal tissues were also of value for C. burnetii DNA detection. The present results update information about the situation of abortion in sheep farms in northern Spain, and highlight the relevance of molecular diagnostic tools in routine laboratory analysis of abortions by C. burnetii.

  10. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and safety of Brucella melitensis B115 vaccination in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Adone, Rosanna; García-Seco, Teresa; Tarantino, Michaela; Diez-Guerrier, Alberto; Drumo, Rosanna; Francia, Massimiliano; Domínguez, Lucas; Pasquali, Paolo; Álvarez, Julio

    2014-04-01

    In spite of its limitations, Rev.1 is currently recognized as the most suitable vaccine against Brucella melitensis (the causative agent of ovine and caprine brucellosis). However, its use is limited to young animals when test-and-slaughter programs are in place because of the occurrence of false positive-reactions due to Rev.1 vaccination. The B. melitensis B115 rough strain has demonstrated its efficacy against B. melitensis virulent strains in the mouse model, but there is a lack of information regarding its potential use in small ruminants for brucellosis control. Here, the safety and immune response elicited by B115 strain inoculation were evaluated in pregnant ewes vaccinated at their midpregnancy. Vaccinated (n=8) and non-vaccinated (n=3) sheep were periodically sampled and analyzed for the 108 days following inoculations using tests designed for the detection of the response elicited by the B115 strain and routine serological tests for brucellosis [Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and blocking ELISA (ELISAb)]. Five out of the 8 vaccinated animals aborted, indicating a significant abortifacient effect of B115 inoculation at midpregnancy. In addition, a smooth strain was recovered from one vaccinated animal, suggesting the occurrence of an in vivo reversion phenomenon. Only one animal was positive in both RBT and CFT simultaneously (91 days after vaccination) confirming the lack of induction of cross-reacting antibody responses interfering with routine brucellosis diagnostic tests in most B115-vaccinated animals.

  11. Safety and efficacy of reduced doses of Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 vaccine in pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Nejad, Ramin Bagheri; Alamian, Saeed; Mokhberalsafa, Ladan; Abedini, Fatemeh; Ghaderi, Rainak; Jalali, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 10(6), 10(6), 5 × 10(5)). Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 10(6) Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 10(6) or 5 × 10(5) bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 10(6) or 5 × 10(5) live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.

  12. The state-of-the-art of emergency contraception with the cutting edge drug

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    Sarkar, Narendra Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidated the potential of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs to be an effective emergency contraception (EC. The data are extracted from the literature through the MEDLINE database service from 2000–2010. The SPRMs are in fact progesterone receptor ligands that could bind to progesterone receptor (PR and exert antagonistic, agonistic or mixed agonist-antagonistic effects. These SPRMs are mifepristone, onapristone, asoprisnil, ulipristal, proellex among other compounds. Currently developed SPRMs may exert contraceptive effects by inhibiting ovulation and retarding endometrial synchronization. Low-doses of progesterone antagonists retard endometrial maturation without affecting ovulation. Mifepristone being a SPRM is effective for prevention of pregnancy but with prostaglandin acts as an excellent abortifacient; yet could not compete with levonorgestrel as EC. However, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, another SPRM with similar effectiveness and side effect profiles as 1.5 mg levonorgestrel EC, has shown wider ‘window of effect’ by inhibition of the LH peak even if administered at the advanced pre-ovulatory phase, a time when use of levonorgestrel EC is no longer effective. Thus, ulipristal acetate goes one-step ahead of levonorgestrel in the field of emergency contraception treatment. Further studies are needed to explore the potential of other SPRMs to be cutting edge emergency contraceptive drugs.

  13. Spasmolytic effect of constituents from Lepechinia caulescens on rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hernandez, Nury; Ponce-Monter, Hector; Medina, Jorge A; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2008-01-04

    Lepechinia caulescens Ortega Epling (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb used in Mexican folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, gastrointestinal infections, dysmenorrhea and as abortifacient. In this study, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexanes extract of the leaves, evaluating the capacity to relax contraction of rat uterus rings induced by KCl (60mM), was made. The results indicated that, from the four isolated terpenes, spathulenol (1) was the most potent spasmolytic agent, followed by methyl 9alpha,13alpha-epidioxyabiet-8(14)-en-18-oate (2), 9alpha-hydroxydehydroabietyl alcohol (4) and dehydroabietic acid (3) studied at 10 and 30 microg/mL. The spasmolytic activity of 1 was totally reverted by addition of increasing extracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]o), while incubation of uterus rings with 1 in calcium free solutions reduced the contraction produced by [Ca2+]o in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the presence of L-NAME (100 microM) or propranolol (10 microM) did not block the spasmolytic effect. These results suggest that 1 induces a greater blocking action on voltage-operated calcium channels. EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the leaves, which showed slight relaxing activity, led to 4 and rosmarinic acid (5).

  14. Over the counter sale of drugs for medical abortion- Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India

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    Archana Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the well defined law and highly liberal policy Government approved medical facilities are not the leading provider of abortion in Indian Scenario. Whether legally or not Pharmacists are already acting as provider of medical abortion for large number of women in India. Dispense of Medical abortion drugs via pharmacist has the advantages of convenience, relative anonymity, hasty transaction, easy accessibility and saving cost.Aims and Objectives: Objective of present study was to assess the over the counter sale of medical abortion in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices of pharmacists of Delhi, India.Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional interview based study conducted in 110 pharmacies of 6 districts of State of Delhi.Results: A total of 75 pharmacists and 35 pharmacy workers were interviewed. Knowledge and practices of all of them was inadequate in some aspects. 68% knew Medical abortion is legal and 57% thought that over the counter sale of drugs of medical abortion is also legal. Only 40.9% knew the correct regimen of mifepristone + misoprostol combination.Most of them is not aware of any serious side effects and failure rate. Their attitude is indifferent towards the clients but positive towards training in updating knowledge if given option.Conclusion: Their knowledge, attitude and practices while dispensing drugs for medical abortion were inappropriate to qualify them as an independent mid level provider in present scenario. Unregulated OTC sale of abortifacients is responsible for high number of self induced abortion related complications.

  15. TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI (AJWAIN: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

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    Kamal Jeet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants as medicine is as old as human civilization. People of all ages in both developing and developed countries use plants in an attempt to cure various diseases and to get relief from physical sufferings. Natural products are a source for bioactive compounds and have potential for developing some novel therapeutic agents. Trachyspermum ammi commonly known as ‘Ajwain’ belonging to family apiaceae is distributed throughout India and it is mostly cultivated in Gujarat and Rajasthan. The plant is used traditionally as a stimulant, carminative, flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhoea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pains, piles, and bronchial problems, lack of appetite, galactogogue, asthma and amenorrhoea. Medicinally, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, cytotoxic activity, Hypolipidaemic, Antihypertensive, antispasmodic, broncho-dilating actions, Antilithiasis, diuretic, Abortifacient, Antitussive, Nematicidal, Anthelmintic and Antifilarial Activity. Over the past decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. The available literature on this plant divulges that it contains many phytoconstituents including carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, volatile oil (thymol, γ-terpinene, para-cymene, and α- and β-pinene, protein, fat, fibre and mineral matter containing calcium, phosphorous, iron and nicotinic acid. The present review summarizes the information concerning the pharmacognostic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies of Trachyspermum ammi .

  16. Trachyspermum ammi

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    Ranjan Bairwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trachyspermum ammi commonly known as ′Ajwain′ is distributed throughout India and is mostly cultivated in Gujarat and Rajasthan. The fruit possesses stimulant, antispasmodic and carminative properties and is used traditionally as an important remedial agent for flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pains, piles, and bronchial problems, lack of appetite, galactogogue, asthma and amenorrhoea. Medicinally, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, broncho-dilating actions, antilithiasis, diuretic, abortifacient, antitussive, nematicidal, anthelmintic and antifilarial. Further, studies reveal the presence of various phytochemical constituents mainly carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, volatile oil (thymol, γ-terpinene, para-cymene, and α- and β-pinene, protein, fat, fiber and mineral matter containing calcium, phosphorous, iron and nicotinic acid. These studies reveal that T. ammi is a source of medicinally active compounds and have various pharmacological effects; hence, it is encouraging to find its new therapeutic uses.

  17. Quelques vertus médicinales de Cassia occidentalis L. (Césalpiniacées en basse Cóte d’Ivoire

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    L. Aké Assi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available SOME MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS  L. (CAESALPINIACEAE IN THE LOWER IVORY COAST About 40 species of Cassia, a great number of which have been introduced, grow in different parts of intertropical Africa, in all types o f vegetation. The 14 species in the Ivory Coast are herbs, shrubs or trees. The local pharmacopoeia uses six of these species for various therapeutic preparations. The currently most used species is Cassia occidentalis L. commonly called Faux Kinkéliba. In the forest area of the Lower Ivory Coast, 11 medical preparations made from different parts of the plant are used. With its considerable ability to spread, this South American plant has become a pantropical one. It is found chiefly in the vicinity of villages. C. occidentalis is used for the relief and treatment of a variety of pains and diseases, for example as a cicatrizant, abortifacient, febrifuge, diuretic, laxative or cholagogue and tonic, and in cases of asthma, cataract, jaundice and kwashiorkor.

  18. In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil and the methanolic extract of Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadhi, Ch; Ghazghazi, H; Hamrouni, S; Hasnaoui, B; Maaroufi, A

    2013-01-01

    Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae), is an ancient aromatic medicinal plant still used in the traditional medicine of many countries as a laxative, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antiepileptic, emmenagogue and for dermatopathy treatment. Regarding increasing prevalence of mycotoxins and inefficiency of methods used to decrease them, it is possible to use plants metabolites to decrease mycotoxins. This study was carried out to evaluate chemical composition, antifungal and anticandidal activities of R. chalepensis extracts. The chemical composition of its essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GCMS). The major components of R. chalepensis essential oil were menthol (49.92%), linalool (31.1%) and 2-hexanal (5.2%). The antifungal and anticandidal effects of the essential oil and methanolic extract of R. chalepensis leaves were studied by disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method. The obtained results showed that R. chalepensis extracts had a significant fungicidal effect against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The inhibition zones diameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 11-17 mm and 3.25-6.25% (v/v), respectively. The methanolic extract showed much better antimicrobial activity than the essential oil against three tested micro-organisms

  19. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

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    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  20. Ethno botanical and Phytophrmacological potential of Abrus precatorius L.: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaniya, Narendra; Bapodra, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. PMID:25183095

  1. Ethno botanical and Phytophrmacological potential of Abrus precatorius L.:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Garaniya; Atul Bapodra

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products.

  2. Ethno botanical and Phytophrmacological potential of Abrus precatorius L.: A review

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    Narendra Garaniya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are being widely used, either as a single drug or in combination in health care delivery system. Medicinal plants can be important source of previously unknown chemical substances with potential therapeutic effects. Abrus precatorius L. is commonly known as Gunja or Jequirity and abundantly found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. This plant is having medicinal potential to cure various diseases. The roots, leaves and seeds of this plant are used for different medicinal purpose. It principally contains flavonoids, triterpene glycosides, abrin and alkaloids. The plant have been reported for neuromuscular effects, neuro-protective, abortifacient, antiepileptic, anti-viral, anti-malarial, antifertility, nephroprotective, immunomodulator, immunostimulatory properties, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic effect, etc. As this is a potential medicinal plant, present review reveals chemical constituents of leaf, root and seeds of Abrus precatorius. The plant is considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products.

  3. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

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    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  4. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

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    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  5. FLAVONE C-GLYCOSIDES AND CUCURBITACIN GLYCOSIDES FROM CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS

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    ABBAS DELAZAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae is an Iranian medicinal plant that has traditionally been used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. As part of our on-going studies on Iranian medicinal plants, thorough phytochemical investigation was carried out on this plant. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC was employed to isolate compounds from the butanol fraction of the hydro-methanolic (70% extract of the fruits of the locally grown C. colocynthis. Structures of the isolated compounds [1-5] were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The antioxidant property of the flavonoids 1-3 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Three flavone glucosides, isosaponarin [1], isovitexin [2] and isoorientin 3’-O-methyl ether [3] and two cucurbitacin glucosides, 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin I [4 and 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin L [5] were isolated and identified. Flavonoids 1-3 showed significant antioxidant properties. Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to tissue injury, inflammation, cancer and many other ailments, the antioxidant properties of 1-3 probably contribute, at least to some extent, to the pharmacological and traditional medicinal uses of the C. colosynthis.

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN WILD RUMINANTS IN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, José M; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; González-Zotes, Elena; Pereira-Bueno, Juana; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Rubio, Pedro; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Álvarez-García, Gema

    2016-04-28

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. Numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. However, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. We studied the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four national wildlife reserves: three open space reserves in northwest Spain (Ancares, Mampodre, and Riaño) and a fenced reserve in central Spain (Quintos de Mora). Sera from roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) and chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ) were collected in Ancares (roe deer), Mampodre (both species), and Riaño (both species), whereas red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) sera were collected only in Quintos de Mora. The results of immunofluorescence antibody tests showed a T. gondii antibody prevalence significantly higher in red deer (13%; 17/131) than in roe deer (2%; 5/228) and chamois (4%; 6/149) (Pexploitation of natural resources in wildlife reserves may help to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii infection.

  7. BITTER MELON: A BITTER BODY WITH A SWEET SOUL

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    Trivedi Rashmi V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon commonly called as karela in India, consist of number of constituents which contribute to nutritional value of the plant. It has long been used in India, Japan, china, Philippines, America and many other countries as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus, constipation, as an Abortifacient, an antihelimintic. Rich in iron, beta carotene, potassium, and contains vitamins C and B 1 to 3, phosphorus and good dietary fiber. It is believed to be good for the liver and found to contain insulin like components which are helpful in treating diabetes.Many of its chemical constituents have been explored for its benefits in treating conditions like malaria, viral and bacterial infections, pains, stomach disorders etc.. MAP 30 is protein isolated from bitter melon which has shown anti HIV and anti cancer activities. Constituents of bitter melon can be utilized for preparing many herbal formulations which can cure with no adverse effects. Thus we can say that bitter melon although bitter in taste but is filled with number of qualities in it for curing ailments in human being. In this article we have discussed some of the therapeutic applications of bitter melon in brief.

  8. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  9. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EVALUATION OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA

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    Gurvinder Pal Singh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. Is a small or medium-sized tree, about 10m high, found wild in the sub-Himalayan tract. The leaves are rich in vitamin A and C and are considered useful in scurvy and catarrhal affections. The leaves are rich in ascorbic acids, amino acids, sterols, isoquercetin glucoside, carotenes, rhamnetin, kaempferol and kaempferitrin. Flowers are traditionally used as tonic, diuretic and abortifacient considered as anthelmintic and also used to cure inflammation, muscle disease, tumors and enlargement of the spleen. All part of this plant is used for the treatment of ascites, rheumatism. Venomous bites and for enhancing cardiac function. In present study, the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by employing main model Carrageenan induced paw odema (Winter et al., 1962. The results showed a dose dependent decrease in size of odema when observed at 0hr, 1hr, 2hr, 3hr, and 4hr. This effect corresponded with the maximum effect of test dose at 2 hr (Carrageenan-induced paw. The p value<0.0001 was considered to be statistically significant.

  10. Toxic effects of the administration of Mikania glomerata Sprengel during the gestational period of hypertensive rats

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    F.B. Fulanetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is an ancient practice that has been gaining acceptance of the medical class through scientific studies that prove its effectiveness. However, its use should still be cautious. Medicinal plants have potential toxic effects not yet discovered, and may have unproven interactions with other medications. The use of drugs during pregnancy is still very dangerous and vigorously studied; however, there are few studies of herbal medicines in pregnant women. Existing studies prioritize on teratogenic or abortifacient effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the toxic effects of Mikania glomerata Sprengel administration, popularly known as “guaco” during the gestational period of hypertensive rats. For this experimental groups consisting of pregnant Wistar rats received treatments with guaco extract (1 to 2 mL. In order to analyze the possible toxic effects of guaco during pregnancy, weight gain of rats was assessed during pregnancy; reproductive performance of rats, morphological parameters, and fetal placental histology were compared. Although some parameters presented significant differences, we can conclude that changes prioritized by literature, such as toxicity, vasodilation and hypotension, have not been caused by guaco. The only fetal changes observed were due to the maternal hypertension. Some studies have reported vasodilator and hypotensive effects of guaco. However, only a few studies exist, and its actual effects remain unknown. Specific studies should be developed with higher doses of guaco for a definitive conclusion of its toxic and non-toxic effects.

  11. Safety and efficacy of reduced doses of Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 vaccine in pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes

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    Mohammad Ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 106, 106, 5 × 105. Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 106 Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 106 or 5 × 105 bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 106 or 5 × 105 live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.

  12. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Pang, Yaqiong; Yu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-04-19

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1-30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM.

  13. Trichosanthin Induced Th2 Polarization Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuying Zhao; Yanyan Wang; Haiming Wei

    2006-01-01

    Trichosanthin is extracted from the root tuber of Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii maximowicz (Tian Hua Fen). TCS has abortifacient, anti-tumor, anti-HIV and immunoregulatory functions. It has been proved that it could inhibit immune response and arouse a T helper 2 response in the draining lymph node. In the current study the effect of TCS on mouse splenocytes was investigated. We stimulated C57BL/6 mice with TCS both in vivo and in vitro and analyzed the change of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in mouse splenocytes. The results showed that TCS could induce the expression of IL-4, one of the major T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, and inhibit the expression of IFN-γ, an important Th1 cytokine in spleen lymphocytes both in vivo and in vitro. It is also shown the kinetics of Th1-to-Th2 transition after TCS stimulation in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. We found that type 2 cytokines, such as IL-10, TGF-β and IL-4 were increased regularly but IFN-γ was decreased at day 3 and then increased. However the mechanism for cytokine change is not clear. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):297-301.

  14. Abortions in sheep associated with Arcobacter skirrowii infection

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    Gareth F. Bath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The history, circumstances, clinical signs, post mortem lesions, morbidity, mortality and laboratory findings are described in an abortion storm in sheep that occurred in Mpumalanga, South Africa, associated with infection with Arcobacter skirrowii. Altogether, about 200 Suffolk Down ewes lost 60 lambs in late pregnancy or at term. Although only three foetuses were submitted for investigation, two had signs consistent with a diagnosis of A. skirrowii infection and the organism was isolated from the placentas of both specimens. No abortions had occurred in previous years, or have subsequently. There were no animal introductions prior to the outbreak that could have indicated a source of infection. One stillborn lamb submitted subsequently had lesions consistent with dystocia, and the history and circumstantial evidence indicated that dystocia had been a factor in several more losses. No ewes or rams had shown signs of diarrhoea or other diseases associated with A. skirrowii infection. Twenty-two faecal, preputial and vaginal swab specimens taken from six rams and 13 ewes after the abortion event were all negative for A. skirrowii. This is the first report of abortions in sheep associated with A. skirrowiiin South Africa. Because the genus Arcobacter is similar to Campylobacter, it is possible that infection has gone unrecognised in the past. Veterinarians and laboratories should take note and include this genus in the list of potential abortifacient organisms. The possible role of Arcobacter species in other diseases like enteritis and mastitis, as well as the potential role as a zoonosis, must be borne in mind.

  15. A mini review on chemistry and biology of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Planch (Ulmaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Karunesh Kumar; Jyoti Gupta; Navita Bishnoi; Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. (Indian Elm) is a very useful and popular traditional medicinal plant in India. During the last three decades, apart from the chemistry of plant compounds, considerable progress regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of Indian Elm has been achieved. Ethno-medically, the leaves and stem bark of this plant have been used by tribes as antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, abortifacient preparations and in the management of cancer. Recent studies on plant show that it has potential to fight against tumor and obesity as well. Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of chemical constituents such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and flavanoids. The isolated principles such as β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, holoptelin-A, holoptelin-B, hederagenin, hexacosanol, β-D-glucose, friedelin, epifriedelin, 2-amino naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthalenedione, are considered as responsible for various activities. This review highlights the traditional uses, reported biological/pharmacological activities, isolated compounds and therapeutic applications of Holoptelea integrifolia which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  16. Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations

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    Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos

  17. Influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesional development and parasite distribution in experimental ovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Solís, David; Benavides, Julio; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Fuertes, Miguel; Ferre, Ignacio; Ferreras, Maria Del Carmen; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Hemphill, Andrew; Pérez, Valentín; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2015-03-03

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, yet recent studies have also emphasised its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. In order to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of ovine neosporosis, pregnant ewes were intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at days 40, 90 or 120 of gestation. Infection during the first term resulted in the death of all foetuses between days 19 and 21 post-infection, showing mainly necrotic lesions in foetal liver and the highest parasite DNA detection and burden in both placenta and foetal viscera. After infection at day 90, foetal death was also detected in all ewes, although later (34-48 days post-infection). In this group, lesions were mainly inflammatory. Foetal livers showed the lowest frequency of lesions, as well as the lowest parasite detection and burden. All ewes infected at day 120 delivered viable lambs, although 3 out of 9 showed weakness and recumbency. Neospora DNA was detected in all lambs but one, and parasite burden was similar to that observed in day 90 group. Lesions in this group showed more conspicuous infiltration of inflammatory cells and higher frequency in foetal brain and muscle when compared to both previous groups. These results highlight the crucial role that the stage of gestation plays on the course of ovine neosporosis, similar to that reported in bovine neosporosis, and open the doors to consider sheep as a valid model for exogenous transplacental transmission for ruminant neosporosis.

  18. Phytotherapy and women's reproductive health: the Cameroonian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamen, Dieudonne; Mvondo, Marie Alfrede; Djiogue, Sefirin; Ketcha Wanda, Germain Jean Magloire; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice; Vollmer, Günter

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 80 % of the population in Africa use traditional medicinal plants to improve their state of health. The reason of such a wide use of medicinal plants has been mainly attributed to their accessibility and affordability. Expectation of little if any side effects, of a "natural" and therefore safe treatment regimen, as well as traditional beliefs additionally contribute to their popularity. Several of these plants are used by women to relieve problems related to their reproductive health, during or after their reproductive life, during pregnancy, or following parturition. The African pharmacopoeia thus provides plants used for preventing and/or treating gynecological infections, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruations, oligomenorrhea or protracted menstruation, and infertility. Such plants may then be used as antimicrobians, emmenagogues, or as suppressors of uterine flow. African medicinal plants are also used during pregnancy for prenatal care, against fetal malposition or malpresentation, retained dead fetus, and against threatened abortion. Some others are used as anti-fertilizing drugs for birth control. Such plants may exert various activities, namely, anti-implantation or early abortifacient, anti-zygotic, blastocytotoxic, and anti-ovulatory effects. Some herbs could also act as sexual drive suppressors or as a post-coital contraceptive by reducing the fertility index. A number of these plants have already been subject to scientific investigations and many of their properties have been assessed as estrogenic, oxytocic, or anti-implantation. Taking into account the diversity of the African pharmacopoeia, we are still at an early stage in the phytochemical and pharmacological characterization of these medicinal plants that affect the female reproductive system, in order to determine, through in vitro and in vivo studies, their pharmacological properties and their active principles.

  19. PAPITA FRUIT: A DELICIOUS REMEDY FOR DEPRESSION

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    Parle Milind

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Papita, a fibrous, juicy and tasty fruit, belonging to family Caricaceae is scientifically known as Carica papaya L. Traditionally, Papaya is used as an abortifacient and as a wound-healer. Furthermore, Papaya possesses several medicinal properties such as anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-fertility, hypo-lipidaemic, anthelmintic, nephro-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-amoebic, anti-bacterial and anti-sickling property. There are no reports in literature pertaining to CNS actions of Carica papaya. In the light of above, the present study was undertaken to test the antidepressant potential of Carica papaya fruit. Carica papaya pulp (CPP was administered at various concentrations ranging from 4% to 16% w/v, p.o. to Swiss mice for 15 days and Wistar rats for 6 successive days. The antidepressant activity was measured using forced swim test (FST, tail suspension test (TST and reserpine induced hypothermia model. The efficacy of Papaya was compared with standard antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine (20mg/kg, p.o., imipramine (15mg/kg, p.o. and phenelzine (20 mg/kg, p.o.. The results of the present study showed that Papaya pulp significantly decreased immobility time in both FST and TST models. It also reversed the hypothermia induced by reserpine. The efficacy of Papaya was found to be comparable to fluoxetine, imipramine and phenelzine. Furthermore, Carica papaya juice inhibited the monoamine oxidase MAO-A and MAO-B activity and reduced significantly malondialdehyde (MDA levels. These findings reveal the antidepressant potential of Papaya. The probable mechanism of action for the beneficial effect of Papita in depression appears to be related to its i MAO inhibitory activity ii tyrosine, phenylalanine (NE precursors and tryptophan (5-HT precursor content and iii antioxidant property.

  20. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for improved anticancer efficacy and bioavailability of mifepristone

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    Huijuan Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its well-known abortifacient effect, mifepristone (MIF has been used as an anticancer drug for various cancers in many studies with an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of action. However, application of MIF is limited by its poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. In this work, we developed a drug delivery system based on chitosan nanoparticles (CNs to improve its bioavailability and anticancer activity. The MIF-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (MCNs were prepared by convenient ionic gelation techniques between chitosan (Cs and tripolyphosphate (TPP. The preparation conditions, including Cs concentration, TPP concentration, Cs/MIF mass ratio, and pH value of the TPP solution, were optimized to gain better encapsulation efficiency (EE and drug loading capacity (DL. MCNs prepared with the optimum conditions resulted in spherical particles with an average size of 200 nm. FTIR and XRD spectra verified that MIF was successfully encapsulated in CNs. The EE and DL of MCNs determined by HPLC were 86.6% and 43.3%, respectively. The in vitro release kinetics demonstrated that MIF was released from CNs in a sustained-release manner. Compared with free MIF, MCNs demonstrated increased anticancer activity in several cancer cell lines. Pharmacokinetic studies in male rats that were orally administered MCNs showed a 3.2-fold increase in the area under the curve from 0 to 24 h compared with free MIF. These results demonstrated that MCNs could be developed as a potential delivery system for MIF to improve its anticancer activity and bioavailability.

  1. Mecanismos de acción de la anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia: efectos del levonorgestrel anteriores y posteriores a la fecundación Mechanisms of action of emergency contraception

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    Marta Durand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El mecanismo de acción del levonorgestrel (LNG como anticonceptivo de emergencia (AE es aún controvertido. Para quienes consideran que el embarazo inicia antes de la implantación, todo compuesto capaz de interferir con etapas posteriores a la fecundación y anteriores a la implantación se considera abortivo. Investigaciones previas sugieren que en seres humanos este método actúa también después de la fecundación. Sin embargo, en la actualidad existe sólida evidencia que demuestra que los efectos anteriores a la fecundación son en realidad los que explican la acción anticonceptiva del LNG. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia acumulada sobre los mecanismos de acción propuestos. Los consensos derivados de la información disponible establecen que los mecanismos prefecundación (inhibición o retardo de la ovulación son los que explican la efectividad anticonceptiva de los AE de progestina sola.There is still controversy regarding the mechanism of action of levonorgestrel (LNG for emergency contraception (EC. For those who state that pregnancy starts prior to implantation, any compound able to interfere with post-fertilization and pre-implantation stages, should be considered as abortifacient. Previous research suggests that EC in humans acts predominantly after fertilization. Current evidence with LNG-only EC supports a pre-fertilization mechanisms to explain its action. There are many potential mechanisms of action, which could vary pending on the day during the fertilization window of the ovarian cycle at which the contraceptive is given. This paper reviews the evidence for each potential mechanism of action. According to the most recently statements, it is concluded that the primary and possible the only mechanism of action of LNG-only EC is preventing or delaying ovulation.

  2. Evaluation of vaccine candidate potential of deltaaroA, deltahtrA and deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutants of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Chandra, Mudit; Hansda, Dhananjoy; Alam, Javed; Babu, Narayanan; Siddiqui, Mehtab Z; Agrawal, Ravi K; Sharma, Gautam

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi), a host adapted Salmonella causes abortions, still births and foal mortality in equids. Though known since more than 100 years, it is still a problem in many of the developing countries including India. There is dearth of really good vaccine affording immunity lasting at least for one full gestation. In search of a potential vaccine candidate, three defined deletion mutants (deltaaroA, deltahtrA and deltaaroAdeltahtrA) of S. Abortusequi were tested in guinea pig model for attenuation, safety, immunogenicity, humoral immune response, protective efficacy and persistence in host. The deltahtrA and deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutants were found to be safe on oral inoculation in doses as high as 4.2 x 10(9) cfu/animal. Also through subcutaneous inoculation deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutant did not induce any abortion in pregnant guinea pigs. All the three mutants did not induce any illness or death in 1-2 week-old baby guinea pigs except deltahtrA mutant which caused mortality on intraperitoneal inoculation. Inoculation with mutants protected against challenge and increased breeding efficiency of guinea pigs. After >4.5 months of mutant inoculation, guinea pigs were protected against abortifacient dose of wild type S. Abortusequi and mother guinea pigs also conferred resistance to their babies to the similar challenge. Early humoral immune response of S. Abortusequi mutants was characteristic. Faecal excretion of deltaaroA and htrA mutants was detected up to 45 days of inoculation in guinea pigs while deltaaroAdeltahtrA mutant could not be detected after 21 days of inoculation. The results indicated that the double deletion mutant (deltaaroAdeltahtrA) was the most effective and safe candidate for vaccination against S. Abortusequi through mucosal route of inoculation.

  3. A sour note on Roe vs. Wade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J A

    1991-01-01

    While many have praised Roe v. Wade, and pro-choice groups have tried to protect it, the decision may be overpraised since it places the abortion decision in the hands of the medical profession, rather than the woman's making abortion availability dependent upon a physician's willingness to perform and abortion. This has meant that in many parts of the country a pregnant woman seeking an abortion must travel some distance and deal with strangers in her quest for an abortion. To become independent of the law and of the medical profession, feminist organizations should regenerate the pre-Roe network for nonphysician abortions. The abortifacient medication, RU-486, is manufactured by pharmaceutical companies and prescribed by physicians. It will suffer the same limitations as Roe: controls by the laws, antifeminist institutions, and by the medical profession. Feminist organizations should begin examining how they can gain control over the medication. Beyond the short-term goals of battling restrictions on the Supreme Court decision, on Medicaid cutbacks, and on parental consent laws, organizers should focus more on placing complete control over fertility directly in the hands of pregnant women. This does not necessarily mean an "ongoing war between women's organizations which try to maintain control of their fertility and police agencies engaged in crack downs including raids, confiscation of equipment and written materials, arrest, harsh punishments[.]" Examples exist of successful underground organizations providing information and referrals for abortions, and even for the successful production and distribution of illegal drugs as a model for RU-486. The AIDS organizations, Poland's Solidarity movement, and the US's Sanctuary movement offer other models. It remains to be seen whether feminists and women's rights organizations can generate enough solidarity, fervor, and willingness to take risks to allow them to carry on an open conspiracy against authoritative

  4. Systemic and local immune responses in sheep after Neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Solís, David; Benavides, Julio; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Horcajo, Pilar; Castaño, Pablo; del Carmen Ferreras, María; Jiménez-Pelayo, Laura; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Ferre, Ignacio; Hemphill, Andrew; Pérez, Valentín; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-06

    Besides its importance in cattle, Neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. We have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10(6) Nc-Spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. In the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals. Serological analysis revealed earlier and higher IFN-γ and IgG responses in ewes infected at early (G1) and mid (G2) gestation, when abortion occurred. IL-4 was not detected in sera from any sheep. Inflammatory infiltrates in the placenta mainly consisted of CD8+ and, to a lesser extent, CD4+ T cells and macrophages (CD163+). The infiltrate was more intense in sheep infected at mid-gestation. In the foetal mesenchyme, mostly free tachyzoites were found in animals infected at G1, while those infected in G2 displayed predominantly particulate antigen, and parasitophorous vacuoles were detected in sheep infected at G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine mRNA expression was found in all groups, displaying a strengthened upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-4 and milder increases of TNF-α and IL-10, reminiscent of a mixed Th1 and Th2 response. IL-12 and IL-6 were only slightly upregulated in G2, and TGF-β was downregulated in G1 and G2, suggestive of limited T regulatory (Treg) cell activity. No significant expression of TLR2 or TLR4 could be detected. In summary, this study confirms the pivotal role of systemic and local immune responses at different times of gestation during N. caninum infection in sheep.

  5. Multi-omics approaches to deciphering a hypervirulent strain of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuowei; Sahin, Orhan; Shen, Zhangqi; Liu, Peng; Miller, William G; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni clone SA recently emerged as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States and is also associated with foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. A distinct phenotype of this clone is its ability to induce bacteremia and abortion. To facilitate understanding the pathogenesis of this hypervirulent clone, we analyzed a clinical isolate (IA3902) of clone SA using multi-omics approaches. The genome of IA3902 contains a circular chromosome of 1,635,045 bp and a circular plasmid of 37,174 bp. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that IA3902 is most closely related to C. jejuni NCTC11168, which is a reference strain and was previously shown to be non-abortifacient in pregnant animals. Despite the high genomic synteny and sequence homology, there are 12 variable regions (VRs) and 8,696 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and indels between the two genomes. Notably, the variable genes in the capsular polysaccharides biosynthesis and O-linked glycosylation loci of IA3902 are highly homogenous to their counterparts in C. jejuni subsp. doylei and C. jejuni G1, which are known to be frequently associated with bacteremia. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiles were conducted to compare IA3902 with NCTC11168, which revealed that the pathways of energy generation, motility, and serine utilization were significantly up-regulated in IA3902, whereas the pathways of iron uptake and proline, glutamate, aspartate, and lactate utilization were significantly down-regulated. These results suggest that C. jejuni clone SA has evolved distinct genomic content and gene expression patterns that modulate surface polysacharide structures, motilitiy, and metabolic pathways. These changes may have contributed to its hyper-virulence in abortion induction.

  6. Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats

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    Nworgu Z.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration, was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration, acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 µg/ml: final bath concentration and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 µg/ml: final bath concentration induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration salbutamol and (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01, acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001 and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001 to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05 of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml produced significant ( P < 0.0001 reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.

  7. The IUD: dispelling the myths and assessing the potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishell Dr; Sulak, P J

    1997-01-01

    While the IUD is the most widely used method of reversible contraception throughout the rest of the world, it is used by only 1% of women in the US. Misperceptions that inhibit use of the IUD in the US include 1) the belief that the device works as an abortifacient when, in fact, the mechanism of action of copper releasing IUDs is contraceptive; 2) the belief that all IUDs increase risk of pelvic infection when, in fact, the Dalkon shield is the only IUD associated with increased risk because its multifilament tail allowed bacteria to ascend into the uterine cavity; 3) the association of IUD usage with increased risk of ectopic pregnancy despite the evidence that copper-bearing IUDs actually reduce risk of ectopic pregnancy; and 4) fears that IUD prescribers increase their legal liability although these fears can be allayed by reviewing product information with users, obtaining their informed consent to IUD use, and documenting the provision of detailed postinsertion instructions. Both the copper-releasing and the progesterone-containing IUDs provide effective contraception associated with very low pregnancy rates. Complications of use include expulsions, which occur most frequently in the first 3 months of use and are associated with young age of the women, immediate postpartum insertion, nulliparity, and the skill of the clinician. Uterine perforation upon insertion is extremely rare, and risk depends upon clinician skill. Risk of spontaneous abortion increases if IUDs are left in place during pregnancy. The main reason for discontinuation are increased menstrual bleeding and pain in users, although the progesterone IUD is associated with reduced blood loss. Discontinuation is accompanied by a rapid return to fertility. After screening IUD candidates for risk factors, insertion can occur at any time as long as pregnancy is ruled out (with postpartum insertion recommended after 4 weeks). Users should receive detailed instructions about how to check for expulsion

  8. OVERVIEW OF INDIAN MEDICINAL TREE: BAMBUSA BAMBOS (DRUCE

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    Kaikini Aakruti A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have a great potential for pharmacological activities. Bambusa bambos family Graminae is highly reputed Ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as bamboo. It is tall sized tree growing throughout India. It also occurs in Srilanka, Malaya, Peru and Myanmar. Bambusa bambos has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage as folklore medicine. It is widely used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, astringent, laxative, diuretic, anti-ulcer, anti-arthritic, anti-obesity and abortifacient activities. The various chemical constituents reported in this plant are oxalic acid, chorogenic acid, ferulicacid,coumeric acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillinic acid, caffeic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, benzoic acid, diferuloylarabinoxylanhexasaccharide, diferuloyl oligosaccharide, (5, 5’-di-(diferul9,9’-dioyl-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-9-(1→4-D-xylopyranose] (taxiphyllin, arginine, cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenlyamine, threonine, valine, tyrosine, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, betain, choline, proteolytic enzymes, nuclease, urease. Pharmacological evaluation of various parts of the plant have demonstrated antioxidant, anthelminthic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fertility, hypothermic, anti-thyroid anti-tumour and ecbolic activities. Various phyto-pharmacological evaluations have been reported in this literature which indicates the potential of Bambusa bambos as a therapeutic agent. This review mainly focuses on traditional, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological information of Bambusa bambos.

  9. Round table on RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallat, L

    1993-01-01

    As a non-invasive means of early abortion, RU-486 has the potential to increase women's reproductive options; at the same time, the "abortion pill" has stimulated debate about the ethics and safety of new medical technologies. When combined with a prostaglandin (PG), the success rate for RU-486 is 96% for pregnancies of up to 9 weeks' gestation. In France, over 120,000 women have used RU-486/PG to terminate pregnancy, and this regimen is now used in about 25% of abortions. Clinical trials of RU-486 are underway in Cuba, China, India, Singapore, and Zambia. The Program for Appropriate Technology has identified four considerations for introducing RU-486 to developing countries: whether abortion or menstrual regulation is legal; whether women find the method acceptable and can comply with the multiple visit treatment regimen; whether the health infrastructure can support safe method use, including prevention of misuse and provision of appropriate medical backup personnel and facilities; and whether the cost of the regimen is affordable to individuals and/or programs --conditions unlikely to be met in most such countries. Ideal would be development of a medical abortifacient that is single dose and the lowest possible dose of each drug, provokes miscarriage within a more predictable time frame with less acute and prolonged bleeding, is safe and effective beyond two months, has minimal side effects, and maximizes short-term safety and minimizes long-term effects. Technological advances are being undermined, however, by political and religious attacks on the method. Even some feminists have expressed concerns about potential long-term effects of RU-486 use.

  10. "Right tool," wrong "job": Manual vacuum aspiration, post-abortion care and transnational population politics in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2015-06-01

    The "rightness" of a technology for completing a particular task is negotiated by medical professionals, patients, state institutions, manufacturing companies, and non-governmental organizations. This paper shows how certain technologies may challenge the meaning of the "job" they are designed to accomplish. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is a syringe device for uterine evacuation that can be used to treat complications of incomplete abortion, known as post-abortion care (PAC), or to terminate pregnancy. I explore how negotiations over the rightness of MVA as well as PAC unfold at the intersection of national and global reproductive politics during the daily treatment of abortion complications at three hospitals in Senegal, where PAC is permitted but induced abortion is legally prohibited. Although state health authorities have championed MVA as the "preferred" PAC technology, the primary donor for PAC, the United States Agency for International Development, does not support the purchase of abortifacient technologies. I conducted an ethnography of Senegal's PAC program between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included interviews with 49 health professionals, observation of PAC treatment and review of abortion records at three hospitals, and a review of transnational literature on MVA and PAC. While MVA was the most frequently employed form of uterine evacuation in hospitals, concerns about off-label MVA practices contributed to the persistence of less effective methods such as dilation and curettage (D&C) and digital curettage. Anxieties about MVA's capacity to induce abortion have constrained its integration into routine obstetric care. This capacity also raises questions about what the "job," PAC, represents in Senegalese hospitals. The prioritization of MVA's security over women's access to the preferred technology reinforces gendered inequalities in health care.

  11. Effects of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae on the central nervous system in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tubuly Rida A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘raetam’ or ‘broom bush’, is a desert shrub that grows abundantly in North-African countries, Palestine and Syria. Traditionally, this plant has been used as an abortifacient, a purgative and a vermifuge. In the present study, the effect of the methanol (MeOH extract of the aerial parts of R. raetam on the central nervous system (CNS has been evaluated using a mice model. In the photoelectrical cell test, the extract of R. raetam (ERR at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight did not exhibit any effect on the spontaneous motor activity in mice. At a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, ERR increased ambulatory movement, but had no effect on the non-ambulatory movement, while a dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased both ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. The effect of ERR on the anxiety levels and behaviors of mice was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. At doses of 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg body weight, ERR decreased anxiety levels without showing an effect on the total activity; it did not affect anxiety levels but increased the total activity; it increased anxiety levels and decreased the total activity, respectively. In the diazepam-induced sleep test, ERR increased the onset of sleep without affecting the duration of sleep at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. The dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased the onset of sleep while increasing the duration of sleep. ERR did not exhibit any effect on the diazepam-induced sleep in the presence of flumazenil or picrotoxin.

  12. A comparison of misoprostol with and without laminaria tents for induction of second-trimester abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, J K; Mishell, D R

    1996-07-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether the intracervical placement of laminaria tents would improve the effectiveness of the prostaglandin analog misoprostol for the elective termination of pregnancies in the second trimester. 68 women at 12-22 weeks of gestation with either an intrauterine fetal death or medical or genetic indications for pregnancy termination were randomized to receive 200 mcg of misoprostol administered vaginally every 12 hours with or without the intracervical placement of laminaria concurrently with the first dose of misoprostol. There was a 69.7% rate of abortion 24 hours after the initiation of treatment in the 33 women who received misoprostol alone and 68.6% in the 35 women treated with both misoprostol and laminaria. Abortion rates 48 hours after the initiation of treatment were 84.8% and 91.4%, respectively, an insignificant difference. The complete abortion rate was 39.3% among women who received misoprostol alone and 37.5% among women who received both misoprostol and laminaria. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or pain. The mean interval from the initiation of treatment to abortion was 15.7 hours among women who received misoprostol alone and 17.4 hours among women who received both misoprostol and laminaria. In both groups, women who had live fetuses at the start of the procedure had a higher failure rate of abortion and a longer time interval to abortion than women whose fetus was dead. These findings indicate that the insertion of laminaria tents concurrent with the first dose of misoprostol does not significantly improve the abortifacient effect of vaginal misoprostol during the second trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Diagnosis of Bovine Abortion Caused by Listeria Ivanovi%伊氏李氏杆菌引发奶牛流产的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操国景; 毕研亮; 马翀; 张俊杰; 黄凯; 刘英霞; 齐长明; 曹杰

    2011-01-01

    李氏杆菌是引起家畜流产的主要传染性病因之一,其中单核细胞增生性李氏杆菌和伊氏李氏杆菌是引起奶牛李氏杆菌病的主要致病菌,主要引起动物脑膜脑炎、败血症和孕畜流产、死胎或新生畜感染等症状.本实验室于2010年4月接到北京某牛场流产病例样品3份(包括流产胎儿、胎盘及母牛血样),经胎儿组织抹片染色、细菌分离培养与鉴定以及鉴别诊断,最终确诊该3例流产病例为伊氏李氏杆菌感染所致.%Listeria is one of the major abortifacient infectious agents in livestock. Among the Listeria spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovi are the causative agent of listeriosis, mainly cause meningoencephalitis, septicemia, abortion, stillbirth or infection in newly born animal, etc. In April 2010, samples of three abortion cases were collected(including the fetus, placenta and blood sample of the dam). Stain of the fetus' tissues, bacteria isolation/culture and identification were conducted, in addition, differential diagnosis were done. Finally, these three cases were diagnosed as Listeria ivanovi infection after these diagnostic tests.

  14. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-05

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant.

  15. Aliza Shvarts’s Art of Aborting: Queer Conceptions and Resistance to Reproductive Futurism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grahovac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2008, the Yale Daily News published an article introducing Yale University fine arts student Aliza Shvarts's senior undergraduate art project. In the article, Shvarts announced that as part of her project she had been privately artificially inseminating herself every month during a nine-month period, and performing self-induced miscarriages by ingesting abortifacient drugs each month. The announcement ignited a national controversy, sparking university protests and 'pro-life' outcries across internet communities. Ultimately, the Yale School of Art banned the project from being exhibited. No feminist made an immediate defence of Shvarts's work. Through an in-depth exploration of Shvarts's art project, this essay aims to critically interrogate the politics of reproduction and the rhetoric of futurity in relation to a woman's social and symbolic positioning in a culture that places heterosexual reproduction and the institution of family at the heart of future. I argue that Shvarts's project was an attempt to explore how art could be a means to empty the realm of femininity of its symbolic 'function' within a patriarchal order. By means of her radical refusal of reproduction, manifested in a series of repeated abortions, she staged a resistance to the patriarchal symbolic positioning of a woman – the positioning within which a woman's life is intelligible insofar as it follows the pre-determined reproductive narrative of 'natural' womanhood (birth, marriage, motherhood and death – so that a multitude of new narratives and possibilities could be birthed. I argue that Shvarts is the author of the possibility for imagining the future that is not mapped in advance for a woman – the future in which she is not an 'object' of reproduction but an 'author'. Drawing on Jack J. Halberstam's concept of 'shadow feminism' and Lee Edelman's 'reproductive futurism', I will also suggest that Shvarts's performance provides an invaluable reflection

  16. Evaluation of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN/PB induced hepatotoxicity

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    J Rajangam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:The present work was aimed to study the biochemical effect of methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits (MECC against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatic damage in male rats.Rats received with DEN/PB showed the elevated levels of cholesterol (p<0.05, triglycerides (TG, p<0.01, free fatty acids (FFA, p<0.01, low density lipoprotein (LDL, p<0.01, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, p<0.05 and decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL, urea and creatinine. Administration of MECC 200,400 mg/kg.p.o to rats orally for 28 days significantly reduced the biochemical alterations induced by DEN/PB. Moreover results from invitro antioxidant studies revealed that, maximum percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals by MECC was about 62% at 800 µg/mL. In the nitric oxide radical scavenging model, the maximum percentage inhibition by MECC is about 56% at 800µg/mL and in reducing power method, MECC demonstrated dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with Ascorbic acid. Thus, results from our preliminary studies clearly indicates that Citrullus colocynthis might be beneficial in attenuating the elevated biochemical parameters during DEN/PB induced hepatic damage and the results suggested the ability of the extract to combat oxidative stress by quenching free radicals which reveals that, the attenuation due to its anti-oxidant property. Industrial relevance: Citrullus Colocynthis fruits are traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. But the experimental background has not been sufficient. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of terpinoids,flavonoids,glycosides,alkaloids,phytosterols,tannins and phenolics along with cucurbitacins, caffeic acid derivatives.In view of the above fact, the present study was designed to study the biochemical effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruits on in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo DEN

  17. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México. 2 - Fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar sua introdução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Díaz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.Foram identificados fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar a introdução da anticoncepção de emergência (AE no Brasil, Chile e México. Foram levantadas informações sobre o contexto sócio-cultural, político e legal bem como sobre as características dos serviços da saúde reprodutiva. As opiniões de potenciais usuários e possíveis provedores foram obtidas por meio de grupos de discussão, e as das autoridades e outras pessoas influentes por intermédio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os obstáculos incluíram: percepção da AE como abortiva; oposição da Igreja Católica; pouco reconhecimento dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos; pouca educação sexual; e falta de sensibilidade frente às questões de gênero. Os facilitadores foram: percepção da AE como um método que

  18. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga%大高良姜的药理学及植物化学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DhirenderKaushik; JyotiYadav; PawanKaushik; DishaSacher; RubyRani

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine systems consist of large numbers of plants with medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represent an invaluable reservoir of new bioactive molecules.Alpinia galanga (family Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as galangal and has been used for its emmenagogue,aphrodisiac,abortifacient,carminative,antipyretic and antiinflammatory qualities and used in the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis,heart diseases,chronic enteritis,renal calculus,diabetes,rheumatism and kidney disorders.It was reported to contain,among other components,essential oils,tannins,phenol,glycosides,monoterpenes and carbohydrates.In the last few years,new compounds such as gallic acid glycoside,galangoisoflavonoid,β-sitosterol,galangin,alpinin,zerumbone and kampferide have been isolated from various parts of A.galanga.Therefore,the present review is aimed to summarize the information regarding A.galanga concerning the new phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses that have appeared in recent years.%传统医学使用大量具有医用及药用价值的植物治疗疾病,因此是生物活性物质的一个宝库.姜科植物大高良姜通常被用作调经剂、催欲剂、堕胎药、驱风剂、退热剂和抗炎药等,可用于治疗支气管炎、心脏疾病、慢性肠炎、肾结石、糖尿病、风湿病及肾脏疾病.大高良姜含有精油、鞣酸、苯酚、苷类、单萜及糖类等.过去几年,有报道大高良姜各部位提取物中还含有没食子酸、生姜异黄酮、β-谷甾醇、高良姜素、良姜素、花姜酮、山萘素等.本文总结了近年来有关大高良姜的研究中新的植物化学成分及药理学的研究内容.

  19. Neosporosis. Aspects of epidemiology and host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, E A; Buxton, D; Maley, S; Wright, S; Marks, J; Esteban, I; Rae, A; Schock, A; Wastling, J

    2000-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a recently recognized protozoan parasite which has been described as causing a neuromuscular paralysis in dogs and is emerging as a major cause of bovine infertility and abortion worldwide. The parasite is known to infect a range of warm blooded animals but the disease predominates in dogs and cattle. It is not yet known if N. caninum can infect and cause disease in people. The dog has recently been identified as the definitive host and the parasite may be transmitted through the ingestion of oocysts or congenitally from mother to fetus. N. caninum is known to infect red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) and the role of wildlife species as reservoirs of infection requires further investigation. Little is known about the range of parasite genotypes within the environment or the variation in virulence between different strains. RAPD-PCR analysis of geographically distinct bovine and canine isolates has revealed little genetic variation. Epidemiological studies from different areas of the world have investigated the importance of N. caninum as an abortifacient agent and longitudinal studies have shown the high rate (approximately 80%) of congenital transmission within infected herds. Information on the rates of repeat abortion due to neosporosis are less well defined however current estimates put this at 5% suggesting that cattle may develop some form of protective immunity against N. caninum-induced abortion. Diagnosis of the disease is based upon detection of the parasite in the tissues, most commonly using immunohistochemistry with additional information provided by serology. However, although positive fetal serology is a strong indicator of exposure to the parasite, care should be taken in the interpretation of maternal serology. As we understand more about the epidemiology of neosporosis we are also better able to interpret the results of diagnostic tests. The mere presence of the parasite does not necessarily infer that this

  20. Morning sickness: a mechanism for protecting mother and embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, S M; Sherman, P W

    2000-06-01

    Approximately two-thirds of women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms are commonly known as morning sickness. Hook (1976) and Profet (1988) hypothesized that morning sickness protects the embryo by causing pregnant women to physically expel and subsequently avoid foods that contain teratogenic and abortifacient chemicals, especially toxic chemicals in strong-tasting vegetables, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. We examined this hypothesis by comprehensively reviewing the relevant medical, psychological and anthropological literature. In its support, (i) symptoms peak when embryonic organogenesis is most susceptible to chemical disruption (weeks 6-18), (ii) women who experience morning sickness are significantly less likely to miscarry than women who do not (9 of 9 studies), (iii) women who vomit suffer fewer miscarriages than those who experience nausea alone, and (iv) many pregnant women have aversions to alcoholic and nonalcoholic (mostly caffeinated) beverages and strong-tasting vegetables, especially during the first trimester. Surprisingly, however, the greatest aversions are to meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. A cross-cultural analysis using the Human Relations Area Files revealed 20 traditional societies in which morning sickness has been observed and seven in which it has never been observed. The latter were significantly less likely to have animal products as dietary staples and significantly more likely to have only plants (primarily corn) as staples than the 20 societies in which morning sickness occurred. Animal products may be dangerous to pregnant women and their embryos because they often contain parasites and pathogens, especially when stored at room temperatures in warm climates. Avoiding foodborne microorganisms is particularly important to pregnant women because they are immunosuppressed, presumably to reduce the chances of rejecting tissues of their own offspring (Haig 1993). As a result

  1. Nonsteroidal, antiinflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal injuries and related adverse reactions: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the population all over the world consumes acetylsalicylic acid (ASA: aspirin or other nonsteroidal, antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. This is associated with a considerable morbidity and mortality. Elderly patients, patients with prior history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD or its complications, those who require high doses of NSAIDs and those undergoing concomitant therapy with corticosteroids or anticoagulants, are at particularly high risk of developing gastroduodenal injuries and related adverse reactions. Gastroduodenal mucosal injuries induced by NSAIDs vary from subtle microscopic to gross macroscopic changes including ulcers. These injuries are induced by both topical and systemic actions of NSAIDs. Inhibition of gastroduodenal cyclooxygenase (COX enzyme by NSAIDs is considered to be a major pathogenetic factor. Reactive oxygen species (ROS appear also to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of mucosal injury. Withdrawal of NSAIDs is preferably the first therapeutic option; however, it is not feasible in the majority of patients. Therefore, several drugs including antisecretory drugs (ASDs-proton pump inhibitors and Histamine-2 receptor antagonists and misoprostol, a prostaglandin analog are used for the prevention and treatment of NSAID-induced gastroduodenal injuries. Among ASDs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are the most commonly used drugs. The antiulcerogenic effect of PPIs is similar to that of misoprostol and superior to standard doses of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2-RAs. The adverse effects of m,isoprostol such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, flatulence, headache, dyspepsia, vomiting, constipation, abortifacient and teratogenicity limit its general use. Aside from their antisecretory action, PPIs also possess an antioxidative effect. PPI maintenance is recommended in chronic NSAID treatment in those with an increased risk of complications and is more effective than Helicobacter pylori

  2. Influence of Ratios of Drug to Lipid on the Characteristics of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Mifepristone%药脂比对米非司酮固体脂质纳米粒性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯冬枝; 谢长生; 朱长虹

    2005-01-01

    AIM:The effective abortifacient drug,mifepristone,was incorporated in the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The aim of this paper was to study the influence of ratios of drug to lipid on the characteristics of SLNs.METHOD:The physicochemical properties of the fine dispersed systems,such as the size distribution,Zeta potential had been analyzed by laser diffractometry(LD).The measurements of entrapment efficiency(EE)and thermal analysis of DSC were performed as well.RESULT:It was showed if the weight of lipid remained unchanged,the mean particle size of SLNs increased with the increase of drug amount.Drug entrapment efficiency was the highest while about 50 mg drug was loaded on weight 1 g lipid.Simultaneously,the charge of Zeta potential agreed well with the amount of free drug in the colloidal system.DSC analysis results showed that the melting peak of mifepristone at approx.190 ℃ disappeared.CONCLUSION:It was evidence that the drug incorporation would affect the average particle size and Zeta potential of the colloidal systems and the physical state of crystalline drug mifepristone in SLNs was present in the amorphous form or molecularly dispersed at even so high adding amount of 250 mg/g(lipid),which there was no report about the physical state of the drug and SLN with so high drug-loading.It was suggested that the model drug mifepristone could influence the property of nanodispersion system and the crystalline character of the drug was altered by the nanometer carrier system vice versa.%目的:将堕胎药物米非司酮载入固体脂质纳米粒(SLNs)中,研究药脂比对该体系性能的影响.方法:选用相同用量的4种表面活性剂,对SLN体系的平均粒径、Zeta电和包封率进行了测定,同时采用差示扫描量热法检测药物在载体中存在的晶型形态.结果:当脂质质量不变,SLN系统的平均粒径随所载药物量增加而增加.在载药量为50 mg,脂质质量为1 g时,包封率最高.同时,Zeta电位与胶体

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    derived from J. communis and J. virginiana and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar were not skin irritants in animals. The oil from J. virginiana was not a sensitizer, and the oil from J. communis was not phototoxic in animal tests. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar was genotoxic in several assays. No genotoxicity data were available for any of the extracts. Juniperus Communis Extract did affect fertility and was abortifacient in studies using albino rats. Clinical tests showed no evidence of irritation or sensitization with any of the tested oils, but some evidence of sensitization to the tar. These data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; methods of manufacturing and impurities data, especially pesticides; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; dermal reproductive/developmental toxicity data (to include determination of a no-effect level); two genotoxicity assays (one in a mammalian system) for each extract; if positive, a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods is needed; a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using NTP methods on Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar; and irritation and sensitization data on each extract and the tar (these data are needed because the available data on the oils cannot be extrapolated). Until these data are available, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic formulations.

  4. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity Exposição à dioxina e atividade hormonal reprodutiva porcina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.Para caracterizar a ação da 2,3,7,8-tetraclorodibenzo-p-dioxina (TCDD durante as fases folicular e lútea do ciclo ovariano, o efeito direto da TCDD foi investigado in vitro, utilizando um sistema de cultura celular primária de camada única. Células da granulosa e teca foram coletadas a partir de folículos pré-ovulatórios e cultivadas de forma combinada, simulando folículos in vivo. As células lúteas foram isoladas do corpo lúteo durante a fase lútea média. Em ambos casos as células foram isoladas dos ovários de animais que exibiam um ciclo natural do estro. Os resultados sugerem que a TCDD diminui, de maneira dose-dependente, a secreção de estradiol pelas células foliculares e de progesterona pelas células l

  5. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    95% of the material entering the colon. Absorbed plant phytosterols are transported to the blood. Although there are some data suggesting that sulfates of beta-sitosterol can act as abortifacients in rats and rabbits, other studies of well-characterized plant phytosterols and phytosterol esters demonstrated no effect in an estrogen-binding study, a recombinant yeast assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity, or a juvenile rat uterotrophic assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity. In a two-generation reproduction study using rats, plant phytosterol esters in the diet had no effect on any parameter of reproduction or fertility. Subcutaneous injections of beta-sitosterol did reduce sperm concentrations and fertility in rats. Sitosterol inhibited tumor promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and reduced the tumors produced by N-methylnitrosourea in rats. Phytosterols were not genotoxic in several bacterial, mammalian, and in vitro assay systems. Phytosterols decreased epithelial cell proliferation in the colon of mice and rats, and were cytotoxic for human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PEGs Soy Sterols: The acute oral LD50 in rats of PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was >10 g/kg. The acute dermal LD50 of a liquid eyeliner containing 2%PEG-5 Soy Sterol was >2 g/kg in rabbits. PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was not a primary irritant in rabbits when applied undiluted. Undiluted PEG-5 Soy Sterol did not cause sensitization in guinea pigs. PEGs Soy Sterol did not produce ocular toxicity in rabbits. PEG-5 Soy Sterol was negative in the Ames mutagenicity test, with or without metabolic activation. PEG-5 Soy Sterol, at concentrations up to 2%in formulation, did not cause dermal or ocular irritation, dermal sensitization, or photosensitization in clinical studies. Because of the possible presence of 1,4-dioxane reaction product and unreacted ethylene oxide residues, it was considered

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGIC APPROACHES FOR MEASURING AND UNDERSTANDING BOVINE ABORTION APROXIMACIÓN EPIDEMIOLÓGICA PARA MEDIR Y ENTENDER EL ABORTO BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurmond Mark

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to offer methods for use in measuring abortion rates and in undertaking abortion diagnostic investigations. In addition, some of the associations found between demographic and reproductive features of the dam and subsequent abortion will be described. The cohort life table method calculates the risk of fetal loss (abortion, for pre-defined time intervals (eg. days or weeks during the gestation period, and the overall proportion of cows that abort. In contrast, the abortion density method calculates abortion risk for a defined calendar time (eg. per month as the number of abortions per cow-days-at risk. Both methods are standardized to account for the changing number of cows at risk of abortion, as a result of culling, death, abortion, and calving, thus tend to produce higher, but more realistic, estimates for abortion than rates typically calculated. These measures and statistical modeling have been used to estimate the expected magnitude of abortion for dairies (ranging from 8% to 19% and to identify associations between demographic or reproductive features of the dam and subsequent risk of abortion. Some of the factors to be discussed include effects of a previous abortion, dam gravidity and age, days open at the time of conception, and season. Analytic methods also will be presented for herd-based diagnosis of abortion related to infectious agents or other exposures. These methods permit estimates of the risk or proportion of abortions attributable to exposure to an infectious agent or to other putative abortifacient exposures.El objetivo del presente artículo es ilustrar algunos métodos para medir la tasa de aborto en bovinos. Así mismo, se describirán algunas de las asociaciones que se han encontrado entre aspectos demográficos, características reproductivas y la subsecuente presentación de aborto. El método de las tablas de vida permite calcular el riesgo de pérdida fetal (aborto en unos intervalos

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    in acute oral studies using mice and rats. In parenteral studies, the LD(50) using mice was > 200 mg/kg, rats was > 50 mg/kg, and using dogs was > 50 mg/kg. In intravenous studies the LD(50) using mice was > 80 mg/kg, rats was > 15 mg/kg, and dogs was > 10 mg/kg. The 14-day no observed effect level (NOEL) for the Aloe polysaccharide, acemannan, in the diet of Sprague-Dawley rats, was 50,000 ppm or 4.1 to 4.6 g/kg day(-1). In a 3-month study using mice, Aloe vera (extracted in ethanol) given orally in drinking water at 100 mg/kg produced reproductive toxicity, inflammation, and mortality above that seen in control animals. Aloe vera extracted in methanol and given to mice at 100 mg/kg in drinking water for 3 months caused significant sperm damage compared to controls. Aloe barbadensis extracted with water and given to pregnant Charles Foster albino rats on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 9 was an abortifacient and produced skeletal abnormalities. Both negative and positive results were found in bacterial and mammalian cell genotoxicity assays using Aloe barbadensis-derived material, Aloe Ferox-derived material, and various anthraquinones derived from Aloe. Aloin (an anthraquinone) did not produce tumors when included in the feed of mice for 20 weeks, nor did aloin increase the incidence of colorectal tumors induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Aloe-emodin (an anthraquinone) given to mice in which tumor cells had been injected inhibited growth of malignant tumors. Other animal data also suggest that components of Aloe inhibit tumor growth and improve survival. Various in vitro assays also demonstrated anticarcinogenic activity of aloe-emodin. Diarrhea was the only adverse effect of note with the use of Aloe-derived ingredients to treat asthma, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, ulcers, skin disease, and cancer. Case reports include acute eczema, contact urticaria, and dermatitis in individuals who applied Aloe-derived ingredients topically. The Cosmetic Ingredient