WorldWideScience

Sample records for aborted fetus

  1. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  2. The Replaceable Fetus: A Reflection on Abortion and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Alvarez Manninen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although I self-identify as pro-choice, I do believe certain instances of abortion can be classified as, in Judith Jarvis Thomson's words, indecent. This paper explores one such case and uses it as a lens for a wider discussion on the moral dimensions of aborting due to fetal disability. Using virtue ethics as my foundational framework, I argue that while some cases of aborting due to fetal disability need not manifest vicious character traits, some very well may. In particular, I am concerned with cases where fetuses that had been thus far welcomed and loved by their respective community are suddenly regarded as candidates for abortion simply because they may have been diagnosed with a disability. That is, I am worried about cases where disability is deemed sufficient grounds for dehumanizing a being who had been, up until that point, embraced.

  3. Application of a multiplex PCR assay for Campylobacter fetus detection and subspecies differentiation in uncultured samples of aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Carretto, Luis; Rodríguez, Eliana; Pérez, Ruben

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter (C.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. This species is currently divided into C. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital Campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. Cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. Here we describe a multiplex PCR method to detect C. fetus and differentiate between subspecies in a single step. The assay was standardized using cultured strains and successfully used to analyze the abomasal liquid of aborted bovine fetuses without any pre-enrichment step. Results of our assay were completely consistent with those of traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR technique we developed may be easily adopted by any molecular diagnostic laboratory as a complementary tool for detecting C. fetus subspecies and obtaining epidemiological information about abortion events in cattle.

  4. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  5. 中医下胎研究进展%Research Development of Abort the Fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 张鸥; 冯永新

    2011-01-01

    The application of aborting fetus was recorded in many ancient classics in TCM, main methods as follow:simple formula aborting fetus, compound formula Chinese medicinal aborting fetus, Chinese medicinal topically applied aborting fetus, acupuncture aborting fetus, aborting fetus with acupuncture and medicine. Acupuncture method which has the less painful about aborting the fetus, Characteristics with fewer side effects, this way is better than others. Worthy of further clinical application, New areas for the development of acupuncture has important academic and practical significance.%中医下胎在中医古籍中记载丰富,主要方法有:单味中药下胎、复方中药下胎、中药外用下胎、针灸下胎、针刺与药物并用下胎.其中针灸方法下胎具有痛苦小、副作用少的特点,这是其他抗早孕方法不可比拟的,值得进一步在临床推广应用,对于开拓针灸疗法新领域具有重要的学术意义和现实意义.

  6. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  7. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Kamali; HesamAdin Seifi; Ahmad Reza Movassaghi; Gholam Reza Razmi; Zahra Naseri

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  8. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP. q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  9. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses.

  10. Molecular Testing for Toxoplasma Diagnosis in Aborted Fetuses- Taleghani Maternity Hospital- Arak- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Eslamirad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is most critical in pregnant women who acquire infection during gestation and also in fetuses and newborns who are congenitally infected. This study described the performance of molecular and confirmatory serologic testing for toxoplasma infection in the tissues of human spontaneous aborted fetuses and their mothers' blood. Materials and Methods: 87 random samples from the tissues of body of spontaneous aborted fetuses (less than 14 weeks in a separate container of preservative solution were collected from the delivery room of the university maternity hospital, Arak- Iran , during autumn 2012 to 2013. In the ward, 3 ml of blood sample of their mothers were collected and the sera were separated and analyzed by ELISA method for the detection of specific IgG. DNA extraction from the tissues of fetuses was performed and stored until use. The PCR reaction was performed by a pair of primers. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis and stained with safe stain. It is necessary to mention first that the written consent was obtained from their mothers and after recovery, a demographic questionnaire was completed. Results: Most of the mothers were 20-29 years of age and the correlation between the location of residence, contact with cats and eating undercooked food with abortion, not significant. Serological tests on the sera of 87 mothers for anti-Toxoplasma IgG showed 39.08% positive results. The results of PCR amplification showed that none of the 87 samples from aborted fetuses were infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Conclusion: In aborted fetuses, we did not observe any evidence of Toxoplasmosis and it appears that Toxoplasma gondii was not the cause of spontaneous abortion in this area of Iran but considering the importance of the infection during pregnancy, the control measurements during pregnancy is required.

  11. Changing tactics in the abortion argument: does a fetus feel pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, N W

    1997-12-10

    The 30th anniversary of the passing of the abortion law in England sparked off yet another skirmish in the continuing struggle. Not only the Catholic Church but also anti-lobby groups have protested against the abortion law. Anti-lobby groups consider abortion as an evil that must be fought. To further explain their point, the anti-lobby groups used the conclusions on pediatric anesthetic practice to change their tactics in combating the abortion issue from the emotional point of view to the apparently rational. A group of pediatricians, anesthetists, bioethicists and neuroanatomists has considered the problem of when the fetus may first be able to feel pain. They have decided that the fetus cannot feel pain before the 26th week and recommended that the fetus be given an anesthetic for any abortion later than the 24th week. The anti-lobby groups say that this view limits the perception of pain to the cerebral cortex and that the thalamus is well enough developed by the 10th week for the growing embryo to feel the pain. However, as to the question of fetal pain, one can never know whether fetuses feel pain, because they can never tell.

  12. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir; Kamali; Hesam; Adin; Seifi; Ahmad; Reza; Movassaghi; Gholam; Reza; Razmi; Zahra; Naseri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospom caninum(N.caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran.In addition,the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination.To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis,data analysis was performed by SAS.Results:N.caninum was detected in 179(45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR.Among the PCR-positive brain samples,only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination.The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16(28%) of PCR-positive samples.The risk factors including season,parity of dam,history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd,cow’s milk production,herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection.This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods.In addition,a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth.Conclusions:The results showed N.caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses.In addition,at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection.These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  13. An aborted human fetus with truncus arteriosus communis--possible teratogenic effect of Tedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, R; Gilbert, E F; Bruyers, H; Optiz, J M

    1985-08-01

    We recently performed a detailed anatomicopathologic examination on an aborted human embryo whose mother had taken four tablets of Tedral (one tablet of Tedral contains 130 mg theophylline, 25 mg ephedrine, 8 mg phenobarbital) for an upper respiratory tract infection when the embryo was at approximately 30 days of development. On the same day, the mother developed acute chest pain and a fast, irregular heart beat. The abortion occurred at approximately 80 days of gestation. The heart of the fetus showed truncus arteriosus (Van Praagh type A1). Although no direct cause and effect relationship was proven in this case, the possibility of a teratogenic effect of Tedral during early pregnancy is considered.

  14. Detection and Identification of Toxoplasma gondii Type One Infection in Sheep Aborted Fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamalzade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to apply the nested-PCR and bioassay methods in detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii infection in provided sheep aborted fetus samples from Qazvin Province of Iran. Methods: Eighteen sheep aborted fetal samples were studied by nested-PCR-RFLP, histopathologi­cal observation and microbiological assay. Bioassay in mice was carried out by inoculating the brain samples intraperitoneally. Results: The results demonstrated the frequency of 66% infected sheep aborted fetal samples with T. gondii type one. Although we could not isolate any parasite from inoculated mice even after three pas­sages, but it was confirmed histopathologically formation of cyst like bodies in prepared mice brain sections. Conclusion: The results of the performed nested-PCR and formation of brain cyst in inoculated mice exhibited that T. gondii type one infection might be considered as one of the major causative agents for abortion in ewes.

  15. Survey of Neospora caninum infection by nested PCR in aborted fetuses from dairy farms in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Quezada, T; Morales, E; García-Vázquez, Z

    2006-03-31

    The aim of this study was to determine by nested PCR probe the presence of Neospora caninum in fetal brain tissue from aborted dairy fetuses in Aguascalientes, a state in the central part of Mexico. Forty-four fetal brains from eight dairy farms were analyzed using single tube nested PCR probe with primers NF1, NS2, NR1 and SR1, with histopathology as the reference technique. From the 44 bovine fetuses studied, 35 (80%) were diagnosed as being infected by N. caninum using PCR probe and 20 (45%) were considered positive by histopathology, because they had lesions suggestive of bovine neosporosis. Fair agreement was observed (31%) between both probes. The age of aborting cows ranged from 1.6 to 2.9-year-old in 17 (49%) of the positive cases diagnosed by PCR. Gestational ages of aborted fetuses ranged from 0.05). The frequency of N. caninum positive cases observed could be considered to be higher than other areas of Mexico and other countries.

  16. Prevalence Study of Coxiella burnetii in Aborted Ovine and Caprine Fetuses by Evaluation of Nested and Real-Time PCR Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad S. Dehkordi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Q fever is a ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism that caused abortion and stillbirth in ruminants. Approach: The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Iran is essentially unknown. Its traditional diagnosis is based on culture, serology and conventional PCR. In this present study, for more sensitive and accurate detection and prevalence's determination of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses, the nested and real-time PCR methods are recommended. Results: About 98 (12.53% and 122 (16.39% out of 782 and 744 Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, were positive for presence of Coxiella burnetii by nested PCR, respectively. After LSI Taqvet Coxiella burnetii real-time PCR, it was recognized that 121 (15.47% and 152 (20.43% samples were positive for Coxiella burnetii in Ovine and Caprine aborted fetuses, respectively. Results indicated that the real-time PCR was 7 times more sensitive than the nested PCR. Statistical analysis showed significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by both nested and real-time PCR assays and PCoxiella burnetii. The Ct values which obtained from real-time PCR had significant differences about PCoxiella burnetii between aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses. Our results indicated that Caprine is more sensitive than Ovine to Coxiella burnetii’s abortion Khozestan and Gilan have the highest and Khorasan and Sistan va Baluchistan provinces have the lowest prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, respectively. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first prevalence report of direct identification of Coxiella burnetii in aborted Ovine and Caprine fetuses by evaluation of nested and real-time PCR assays in Iran. This study showed that the nested PCR for detecting Coxiella burnetii are technically time-consuming and labor-intensive.

  17. Mifepristone-induced abortion in one horn and a growing fetus in another horn in a patient with a twin pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Shih-Tíen; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2006-12-01

    To report a case of mifepristone-induced abortion in only one horn but a growing fetus in another horn for a twin pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus. Case report. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. A 31-year-old woman who conceived spontaneously presented with 37 days' gestation. Mifepristone 600 mg orally followed by misoprostol 400 mug orally 2 days later. Termination of pregnancy. Induced abortion in only one horn but a growing fetus in another horn for a twin pregnancy in the bicornuate uterus detected by ultrasound. Surgical abortion with vacuum curettage was performed, and menstruation resumed 1 month later. As medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol becomes more prevalent, more studies are necessary to establish the dosage and regimens for multiple pregnancies associated with uterine anomalies.

  18. Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and PCR in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Infection in Tissues of Human Aborted Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Sarkari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoa that infect humans and a wide range of mammalians and birds [1]. The infection is particularly important in women when they acquire the infection for the first time during their pregnancy where an intrauterine transmission of the parasite may occur. Effective prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis can permit a decision to terminate the pregnancy at the early stage or initiate the treatment of late-term fetus in uterus. Prenatal diagnosis is commonly performed based on biological and serological tests on fetal blood and amniotic fluid, and ultrasonographic examination of fetus [2].

  19. Isolation and biotyping of Brucella melitensis from aborted sheep and goat fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKCANGAZ, Esra; ŞEN, Ayşin; KAHYA, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    The possible role of Brucella spp. in 65 abortion cases, 55 from sheep and 10 from goats, occurring in the birth seasons of 2004 and 2005 in northwestern Turkey was investigated. Colony morphology, agglutination by acriflavin, H2S production, CO2 requirement, dye sensitivity in thionin, basic fuchsin, growth characteristics in streptomycin, lysis with Tbilisi phage, and agglutination with monospecific A- and M antisera were examined for identification and biotyping. The isolates from 21 of 55...

  20. Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abortion is not only a sin; it is also a crime as Canon Law describes it. The paper deals with the issue of abortion from the Canon Law's perspective. Not every sin of abortion is at the same time a crime in the legal sense. The paper discusses what the circumstances are to turn the sin of abortion into the crime of abortion. The censure of excommunication is imposed on the individuals who are guilty of the crime of abortion. If there is no crime, there is no excommunication which is attached...

  1. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  2. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Vejarano, M P; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pprotocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol.

  3. Isolamento de Aerobacter (Campylobacter cryaerophila de fetos suínos abortados Isolation of Aerobacter (Campylobacter cryaerophila from aborted pig fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio José de Oliveira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 6 fetos suínos abortados no terço final da gestação, provenientes de duas granjas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os órgãos internos (rim e fígado de cada feto foram inoculados em meio semi-sólido de Tween 80/40 LH, visando o isolamento de leptospiras. Os tubos foram incubados a 30°C. Foi isolado de todos os materiais um microorganismo, classificado como Arcobacter cryaerophila. Estes foram os primeiros isolamentos desta bactéria no Brasil.Samples of liver and kidney from aborted pig fetuses from two different farms were examined. Samples were cultured in semi-solid leptospira isolation media and incubated at 30°C. Arcobacter cryaerophila was isolated from all the specimens. These were the first reports on the isolation of the microorganism from pigs in Brazil.

  4. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  5. Fathers and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  6. Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Dingle, K.E.; Maiden, M.C.; Newell, D.G.; Graaf, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can be divided into the subspecies C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis. C. fetus subsp. fetus causes sporadic infections in humans and abortion in cattle and sheep and has been isolated from a variety of sites in different hosts. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is

  7. Clonal nature of Campylobacter fetus as defined by multilocus sequence typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Dingle, K.E.; Maiden, M.C.; Newell, D.G.; Graaf, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can be divided into the subspecies C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis. C. fetus subsp. fetus causes sporadic infections in humans and abortion in cattle and sheep and has been isolated from a variety of sites in different hosts. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is hos

  8. STUDY OF WHO SAFE ABORTION REGIMEN IN MEDICAL ABORTIONS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Joylene Diana; Sujaya V.

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion is the use of drugs to induce abortion of a fetus. Due to the advances in the field of research , numerous regimens have been formulated to ensure a fast and complete expulsion of the fetus. These regimens also aim to towards reduced post abortal side effects and to decrease the need for surgical evacuation ...

  9. Metodologia aplicada na avaliação de fetos suínos abortados e natimortos Methodology used in the evaluation of stillborns and aborted fetuses from swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Pescador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revisa dados relativos à realização de necropsia em fetos suínos abortados e natimortos. Aspectos descritos incluem coleta de material, procedimentos de necropsia, achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos alguns dos quais de pouco ou nenhum significado patológico são frequentemente observados numa rotina de diagnóstico e geralmente interpretados erroneamente como lesões reais ou de importância.This paper reviews information on necropsies in stillborn and aborted fetuses from swine. Aspects dealt with include sampling collection, necropsy procedures, gross and histopathological findings, some of which are of little or no pathological significance but often observed in the routine diagnostic work and misinterpreted as real or important lesions.

  10. Detección de Neospora caninum en fetos bovinos abortados espontáneamente en el nordeste argentino Neospora caninum detection in spontaneously aborted bovine fetuses from Argentine northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Lertora

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar Neospora caninum en neonatos y fetos bovinos de abortos espontáneos del nordeste argentino. Sobre un total de 26 fetos bovinos abortados espontáneamente (23 de cría y 3 de tambo se detectaron lesiones histopatológicas compatibles con neosporosis en 4 de ellos. La presencia de Neospora caninum fue confirmada mediante inmunohistoquímica en el encéfalo de 3/4 fetos (2 de cría y 1 de tambo con lesiones microscópicas compatibles con neosporosis. Las lesiones histopatológicas más relevantes fueron la asociación de encefalitis, miocarditis y hepatitis no purulenta multifocales. De 10 neonatos bovinos procesados (8 de cría y 2 de tambo, no se detectaron animales con lesiones compatibles con neosporosis. Este trabajo confirma la presencia de Neospora caninum en fetos abortados espontáneamente en bovinos de rodeos de cría y de tambo del nordeste argentino.The aim of this work was to detect the presence of Neospora caninum in bovine neonates and bovine spontaneous abortions from Argentine northeast. Histopathological lesions compatible with neosporosis were found in 4 of 26 bovine spontaneous abortions (23 beef herds and 3 dairy herds. The Neospora caninum presence was confirmed with immunohistochemical analysis in encephalic tissue in 3 of 4 fetuses (2 beef herds and 1 dairy herd that displayed microscopical lesions of neosporosis. Multifocal non-purulent encephalitis, myocarditis and hepatitis were the most relevant lesions. There were no lesions of neosporosis in 10 bovine neonates (8 beef herds and 2 dairy herds. This work confirms the presence of Neospora caninum in spontaneous bovine abortions of beef herds and dairy herds of the Argentine northeast.

  11. Anomalias congênitas em fetos bovinos abortados no Sul do Brasil Congenital anomalies in aborted bovine fetuses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo P. Pavarini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abortos e mortes neonatais são causas importantes de perdas reprodutivas na bovinocultura. Abortos causados por anomalias congênitas são esporádicos, mas podem ocorrer de forma epidêmica. Um levantamento retrospectivo realizado no setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul incluiu 307 casos de aborto bovino submetidos de setembro de 2001 a março de 2007. Em dez casos (3,5%, foram observadas anomalias congênitas, das quais, artrogripose, Amorphus globosus e fenda palatina (palatosquise foram as mais freqüentes. Causas infecciosas foram investigadas, mas somente infecção por BVDV foi detectada por imunoistoquímica em um aborto com porencefalia.Abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death are important causes of production losses to the livestock industry. Abortions caused by congenital anomalies may occur sporadically, or appear in epidemics. This retrospective study was conducted at Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, and included 307 cases of bovine abortion submitted for diagnosis from September 2001 to March 2007. Most of them were from southern Brazil. Ten cases (3.25% of congenital anomalies were seen. The most frequent congenital anomalies were artrogryposis, Amorphous globosus, and cleft palate (palatoschisis. Infectious causes were investigated, but only BVDV infection was detected by immunohistochemistry in one case, which was affected with porencephalia.

  12. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  13. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  14. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  15. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  16. Abortion--the breath of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, R J

    1974-01-01

    A scholarly review of medical-legal and biblical authority on the su bject of abortion supports abortion as a woman's right when it is performed before the fetus has had its "breath of life." Based on biblical evidence, a person becomes a living being when the soul, the "breath of life" is breathed into it. Without the "breath of life" no person exists. A fetus less than 28 weeks old is incapable of breathing alone; thus an aborted fetus that age is not truly a living human being capable of surviving independently of its mother's womb. Legal aspects include supreme, local and state court decisions defining abortion. It is ultimately expected that each person will determine what approach to take towards the abortion question. Abortion is still a personal problem regardless of supreme court decisions or ecclesiastical determinants. Religion and moral concepts should be the guiding conscience involved in the question of abortion.

  17. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  18. Sex-Selective Abortions to Be Outlawed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is to outlaw the selective abortion of female fetuses to correct an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls that has grown since the family planning policy was introduced more than 20 years ago.

  19. How Danes evaluate moral claims related to abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion...... abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. DISCUSSION: The direction of causality...

  20. Prognóstico de Gestações com Ameaça de Abortamento entre a 6ª e a 13ª Semana que Apresentam Embrião/Feto Vivo ao Exame Ultra-sonográfico Prognosis of Pregnancy with Threatened Abortion between 6 and 13 weeks Presenting Embryo/Fetus Alive at Ultrasound Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Watanabe

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar resultados entre gestações com e sem ameaça de abortamento que apresentaram embrião/feto vivo ao exame ultra-sonográfico em idade gestacional entre 6 e 13 semanas. Métodos: trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, caso-controle, realizado no período de fevereiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação tópica e única, atividade cardíaca embrionária/fetal presente no exame ultra-sonográfico, realização de exame ultra-sonográfico entre 6 semanas completas e 13 semanas e 6 dias, ausência de alteração morfológica fetal, ausência de tentativa de abortamento por uso de drogas ou manipulação, ausência de doença materna e resultado conhecido da gestação. Preencheram os critérios de inclusão 1531 gestações, sendo 257 casos com ameaça de abortamento (grupo estudo e 1274 sem ameaça de abortamento (grupo controle. Estes dois grupos foram comparados quanto à evolução da gestação para: abortamento, óbito intra-uterino, prematuridade e crescimento intra-uterino restrito. Resultados: os porcentuais de abortamento (11,7% e prematuridade (17,8% foram estatisticamente superiores nas pacientes do grupo estudo (pPurpose: to compare the outcome of pregnancies with and without threatened abortion presenting alive embryo/fetus between 6 and 13 weeks at sonographic evaluation. Method: this was a retrospective case-control study, carried out from February 1998 to December 1999. Criteria for inclusion were: topic and single pregnancy; embryo/fetus cardiac activity present in the ultrasound scan; gestational age between 6 weeks and 13 weeks and 6 days, absence of fetal anomalies, absence of attempt of abortion by drugs or manipulation, absence of maternal disease, known pregnancy result. A total of 1531 pregnancies were examined, of which 258 with threatened abortion (case group and 1273 without threatened abortion (control group. The two groups were compared regarding outcome such as

  1. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion.

  2. Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the fetus ... This article constitutes a review of the abortion issue in Botswana based on my ... not punitive laws, present the greatest barriers to women seeking to terminate an unwanted ... familial pressures, or because abortion on request.

  3. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  4. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  5. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn the Shiite jurisprudence, the ensoulment occurs after about 4 months. Before this stage, all Shiite authorities regard abortion as forbidden (Hiram unless if continuing the pregnancy would put the mother's life in real danger or will be intolerable for her. But after that, they regard abortion as Hiram, unless in conditions in which continuing the pregnancy results in dying of both mother and fetus, but abortion will save the life of mother. However, the Shiite authorities have not accepted to legitimate abortion in unwanted pregnancies and even in pregnancies resulted from adultery (Zina or rape."nThe debate over abortion is still controversial as ever. There are some important and notable related Fatwas that make jurisprudical basis for some new and problem solving legal acts, showing the inherent and valuable flexibility of the Shiite jurisprudence in dealing with such important issues. Some related issues, such as the priority of saving the life of mother after ensoulment can be referred to jurisprudical authorities for more assessment.

  6. Induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Abortion is common. Data on abortion rates are inexact but can be used to explore trends. Globally, the estimated rate in the period 2010-2014 was 35 abortions per 1000 women (aged 15-44 years), five points less than the rate of 40 for the period 1990-1994. Abortion laws vary around the world but are generally more restrictive in developing countries. Restrictive laws do not necessarily deter women from seeking abortion but often lead to unsafe practice with significant mortality and morbidity. While a legal framework for abortion is a prerequisite for availability, many laws, which are not evidence based, restrict availability and delay access. Abortion should be available in the interests of public health and any legal framework should be as permissive as possible in order to promote access. In the absence of legal access, harm reduction strategies are needed to reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity. Abortion can be performed surgically (in the first trimester, by manual or electric vacuum aspiration) or with medication: both are safe and effective. Cervical priming facilitates surgery and reduces the risk of incomplete abortion. Diagnosis of incomplete abortion should be made on clinical grounds, not by ultrasound. Septic abortion is a common cause of maternal death almost always following unsafe abortion and thus largely preventable. While routine follow-up after abortion is unnecessary, all women should be offered a contraceptive method immediately after the abortion. This, together with improved education and other interventions, may succeed in reducing unintended pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain.

  8. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  9. Medical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Edith; Bernardin, Jeanne; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Fitzsimmons, Brian; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Soon, Judith; Trouton, Konia; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Wiebe, Ellen; Gold, Karen; Murray, Marie-Ève; Winikoff, Beverly; Reeves, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the provision of first-trimester medical induced abortion, including patient eligibility, counselling, and consent; evidence-based regimens; and special considerations for clinicians providing medical abortion care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, registered nurses, midwives, residents, and other healthcare providers who currently or intend to provide pregnancy options counselling, medical abortion care, or family planning services. Women with an unintended first trimester pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library between July 2015 and November 2015 using appropriately controlled vocabulary (MeSH search terms: Induced Abortion, Medical Abortion, Mifepristone, Misoprostol, Methotrexate). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from June 1986 to November 2015 in English. Additionally, existing guidelines from other countries were consulted for review. A grey literature search was not required. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force for Preventive Medicine rating scale (Table 1). Medical abortion is safe and effective. Complications from medical abortion are rare. Access and costs will be dependent on provincial and territorial funding for combination mifepristone/misoprostol and provider availability. Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  11. Chlamydophila pecorum in fetuses of mediterranean buffalo (bubalus bubalis bred in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the role played by the different species of Chlamydophila in causing abortions in Mediterranean buffalo, the Authors examined 164 fetuses from 80 different buffalo herds in Southern Italy. Three fetuses, came from two different herds, were positive. Our study confirms the pathogenic role of C. pecorum in buffalo, not only as a cause of neuropathology in calves but as an infectious abortive agent.

  12. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I need to follow up with my health care provider after having a medical abortion? You will need to see your health ... This is more likely to happen with a medical abortion. Infection—Your health care provider will prescribe antibiotics to prevent this. Antibiotics also ...

  13. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  14. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  15. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  16. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats.

  17. STUDY OF WHO SAFE ABORTION REGIMEN IN MEDICAL ABORTIONS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joylene Diana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical abortion is the use of drugs to induce abortion of a fetus. Due to the advances in the field of research , numerous regimens have been formulated to ensure a fast and complete expulsion of the fetus. These regimens also aim to towards reduced post abortal side effects and to decrease the need for surgical evacuation post medical abortion. The objective of this cros s sectional analysis was to study the effectiveness of the WHO safe abortion regimen in a tertiary care hospital . METHODS: A total of 60 patients with pregnancies of 12 to 30 weeks of gestation and in whom a medical abortion was deemed necessary were chosen . After instituting the WHO SAFE ABORTION regimen they were analysed based on indication for pregnancy termination , onset of pain with WHO regimen and time of expulsion as well as post abortal side effects and the need for surgical evacuation due to failure of the WHO safe abortion regimen. Post abortion an ultrasound was done to confirm the success of the regimen . RESULTS: Majority of patients in our study was multiparous and Mean gestational age for pregnancy termination was 20.6 weeks . The most common indication for medical abortion was incidental diagnosis of fetal demise or fetal anomaly on ultrasonography ( 43.6% . The average duration for onset of pain was 3 hours and the average time needed for expulsion was 6 hours from the start of the Abortion regimen . The most common post abortal side effect was excessive bleeding . Only about 13.3 percent patients needed a surgical evacuation due to failure of the regimen. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the WHO safe abortion regimen is highly effective and a desirable method for medical termination of pregnancy , especially in early pregnancy and in patients in whom a surgical method of abortion could pose as a risk . The WHO SAFE ABORTION regimen has minimal post abortal side effects , need for surgical intervention and the time needed for expulsion is less. Hence it

  18. Co-infection by porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets in southern Brazil Co-infecção por circovírus suíno tipo 2 e parvo-vírus suíno em fetos abortados e natimortos suínos no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Pescador

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 (PCV1, PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV are widespread in pig populations around the world. Nevertheless, only PCV2 has been associated with different clinical syndromes, thus representing a major problem to the pig industry. The association of cases of swine abortions and stillborns with PCV1 and PCV2 and PPV was studied retrospectively (2005-2007. Additional pathogens were also investigated in lesioned fetuses. The studied litters included stillborn piglets and several mummified fetuses of varied sizes. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial pale areas, and mesocolic edema were the gross lesions. Escherichia coli was detected as co-infecting with PCV2 the cases in which mesocolic edema was seen. Microscopic lesions included non-suppurative myocarditis, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, mineralization foci and intranuclear inclusion bodies in cardiomyocytes, and interstitial mononuclear pneumonia. Samples from 7 (5.78 per cent of 121 aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets had lesions consistent with a viral cause and showed both positive anti-PCV2 immunostaining as well as PCV2-PCR. In samples from 3 (2.47 per cent of these 7 fetuses, co-infection with PPV was confirmed by Nested-PCR. Both viruses were detected in fetuses at different stages of gestation. Viral antigens of PCV2 were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in macrophages and myocytes. PCV1 individually was not detected in any of these affected fetuses, but it was associated with PCV2 and/or PPV in some of them. These findings indicate that PCV2 alone or in association with PPV should be kept in mind when investigating causes of infectious abortion in pigs in Brazil.Estudou-se retrospectivamente (2005-2007 a associação de casos de abortos e natimortos suínos com infecções por circovírus suíno (PCV tipos 1 e 2 e parvovírus suíno (PPV. Outros agentes patogênicos foram pesquisados em amostras de fetos com lesões. O estudo incluiu natimortos e

  19. FISH技术在检测自然流产胚胎染色体异常中的应用研究%A clinical research on chromosomal abnormality in spontaneous aborted fetuses detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦红卫; 杜娟; 夏红卫; 蒋丽; 陈科

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the application value on detection the chromosome abnormalities of chorionic villi tissue of spontaneous abortion by FISH technology. Methods: The chromosomal numerical aberrations were detected in 100 cases of chorionic villi tissue of spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy by using FISH, and some cases results were compared with the parallel experiment with cytogenetic karyotypes analysis. Results; Success rate of FISH detection wasl00% for100 cases of chorionic villi tissue of spontaneous abortion, and 42 of the 100 cases were found chromosomal numerical aberrations, detection rate 42%. 23 of the 100 cases were cultured, the cultural success rate was 91. 30% (21/23), chromosome abnormalities rate was 61. 91% (13/21), 11 case with chromosome aneuploid of 13 cases with chromosome abnormalities account for 84. 61% (11/13). The coincidence rate of the results of FISH detection and cytogenetic karyotypes analysis were 100% , the missed diagnosis rate was 23.08% (3/13). Conclusions ; The results showed that FISH technology was sensitive, highly specific, rapid and low demand for samples and so on, but the missed diagnosis rate was high, and if condition permit, the patient should take FISH detection and cytogenetic karyotypes analysis simultaneously.%目的 探讨FISH技术在检测自然流产绒毛组织染色体异常中的应用价值.方法 采用FISH技术对100例早期妊娠自然流产绒毛进行染色体数目检测,部分病例同时行常规细胞培养核型分析,分析两种方法的诊断结果.结果 100例绒毛标本FISH检测成功率100%,染色体数目异常42例,检出率42.00%.23例标本同时细胞培养,培养成功率91.30% (21/23),核型分析异常染色体比率61.91% (13/21),其中非整倍体占84.61% (11/13).FISH检测结果与染色体核型分析吻合率100%,漏诊率23.08% (3/13).结论 FISH技术具有敏感性高、特异性强、诊断快速、对标本要求低等优势,但漏诊率

  20. Spain still in need of a good abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M

    1991-09-01

    In 1985 Spain adopted a new abortion law that allows women to have abortions if: 1) the pregnancy poses a physical or mental risk, 2) the fetus risks a defect, 3) in cases of rape. 94% of all abortions are carried out in private clinics. Before the law only 411 abortions were reported, after the law 16,766 were reported the next year. 52% of the women were unmarried, 49% had no children, and 93% were less than 12 weeks pregnant. The availability of safe abortions is limited by: 1) lack of centers in most geographical regions and 2) lack of clinics or hospitals in the public health system that will give abortion services. The addition of 4th ground for abortion would not significantly improve access to abortion services since 98% of all abortions are performed under the mental risk indication. A better solution would be to adopt a time limit system similar to other European countries. Since 93% of all abortion occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, it would accommodate most women. However, whether by executive order or legislation, increasing legal access will still not increase access. There simply is n system in place to accommodate the number of women who would seek abortions i they became legal (it is estimated that 200000 women got to England annually seeking abortion.) Doctors do not want to perform abortions and there is no social or legal standing to force them to do so.

  1. Conscientious refusal to assist with abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, D

    1994-09-10

    Abortion is a moral issue affecting the identity and integrity of physicians and nurses. Ethical reasoning helps reasonable and sincere people who do not agree on abortion to understand the sources of disagreement and to explore shared principles in the differences. Discussions of abortion cannot be limited to the conflict between the rights of a woman to control her reproduction and the rights of a fetus to live. Religious, cultural, feminist, and political beliefs must also be considered. This complexity must be considered when examining whether physicians and nurses have rights to refuse to assist in abortion on conscientious grounds. People with fundamentally different moral outlooks already determine what is morally right or wrong, good or evil. Health professionals who refuse to assist in abortion base their decision on beliefs about moral duties, injunctions of natural law, and the essentially nonnegotiable rights of people to be protected from intentional harm. They know and regret the adverse effects for pregnant women but there is no compelling motivation to change their opposition to abortion. There is no morally neutral position from which to judge conscientious refusals in abortion. Society should develop a position that respects autonomy of belief and grants the right to physicians and nurses to conscientiously refuse to assist in abortions. In those countries where the abortion law grants physicians the right to refuse but not nurses, society needs to reflect on why nurses have been accorded second class professional and moral status. In those countries which have not yet formulated an abortion law, the government should consider how it can find enough health workers who will in good conscience assist in abortions. Governments must first seriously consider a presumptive right to conscientious refusal in abortion before health systems can redistribute sectors of responsibility among health workers and implement changes in recruitment policies for

  2. Polish parliament liberalizes abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-22

    On October 24, the Sejm (Poland's lower house of parliament) voted 228 to 195 (with 16 abstentions) to amend Poland's March 1993 ban on abortions. The amendment legalizes abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy for women who face financial hardship or difficult personal circumstances. Client counseling by a doctor who will not perform the abortion and a 3-day wait are required. Abortions will be permitted in licensed private clinics, as well as in public hospitals. Anyone performing an illegal abortion can receive 2 years' imprisonment. The government will subsidize contraceptive pills, and a sex education curriculum will be developed for schools. Abortion had been legal and widely available under communist rule; however, a Catholic-aligned government limited abortion to cases where a woman's life or health was endangered, where the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or where the fetus had a severe anomaly. The Catholic Church opposed the new measure, and the Senat (Poland's upper house), on October 3, had voted 40 to 52 (with 2 abstentions) against the amendment. Although the Sejm had previously voted 208 to 61 (with 15 abstentions) in favor of the amendment, 120 of those opposed to the measure, primarily members of the Polish Peasants Party (part of Poland's ruling coalition), had walked out in protest just before an August tally. The Democratic Left Alliance, the other coalition partner, supports the amendment. The most recent vote in the Sejm overturns the Senat veto; however, before the law can go into effect in 1997, it must be signed by President Aleksandr Kwasniewski (a supporter) after a review by Poland's conservative constitutional tribunal.

  3. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  4. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  5. The Lived Experience of Teen Girls’ Abortion in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsorng-Yeh Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In-depth interviews about the experience after having an abortion were conducted with 20 teenage girls in Taiwan. Six themes emerged by using Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology: (a returning to “normal” life as soon as possible, (b seeking abortion resources, (c neglecting post-abortion care, (d disturbed by the fetus ghost, (e concern about virginity loss and choices for future, and (f re-examining relationships with partners. Teenage girls received tremendous social and moral pressure due to their traditional cultural and social environment when they went through the abortion experience. The study helps health professionals understand the experience of those girls.

  6. Induced abortion in villages of Ballabgarh HDSS: rates, trends, causes and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2015-05-29

    Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.

  7. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  8. Artificial Wombs and Abortion Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2017-07-01

    In a study published in late April in Nature Communications, the authors were able to sustain 105- to 115-day-old premature lamb fetuses-whose level of development was comparable to that of a twenty-three-week-old human fetus-for four weeks in an artificial womb, enabling the lambs to develop in a way that paralleled age-matched controls. The oldest lamb of the set, more than a year old at the time the paper came out, appeared completely normal. This kind of research brings us one step closer to providing excellent quality of life for premature newborns, but it also portends major legal and ethical questions, especially for abortion rights in America. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  9. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308 Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA para detecção de Brucella abortus a partir de abortos ou de bezerros nascidos de vacas experimentalmente infectadas com estirpe 2308

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matrone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives, 26 spleens (11 positives, 23 livers (8 positives and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives. All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04 or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004 and equal to the spleens (p=0.18. From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi aperfeiçoar a detecção de Brucella abortus pela PCR em homogeneizados de órgãos de fetos abortados por vacas infectadas, importante mecanismo para descobrir focos da doença na fase de erradicação. Assim, foram comparados diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA, visando à detecção de B. abortus pela PCR em amostras clínicas colhidas de abortos ou de bezerros oriundos de vacas desafiadas com a estirpe 2308 de B. abortus. Para tanto, foram construídos dois grupos padrão ouro com base na bacteriologia clássica, constituídos por: 32 pulmões (17 positivos, 26 baços (11 positivos, 23 fígados (8 positivos e 22 linfonodos bronquiais (7 positivos. Todas essas amostras foram submetidas a três protocolos de extração de DNA, seguidos do mesmo processo de amplificação com os primers B4 e B5. Nos resultados acumulados por

  10. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  11. Major trends in recent abortion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Tak, J

    1975-05-01

    Abortion research continues actively. 1 finding has been that abortion has distinct regional features. In Western Europe the rights of the woman in relation to the rights of the fetus are under study while Eastern European researchers examine the effect of long standing available abortion on birthrates, women's health, subsequent pregnancies, and contraceptive use. The increase in illegal abortion shows that improved health and contraceptive services, better data, and changes in restrictive laws are necessary. Changes in the laws, either from less to more liberal or the opposite, have brought about national studies of subsequent trends in abortion, maternal and infant mortality, service facilities, contraceptive practice and fertility. The technique of menstrual regulation, performed within 14 days of a missed menstrual period and before pregnancy can be determined, has created new research problems. It raises the questions of whether menstrual regulation can legally be considered an abortion and whether effectiveness rates can be reliably determined if a large proportion of the women are not even pregnant. The relative risks of menstrual regulation in very early pregnancy and vacuum aspiration and dilation and curretage at a later stage are now being researched. The World Health Organization is planning research of the psychosocial aspects of the relationship between the users and providers of abortion services. Also receiving research attention is the incidence of repeat abortions and the effects of an abortion refused. The fact that overall birthrates have not been substantially changed by the liberalization of abortion laws in the last 20 years appears to be associated with the improvement of contraceptive methods.

  12. Abortion and Catholic thought. The little-known history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article traces the history of the abortion policy of the Roman Catholic Church. The introductory section notes that the Church has consistently opposed abortion as evidence of sexual sin but has not always regarded it as homicide because Church teaching has never been definitive about the nature of the fetus. In addition, the prohibition of abortion has never been declared an infallible teaching. The chronology starts with a sketch of events in the first six Christian centuries when Christians sought ways to distinguish themselves from pagans who accepted contraception and abortion. During this period, Christians also decided that sexual pleasure was evil. Early Church leaders began the debate about when a fetus acquired a rational soul, and St. Augustine declared that abortion is not homicide but was a sin if it was intended to conceal fornication or adultery. During the period of 600-1500, illicit intercourse was deemed by the Irish Canons to be a greater sin than abortion, Church leaders considered a woman's situation when judging abortion, and abortion was listed in Church canons as homicide only when the fetus was formed. St. Thomas Aquinas declared that a fetus first has a vegetative soul, then an animal soul, and finally a rational soul when the body was developed. The next period, 1500-1750, found anyone who resorted to contraception or abortion subject to excommunication (1588), saw these rules relaxed in 1591, and banned abortion even for those who would be murdered because of a pregnancy (1679). From 1750 to the present, excommunication was the punishment for all abortions (1869). This punishment was extended to medical personnel in 1917, but the penalty had exceptions if the woman was young, ignorant, or operating under duress or fear. In 1930, therapeutic abortions were condemned, and, in 1965, abortion was condemned as the taking of life rather than as a sexual sin. By 1974, the right to life argument had taken hold and became part of a theory of

  13. A dualist analysis of abortion: personhood and the concept of self qua experiential subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himma, K E

    2005-01-01

    There is no issue more central to the abortion debate than the controversial issue of whether the fetus is a moral person. Abortion-rights opponents almost universally claim that abortion is murder and should be legally prohibited because the fetus is a moral person at the moment of conception. Abortion-rights proponents almost universally deny the crucial assumption that the fetus is a person; on their view, whatever moral disvalue abortion involves does not rise to the level of murder and hence does not rise to the level of something that should be legally prohibited. In this essay, I argue that, under dualist assumptions about the nature of mind, the fetus is not a person until brain activity has begun.(i) First, I argue it is a necessary condition for a thing to be a moral person that it is (or has) a self. Second, I argue it is a necessary condition for a fetus to be (or have) a self, under dualist assumptions, that there has been some electrical activity in the brain. I conclude that a dualist can take the position that abortion ought to be legally permitted at least until the beginning of brain activity in the fetus.iI make no attempt to determine what conditions are sufficient for moral personhood; for this reason, the relevant claim about personhood is purely negative.

  14. Framing the fetus in medical work: rituals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clare

    2005-05-01

    What does it mean to investigate the fetus, and what might be the potential consequences? Although a number of feminists have engaged with the debate around the status of the fetus in terms of the possible implications for women, discussion of fetuses has been avoided by many feminists, in response to the politics around the abortion debate. However, there has recently been a move to explore the ways in which the meanings and significance of the fetus can be socially constructed. Set within a United Kingdom context, this paper focuses on two areas which are arguably changing perceptions of the fetus: the recent 'discovery' of fetal 'pain'; and the growing recognition of the fetus as a patient. One of the key concerns of those who support the autonomy of women is that any increasing discourse around the concept of fetal patienthood may promote the notion of fetal personhood, which in turn may affect the status of pregnant women. In exploring perceptions of the fetus, this article firstly cites some of the key policy documents and medical articles which were published during the 1990s, looking at apparent shifts in the ways in which the fetus is discussed in terms of pain and patienthood. It then explores how practitioners from different disciplines talked about fetal pain and patienthood in relation to the clinical setting. Although this paper does not provide conclusive evidence of a wholesale shift in terms of how the fetus is perceived by practitioners, it does point to subtle shifts occurring, which may or may not be significant. It is important to track such shifts closely, primarily because of the potential impact on women, but also for others involved, including practitioners. Such tracking needs to be set within specific cultural and policy contexts.

  15. Brazilian abortion law: the opinion of judges and prosecutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Faúndes, Anibal; Sousa, Maria Helena de

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the opinion of judges and prosecutors concerning Brazilian abortion law and situations in which the abortion should be allowed. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,493 judges and 2,614 prosecutors in Brazil between 2005 and 2006. Participants completed a structured questionnaire approaching sociodemographic characteristics, opinions about abortion law, and circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data were carried out through Poisson regression. The majority of participants (78%) found that the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful should be broadened, or even that abortion should not be criminalized. The highest rates of pro-abortion opinions resulted from: risk to the life of the mother (84%), anencephaly (83%), severe congenital malformation of fetus (82%), and pregnancy resulting from rape (82%). Variables related to religion were strongly associated to the opinion of participants. There is a trend in considering the need of changing the current abortion law, in the sense of widening the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful, or even toward decriminalizing abortion, regardless of the circumstances in which it takes place.

  16. Legal, Social and Psycho-Medical Effects of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisera Mavrić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challanging topic for those who find themselves facing the moral dilemma of whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. Problems of controversy are numerous. Is abortion a murder or not? Is fetus a person or not? When it becomes the one if ever till the birth? If abortion is not morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's right to have an abortion. If abortion is morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it is always impermissible to have an abortion. The comon dilema is whether having an abortion is less wrong than the alternatives. These are some of the questions this paper deals with.

  17. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine abortions associated with Bacillus licheniformis is described. The material consisted of 2445 bovine abortions submitted for diagnostics from 1986 through 1993. Initially, B, licheniformis had been isolated from 81 cases. Sections of these cases were reexamined mic...... isolations, especially from the placenta, lungs, and abomasal contents, combined with the histological findings points to B, licheniformis abortions as being of haematogenous origin with subsequent transplacental spread to the fetus....

  19. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  20. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kumar; L. Hessini; E.M.H. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  1. The decision to abort: no sex-role bias, and little enthusiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, M; Standing, L

    1992-01-01

    The impact of the subject's gender, the gender of the fetus, and the nature of the fetal impairment on the decision to abort a genetically impaired fetus was investigated on a hypothetical level in a sample of 181 college students (88 males and 93 females). It is hypothesized that subjects would be more likely to opt for abortion of a female fetus, and that this choice would be made more often when the impairment was physical as opposed to cognitive. The students were divided randomly into three groups and completed a questionnaire pertaining to a male, female, or gender-unspecified fetus. Gates syndrome was used as an example of a birth defect involving mild physical disfigurement, while Langs syndrome was cited to illustrate mild mental retardation. Subjects were asked to rate, on a scale from 1 (willing) to 7 (unwilling), their willingness to abort. Overall, female students were significantly (p 0.05) more unwilling to abort than their male counterparts. When scores for all six treatment conditions were combined, the mean scale rating in terms of willingness to abort was 4.97 for female students and 4.27 for male students. Unexpectedly, no evidence was found for sex bias in terms of the gender of the fetus or its interaction with the nature of the birth defect. The only mean score to fall below the neutral point of 4 was that for male students considering a gender-unspecified fetus with a physical defect (3.97).

  2. Toward an Abortion Counseling Strategy for Pro-Life Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Phillip James

    1976-01-01

    What do counselors do when involved in a counseling encounter that brings two of their principal values, student freedom and the fetus' right to life, into contact? The author feels if a counselor makes his commitment regarding abortion known. Students will choose a counselor who reinforces their own feelings. (Author)

  3. Life and death before birth: 4D ultrasound and the shifting frontiers of the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Kristin

    2007-08-01

    The development of 4D ultrasound technology has democratised fetal imagery by offering direct visual access to realistic images of the fetus in utero. These images, which purport to show a responsive being capable of complex behaviour, have renewed debate about the personhood of the fetus and the adequacy of current abortion regulation. This article considers recent abortion law reform initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States and observes two shifts in the frontiers of these debates. The first concerns a shift from viability to sentience as a criterion of legal significance. The second concerns a shift toward constructing abortion in terms of feticide as distinct from the termination of pregnancy. Both strategies seek to deploy morphological similarities between the sentient fetus and newborn baby as a basis for extending law's dominion over the fetus.

  4. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  5. China's Most Populous Province to Ban Fetus Sex Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Henan, the most populous province in central China,is plagued by an excessively high sex ratio imbalance at birth in certain parts of the province. To ameliorate the situation, the province will enact regulations to ban non-medically necessary fetus gender identification and sex-selective abortions.

  6. Ensuring a stillborn: the ethics of fetal lethal injection in late abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J C

    1995-01-01

    This article responds to two papers: one describing and defending the intracardiac injection of potassium chloride (KCl) to achieve immediate cardiac arrest in fetuses destined for second-trimester abortion because of abnormalities and a second, accompanying, paper that replies to objections to KCl injection and presents positive arguments for the use of KCl. This response concurs with the moral acceptability of the use of KCl and goes further to argue for its use in late elective abortions of nonanomalous fetuses. The response, however, while agreeing with the conclusions of the arguments presented in the second paper, finds the reasoning set forth in the arguments to be faulty. The objections to the procedure addressed in the second paper are that all abortions are unjust, that newborns and second-trimester fetuses with identical defects should be managed in like manner, and that a woman is not entitled to the death of her fetus. The arguments presented in the second paper to defend KCl use are that the abortion decision is protected by the right to noninterference, that potential harm is avoided by the procedure, and that the potential for coercion is eliminated. Abortion is defended on the grounds that a majority supports a woman's right to choose abortion. The author of this response asserts that abortion can be defended because human fetuses are not persons and because religious commitments cannot be enforced in a pluralistic society. Furthermore, even infants who have severe anomalies need not be treated as potential persons. While a woman has no moral right to the death of her fetus, she does have the right to the safest surgical procedure and to a consideration of the short-term welfare of the fetus or the long-term welfare of children who may result from rescued fetuses. In each case, the denial of life may be the only way to minimize suffering. Even healthy fetuses can be aborted using this procedure on these grounds. Every child should be a wanted child

  7. Post abortion contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  8. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  9. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  10. Prescient human fetuses thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Fetal detection of adversity is a conserved trait that allows many species to adapt their early developmental trajectories to ensure survival. According to the fetal-programming model, exposure to stressful or hostile conditions in utero is associated with compromised development and a lifelong risk of adverse health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, we examined the consequences of prenatal and postnatal exposure to adversity for infant development. We found increased motor and mental development during the 1st year of life among infants whose mothers experienced congruent levels of depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy, even when the levels of symptoms were relatively high and the prenatal and postnatal environments were unfavorable. Congruence between prenatal and postnatal environments prepares the fetus for postnatal life and confers an adaptive advantage for critical survival functions during early development.

  11. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    aborted fetuses from a single sow. The high prevalence of arcobacters in Danish pig abortions may account for at least some of the >90% of cases in which no established abortifacient agent is detected, but further studies are needed to define the role of each species, especially where co...... to examine pooled tissue samples for Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. Routine microbiological, immunological, and histopathological examinations were also performed to identify concurrent infections or histopathological change. The abortions tested negative for established abortifacient...

  12. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  13. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  14. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  15. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5 or more......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  16. [A fetus is a person with a right to exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, E

    1989-12-27

    This article is the contribution of a Jesuit priest, a teacher of medical ethics at Uppsala, to a debate inspired by a Swedish official report "The pregnant woman and fetus--2 individuals. On fetal diagnostics. On late abortions." In a society which depends upon a structured consensus as much as Sweden does, the report has been criticized for not making clearer recommendations. The author points out that the ethical dilemmas involved are so complex that they cannot be treated from a simple either/or point of view. Fetal diagnostics, for example, serve the cause of life when the aim is to avoid abortion of a healthy fetus and make it possible to cure, even at the fetal stage, or to strengthen prospective parents' readiness to accept a handicapped child. The use of fetal diagnostic for sorting out damaged and sick fetuses, however, is selective abortion and implies a violation of the principle that all human life is of equal value. The question is no longer if one will have a child or not, but which child will one have. This collision of values has inspired so many polemic statements that it is worthwhile recalling that there is always a tension between the ethically desirable and the politically possible, The report has succeeded in formulating the ethical principles in spite of the impossibility of seeing them presented as concrete recommendations. Even so, Thomas Aquinas wrote in 13th century that one cannot always apply ethical rules to laws of society. That can lead to more evil than good.

  17. Certainty and agnosticism about lethal injection in late abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, B

    1995-01-01

    This article was written in support of a claim forwarded by Joan Callahan that fetal intracardiac potassium chloride injection (KCl injection) should be offered to women undergoing second-trimester abortion. Callahan provides three positive arguments for use of the technique: maternal safety, the short-term interests of fetuses, and the longterm interests of fetuses who survive the abortion. The author of this article notes that the fact that KCl injection is currently the safest procedure for the mother is argument enough in favor of offering the procedure. Even physicians who object to the procedure are obligated to inform their patients about it and should be encouraged to help their patients locate a physician willing to perform KCl injection. Callahan's argument about fetal pain is sound but unnecessary as long as KCl injection remains the safest procedure for the mother. The argument about preventing longterm suffering for fetuses who survive late abortion is the weakest because it is impossible to determine whether the fetuses would be better off dead or alive. Hospitals can resolve some of the dilemmas which are associated with KCl injection by having a well thought out and clearly communicated policy about resuscitation of an aborted fetus. Callahan argues that the policy should be a blanket "do not resuscitate." The author is less sure that a blanket policy in either direction would be correct. Since it is impossible to know in advance what is best for the child, other factors must determine whether one policy is preferable to another. These include legal considerations such as the Americans with Disabilities Act which prohibits discrimination against disabled individuals in hospitals.

  18. "After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical.

  19. Infectious abortions in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abortions in pigs can be caused by infectious or non-infectious factors About 38% of all diagnosed abortions in pigs were caused by infectious agents. Consequences of infection can be early embryonal deaths or abortions which occur after the 40th day following conception. Causes of abortions include different species of viruses (parvoviruses, enteroviruses pseudorabies viruses, PRRS or bacteria (Brucella, Leptospira, and others. A precise diagnosis is imperative for therapy and prevention of abortions in pigs, and it is necessary to apply measures to prevent reproductive disorders in pigs.

  20. Tolerance of the fetus by the maternal immune system: role of inflammatory mediators at the feto-maternal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Caucheteux, Stéphane M; Verbeke, Philippe; Ojcius, David M

    2003-01-01

    The adaptive immune system of placental mammals has evolved to tolerate the fetus. Rejection of the fetus by adaptive immune responses is therefore a rare event, with abortion being caused more frequently by inflammation in the placenta. This review will cover recent aspects of immune privilege and the innate immune system at the feto-maternal interface, citing examples of the role played by microbial infections in fetal demise. PMID:14651750

  1. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates.

  2. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of Brucella melitensis antigens in cases of naturally occurring abortions in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Fatma; Yener, Zabit

    2008-11-01

    Brucella melitensis, a worldwide zoonotic pathogen, is a significant cause of abortion in sheep and goats in some countries. The present study was carried out to determine, by immunohistochemistry, the presence of B. melitensis antigens in 110 naturally occurring aborted sheep fetuses. Sections of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen of each fetus were stained with immunoperoxidase to detect Brucella antigens. Brucella melitensis antigens were detected in 33 of 110 fetuses (30%). In the 33 positive cases, Brucella antigens were found in lung (25 [22.7%]), liver (21 [19%]), spleen (13 [11.8%]), and kidney (6 [5.4%]). Microscopic studies demonstrated that Brucella antigens were mainly located in the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils of the lung, and in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the portal infiltrates and Kupffer cells of the liver. It was concluded that immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a useful tool for the diagnosis of spontaneous ovine abortion caused by B. melitensis.

  4. A country divided: the German debate over abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, J

    1992-02-01

    When the Berlin Wall crumbled on November 9, 1989, few Germans could foresee the coming dramatic changes. But by 1992 Germany faced deep internal divisions as it attempted to merge 2 very different societies. One such division was over abortion. In the West, women had access to abortion services only when they met very specific criteria. In the East, access to abortion within the first trimester had been unhindered since 1972. As agreed to under unification treaty terms, the Federal Republic had until the end of 1992 to design and enact new legislation that would create a legal basis for abortion within united Germany. Under West Germany's criminal code, abortion was allowed only 1) when the physical health of the mother was in danger; 2) when abnormalities in the fetus existed; 3) in cases of rape or incest; or 4) if serious social, psychological, or economic factors made the raising of a child difficult. In the primarily Catholic southern and southwestern portions of West Germany, state governments strictly regulated the use of the social indicator clause. In East Germany abortion costs were covered by social security, and the government guaranteed access to abortion services. The widespread use of contraception kept abortion levels comparatively low to moderate in the East (350 per 1000 births). During the 1970s, as population growth rates in the East shrank to negative levels, a pronatalist policy extended maternity leaves in 1976, and women rearing 2 or more children at home received 90% of their salaries for 1 year. In the West, changes in women's status and levels of income and education have led to a decrease in the size of families. All 5 parties have reform proposals ranging from the further restriction of abortion to the complete removal of existing restrictions. A sizable majority of Germans support a liberalization of the West German criminal codes regarding abortion.

  5. How to understand a woman's obligations to the fetus in unwanted pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Kristen

    2013-06-01

    Some have challenged Thomson's case of the famous unconscious violinist (UV) by arguing that in cases of consensual sex a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus; since she is partially responsible she ought to assist the fetus, and so abortion is morally wrong. Call this the Responsibility Objection (RO) to UV. In this paper, I briefly criticize one of the most widely discussed objections to RO and then suggest a new way to challenge RO. In so doing, I investigate the plausibility of the moral principle that appears to be driving RO: If a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus, she has a moral obligation to assist the fetus. I argue that this principle is false. I suggest modified versions of this principle but argue that, even on the most plausible version, RO does not persuade.

  6. An “inexplicable” problem of habitual abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gallone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI appears to be a determining factor in pregnancy loss. Many studies have confirmed this association, not only in hypo- and hyperthyroid women but also in euthyroid ones. The main risk associated with TAI is the occurrence of maternal hypothyroidism, with its potential deleterious effects for both the mother and fetus. We report a case of a 35-years-old woman with a history of habitual abortion. After diagnosis of TAI with normal thyroid function and treatment with levothyroxine, the patient became pregnant. After a normal pregnancy without problems, she gave birth of normal fetus at 39’ weeks gestation.

  7. The abortion paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, J D

    1983-10-12

    Abortion surfaced as a community problem when, following the passage of the 1967 Abortion Act in England and the subsequent rapid rise in medically induced abortion, a few doctors and a group of lay people in Auckland founded the Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child. Soon after this the opposition formed the Abortion Law Reform Association whose aims came to be vocalized by women's liberation groups like Women's Electoral Lobby and WONAAC. As in other countries, the media gave the proabortion movement a good boost and the medical profession did little to discourage it. A bold and significant move was made by the abortion promoters when they established a clinic in Remuera to carry out abortion in Auckland. There was a reaction and eventually (September 1974) a police raid and a court case based on a dozen cases that looked like infringements of the law. Dr. Woolnough, principal operator, was tried but the jury failed to agree. On a retrail he was acquitted. In August 1974 Dr. Gerard Wall introduced a private member's bill aimed at restricting therapeutic abortion to public hospitals. The bill was amended so that duly licensed institutions other than public hospitals were also acceptable for abortion procedures. The Remuera clinic which had ceased working when the provision of the Wall bill became operative transferred its operations to the Aotea Clinic in Epsom which had applied for and obtained a license. The following year the late Air Commodore Frank Gill introduced another bill (August 1976) aimed at changing the situation back toward Wall's position, i.e., restricting induced abortion to public hospitals. In December 1977 a law called the Contraception, Sterilization and Abortion Act was passed, which in essence allowed abortion where it seemed that the mother's life or mental or physical health would be seriously endangered, where the mother was very young or somewhat old, where the child was conceived of incest. Abortion figures raise the question

  8. Adolescent Girls and Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Changes of Fluctuating Asymmetry with Age in Human Fetuses and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Van Dongen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA, increases with stress in humans, yet little is known about how stress affects the changes of asymmetry with age. More specifically, it is unknown if fetuses experiencing a major congenital abnormality will express higher FA already during early development or only at a later age; (2 Methods: We combine two datasets to study associations between age and asymmetry in human fetuses and young infants. One population consists of fetuses from spontaneous abortions and early deceased infants where many experienced major congenital abnormalities, and a second from elicited abortions for social reasons; (3 Results: While the occurrence of major abnormalities did not seem to affect the way asymmetry decreased with age, differences between the two populations were observed; and (4 Conclusions: In one population where fetuses and young infants deceased of natural causes, asymmetry decreased rapidly until 20 weeks of age and then leveled off. Over the entire timespan (week 15–49, individuals with major congenital abnormalities showed higher FA, suggesting that developmental perturbations increase FA rapidly. In the second, more normal population with abortions solicited for social reasons, the decrease in asymmetry with age was less profound and not statistically significant, calling for further research toward understanding regional differences.

  10. Identification at Biovar Level of Brucella Isolates Causing Abortion in Small Ruminants of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah; Ramin Bagheri Nejad; Karim Amiri; Ali Reza Bahonar

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results show...

  11. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  12. Dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in bioethics: selective abortion debates and issues of self-determination in Japan and 'the West'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.; Sleeboom-Faulkner, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination (j

  13. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  14. Abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.

  15. Abortion in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.

  16. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  17. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  18. PREGNANCY OUTCOME FOLLOWING ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The previous two or three induced - were spontaneous abortion will carry a risk of preterm, ectopic pregnancy. This is to study is to evaluate the outcome of pregnancy with history of previous abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This study was conducted for on e and half year period in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur. RESULTS: We observed that majority of the women in the study fell in 25 to 35 years of age. 116 (71.9% women with history of induced abortion were aged between 25 to 30 yea rs of age. 52(73.3% women with history of spontaneous abortions were less than 30 years of age. There were only 7(9.7% women in the spontaneous abortion group who were above 35 years of age. CONCLUSION: We concluded that women with previous history of tw o or three induced abortions were at risk of preterm birth, very preterm birth and low birth weight babies in the subsequent pregnancies. The risk of caesarean was found to be increased in women with previous two or three spontaneous abortions exposing the women to the morbidity associated with the C-section

  19. [Post-abortion contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C

    2016-12-01

    To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  1. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion

  2. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  3. Detecção de ácidos nucléicos de Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., herpesvirus bovino e vírus da diarréia viral bovina, em fetos bovinos abortados e em animais mortos no perinatal Detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleic acids in aborted fetuses and bovines dead perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 114 bovine fetuses and 10 calves, which dead in perinatal period, were examined for detection of DNA. The most common detected agent was Brucella spp. in 17 samples (13.7% followed by Leptospira spp. in 4 cases (3.2%,bovine herpesvirus (BHV and bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV in 3 animals (2.4% each, and 1 for the association of BVDV and BHV. In 77.4 % (96/124 of the samples it was not possible to detect any agent.

  4. Euthanasia, Selective Abortion and Educability: A Survey of the Literature and the TASH Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Fredda

    The study explored what sources were responsible for exposing professionals to issues of euthanasia of handicapped infants, selective abortion of severely handicapped fetuses and the educability of profoundly retarded persons, and what sources professionals thought were most appropriate for the dissemination of information. The study consisted of…

  5. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  6. Rhetorical Strategies for a Culture War: Abortion in the 1992 Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the general strategies of Bill Clinton and George Bush in the 1992 presidential campaign regarding the abortion issue among the complex of family values appeals and in the context of the "culture war." Analyzes the rhetorical power of the dead fetus image shown in campaign advertising. Speculates on the influence of the abortion…

  7. Euthanasia, Selective Abortion and Educability: A Survey of the Literature and the TASH Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Fredda

    The study explored what sources were responsible for exposing professionals to issues of euthanasia of handicapped infants, selective abortion of severely handicapped fetuses and the educability of profoundly retarded persons, and what sources professionals thought were most appropriate for the dissemination of information. The study consisted of…

  8. FETUS PAPYRACEOUS : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus Papyraceous is a rare manifestation of discordant growth in twins . It is usually diagnosed during labour or after delivery of papyraceous . The main complication is that the normal twin and occasionally the mother may be adversely affected .

  9. Habituation in the rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, W P; Robinson, S R

    1992-04-01

    Rat fetuses exhibit motor and cardiac responses to chemosensory stimulation on Days 20 and 21 of gestation. The first experiment demonstrated that fetuses exhibit an increase in overall motor activity and decrease in heartrate in response to an initial intraoral infusion of a lemon solution. After a series of nine exposures, however, fetuses no longer exhibit motor or cardiac responses to lemon infusion, suggesting the existence of a habituation-like process. Responsiveness recovers spontaneously following a 3- to 9-min period without stimulation. In a second experiment, a dishabituation treatment was administered to distinguish habituation, which is a centrally mediated decrement in response, from effector fatigue, sensory adaptation, and other peripheral mechanisms that can result in reduced responsiveness. A single infusion of mint following a series of nine lemon exposures was effective in reinstating fetal motor responses to lemon on both Days 20 and 21, but reinstated cardiac responses only on Day 21. Rat fetuses habituate to repeated chemosensory stimulation, suggesting the utility of the habituation paradigm in measuring CNS development during the perinatal period.

  10. Abortion and Selection

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of legalized abortion in the early 1970s led to dramatic changes in fertility behavior. Some research has suggested as well that there were important impacts on cohort outcomes, but this literature has been limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms through which abortion access affects cohort outcomes, and use that framework to both address inconsistent past methodological approaches, and provide evidence on the long-run...

  11. Heart rate patterns in trisomic fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniemi, V; Aula, P

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the clinical records of fifteen fetuses with trisomy 21, six fetuses with trisomy 18, and two fetuses with trisomy 13 was made in order to find out typical patterns of fetal heart rate (FHR) possibly associated with these conditions. Antepartal FHR patterns of 55 normal pregnancies and intrapartal FHR patterns of 14 normal labors were used as a control material. Trisomic fetuses showed significantly fewer FHR accelerations than did the controls. Fetuses with trisomy 18 and 13 had more antepartal decelerations than fetuses with trisomy 21. Trisomic fetuses also showed more intrapartal late decelerations and epochs of silent FHR pattern than did the controls. The abnormal FHR patterns of the trisomic fetuses thus were similar to those in placental insufficiency. Cesarean section was performed for both fetuses with trisomy 13, for five of the six fetuses with trisomy 18 and for nine of fifteen fetuses with trisomy 21. In eleven of sixteen cesarean sections the main indication was abnormal cardiotocogram. Fetal karyotyping from an amniotic fluid sample should perhaps be considered when decelerations and silent patterns of FHR in a growth-retarded, late second or early third trimester fetus are seen. In most cases, however, the decision for optimal management o labor must be based on FHR patterns solely.

  12. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  13. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  14. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  15. [Abortion in small ruminants in Switzerland: investigations during two lambing seasons (1996-1998) with special regard to chlamydial abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton-Greutmann, H; Thoma, R; Corboz, L; Borel, N; Pospischil, A

    2002-09-01

    Abortion cases of 144 goats und 86 sheep were investigated etiologically during 2 lambing seasons (1996/1997, 1997/1998). Macroscopic inspection of fetus and placenta was completed by histopathology and bacteriological isolation of agents. In addition, immunohistologically the following antigens were labeled in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections: Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydophila abortus (formerly Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1) and Border Disease Virus. From farms with abortions caused by Chlamydophila abortus specific data were recorded. In 75% of abortion cases in sheep and in 59% of cases in goats an etiologic diagnosis could be substantiated. Chlamydophila abortus is the most commonly involved agent in the etiology of caprine and ovine abortion (sheep 39%, goats 23%), followed by Toxoplasma gondii (sheep 19%, goats 15%) and Coxiella burnetti (sheep 1%, goats 10%). All other agents are of minor importance. An infectious cause of abortion based on histopathologic findings without isolation of agents was observed in sheep (10%) and goats (21%). Malformation occurred in sheep (2%) and goats (3%) and lesions suggestive for Vitamin E/Selenium deficiency were seen in goats only (2%).

  16. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  17. Current problems regarding abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current ethical and legal issues with regard to abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy are discussed in this paper. These problems are considered from the legal theory point of view as well as from the standpoint of the Serbian Law, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, legal regulations of several EU countries, the USA, Japan, and their judicial practice. First, the pregnancy termination standards that exist in Serbia are introduced. Then the following issues are explained separately: the pro life and pro choice approaches to abortion; abortion according to the legal approach as a way of survival; the moral and legal status of the fetus; prenatal genetic testing, and finally matters regarding managing pregnancy today. Moral and legal principals of autonomy, namely freedom of choice of the individual, privacy and self-determination give women the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In addition, the basic question is whether the right of the woman to abortion clashes with the rights of others. Firstly, with the right of the "fetus to life". Secondly, with the right of the state to intervene in the interest of protecting "the life of the fetus". Third, with the rights of the woman’s partner. The fetus has the moral right to life, but less in relation to the same right of the woman as well as in relation to her right to control her life and her physical and moral integrity. On the other hand, the value of the life of the fetus increases morally and legally with the maturity of gestation; from the third trimester, the interest of the state prevails in the protection of the "life of the fetus" except when the life or health of the pregnant woman are at risk. As regards the rights of the woman’s partner, namely the husband’s opinion, there is no legal significance. The law does not request his participation in the decision on abortion because

  18. Cost of abortions in Zambia: A comparison of safe abortion and post abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Divya; Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan Fairley; Hukin, Eleanor; Vwalika, Bellington

    2017-02-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead. This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, we used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks. We estimated the costs of providing safe abortion and PAC services at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka and then projected these costs to generate indicative cost estimates for Zambia. Due to unavailability of data on the actual number of safe abortions and PAC cases in Zambia, we used estimates from previous studies and from other similar countries, and checked the robustness of our estimates with sensitivity analyses. We found that PAC following an unsafe abortion can cost 2.5 times more than safe abortion care. The Zambian health system could save as much as US$0.4 million annually if those women currently treated for an unsafe abortion instead had a safe abortion.

  19. [Psychological aspects of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, L

    2016-12-01

    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Induced abortion at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Hilde; Qvigstad, Erik; Jerve, Fridtjof; Melseth, Eldbjørg; Eskild, Anne; Nielsen, Christopher S

    2007-09-20

    Medically induced abortion through week 9 is a well established procedure. The article concerns satisfaction among women who choose to do this at home, and possible associations between satisfaction, socio-demographic--and clinical factors. 110 women with pregnancy duration questionnaires filled in before and 1 and 3 weeks after the abortion. The degree of satisfaction was recorded on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 was not content and 10 was very content. Follow-up data were available for 105 women. 90 of 105 women were very content (> 7 on the satisfaction scale) with the treatment. Discomfort and pain during the abortion and marital status seemed to influence the results. The degree of pain varied much. No serious complications were observed. The study showed a high degree of satisfaction with medically induced abortion at home early in the pregnancy. The study has a relatively small sample size and no control group, so the results on factors affecting satisfaction are uncertain. Medical abortion at home should be an opportunity for women applying for early pregnancy termination; as long as the women are well informed, are offered sufficient pain relief and a well functioning follow-up programme.

  1. Induced abortion and psychosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Kulier, R; Perrin, E; Campana, A

    2000-12-01

    Little information exists on the impact of induced abortion on psychosexuality. Negative psychological effects and psychiatric complications due to termination of pregnancy seem to be rare. The objective of this study was to review the impact of induced abortion on sexuality and couple relationships. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Studies had to report a quantitative or qualitative evaluation of sexuality after pregnancy termination. Four studies were included. In the one prospective study using a control group, no difference in sexual functioning between groups after 1 year was reported. In the remaining observational studies, sexual dysfunction was reported in up to 30% of women after termination. Women undergoing abortion had significantly more conflicts in their partnerships. This was similar in all studies. Separation occurred in about one-quarter of all couples. Some studies report sexual dysfunction after termination of pregnancy. In about half of the couples separated after termination, abortion seemed not to have led to the separation. Psychological factors, together with relationship problems, might have played a role in failed contraception. The impact of induced abortion on sexuality needs to be studied in greater detail with rigorous methodology to draw firm conclusions.

  2. Detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera by a Dot-ELISA using acid extracts from c. fetus ssp. fetus and c. jejuni strains and comparison with a complement fixation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtürk, K; Ekin, I H; Aksakal, A; Solmaz, H

    2002-04-01

    In this study, a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) was evaluated in comparison with a complement fixation test (CFT) for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera. Acid glycine extracts (AGE) of both Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from the gall-bladder of slaughtered sheep was used as antigen in both tests. A total of 153 sheep sera from aborted (74) and slaughtered (79) sheep were examined by both Dot-ELISA and CFT. Twenty-two sera showed anti-complementary activity were not suitable for CFT. Of the 22 sera showing anti-complementary activity, two sera were found to be positive in Dot-ELISA. Eighty-eight (67.2%) of the remaining 131 sera were negative by both Dot-ELISA and CFT using AGE of both Campylobacter strains whereas 43 sera (32.8%) gave different reaction patterns in Dot-ELISA and CFT with the extracts of both Campylobacter strains. Twelve sera were positive by both tests using AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus but CFT failed to detect antibodies in nine of these sera when AGE of C. jejuni was used. Twelve sera were positive by both tests only when AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus was used. Eleven sera were positive only by CFT. Seven of these reacted only with the AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus and four sera were positive by using AGE of both Campylobacter strains. The remaining eight sera were found to be positive only by dot-immunobinding assay either with the AGE of both Campylobacter strains or with the AGE of one of the Campylobacter strains. It is concluded that Dot-ELISA using AGE from C. fetus ssp. fetus could be employed for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera and the additional use of AGE from C. jejuni as antigen appeared not to be profitable for this purpose.

  3. Legal abortion in Georgia, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, A M; Oberle, M; Zaro, S M

    1984-02-01

    According to data reported to the Georgia Department of Human Resources (DHR), the number of induced abortions performedin Georgia in 1980 decreased for the 1st time since 1968 when the state legalized abortion. To verify this reported decrease, the DHR data were compared with statistics obtained by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in a 1980 survey of abortion providers in Georgia. Since the AGI contacts providers directly, its statistics are considered a more accurate reflection of abortions performed. According to the DHR, the number of abortions dropped from 36,579 in 1979 to 33,288 in 1980, a 9% decrease, and the abortion rate fell from 26.6/1000 women ages 15-44 years to 23.9/1000. AGI data indicated a drop from 38,760 abortions in 1979 to 37,890 in 1980, a 2% decrease. Since both sources noted a similar trend despite differences in data collection methods, the 1980 decline in abortion procedures in Georgia is considered to represent a true decline rather than s statistical artifact. The sociodemographic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in Georgia in 1980 were also analyzed on the basis of DHR data. Although the number of abortions in Georgia performed on Georgia residents increased 2.5% from 1979-80 to 90.7%, the abortion ratio for residents decreased from 367.7 to 327.4 abortions/1000 live births. There was little change in the age, race, or marital status distribution of women receiving abortions. The ratio for white women was 317 abortions/1000 live births and that for blacks was 342/1000. The abortion ratio for unmarried women (1166/1000) was 13 times that for married women (88/1000). The number of repeat abortions decreased form 34% in 1979 to 29% in 1980. Moreover, 93% of women obtaining abortions did so in the 1st 12 weeks of gestation compared with 89% in 1979. The percentage of abortions performed in clinics increased from 66.5% in 1979 to 75.3% in 1980, with suction curettage accounting for 85% of all abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of

  4. Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter trogontum: infectious causes of abortion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, John; Haydon, Taryrn G; Rawdon, Thomas G; McFadden, Andrew M J; Ha, Hye-Jeong; Shen, Zeli; Feng, Yan; Pang, Jassia; Swennes, Alton G; Paster, Bruce J; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G; Spence, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the association of Helicobacter spp. that had flexispira morphology with ovine abortion, and to understand the importance of these organisms as a cause of ovine abortion in New Zealand. A retrospective diagnostic survey was carried out on laboratory submissions from ovine abortion outbreaks. A comparison was made of the proportion of laboratory submissions where Helicobacter spp. were detected from flocks that had no other agent identified (group A) with a group that had a known cause of abortion identified (group B). This latter group was considered to be a negative control, given the premise that Helicobacter spp. were not causing abortions and that Helicobacter spp. should be present at a lower rate in the group. Where no diagnosis had been made, aborted material was positive for Helicobacter spp. with flexispira morphology in 8 submissions (20%, 8/40) from 5 of the 31 survey farms (16%, 5/31). Helicobacter spp. were not detected in any of the 18 submissions from the 17 control farms (group B). Helicobacter spp. were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of 3 of the Helicobacter spp. isolated by culture from the livers of aborted sheep fetuses, and 7 of the 8 where samples were positive in a Helicobacter PCR assay. The Helicobacter spp. were identified as Helicobacter trogontum (Flexispira taxon 5 genotype) and Helicobacter bilis (Flexispira taxon 8 genotype). The findings support Helicobacter spp. being a probable causative agent of ovine abortions in New Zealand. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Perception on the abortion laws in Sri Lanka: A community based study in the city of Colombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranga, M S; Silva, K T; Senanayake, L

    2016-12-30

    Abortion is legally permitted in Sri Lanka, only if it is performed to save the mother’s life. However, it is estimated that a large number of induced abortions take place in Sri Lanka. Knowledge and attitudes towards induced abortion in the society are key issues influencing the policy response towards changes in the law. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adults towards induced abortion in Sri Lanka. Six Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) and five to eight housing clusters from each GND were selected from Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat Division using multi stage stratified random sampling. Fifty households were systematically selected from each GND. An interview was scheduled among 743 residents aged between 19 to 49 years of age after receiving written informed consent. Only 11% of the respondents knew the situations in which abortion was legal in Sri Lanka. Approximately one tenth of the respondents (11%) did not agree with the current law which allows an induced abortion only to save the life of the mother. However, a majority agreed to legalization of abortion for rape (65%), incest (55%) and pregnancies with lethal fetal abnormalities (53%). Less than one tenth of respondents agreed with legalisation of induced abortion for other reasons such as con-traceptive failure (6%), poor economic conditions (7%) and, on request (4%). Although the society rejects abortion on request majority are in favour of allowing abortions for rape, incest and fetuses with lethal abnormalities.

  6. Second trimester medical abortion with mifepristone-misoprostol and misoprostol alone: a review of methods and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Lalitkumar, Sujata

    2008-05-01

    Second trimester abortions constitute 10-15% of all induced abortions worldwide but are responsible for two-thirds of major abortion-related complications. During the last decade, medical methods for second trimester induced abortion have been considerably improved and become safe and more accessible. Today, in most cases, safe and efficient medical abortion services can be offered or improved by minor changes in existing health care facilities. Second trimester medical abortion can be provided by a nurse-midwife with the back-up of a gynaecologist. Because of the potential for heavy vaginal bleeding and serious complications, it is advisable that second trimester terminations take place in a health care facility where blood transfusion and emergency surgery (including laparotomy) are available. This article provides basic information on regimens recommended for second trimester medical abortion. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is now an established and highly effective method for second trimester abortion. Where mifepristone is not available or affordable, misoprostol alone has also been shown to be effective, although a higher total dose is needed and efficacy is lower than for the combined regimen. Therefore, whenever possible, the combined regimen should be used. Efforts should be made to reduce unnecessary surgical evacuation of the uterus after expulsion of the fetus. Future studies should focus on improving pain management, the treatment of women with failed medical abortion after 24 hours, and the safety of medical abortion regimens in women with a previous caesarean section or uterine scar.

  7. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  8. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  9. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Abortion, providers, law, access, reproductive health care ... administrative materials) into the decision-making process between a ... training, research, and outreach efforts of these ..... additional economic factors influence abortion.

  10. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  11. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  12. A Shiite perspective toward abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Kiarash Aramesh

    2006-01-01

    All schools of Islamic jurisprudence regard abortion as wrong and forbidden and allow abortion only before the stage of ensoulment, if the continuation of pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or put her into intolerable difficulties. In this article we describe and assess the viewpoint of Shiite jurisprudence toward abortion. "nUsing a selected collection of related references, and discussion describes with experts, this article the abortion in Shiite jurisprudence."nIn t...

  13. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  14. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  15. [Frequency of external congenital abnormalities in abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo de Arreola, G; López-Serna, N; Treviño-Alanís, M G; Russildi, J M; Arreola-Arredondo, B; Borrego, S A

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the incidence of external birth defects found in 1,650 aborted fetuses studied from September 1978 to February 1983 at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital "Dr. José Eleuterio González" of the U.A.N.L. Medical School. Ninety five of fetuses had external birth defects and 85 had abnormalities in annexes. The Fisher exact test was applied to find the relationship between these abnormalities; no relationship was found. 67.4% had only one birth defect; 32.1% showed several defects. Those defects which were lethal constituted 67%, the majority being of the central nervous system. Defects found in the abdominal wall took second place in frequency followed by abnormalities in either extremity and ear defects. The birth defects seen in early gestational ages differ from those seen in live newborn babies. It is important to carry out morphological and teratological studies, not only in newborns but also during the embrion and fetal periods.

  16. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  17. Attitude of Reproductive Age Women towards Factors Affecting Induced Abortion in Hamedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zahra Masoumi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Abortion is the third leading cause of maternal mortality. The attitude of women towards abortion is one of the most important factors involved in this issue. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of women of reproductive age towards induced abortion. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 450 women of reproductive age in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamedan, Iran in 2014. Data was collected using abortion attitude scale consisting of five sections: socioeconomic status, family status, maternal and fetal health status, psycho -cultural background, and fertility status. Mean score less than three in each domain was considered as negative attitude, while scores higher or equal to three indicated positive attitude towards induced abortion. To analyze the data, logistic regression analysis, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed using SPSS version 21. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, induced abortion had no significant relationship with family status, maternal and fetal health, and fertility domains (82.1%, 77.3%, and 64.4%, respectively. A relationship was observed between induced abortion and socioeconomic and psycho-cultural domains (61.8% and 56%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of induced abortion were the attitude towards the effect of abortion on the health of mother and fetus (P= 0.01, as well as the psychocultural status of the mothers (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Evaluation of the results indicated a strong belief in the majority of the participants in psychocultural and socioeconomic domains as the most significant predictive factors for induced abortion. Since it is difficult to alter the socioeconomic and psychocultural domains of individuals, changes are recommended in predominant attitudes towards induced abortion.

  18. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  19. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  20. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  1. [Pain perception of the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2010-11-07

    Author presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available information about fetal pain perception. In this context the article discusses the concept of pain sensation, its evolution during intrauterine life and its physical and biochemical signs. Only the last mentioned phenomena allow deduction with regard to the severity of pain related stress reaction, in the absence of objective yardstick for measuring the intensity of pain felt by the fetus. The discussion also involves pain associated with birthing process and extends to its possible alleviation.

  2. Ultrasound: a window to the womb?: Obstetric ultrasound and the abortion rights debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetoric of obstetric ultrasound technology as it relates to the abortion debate, specifically the interpretation given to ultrasound images by opponents of abortion. The tenor of the anti-abortion approach is precisely captured in the videotape, Ultrasound: A Window to the Womb. Aspects of this videotape are analyzed in order to tease out the assumptions about the (female) body and about the access to truth yielded by scientific technology (ultrasound) held by militant opponents of abortion. It is argued that the ultrasound images do not offer transparent confirmation of the ontological status of the embryo and fetus. Rather, the "window " of ultrasound is constructed through a complex combination of visual and verbal devices: ultrasound images, photographic images, verbal argument, and emotional appeal.

  3. Abortion in Islamic Ethics, and How it is Perceived in Turkey: A Secular, Muslim Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-06-30

    Abortion is among the most widely discussed concepts of medical ethics. Since the well-known ethical theories have emerged from Western world, the position of Islamic ethics regarding main issues of medical ethics has been overlooked. Muslims constitute a considerable amount of world population. Turkish Republic is the only Muslim country ruled with secular democracy and one of the three Muslim countries where abortion is legalized. The first aim of this paper is to present discussions on abortion in Islamic ethics in the context of major ethical concepts; the legal status of the fetus, respect for life and the right not to be born. The second aim is to put forth Turkey's present legislation about abortion in the context of Islamic ethical and religious aspects.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Dellarupe, A; De Felice, L; Gos, M L; Venturini, M C

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two fetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non-canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina.

  5. "In patient" medical abortion versus surgical abortion: patient's satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Costantino; Savoia, Fabiana; Ferrara, Cinzia; Sglavo, Gabriella; Tommaselli, Giovanni Antonio; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Cagnacci, Angelo; Nappi, Carmine

    2016-08-01

    To compare patients' satisfaction with medical and surgical abortion, implementing the Italian guidelines on medical abortion entailing an "in patient" procedure. A total of 1832 pregnant chose between surgical (vacuum aspiration) or medical abortion (mifepristone p.o. followed after 3 days by sublingual misoprostol) and expressed their expected satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS). A total of 885 women chose surgical and 947 medical abortion. The primary end-point was satisfaction VAS score 20 days after the procedure. Secondary end-points were: difference between pre- and post-abortion VAS score; difference in satisfaction VAS scores according to parity and previous abortion; incidence of side effects. VAS score was high in each group but significantly higher for the 1-day surgical than for the 3-day medical abortion procedure (7.9 ± 1.0 versus 7.2 ± 1.2; p after the treatment (6.9 ± 1.6 versus 7.9 ± 1.0, p abortion; women with a previous abortion preferred surgical abortion. Both procedures are considered satisfactory by the patients. Performing medical abortion as a 3-day "in patient" procedure, decreased women's satisfaction scores from their baseline expectations.

  6. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  7. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  8. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  9. Abortion and contraceptive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Persona, marketed by Unipath, is a new method of natural family planning which has been on the market since 1996. It works by measuring the hormone levels in a woman's urine and letting her know when she is not fertile and may have sex without using a barrier method of contraception. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that their surveyed clients who reported using Persona had 188 abortions in 3 months and concluded that there was a need for better information and more advice for couples who plan to use the method. The other major non-NHS abortion provider, Marie Stopes International, reported similar findings, with about 60 women per month visiting their clinics for abortions after having used the method. The BPAS survey also showed that 43% of the women who had an abortion after using Persona were aged 24 years or younger even though Persona is intended for use by women aged 25-40 years in stable relationships. A similar proportion also reported having sex on days when the method told them that they were most fertile. These latter women were not asked if they used another method of contraception on fertile days. An additional 13% reported ignoring the instructions to wait for 3 natural periods after terminating pill use before beginning to use Persona.

  10. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (Phorse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (Phorse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased abruptly immediately before fetal death, suggesting luteolysis due to active prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) secretion. It is concluded that the greater incidence of abortion in mares impregnated by donkeys is associated with different kinds of luteal malfunction. Deficiency of eCG may be a primary cause of many of these cases, either by failing to stimulate enough luteal progesterone secretion and/or by failing to protect the corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy from endogenous PGF2alpha secretion.

  11. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia in an immunocompetent traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  13. Swedish students' attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.

  14. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, S B

    1995-01-01

    In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data.

  15. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  16. Isolated bilateral transverse agenesis of the distal segments of the lower limbs at the level of the knee joint in a human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Antoine B; Deprez, Pierre M L; Amyere, Mustapha; Mendola, Antonella; Bernard, Pierre; Gillerot, Yves; Clapuyt, Philippe; Godfraind, Catherine; Lengelé, Benoît G; Vikkula, Miikka; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Congenital limb anomalies occur in Europe with a prevalence of 3.81/1,000 births and can have a major impact on patients and their families. The present study concerned a female fetus aborted at 23 weeks of gestation because she was affected by non-syndromic bilateral absence of the zeugopod (leg) and autopod (foot). Autopsy of the aborted fetus, X-ray imaging, MRI, and histochemical analysis showed that the distal extremity of both femurs was continued by a cartilage-like mass, without joint cavitation. Karyotype was normal. Moreover, no damaging variant was detected by exome sequencing. The limb characteristics of the fetus, which to our knowledge have not yet been reported in humans, suggest a developmental arrest similar to anomalies described in chicks following surgical experiments on the apical ectodermal ridge of the lower limbs.

  17. Legal and medical aspects of the ethics committee’s work relating to abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponjavić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary

  18. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    : Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional ...

  19. Association of interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism in spontaneous abortions: a family-based triad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadhari, M; Sujatha, M; Krupa, P; Jyothy, A; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, A

    2015-12-01

    The present study is a triad study designed to determine the co-relation of IL-10 -819C/T promoter polymorphism with the risk of spontaneous abortions. A total of 50 families with spontaneous abortions and 60 families with medically terminated pregnancies were considered for the present study. Fetal tissue of less than 20 weeks of gestation along with peripheral blood from all the couples was collected in this study. A standard amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the IL 10 genotype in all the subjects. Odd's ratio and their respective 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the strength of association between IL-10 promoter gene polymorphism and spontaneous abortions. The study revealed a statistically significant association of IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism between the two family groups among fetuses (p=0.0000003) and mothers (p=0.0000001). No significant difference was observed in the genotype distribution of IL-10 among fathers. An increased frequency of TT genotype and T allele was observed in spontaneously aborted fetuses and their mothers compared to respective controls. In conclusion, IL-10 C -819T gene promoter polymorphism may act as a major genetic regulator in the etiology of spontaneous abortions.

  20. THE CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF THE FETUS AND A NEWBORN CHILD IN THE ACTUAL AND NEW CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLADILA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the way in which is achieved the criminal protection of the fetus and the newborn child, especially using the means of incriminating abortion and infanticide. The study emphasizes the lack of real protection for the intrauterine life, as a promise for life, which is trying to be remedied, in accordance with other European legislations, through the new Criminal Code.

  1. How Danes evaluate moral claims related to abortion: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard

    2015-07-01

    To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion for different reasons and at different gestational weeks. A questionnaire was mailed to 1000 Danish citizens aged 18-45 years randomly drawn from the Danish Central Personal Register. A significance level of 0.05 was used for statistical estimations. Four hundred and sixty-two responded to at least one moral claim. Two hundred and fifty-eight responded to all four claims without using the option 'neither agree nor disagree' and were classified as 'morally engaged responders'. A majority of these had a pro-abortion moral. The general relationship between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. The direction of causality is discussed with reference to both moral reasoning and moral intuitions. The relationship between normative social behaviour and abortion attitudes is considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Abortion in small ruminants in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Luttikholt, S; Peperkamp, K; Wouda, W; Vellema, P

    2012-07-01

    During five successive lambing seasons between 2006 and 2011, 453 submissions of abortion material, 282 of ovine and 171 of caprine origin, were examined at the Animal Health Service in the Netherlands. Infectious agents as the most plausible cause of the abortion were found in 48 percent of the ovine submissions and in 34 percent of the caprine submissions. Submission of both aborted fetus and placental membranes increased the diagnostic yield of laboratory investigations (17 percent and 21 percent for ovine and caprine submissions, respectively). The main infectious causes of abortion in sheep were Chlamydia abortus, Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria spp., and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The main infectious causes of abortion in goats were Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Listeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Campylobacter spp. In 42 percent of the ovine and in 56 percent of the caprine submissions a causal agent was not identified. Furthermore, in 12 percent of the ovine and 10 percent of the caprine submissions evidence of placentitis, indicative of an infectious cause of the abortion, was found, but no infectious agent was identified. Most infectious causes of ovine and caprine abortion have zoonotic potential. Humans, especially pregnant women, who are in close contact with lambing sheep or goats should be aware of the importance of precautionary hygiene measures.

  3. Epizootic abortion related to infections by Chlamydophila abortus and Chlamydophila pecorum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, G; Corrente, M; Buonavoglia, D; Campanile, G; Di Palo, R; Martella, V; Bellacicco, A L; D'Abramo, M; Buonavoglia, C

    2008-06-01

    Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are affected by high rates of embryonic mortality and abortion related to infectious diseases and non-infectious factors. A number of viral and bacterial infections have been associated with reproductive failure, but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. In order to investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a herd with a history of reproductive failure. During an 11-month period, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% between the 3rd and 7th month of pregnancy. Antibodies to Chlamydiaceae were detected in 57% of the aborted cows, and in 0% of the overtly healthy cows used as control. By a nested-PCR assay, three of 14 vaginal swabs from aborted animals tested positive for Chlamydophila agents and, additionally, three out of seven aborted fetuses tested positive for Chlamydophila spp., with two being co-infections by Cp. abortus and Cp. pecorum and one being characterised as Cp. abortus. Sequence analysis of the amplicons confirmed the results of the nested-PCR. The presence of anti-Chlamydiaceae antibodies in more than half of the aborting animals (PChlamydophila agents in several fetal organs and in the vaginal swabs are consistent with the history of abortions observed in the herd and suggest an abortifacient role by Chlamydophila spp. in water buffalo (B. Bubalis) herds.

  4. One or two day mifepristone-misoprostol interval for second trimester abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilas, Lisbeth; Glavind-Kristensen, M; Vejborg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    METHODS: A retrospective 2-year cohort study of 127 women, with gestation between 13 and 24 weeks and a live fetus, seeking induced abortion. The aim was to compare the effect of a 1-day and a 2-day interval between oral mifepristone (200 mg) and vaginal misoprostol (400 microg) every 3 h. RESULTS......: The time to fetal expulsion was longer (9.8 versus 7.5 h; pabortion occurred in 98% within 24 h in both groups The time to abortion was longer in women with a gestation of 17-22 weeks compared to women...

  5. One or two day mifepristone-misoprostol interval for second trimester abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilas, Lisbeth; Glavind-Kristensen, M; Vejborg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    METHODS: A retrospective 2-year cohort study of 127 women, with gestation between 13 and 24 weeks and a live fetus, seeking induced abortion. The aim was to compare the effect of a 1-day and a 2-day interval between oral mifepristone (200 mg) and vaginal misoprostol (400 microg) every 3 h. RESULTS......: The time to fetal expulsion was longer (9.8 versus 7.5 h; pabortion occurred in 98% within 24 h in both groups The time to abortion was longer in women with a gestation of 17-22 weeks compared to women...

  6. Molecular characterization and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in humans and animals. In humans, C. fetus can cause septicemia and intestinal illness. Contaminated food, like unpasteurized milk, is possibly a source of human C. fetus infections. This thesis focuses on the mammal-associated C. fetus

  7. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. [Campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désidéri-Vaillant, Catherine; Guichon, Jean-Michel; Noyer, Vincent; Nedelec, Yolande; Galinat, Hubert; Sapin-Lory, Jeanne; Di Costanzo, Laurence; Le Guen, Patrick; Nicolas, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but Campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. We report a C. fetus endocarditis. The prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.

  9. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors.

  10. [Abortion using health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritschneder, O

    1984-09-01

    The author reports on current German court rulings on whether non-medically indicated abortions (although not prohibited by law and therefore not actionable) should be financed via the compulsory health insurance scheme or by the Federal Government. 1. The social welfare court at Dortmund ruled that current legislation governing the financing of welfare expenditure violates the Federal German constitution, and has, therefore, referred this matter to the Federal Constitutional Court. However, the Federal Constitutional Court turned down the referral and dismissed the case, since an application for declaring a Federal law null and void can be filed by the Federal Government or by a Federal Land Government or by at least one-third of the total number of members of the Federal German Parliament (Bundestag) only. This means that the current proceedings at the Dortmund social welfare court must continue. The plaintiff pleads to prohibit the compulsory health insurance scheme authorities from defraying the expenses for performing foeticide via legally permitted abortion without medical indication. 2. The Federal Land Government of Baden-Württemberg is the only Land Government of the Federal Republic of Germany that does not grant any financial aid towards performing non-medically indicated (albeit not legally actionable) abortions. Hence, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Courts turned down the plea filed by a woman government servant towards paying such aid. The court decision was based on the judge's opinion that even the principle of equality before the law guaranteed by the Constitution would not compel the Land Government to emulate the example of the other Land Governments who are agreeable to bearing abortion costs.

  11. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  12. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a strain of Lichtheimia corymbifera (ex Absidia corymbifera from a case of bovine abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taddei Simone

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichtheimia corymbifera (previously Absidia corymbifera is a filamentous zygomycetes belonging to the order Mucorales and to the family Lichtheimiaceae. Members of genus Lichtheimia spp. are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous in nature. Lichtheimia corymbifera is a recognized agent of diseases in man and animals. In cattle it causes abortion and mastitis. Three cases of bovine abortion occurred in a herd located in the Po Valley. Serological examinations were performed on fetal and mother's blood. One of the aborted fetus was referred to our laboratory. The paper describes the isolation and characterization of Lichtheimia corymbifera from a bovine aborted fetus. Methods Serological examinations were performed on fetal and mother's blood. Lesions on fetal tissues and placenta leaded the diagnostic suspect towards a mycotic aetiology. Tissues were then put in culture, and at the same time an histological examination was performed, together with bacteriological and virological tests. The isolate from placenta and fetal tissues was identified and characterized by PCR and RFLP, using the ITS region as a target sequence and AclI restriction site within the amplicon to distinguish Lichtheimia corymbifera among the other fungi. Results Serological, bacteriological and virological tests gave aspecific results. Histological examination evidenced numerous PAS positive hyphae within the necrotic cotiledons and numerous fungal nonseptate hyphae to the GMS stain. Colonies with typical morphological features of fungi grew up on Sabouraud agar from fetal skin and placenta. On the developed colonies the microscopic examination has shown a large number of nonseptate hyphae and sporangia consistent with Mucorales. PCR and RFLP allowed the identification of the isolate as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Conclusion The present report describes the isolation and the molecular characterisation of a fungal isolate from bovine aborted fetus and placenta. The

  14. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucciello, Alessandra; De Mia, Gian Mario; Giammarioli, Monica; De Donato, Immacolata; Iovane, Giuseppe; Galiero, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen that primarily infects ruminants, leading to several clinical problems including abortion. BVDV-specific antibodies were reported in a wide range of hosts within domestic and wildlife animal populations, and serological studies also indicated BVDV infection in buffaloes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of BVDV in 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds with a history of abortion. Virus isolation from aborted fetuses and from maternal buffy coat and the molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed the presence of BVDV in these animals. The sequence analysis based on the 5' UTR and N(pro) coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo.

  15. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  17. The problem of fetal pain and abortion: toward an ethical consensus for appropriate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, E Christian

    2012-09-01

    Debate exists over whether fetuses feel pain, and if so what to do about it. Because they cannot provide self-report, certitude on the question cannot be reached. The essay argues that a presumption of reasonable doubt is adequate to inform moral behavior. It looks at the most recent evidence from fetal anatomical, neurochemical, physiological and behavioral research and concludes that a reasonable doubt exists that fetuses from 20 to 23 weeks do not feel pain. It proposes that where abortion is legal, providers should be legally required both to provide full disclosure of the possibility of fetal pain starting at 20 weeks and to offer pain-relief measures to suppress fetal pain to all women seeking an abortion.

  18. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  19. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  20. B-cell multicentric lymphoma as a probable cause of abortion in a Quarter horse broodmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canisso, Igor F; Pinn, Toby L; Gerdin, Jodie A; Ollivett, Theresa L; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Schweizer, Christine M; Ainsworth, Dorothy M

    2013-03-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter horse broodmare was evaluated for inappetence, depression, and diarrhea 13 days after aborting a 9-month gestation fetus. Clinical and laboratory examination ruled out uterine rupture and peritonitis. Ultrasonography of the uterus combined with cytological analysis of peritoneal fluid suggested the existence of diffuse lymphoma. A multicentric B-cell lymphoma involving the uterus and ovary was confirmed at necropsy and histopathological examination.

  1. Assessing the intra-species genetic variability in the clonal pathogen Campylobacter fetus: CRISPRs are highly polymorphic DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Iraola, Gregorio; Méndez, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Pérez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that infects animals and humans. The subspecies Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) affects a broad range of vertebrate hosts and induces abortion in cows and sheep. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) has been isolated mostly from apparently healthy reptiles belonging to different species but also from ill snakes and humans. Genotypic differentiation of Cff and Cfv is difficult, and epidemiological information is scarce because there are few methods to study the genetic diversity of the strains. We analyze the efficacy of MLST, ribosomal sequences (23S gene and internal spacer region), and CRISPRs to assess the genetic variability of C. fetus in bovine and human isolates. Sequences retrieved from complete genomes were included in the analysis for comparative purposes. MLST and ribosomal sequences had scarce or null variability, while the CRISPR-cas system structure and the sequence of CRISPR1 locus showed remarkable diversity. None of the sequences here analyzed provided evidence of a genetic differentiation of Cff and Cfv in bovine isolates. Comparison of bovine and human isolates with Cft strains showed a striking divergence. Inter-host differences raise the possibility of determining the original host of human infections using CRISPR sequences. CRISPRs are the most variable sequences analyzed in C. fetus so far, and constitute excellent representatives of a dynamic fraction of the genome. CRISPR typing is a promising tool to characterize isolates and to track the source and transmission route of C. fetus infections.

  2. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  3. Supreme Court issues limited ruling in challenge to Utah abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-28

    A law passed in Utah in 1991 which prohibited abortion except in cases of life endangerment, rape, incest, risk of grave damage to a woman's medical health, or grave fetal defects. The exceptions for women who had been sexually abused were eliminated after 20 weeks gestation. In December 1992, US District Court Judge J. Thomas Greene found the ban unconstitutional as applied to abortions prior to 20 weeks but upheld it as applied to procedures after that point in pregnancy. A three-judge appellate panel later reversed the district court decision in August 1995 on the argument that the prohibition on post-20-week abortions could not stand independent of the ban on earlier procedures. The appeals court also struck down a requirement that physicians performing those abortions allowed after viability use the method most likely to give the fetus the best chance of survival, unless it would endanger a woman's life or cause grave damage to her medical health. In an unsigned opinion issued on June 17, 1996, the US Supreme Court reversed the appeals court decision which struck down Utah's original 1991 ban on abortions. Five justices ruling in Leavitt v. Jane L. found that the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit misapplied Utah precedent when it found that the criminal abortion statute could not be divided into two separate abortion bans, one before and one after 20 weeks gestation. Health care providers will now argue that the ban on post-20-week abortions should be struck down on constitutional grounds. This is the first challenge to a state abortion law to come under High Court review since Planned Parenthood v. Casey in 1992.

  4. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  5. [Is fetus able to feel pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of fetal hormonal and hemodynamic responses to pain related stimuli, neuroanatomy and observations of preterm babies, it was concluded that human fetus is able to feel pain after 24 weeks gestation. However it is possible that the fetus may feel pain even before that time. With the development of intrauterine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, it is crucial to provide fetuses undergoing painful procedures not only with anesthesia but also analgesia. The article presents fetal pain research history and its implications for medicine.

  6. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  7. Evaluation of approved and non-approved requests for therapeutic abortion in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Lorestan province in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    peyman Astaraki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Authorizing abortion in some cases of fetal and maternal diseases which was implemented by passing its law in 2005, a major change in therapeutic abortion was performed in Iran,s health system. Although there may be cases of illegal abortion, but our study examined legal abortion of Lorestan province in 2013, which led to increase in awareness of health professionals about indications of therapeutic abortion, the time to do it and answer to related questions. Materials and Methods: In this epidemiological and cross-sectional study, all applications for abortion permission, received by Lorestan legal organization in 2013, were studied. The data were recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: From 205 cases during a year, 144 of them obtained permission for abortion of which 88% issued for fetal abnormalities and 12% due to illness of the mother. The most common diseases in the fetus were, the brain and skull abnormalities, and in the mothers, cardiovascular diseases and hematologic abnormalities were the highest. In these cases, the most frequency belonged to the age group of 25-34 years. For 61 requests, permission for abortion had not been issued. High gestational age (26 cases and diseases of the brain and skull, were the most common reasons of request for abortion. Conclusion: Abortion means therapeutic abortion and with the increase in the authorized therapeutic abortion, the illegal abortion will be reduced and leads to increase in the health of pregnant women. By increasing awareness of the medical staff about permitted therapeutic abortion and related laws, a correct and better guidance of pregnant women, we can help them to have a healthy community. As well as the problems of obstetricians and gynecologists, in this field, will be decreased.

  8. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  9. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  10. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  11. How do women seeking abortion choose between surgical and medical abortion? Perspectives from abortion service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Danielle; Bayly, Chris; McNamee, Kathleen; Hardiman, Annarella; Bismark, Marie; Webster, Amy; Keogh, Louise

    2016-10-01

    Depending on availability, many Australian women seeking an abortion will be faced with the choice between surgical or medical abortion. Little is known about the factors that influence Australian women's choice of method. Through the perspectives of abortion service providers, this study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to Australian women's decision to have a surgical or medical abortion. In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen Victorian-based key informants (KIs) directly providing or working within a service offering medical abortion. Ten KIs were working at a service that also provided surgical abortion. Interviews were semi-structured, conducted face-to-face or over the telephone, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. KIs described varying levels of awareness of medical abortion, with poorer awareness in regional areas. When it comes to accessing information, women were informed by: their own research (often online); their own experiences and the experiences of others; and advice from health professionals. Women's reasons for choosing surgical or medical abortion range from the pragmatic (timing and location of the method, support at home) to the subjective (perceived risk, emotional impact, privacy, control, and physical ability). Women benefit from an alternative to surgical abortion and are well-placed to choose between the two methods, however, challenges remain to ensure that all women are enabled to make an informed choice. KIs identify the need to: promote the availability of medical abortion; address misconceptions about this method; and increase general practitioner involvement in the provision of medical abortion. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Australia: Abortion and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifris, Ronli; Belton, Suzanne

    2017-06-01

    This article adopts a human rights lens to consider Australian law and practice regarding elective abortion. As such, it considers Australian laws within the context of the right to equality, right to privacy, right to health, and right to life. After setting out the human rights framework and noting the connected nature of many of the rights (and their corresponding violations), the article shifts its focus to analyzing Australian law and practice within the framework of these rights. It considers the importance of decriminalizing abortion and regulating it as a standard medical procedure. It discusses the need to remove legal and practical restrictions on access to abortion, including financial obstacles and anti-abortion protestors. Further, it comments on the importance of facilitating access; for example, by keeping accurate health data, securing continuity of health care, increasing the availability of medical abortion, and ensuring appropriate care is provided to the most marginalized and vulnerable women.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis and abortion for congenital abnormalities: is it ethical to provide one without the other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Angela; Newson, Ainsley; Luna, Florencia; Ashcroft, Richard

    2009-08-01

    This target article considers the ethical implications of providing prenatal diagnosis (PND) and antenatal screening services to detect fetal abnormalities in jurisdictions that prohibit abortion for these conditions. This unusual health policy context is common in the Latin American region. Congenital conditions are often untreated or under-treated in developing countries due to limited health resources, leading many women/couples to prefer termination of affected pregnancies. Three potential harms derive from the provision of PND in the absence of legal and safe abortion for these conditions: psychological distress, unjust distribution of burdens between socio-economic classes, and financial burdens for families and society. We present Iran as a comparative case study where recognition of these ethical issues has led to the liberalization of abortion laws for fetuses with thalassemia. We argue that physicians, geneticists and policymakers have an ethical and professional duty of care to advocate for change in order to ameliorate these harms.

  14. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  15. Interleukin-15 is required for maximal lipopolysaccharide-induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kandiah, Nalaayini; Karimi, Khalil; Clark, David A; Ashkar, Ali A

    2013-06-01

    The maternal immune response during pregnancy is critical for the survival of the fetus yet can be detrimental during infection and inflammation. Previously, IL-15 has been observed to mediate inflammation during LPS-induced sepsis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether IL-15 mediates the inflammatory process during LPS-induced abortion through the use of IL-15(-/-) and WT mice. Administration of 2.5 μg LPS i.p. on gd 7.5 drastically reduced fetal viability in WT mice, whereas it had a minimal effect on fetal survival in IL-15(-/-) mice. The uteroplacental sites of LPS-treated WT mice were characterized by vast structural degradation and inflammation compared with treated IL-15(-/-) and untreated controls. This suggests that IL-15 may mediate the inflammation responsible for LPS-induced resorption. As IL-15(-/-) mice are deficient in NK cells and resistant to LPS-induced abortion, these effects suggest that IL-15 may mediate abortion through their homeostatic and/or activation effects on NK cells. WT uteroplacental units exposed to LPS had an increase in the overall number and effector number of NK cells compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before administration of LPS in WT mice partially restored fetal viability. Overall, this paper suggests that IL-15 mediates the inflammatory environment during LPS-induced fetal resorption, primarily through its effects on NK cells.

  16. A comparison of misoprostol with and without laminaria tents for induction of second-trimester abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, J K; Mishell, D R

    1996-07-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether the intracervical placement of laminaria tents would improve the effectiveness of the prostaglandin analog misoprostol for the elective termination of pregnancies in the second trimester. 68 women at 12-22 weeks of gestation with either an intrauterine fetal death or medical or genetic indications for pregnancy termination were randomized to receive 200 mcg of misoprostol administered vaginally every 12 hours with or without the intracervical placement of laminaria concurrently with the first dose of misoprostol. There was a 69.7% rate of abortion 24 hours after the initiation of treatment in the 33 women who received misoprostol alone and 68.6% in the 35 women treated with both misoprostol and laminaria. Abortion rates 48 hours after the initiation of treatment were 84.8% and 91.4%, respectively, an insignificant difference. The complete abortion rate was 39.3% among women who received misoprostol alone and 37.5% among women who received both misoprostol and laminaria. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or pain. The mean interval from the initiation of treatment to abortion was 15.7 hours among women who received misoprostol alone and 17.4 hours among women who received both misoprostol and laminaria. In both groups, women who had live fetuses at the start of the procedure had a higher failure rate of abortion and a longer time interval to abortion than women whose fetus was dead. These findings indicate that the insertion of laminaria tents concurrent with the first dose of misoprostol does not significantly improve the abortifacient effect of vaginal misoprostol during the second trimester of pregnancy.

  17. The teratogenic effects of imatinib mesylate on rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El Gendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on the pregnant rats and their fetuses. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups; the first group served as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered imatinib at doses of 36 mg/kg body weight or 54 mg/kg b.wt. on gestation days (SDs 6 through 13 or SDs 13 through 19, respectively. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation. Treatment with imatinib caused a reduction of maternal body weight gain, uterine and placental weights, increased rate of abortion and fetal resorptions. High dose of imatinib caused fetal congenital deformities represented in harelip, contraction of the fore limbs, and paralysis of the hind limbs, exencephaly, encephalocoele and distended abdominal wall, besides occurrence of wavy ribs and absence of other ribs in addition to skeletal growth retardation and lack of ossification of the most skeletal elements. The present work concluded that imatinib is teratogenic when given orally to pregnant rats at 54 mg/kg b.wt. and causes direct maternal or developmental toxicity.

  18. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  19. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  20. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  1. Clinical issues in post-abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Joyce D; Beal, Margaret W; Simmonds, Katherine E

    2011-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical issues in post-abortion care, including types of abortion procedures, expected post-abortion course, possible complications, and the components of the post-abortion visit. By providing follow-up care to their patients, NPs can increase continuity of care and promote successful contraceptive use.

  2. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  3. Induced abortion and contraception use

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of

  4. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  5. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major f...

  6. The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Fondacci, C; Tapia, S; Huten, Y; Blot, P; Nessmann, C

    1992-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) with partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 has been exceptionally diagnosed in fetuses. We report prenatal diagnosis of five cases of monosomy 4p. The fetuses were karyotyped for severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) diagnosed on routine ultrasound (US). In addition, cleft-lip and palate and diaphragmatic hernia respectively were found in two cases. The quantity of amniotic fluid was normal in all cases. At autopsy, the fetuses showed the typical craniofacial dysmorphy but without microcephaly. Major renal hypoplasia was the only constant visceral anomaly. Midline fusion defects were observed in all the fetuses, ranging from minor abnormalities such as scalp defect, hypertelorism, pulmonary isomerism, common mesentery, hypospadias and sacral dimple, to cleft palate, corpus callosum agenesis, ventricular septal defect, and diaphragmatic hernia. On post-mortem X-rays, a delayed bone age was always observed. All the placentae were hypotrophic, and two exhibited vascular lesions, although there was no maternal hypertension. Chromosomal studies showed that the breakpoints were within the 4p16 band in three cases, the 4p15 band in one case, and the 4p14 band in one case. The deletion was de novo in four cases, and resulted from a paternal translocation in one case. This study emphasizes the importance of karyotyping all fetuses with IUGR, especially when the quantity of amniotic fluid is normal, and suggests the possibility of recognizing on US the particular phenotype of WHS in utero.

  7. Dissenting view. A Brief, Liberal, Catholic Defense of Abortion [by] Daniel A. Dombrowski and Robert Deltete. Book review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovano, A T

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the book "A Brief, Liberal, Catholic Defense of Abortion", by Daniel A. Dombrowski and Robert Deltete. In this book, the authors argue that the Catholic tradition on abortion is very different from the present teaching of the Catholic Church. The issue of abortion is explored in the book through two different philosophies and two major Catholic theologians. The two philosophies are the perversity of sex (abortion distorts sex) and the ontological (the fetus as a person) philosophies. Saint Augustine primarily identified with the perversity of sex and viewed early and late stages of abortion as evil, because it destroys the conceptus, which is the only justification for sex and because human life is present--after sensation and quickening occur. On the other hand, Saint Thomas Aquinas with the ontological approach was less interested in abortion, rather developed hylomorphism. He stated that there is no human life in the womb until the 5th or 6th month, but rather a cluster of cells; thus God cannot infuse a soul into a small cluster of cells since body and soul belong together. The authors believe that this book is a model of reasoned discourse about abortion issues and is proves to be beneficial to a Catholic as well as any thoughtful person.

  8. Development and evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Campylobacter fetus in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailing; Liu, Huifang; Du, Yanfen; Liu, Siguo; Ni, Hongbo; Wang, Yong; Wang, Chunlai; Si, Wei; Yang, Jinguo; Ling, Jingkai

    2010-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis that occurs worldwide. Infection with Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) causes infertility and abortion in sheep and cattle. The current study focuses on the SapA gene of C. fetus that encodes surface array proteins and plays an important role in the virulence of C. fetus. The SapA-N (1398bp) and SapA-C (1422bp) fragments were amplified from the C. fetusSapA gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the corresponding recombinant proteins rSapA-N and rSapA-C were expressed in Escherichia. coli BL21 cells. Results of Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the immunological activity of rSapA-N was higher than that of rSapA-C (PELISA for detecting antibodies against C. fetus. The diagnostic criteria were as follows: S/P0.45: positive; S/PS/P0.4: suspected. The specificity and sensitivity of our method were 94.3% and 88.6%, respectively. Moreover, no cross-reactions were observed between rSapA-N and serum samples that were positive for other bovine bacterial pathogens diseases such as Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. One hundred and two serum samples from cows that had experienced abortion were tested. Four and 2 C. fetus-positive serum samples were found among the 70 bovine brucellosis-positive samples and the 32 infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)-positive samples, respectively. The findings suggest that the rSapA-N-based ELISA method has immense potential in future applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  10. The responsibility objection to abortion: rejecting the notion that the responsibility objection successfully refutes a woman's right to choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Ian

    2015-05-01

    This article considers the objection to abortion that a woman who voluntarily engages in sexual activity is responsible for her fetus and so cannot have an abortion. The conclusion argued for is that the conceptions of responsibility that can ground the objection that are considered do not necessitate a requirement on the part of a pregnant woman to carry her pregnancy to term. Thus, the iterations of the responsibility objection presented cannot be used to curtail reproductive choice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Abortion: Beyond Rhetoric to Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.

    1976-01-01

    Legalized abortions are not equally available to all women in the United States. The author documents the discrimination in this area that exists against the poor and urges the social work profession to extend itself to remedy this inequality. (Author)

  12. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  13. Operation procedure of sacrococcygeal fetus in fetu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochadi Rochadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in fetu is a condition in wich a fetiform calcified mass often presents in the abdomen of its host, a newborn. It is extremely rare condition, estimated once in 500,000 deliveries and has a 2: 1 male predominantly; with most patient presenting with an abdominal  mass in the first year of life. 5,13 The term fetus in fetu is used to point out an unequal division of totipotential cells of blastocyst where the result is the inclusion of a small cellular mass in the more mature embryo. It was encapsulated, pedunculated and represents a malformed monozygotic, monochorionic, diamniotic parasitic twin. In 80% cases, fetus in fetu is located  retroperitonealy but can be found in unusual location such as in oropharynx, neck, skull mediastinum, pelvis, iliac mesentery, adrenal gland, sacrococcygeal region and scrotal sac.

  14. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Zane, Suzanne B; Burley, Kim D; Jamieson, Denise J

    2012-11-23

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2009. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2009, data were received from 48 reporting areas. For the purpose of trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from the 45 areas that reported data every year during 2000-2009. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculated abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 784,507 abortions were reported to CDC for 2009. Of these abortions, 772,630 (98.5%) were from the 45 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2000-2009. Among these same 45 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2009 was 15.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 227 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2008, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2009 decreased 5%, representing the largest single year decrease for the entire period of analysis. The abortion ratio decreased 2%. From 2000 to 2009, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 6%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, to the lowest levels for 2000-2009. In 2009 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates, whereas women aged ≥30 years accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2009, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 24.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had an abortion rate of 27.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 years and 20.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 25-29 years. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years

  15. Evaluation of molecular assays for identification Campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a C. fetus specific real-time PCR assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Wal, van der F.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Duim, B.; Schmidt, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic differentiation between Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) subspecies fetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular

  16. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  17. Contraception and abortion in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

    1993-04-03

    After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected.

  18. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  19. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  1. Misperceptions about the risks of abortion in women presenting for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L

    2014-03-01

    Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.

  2. Professional quality of life of Japanese nurses/midwives providing abortion/childbirth care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Maki; Kinefuchi, Emiko; Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between professional quality of life and emotion work and the major stress factors related to abortion care in Japanese obstetric and gynecological nurses and midwives. Between October 2011 and January 2012, questionnaires that included questions concerning eight stress factors, the Professional Quality of Life Scale, and the Japanese version of the Frankfurt Emotional Work Scale, were answered by 255 nurses and midwives working in abortion and childbirth services. Professional Quality of Life scores (compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, burnout) were significantly associated with stress factors and emotion work. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of all the evaluated variables, the Japanese version of the Frankfurt Emotional Work Scale score for negative emotions display was the most significant positive predictor of compassion fatigue and burnout. The stress factors "thinking that the aborted fetus deserved to live" and "difficulty in controlling emotions during abortion care" were associated with compassion fatigue. These findings indicate that providing abortion services is a highly distressing experience for nurses and midwives.

  3. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  4. 滩羊胎儿弯曲杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identiifcation of Campylobacter fetus from Tan Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚文; 李莉娟; 赵燕; 张玉玲; 李志红; 王玉梅; 张雯; 王晓亮; 张和平; 张学军; 杨佳冰

    2016-01-01

    [目的]对一规模化养殖场滩羊流产的原因进行确诊,为流产羊的疫病诊断和防控提供建议。[方法]无菌采集流产胎儿血性腹水和流产母羊阴道分泌物进行细菌培养、分离和鉴定。[结果]分离到2株病原菌,经形态特性、培养特性及生理生化特性观察,鉴定为胎儿弯曲杆菌胎儿亚种;动物实验表明,其对小白鼠有很强的致病性。[结论]致病性胎儿弯曲杆菌胎儿亚种是造成该羊场发生大面积流产的主要病原。%Objective] To ascertain the cause of abortion in Tan sheep population so as to provide advice for diagno-sis,prevention and control of Campylobacter fetus infection. [Methods] Samples from fetal bloody ascites and aborted ewes vaginal secretions were aseptically collected for bacterial culture,isolation and identification of bacterial testing. [Results] Two strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,which were determined as Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus by observing the morphological characteristics,cultural characteristics and physiological and biochemical char-acteristics. The isolates had strong pathogenicity for mice. [Conclusion] The main pathogens leading to many Tan sheep aborted were the pathogenic Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus.

  5. Denial of abortion in legal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-07-01

    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Paternally inherited trisomy at D21S11 and mutation at DXS10135 microsatellite marker in a case of fetus paternity establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Shrivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The case of establishment of paternity of an aborted fetus was examined with 15 autosomal STR markers. The genotype of the fetus was X at amelogenin marker and showed inheritance of both the alleles of father at D21S11 marker, thus displaying unusual tri-allelic pattern. The cases where mutation in any of biparental autosomal STR markers is observed, the use of additional STR marker system is recommended. On testing all the three samples with 12 X-STR markers, all the maternal and paternal alleles were accounted in the female fetus except at DXS10135 marker. The genotypes of mother, fetus and father at DXS10135 were 20, 22; 20, 20 and 21, which confirmed mutation of the paternal allele in the female fetus. The paternal allele contracted from 21 to 20. The allele peak heights of D21S11 and DXS10135 markers were also examined to rule out the possibility of any false allele. The probability of paternity was 0.99999999, which confirmed the paternity of the fetus. This paper presents unusual occurrence of mutation observed with two multiplex STR systems, with AmpflSTR identifier plus Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA and Investigator Argus X-12 multiplex kit (Qiagen, Germany, thus suggesting forensic DNA experts on high alert while interpreting the DNA test results.

  7. Aberrant DNA methylation in 5'regions of DNA methyltransferase genes in aborted bovine clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    High rate of abortion and developmental abnormalities is thought to be closely associated with inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nuclei during bovine cloning.It is known that one of the important mechanisms for epigenetic reprogramming is DNA methylation.DNA methylation is established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases(DNMTs),therefore,it is postulated that the inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of transplanted nuclei may be due to abnormal expression of DNMTs.Since DNA methylation can strongly inhibit gene expression,aberrant DNA methylation of DNMT genes may disturb gene expression.But presently,it is not clear whether the methylation abnormality of DNMT genes is related to developmental failure of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.In our study,we analyzed methylation patterns of the 5' regions of four DNMT genes including Dnmt3a,Dnmt3b,Dnmtl and Dnmt2 in four aborted bovine clones.Using bisulfite sequencing method,we found that 3 out of 4 aborted bovine clones(AF1,AF2 and AF3)showed either hypermethylation or hypomethylation in the 5' regions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b.indicating that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b genes are not properly reprogrammed.However,the individual AF4 exhibited similar methylation level and pattern to age-matched in vitro fertilized (IVF)fetuses.Besides,we found that tle 5'regions of Dnmtl and Dnmt2 were nearly completely unmethylated in all normal adults.IVF fetuses,sperm and aborted clones.Together,our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b 5' regions is probably associated with the high abortion of bovine clones.

  8. Fetus in fetu: A very rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Fetus in fetu” is a condition seen rarely in the literature, less than 200 cases reported till now. It is a calcified mass or an encapsulated pendunculated tumor thought to be due to unequal division of totipotent cells of a blastocyst, resulting in a small cellular mass in a more mature embryo thus forming a monozygotic, diamniotic twin pregnancy.

  9. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    In six fetuses with Meckel syndrome (gestational age 16-23 weeks, crown-rump length 130-170 mm) the skeleton was examined as part of the autopsy procedure using whole body radiography and special radiographic techniques. In the upper and lower limbs we found similar types of polydactyly. We noted...

  10. Cortical overgrowth in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Vatansever, Deniz; Elkommos, Samia; Dawson, Sarah; McGuinness, Amy; Allsop, Joanna; Molnár, Zoltán; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Mild cerebral ventricular enlargement is associated with schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Fetal ventriculomegaly is the most common central nervous system (CNS) abnormality affecting 1% of fetuses and is associated with cognitive, language, and behavioral impairments in childhood. Neurodevelopmental outcome is partially predictable by the 2-dimensional size of the ventricles in the absence of other abnormalities. We hypothesized that isolated fetal ventriculomegaly is a marker of altered brain development characterized by relative overgrowth and aimed to quantify brain growth using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly. Fetal brain MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 60 normal fetuses and 65 with isolated ventriculomegaly, across a gestational age range of 22-38 weeks. Volumetric analysis of the ventricles and supratentorial brain structures was performed on 3-dimensional reconstructed datasets. Fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly had increased brain parenchyma volumes when compared with the control cohort (9.6%, P ventriculomegaly may represent the neurobiological substrate for cognitive, language, and behavioral deficits in these children.

  11. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases ar

  12. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  13. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerai Woldehiwet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66. IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11% vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  14. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon D; Amin, Jibrilla D; Egwu, Godwin O; Yavari, Christine A; Murray, Richard D; Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2010-01-01

    The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66). IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11%) vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  15. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the United States and Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone.

  16. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our

  17. Abortion laws into action: implementing legal reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, A J

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide trend towards liberalizing abortion laws has resulted in reduced abortion-related mortality in areas where legal abortion is accessible. In countries considering abortion reform, policy-makers and health care providers have a responsibility to ensure that provisions of any new law can be met. Preparations underway to prepare for South Africa's new abortion law can serve as a guideline for such action. A new abortion law calls for policy changes that may include 1) developing new standards, protocols, and guidelines for abortion care services; 2) ensuring provision of adequate trained staff willing to provide abortions; 3) streamlining administrative regulations to avoid delays; 4) establishing regulations and mechanisms for drug and equipment supply and distribution; 5) restructuring the health system to accommodate provision of abortion services; 6) allocating funds for new abortion services; and 7) reviewing and revising security measures. In addition, health professionals will require training in abortion provision, staff will need information updates about aspects of the legislation, and administrators and providers in a position to impede provision of services must be made aware of the affect of unsafe abortion on maternal health. Researchers should document the effect of the new law on women's health, the provision of reproductive health services, and the community. IEC (information, education, communication) activities will be required to inform the public about the new law and services, establish sex education programs in schools and health facilities, and mobilize family planning organizations and programs to help reduce the incidence of repeat abortions.

  18. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights.

  19. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  20. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000).

  1. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  2. Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus from Zika: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167128.html Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus From Zika: Study More research is needed on effects in ... A malaria drug protected mice fetuses from the Zika virus, researchers report. In humans, Zika infection during ...

  3. To abort or not to abort: that is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomison, J B

    1991-02-01

    Abortion is not a medical issue, as the law would like to make it when requesting definitions of when life begins. To medicine, life begins at conception. conception is the 1st step in the miracle of life. It is up to the law and society to determine when life begins legally. Doctors have responsibilities as citizens to do what they can to support laws they believe in. The American Medical Association has remained neutral on the issue. Abortion can be ethical if the mother's life is threatened. But it is unethical and unconstitutional when it is done out of convenience to correct indiscretions.

  4. Abortion Counseling and the School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jack A.; Moffett, Catherine F.

    1974-01-01

    Abortion counseling is now legally within the purview of the school counselor. It is therefore essential that counselors determine their role in abortion counseling, the kind of training necessary, and whether professional organizations should develop counseling guidelines. (RP)

  5. Locus of control and decision to abort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P N; Strano, D A; Willingham, W

    1984-04-01

    The relationship of locus of control to deciding on an abortion was investigated by administering Rotter's Locus of Control Scale to 118 women immediately prior to abortion and 2 weeks and 3 months following abortion. Subjects' scores were compared across the 3 time periods, and the abortion group's pretest scores were compared with those of a nonpregnant control, group. As hypothesized, the aborting group scored significantly more internal than the general population but no differences in locus of control were found across the 3 time period. The length of delay in deciding to abort an unwanted pregnancy following confirmation was also assessed. Women seeking 1st trimester abortions were divided into internal and external groups on the Rotter Scale and the lengths of delay were compared. The hypothesis that external scores would delay the decision longer than internal ones was confirmed. The results confirm characteristics of the locus of control construct and add information about personality characteristics of women undergoing abortion.

  6. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M.D. Generally, abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  8. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Souzas, Raquel; Universidade Federal da Bahia; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  9. Abortion in cattle due to infection with Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, Paolo; D'Incau, Mario; Pongolini, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine.

  10. What philosophy of mind can tell us about the morality of abortion: personhood, materialism, and the existence of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himma, Kenneth Einar

    2003-01-01

    I attempt to show that, under materialist assumptions about the nature of mind, it is a necessary condition for fetal personhood that electrical activity has begun in the brain. First, I argue that it is a necessary condition for a thing to be a moral person that it is (or has) a self--understood as something that is capable of serving as the subject of a mental experience. Second, I argue that it is a necessary condition for a fetus to be (or have) a self that some form of electrical brain activity occurs. Third, I argue that since the beginning of brain activity typically occurs at around 10 weeks of gestational age, most fetuses are not persons during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy and hence that abortion of most fetuses during this period does not rise to the moral level of murder.

  11. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  12. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  13. Application of polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation techniques for the detection of viruses in aborted and newborn foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyák, A; Bakonyi, T; Kulik, Mónika; Kecskeméti, S; Rusvai, M

    2006-06-01

    The occurrence of two important pathogens, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) causing abortions, perinatal foal mortality and respiratory disease, was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation to demonstrate the presence of abortigenic viruses in samples from 248 horse fetuses in Hungary. We found 26 EHV1- and 4 EAV-positive aborted or prematurely born foals from 16 and 4 outbreaks, respectively, proving that despite the widely applied vaccination, EHV1 is a far more important cause of abortions in the studs than EAV. We compared the virus content of different organs of the fetuses by PCR and isolation to identify the organ most suitable for virus demonstration. Our investigations indicate that the quantity of both viruses is highest in the lungs; therefore, according to our observations, in positive cases the probability of detection is highest from lung samples of aborted or newborn foals. Both the PCR and the virus isolation results revealed that the liver, though widely used, is not the best organ to sample either for EHV1 or for EAV detection. From the analysis of the epidemiological data, we tried to estimate the importance of the two viruses in the Hungarian horse population.

  14. A case of uterine rupture in mid-trimester spontaneous abortion: a complication of gemeprost vaginal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, R; Bevilacqua, E; D'Ambrosio, V; Pasquali, G; Aliberti, C; Perrone, G; Giancotti, A

    2014-01-01

    The only prostaglandin analogue licensed in Italy for induction of labour in spontaneous and therapeutic abortion is gemeprost. The authors report a case of spontaneous uterine rupture of a scarred uterus, for previous caesarean sections, in a woman at 20 weeks of gestation with a diagnosis of spontaneous abortion. She received a pessary of gemeprost every three hours. After the fifth pessary, she complained of severe pain. At the ultrasound examination, uterine cavity appeared empty and the dead fetus was dislocated in the abdomen. Emergency laparotomy was performed and uterine tear was repaired. To induce labour for fetal demise or therapeutic abortion in second trimester in women with scarred uterus, the authors decided to lengthen the time between administrations of pessary from four to five hours depending on patient's symptoms. However the appropriate drug regimen has still to be found and more data are necessary.

  15. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/cli...

  16. Fostering Informed Choice: Alleviating the Trauma of Genetic Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Bret D

    2015-01-01

    Each year, thousands of pregnant women learn of fetal abnormalities through prenatal genetic analysis. This discovery--made after a woman has initially declined to exercise her right to abort an unwanted pregnancy—raises the difficult and heart-wrenching question of whether to terminate on genetic grounds. Women considering a genetic abortion rely on information and support from health care providers to assist them in making their choice. Though intended to be objective and nondirective, the support women receive frequently provides them within complete and incomprehensible information having the effect of encouraging them to abort genetically anomalous fetuses. As a result, genetic terminations--which cause severe and long-standing psychological impacts such as pathological grief, depression and post-traumatic stress—are often the result of something other than a fully informed choice.Congress and eleven states have recognized the importance of better informing choice by passing legislation aimed at providing clearer and more balanced information to expectant mothers learning of fetal genetic abnormalities. But existing legislative remedies do not adequately address this problem, and this inadequacy will become more pronounced in future years as increases in access to prenatal genetic analysis further stretch the capabilities of the available support services.This Article describes the unique characteristics of terminations for a fetal abnormality, their troubling and persistent psychological impacts,and the reasons why they will become more common in future years. It then offers proposals for how to reconfigure the prenatal genetic counseling landscape in order to reduce the incidence of genetic terminations based on incomplete or misleading information, thereby alleviating their distinct psychological costs. Its overall objective is to ensure that women learning of prenatal genetic abnormalities have access to complete and comprehensible information prior to

  17. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Associated with Fetus Papyraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, María Lía; Alcalá, Rebeca; Boggio, Paula; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Porriño, María Librada; Luna, Paula C; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Schroh, Roberto; Larralde, Margarita; Torrelo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), or congenital absence of skin, is a heterogeneous condition that may be due to varied mechanisms. ACC has rarely been reported in association with fetus papyraceus, representing a peculiar phenotype of ACC. We present six new cases of neonates born with symmetric ACC associated with intrauterine fetal demise of co-twins during the late first or early second trimester. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exome Sequencing in Fetuses with Structural Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona L. Mackie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnostic testing is a rapidly advancing field. An accurate diagnosis of structural anomalies and additional abnormalities in fetuses with structural anomalies is important to allow “triage” and designation of prognosis. This will allow parents to make an informed decision relating to the pregnancy. This review outlines the current tests used in prenatal diagnosis, focusing particularly on “new technologies” such as exome sequencing. We demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing above that of conventional karyotyping and Chromosomal Microarray (CMA alone by outlining a recent proof of concept study investigating 30 parent-fetus trios where the fetus is known to have a structural anomaly. This may allow the identification of pathological gene anomalies and consequently improved prognostic profiling, as well as excluding anomalies and distinguishing between de novo and inherited mutations, in order to estimate the recurrence risk in future pregnancies. The potential ethical dilemmas surrounding exome sequencing are also considered, and the future of prenatal genetic diagnosis is discussed.

  19. Teratogenic effects of silymarin on mouse fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahbobe; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Etemad, Leila; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs). The control group received normal saline and tween (solvent). Dams were sacrificed on GD 18 and all fetuses were examined for gross malformations, size and body weight. Malformed fetuses were double stained with alizarin red and alcian blue. Results: Silymarin administration at all doses resulted in reduction of the mean fetal body weights. The abnormalities included limb, vertebral column and craniofacial malformations. Craniofacial malformations were the most common abnormalities, but they were not observed in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage of fetal resorption significantly increased (up to 15%) in all treatment groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, silymarin, especially at high doses can lead to fetal resorption, intrauterine growth retardation and limb, vertebral column and craniofacial abnormalities. More precise studies should be conducted about the teratogenic effects of herbal medicine investigating the underlying mechanisms. Thus, caution should be taken when administering S. marianum to pregnant woman. PMID:27761424

  20. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  1. [Psychological aspects of voluntary induced abortion among fathers drafted into military service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouis-bonnefond, J C; Galle-tessonneau, J R

    1982-06-01

    an infant when in fact it is only potentially an infant. On the unconscious level the father may identify with the aborted fetus in the belief that his own parents may have wanted to destroy him. The abortion may also contain a suicidal element to the extent that the fetus represents a prolongation of the parent. The anxiety and guilt of the father find expression also in auto- and heteroaggressive acts. Through a mechanism of projection, responsibility of the army is substituted for that of the individual.

  2. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol or oxytocin for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elami-Suzin, Matan; Freeman, Martine D; Porat, Nurit; Rojansky, Nathan; Laufer, Neri; Ben-Meir, Assaf

    2013-10-01

    To compare two methods for induction of second-trimester abortion after priming the cervix with mifepristone. This was a randomized prospective trial carried out between January 2009 and February 2012. The participants were healthy women between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation with missed miscarriage or need for termination of pregnancy. All participants received oral 200 mg mifepristone and, after 36 hours, after randomization, were given either a high-concentration oxytocin drip (maximal dose of 150 milli-international units/min) for up to 36 hours or 800 micrograms misoprostol vaginally followed by 400 micrograms oral misoprostol every 3 hours with a maximum of four oral doses. If expulsion of the fetus was not achieved, another 200 mg mifepristone was administered and another course of misoprostol was delivered as described previously. The primary outcome measure was success expulsion of the fetus in 36 hours since starting on uterotonic agent. Secondary outcomes included time until expulsion of the fetus and rate of adverse outcomes. Success rates in the mifepristone-misoprostol and mifepristone-oxytocin arms were 100% (70/70 patients) and 95.8% (69/72), respectively (relative risk 1.043, 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.10, P=.13). Time until fetal expulsion was shorter in the mifepristone-misoprostol arm (7.0 ± 4.9 hours compared with 11.3 ± 7.4 hours, Pmisoprostol group was higher than in the oxytocin group. Factors associated with a shorter time until expulsion were missed miscarriage compared with therapeutic abortion, increased ultrasonographic gestational age, and increased parity. The two regimens studied had comparable efficacy for induction of second-trimester abortion; however, the mifepristone-oxytocin regimen has a longer time until expulsion but with fewer side effects. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00784797. : I.

  3. Study on outbreak ofNeospora caninum-associated abortion in dairy cows in Tabriz (Northwest Iran) by serological, molecular and histopathologic methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Nematollahi; G H Moghaddam; R Jaafari; J Ashrafi Helan; M Norouzi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determineNeospora caninum(N. caninum) as a cause of bovine abortion in dairy cows byELISA,PCR andPathological methods inTabriz,Northwest ofIran.Methods:For study of outbreak of neosporosis, blood samples were collected from76Holstein aborted dairy cows in Tabriz(NorthwestIran).Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed by using a commerciallyELISA kit(IDEXX,USA).IgG againstN. caninum were found in14(18.4%) cases.Aborted fetuses of these seropositive dams were proposed for histopathological and molecular investigations.Brains, spinal cords and placentas of the fetuses were fixed in10% buffered formalin for histopathology. Also5-10 g of brain tissue was sampled forDNA extraction.In6 out of14(42.8%) fetuses, brain tissue was positive inPCR.All dams of these fetuses were serologically seropositive inELISA test. Results:Histopathologically, the lesions consistent withN. caninumwere observed in brains, spinal cords and placenta of all fetuses.Lesions inCNS included severe congestion, perivascular and perineuronal edema, status spongiosis, perivascular cuffing, focal gliosis, nourophagy and focal necrosis.There were someNeospora-like cysts in brain.In placentas, severe congestion, perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells, vascular thrombosis, focal placentitis and necrotic foci in cotyledons were noticed.Conclusions:The results of present study agreed the results of similar studies about serological, histopathological and molecular results of other studies about neosporosis and it seems to support the outbreak ofN. caninum-associated abortion in dairy cows inTabriz(NorthwestIran).

  4. Legal Regulation of Adolescent Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.

    1987-01-01

    Legislators often have established special procedures for judicial or parental involvement in adolescent abortion decisions. While ostensibly protecting pregnant minors' psychological health, and increasing the competency of decision making, judicial bypass and parental notification promote neither goal. At best, they are benign but costly and…

  5. Th·erapeutic Abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-14

    Aug 14, 1971 ... in the UK (1967), gave evidence that, except in those countries where abortion on demand and .... Before that it was an episode cluttered with doubts .... created which could be linked to pollution control. As you know, this is a ...

  6. A safe vaccine (DV-STM-07 against Salmonella infection prevents abortion and confers protective immunity to the pregnant and new born mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Devi Negi

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a transient immuno-compromised condition which has evolved to avoid the immune rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The altered immune response of the pregnant female leads to increased susceptibility to invading pathogens, resulting in abortion and congenital defects of the fetus and a subnormal response to vaccination. Active vaccination during pregnancy may lead to abortion induced by heightened cell mediated immune response. In this study, we have administered the highly attenuated vaccine strain DeltapmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07 in female mice before the onset of pregnancy and followed the immune reaction against challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium in pregnant mice. Here we demonstrate that DV-STM-07 vaccine gives protection against Salmonella in pregnant mice and also prevents Salmonella induced abortion. This protection is conferred by directing the immune response towards Th2 activation and Th1 suppression. The low Th1 response prevents abortion. The use of live attenuated vaccine just before pregnancy carries the risk of transmission to the fetus. We have shown that this vaccine is safe as the vaccine strain is quickly eliminated from the mother and is not transmitted to the fetus. This vaccine also confers immunity to the new born mice of vaccinated mothers. Since there is no evidence of the vaccine candidate reaching the new born mice, we hypothesize that it may be due to trans-colostral transfer of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies. These results suggest that our vaccine DV-STM-07 can be very useful in preventing abortion in the pregnant individuals and confer immunity to the new born. Since there are no such vaccine candidates which can be given to the new born and to the pregnant women, this vaccine holds a very bright future to combat Salmonella induced pregnancy loss.

  7. 流产儿归置中的伦理问题及其对策%The Ethics Issues and the Relevant Countermeasures for Abortion of Disposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余佳蔚; 曹永福

    2014-01-01

    近年来,关于流产儿归置问题引发广泛热议。流产儿虽未出生,但不同阶段的流产儿具有的伦理属性各有不同,应该从人的生命权和人格权角度来考虑。不同阶段的流产儿在胚胎干细胞研究和器官移植等领域体现的价值,引发了伦理审查、实验研究取材等问题,现有的法律规定不足以解决实际问题,应当针对处于不同时期的流产儿,辅以伦理道德情感的考虑来加以处置。%In recent year , there are some questions about abortion of disposal .Though the aborted fetus is un-born, the aborted fetus in different stage has the different attribute of ethics .It should be considered with the hu-man right and the personality right .The value in embryonic stem research and organ transplantation of aborted fetus has raised some problems , such as ethical review , the choice of test sample .The existing legal provisions are not sufficient to solve practical problems .We should disposal aborted fetus of different stage through the way of more moral significance .

  8. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  9. The regulatory cliff edge between contraception and abortion: the legal and moral significance of implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Sally

    2015-09-01

    In regulating the voluntary interruption of pregnancy, English law has accorded particular significance to two biological events. First, 'viability', the moment when a fetus is said to acquire the capacity for independent life, plays an important role in grounding restrictions on access to legal abortion later in pregnancy. Second, equally significantly but far less frequently discussed, 'implantation' marks the point in pregnancy from which abortion laws apply. This paper focuses on this earlier biological event. It suggests that an unquestioning reliance on implantation as marking an appropriate moment of transition between two radically different legal frameworks is deeply problematic and is rendered still less sustainable in the light of the development of new technologies that potentially operate shortly after the moment of implantation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Opinions on conscientious objection to induced abortion among Finnish medical and nursing students and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Lappalainen, Saara; Ristimäki, Pauliina; Myllykangas, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-03-25

    Conscientious objection (CO) to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries. We conducted a questionnaire survey with the 1(st)- and the last-year medical and nursing students and professionals (548 respondents; response rate 66-100%) including several aspects of the abortion process and their relation to CO in 2013. The male medical respondents chose later time points of pregnancy than the nursing respondents when considering when the embryo/fetus "becomes a person". Of all respondents, 3.5-14.1% expressed a personal wish to CO. The medical professionals supported the right to CO more often (34.2%) than the nursing professionals (21.4%), while ≥62.4% could work with someone expressing CO. Yet ≥57.9% of the respondents anticipated social problems at work communities caused by CO. Most respondents considered self-reported religious/ethical conviction to be adequate for CO but, at the same time, 30.1-50.7% considered that no conviction would be sufficient. The respondents most commonly included the medical doctor conducting surgical or medical abortion to be eligible to CO. The nursing respondents considered that vacuum suction would be a better justification for CO than medical abortion. The indications most commonly included to potential CO were second-trimester abortions and social reasons. Among the medical respondents, the men were more willing to grant CO also in case of a life-threatening emergency of the pregnant woman. While the respondents mostly seemed to consider the continuation of adequate services important if CO is introduced, the viewpoint was often focused on the staff and surgical abortion procedure instead of the patients. The issue proved to be complex, which should be taken into consideration for legislation.

  11. Abortion services at hospitals in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Lou

    2017-04-01

    Despite the existence of a liberal law on abortion in Turkey, there is growing evidence that actually securing an abortion in Istanbul may prove difficult. This study aimed to determine whether or not state hospitals and private hospitals that accept state health insurance in Istanbul are providing abortion services and for what indications. Between October and December 2015, a mystery patient telephone survey of 154 hospitals, 43 public and 111 private, in Istanbul was conducted. 14% of the state hospitals in Istanbul perform abortions without restriction as to reason provided in the current law while 60% provide the service if there is a medical necessity. A quarter of state hospitals in Istanbul do not provide abortion services at all. 48.6% of private hospitals that accept the state health insurance also provide for abortion without restriction while 10% do not provide abortion services under any circumstances. State and private hospitals in Istanbul are not providing abortion services to the full extent allowed under the law. The low numbers of state hospitals offering abortions without restriction indicates a de facto privatization of the service. This same trend is also visible in many private hospitals partnering with the state that do not provide abortion care. While many women may choose a private provider, the lack of provision of abortion care at state hospitals and those private hospitals working with the state leaves women little option but to purchase these services from private providers at some times subtantial costs.

  12. Legal duties to respect abortion choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses legal protection of individual choices to obtain abortion services, to decline to perform abortions on grounds of religious objection, and to participate in these procedures. It considers legal duties to respect women as decision-makers in their own lives, including when they decide to continue pregnancy. The choice to decline participation in abortions is an aspect of religious freedom available to physicians, nurses, and, for instance, pharmacists, but not artificial legal persons such as hospital and clinic corporations. Refusal does not extend to ancillary functions such as serving meals, routine pre-operative and post-operative care of abortion patients or typing abortion referral letters. Physicians practising in proximate care must be trained in appropriate medical management of incomplete and threatened abortion even when they would refuse to apply such techniques to induce abortion.

  13. Free abortion has come to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In Sweden abortion has been free and on demand since 1975. The philosophy behind this law is that the pregnant women is the best judge of whether she should have an abortion. Any attempt to change the legal status of abortion should be strongly fought. Criminalizing abortion has never amounted to any good in any country that has tried it. A critical aspect of abortion is that it must be prevented with effective sexual education and free access to contraception. This is the best way to avoid unwanted pregnancies and thus abortion. Still even in Sweden 25% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Planned parenthood is essential in a country with a high standard of living in order to maintain an adequate level of births. Many countries with high standards of living have very low births rates because they do not offer parental leave, short working hours, or day care.

  14. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.

  15. 稽留流产128例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 128 cases of missed abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金凤

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the incidence of missed abortion factors, diagnosis and method of treatment, prevention of the occurrence of missed abortion. Missed abortion (missed abortion) refers to the embryo or fetus has retained intrauterine death not naturaly discharged ( 1 ), is a special type of spontaneous abortion. Causes of missed abortion for many reasons, but the mechanism is not clear. Methods: the retrospective approach on clinical data analysis of missed abortion. Results: the missed abortion and fetal genetic defects, adverse external factors and the effect of maternal disease of. Conclusion: the incidence of missed abortion factors, diagnosis and method of treatment, prevention of the occurrence of missed abortion, on the health of women of childbearing age has important significance. Fetal genetic defects, chromosome abnormality is the main reason of occurrence of missed abortion. B ultrasound is the main diagnostic methods. The diagnosis should be promptly after the evacuation of uterus.%  目的探讨稽留流产的发病因素,诊断及治疗方法,预防稽留流产的发生.稽留流产(missed abortion)是指胚胎或胎儿已死亡滞留宫腔内未能及时自然排出者[1],是自然流产的一种特殊类型.造成稽留流产的原因很多,但机制尚不明确.方法采用回顾性方法对稽留流产的临床资料进行分析.结果稽留流产与胎儿遗传基因的缺陷、外界不良因素的影响及母体疾患有关.结论探讨稽留流产的发病因素,诊断及治疗方法,预防稽留流产的发生,对育龄妇女的身心健康有着重要的意义.胎儿遗传基因的缺陷,染色体异常是发生稽留流产的主要原因.B超是主要的诊断方式.诊断明确后应及时排空子宫.

  16. A 34-year retrospective study of equine viral abortion in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bażanów, B A; Frącka, A B; Jackulak, N A; Staroniewicz, Z M; Ploch, S M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was a comparison of the abortions caused by EAV and EHV-1 viruses over the 34 years. A total of 452 tissues samples from aborted fetuses (347) or foals (105) stillborn or newborn that died within 72 hours were investigated. The material for the examinations came from different farms located throughout Poland. The tissue homogenates were examined by using virus isolation test in RK-13 and Vero cell lines and the cytopathic agent was confirmed as EHV-1 by the direct fluorescent antibody test or as EAV by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The study indicated that EAV was isolated (104 cases, 23%) almost as equally often as EHV-1 (116 cases, 25.6%). Both, equid herpes virus-associated abortion and the abortion induced by EAV were characterized by cyclicity. The percentage of EAV and EHV-1 isolation alternately reduced and increased, but the increase of isolation of one virus was accompanied by the decrease of the other. The domination of one virus over the other occurred in cycles of a few years.

  17. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-18

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeria, S; Serrano-Pérez, B; Darwich, L; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F

    2016-08-30

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. In this study, Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL4) and T reg (IL-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time PCR using the TaqMan approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate Nc-Spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. In prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and transplacental infection in all the 6 infected foetuses. In the spleen of the dams, IL-4 expression was down-regulated in dams with aborted/non viable foetuses compared to both uninfected dams (controls, n=3) and infected dams with live fetuses at euthanasia. In the lymph nodes draining the placenta, up-regulated expression of IL-4 was observed in infected dams with live foetuses compared to control dams. In the placenta, infected dams with live foetuses had significantly up-regulated IFN-γ in both caruncle and cotyledon and up-regulated IL-10 in cotyledon compared to control dams. Infected live foetuses showed up-regulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in foetal spleen, and showed downregulated expression of IL-4 in the thymus compared to control uninfected foetuses. Expression of any cytokine in the thymus was significantly lower compared to the levels observed in foetal spleen. The results indicate an up-regulated expression of Th1, Th2 and Treg in infected dams with live foetuses and in their foetuses. On the other hand, down-regulation of Th2 immune responses and Treg cytokines were observed in infected dams which had aborted or had non-viable foetuses at euthanasia, suggesting an immunological recovery of cytokine gene expression levels in dams a few weeks after an abortion occurred.

  20. [Repeat induced abortion: A multicenter study on medical abortions in France in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatowski, M; Bardy, F; David, P; Dunbavand, A; Saurel-Cubizolles, M-J

    2017-01-01

    To describe the social characteristics of women seeking a medical abortion, and the conditions of that abortion, according to whether they had one or more previous induced abortions. An observational study was carried out in 11 French units in 2013-2014, among women 18 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire on the abortion context and social situation was given to them, as well as a diary to record the pain level for each of five days following the mifepristone intake. The sample included 453 women. Among the respondents, 22% had had one previous abortion and 8% had had two or more. Women having had a previous voluntary abortion were more often isolated and in a poorer social situation than women having their first abortion. Better support for contraception after abortion could reduce the number of repeated abortions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum, which display a distinct host association. Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are associated with endothermic mammals, primar...

  2. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  3. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  4. Combined ultrasound and exome sequencing approach recognizes Opitz G/BBB syndrome in two malformed fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anna Maria; Imperatore, Valentina; Bianciardi, Laura; Baldassarri, Margherita; Galluzzi, Paolo; Furini, Simone; Centini, Giovanni; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies and can occur as an isolated defect or be associated with other anomalies such as posterior fossa anomalies as a part of several genetic syndromes. We report two consecutive voluntary pregnancy interruptions in a nonconsanguineous couple following the fetal ultrasound finding of cleft lip and palate and posterior fossa anomalies confirmed by means of post-termination examination on the second fetus. The quantitative fluorescent PCR, the karyotype, and the comparative genomic hybridization-array analysis after amniocentesis were normal. Exome sequencing on abortive material from both fetuses detected a missense mutation in MID1, resulting in a clinical diagnosis of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. The same mutation was found in the mother and in her brother, who both revealed cerebellar anomalies at an MRI examination. Our study supports the efficacy of exome sequencing in the presence of both a family history suggestive of an inherited disorder and well-documented ultrasound findings. It reveals the importance of a synergistic effort between gynecologists and geneticists aimed at the integration of the most sophisticated ultrasound techniques with the next-generation sequencing tools to provide a definite diagnosis essential to orient the final decision and to estimate a proper recurrence risk.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Women Who Have Aborted in Comparison with the Women with Normal Delivery in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Primary maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission to the fetus. However it is not certain whether Toxoplasma infection can cause recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion via detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of women with obstetrical problems and compare the results with control group consisting of women with history of normal delivery. Sera from 130 women with abortion and sera of 130 women with normal delivery were tested for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by ELISA method. The present study revealed 24.6% of the samples with abortion and 21.5% of the samples with normal delivery were positive for IgG antibodies. However, statistical analysis indicated no significant differences (P>0.05. In addition, IgM antibody was detected in one woman who had aborted but not in women with normal childbirth. This study showed no significant difference between the case and control groups in IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibody but detected one sample with IgM antibodies in woman with abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. In order to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion, anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity and PCR to discriminate between recent and prior infections are recommended.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in women who have aborted in comparison with the women with normal delivery in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, J; Mohammadpour, N; Moramezi, F; Khademvatan, S

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Primary maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission to the fetus. However it is not certain whether Toxoplasma infection can cause recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion via detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of women with obstetrical problems and compare the results with control group consisting of women with history of normal delivery. Sera from 130 women with abortion and sera of 130 women with normal delivery were tested for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by ELISA method. The present study revealed 24.6% of the samples with abortion and 21.5% of the samples with normal delivery were positive for IgG antibodies. However, statistical analysis indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05). In addition, IgM antibody was detected in one woman who had aborted but not in women with normal childbirth. This study showed no significant difference between the case and control groups in IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibody but detected one sample with IgM antibodies in woman with abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. In order to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion, anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity and PCR to discriminate between recent and prior infections are recommended.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated wi

  8. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370804465; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336455798; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  9. Pain assessment in human fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio

    2012-09-01

    In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20-22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

  10. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    four types, based on the number and morphology of metacarpals and metatarsals. In the individual fetus there was more often similarity in the pattern of malformation in the two hands or in the two feet than there was between the pattern of malformation seen in the hands and that seen in the feet. Only...... one foot was normal. Malformations of the cranial base (the basilar part of the occipital bone or the postsphenoid bone) occurred in five cases, and the vertebral bodies in the lumbar region of the spine were malformed (cleft) in three cases. It is proposed that a skeletal analysis be included...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of rat fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Yo; Kawanishi, Hiroaki (Imamichi Institute for Animal Reproduction, Ibaraki (Japan)); Hasegawa, Kenichi; Otsu, Shinichi

    1993-06-01

    The internal structures of rat fetuses on day 18.0 of pregnancy were studied by magnetic resonance imaging in 1-mm sagittal slices. Each organ was represented as white to gray images different in tone according to the [sup 1]H proton content and the relaxation time. In solid organs, portions with high cell density were seen as white areas and those with low cell density as gray areas. In the tubular organs, the margins were imaged as white and the lumina as gray. (author).

  12. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  13. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2017-03-13

    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  14. Abnormal T-cell reactivity against paternal antigens in spontaneous abortion: adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells prevents fetal rejection in a murine abortion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Gerlof, Katrin; Zenclussen, Maria Laura; Sollwedel, André; Bertoja, Annarosa Zambon; Ritter, Thomas; Kotsch, Katja; Leber, Joachim; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian pregnancy is thought to be a state of immunological tolerance. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. Here, we determined whether an inappropriate function of T regulatory (Treg) cells is involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous abortion. We evaluated spleen and decidual lymphocytes from CBA/J mice undergoing immunological abortion (DBA/2J-mated) or having normal pregnancy (BALB/c-mated) on day 14 of gestation for ex vivo cytokine production after PMA or paternal antigen (alloantigen) stimulation. Treg activity was characterized by quantifying CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, foxp3 expression, and interleukin-10 secretion. Decidual lymphocytes from abortion CBA/J mice contained a significantly higher frequency of interferon-gamma-producing T cells specific for paternal antigens compared to those from normal pregnancy (7.8% versus 2.7%, P abortion mice. Very interestingly, CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from normal pregnant and nonpregnant CBA/J mice could inhibit both proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion of lymphocytes from abortion mice in vitro whereas in vivo prevention of fetal rejection could only be achieved after adoptive transfer of Treg cells from normal pregnant mice. Our data suggest that pregnancy-induced Treg cells play a vital role in maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus.

  15. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sz Makó, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation.

  16. [Abortion or contraception (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1980-01-01

    The period immediately following an abortion, spontaneous or induced, has been considered favourable to the initiation of high efficicy contraception: sterilization, oral contraceptives, or intrauterine devices. The rate of post-abortal complications associated with these contraceptive methods was evaluated using data drawn from published and unpublished studies. The following conclusions were reached: sterilization is advisable only for women who do not desire additional children, and is obviously not recommended for young nulliparous women. The effective use of oral contraceptives requires a high motivational level and is therefore advisable only in cases where such motivation exists. The insertion of an intrauterine device seems to be the most adequate contraceptive method for women with low motivational level.

  17. Counting abortions so that abortion counts: Indicators for monitoring the availability and use of abortion care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J; Otsea, K; Benson, J

    2006-11-01

    Maternal mortality reduction has been a focus of major international initiatives for the past two decades. Widespread provision of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has been shown to be an important strategy for addressing many of the complications that might otherwise lead to maternal death. However, unsafe abortion is one of the major causes of pregnancy-related deaths, and will be only partially addressed by EmOC. This manuscript presents a comprehensive approach to measuring whether abortion-related needs are met. We propose a set of indicators for monitoring the implementation of safe abortion care (SAC) interventions. We build on the model developed for monitoring the availability and use of Emergency Obstetric (EmOC) services. We describe the critical elements ("signal functions") of SAC - including treatment of abortion complications, legal, induced abortion and postabortion contraception - and define the indicators necessary to assess the availability, utilization and quality of abortion-related services. Data from 5 countries suggest there are sufficient service delivery points to provide decentralized abortion care, but that the full range of necessary abortion care services may not be provided at all these sites. Studies from several countries also show that many women receiving services for the treatment of abortion complications accept contraceptive methods when offered prior to discharge. This is an important strategy for reducing unwanted pregnancy, repeat unsafe abortion and risk for abortion-related mortality. Both findings suggest there are considerable opportunities within the present facilities to improve the delivery of abortion care services. This article recommends that the proposed model undergo field-testing on its own or in conjunction with the EmOC indicators, and encourages increased support for this important but often neglected aspect of pregnancy-related health.

  18. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Perlstein, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  19. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  20. Dosimetry of radioiodine for embryo and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, V.; Eckerman, K.F.; Phipps, A.W.; Nosske, D

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the biokinetic and dosimetric models adopted in ICRP Publication 88 for the evaluation of fetal doses resulting from maternal intakes of radioiodine. The biokinetic model is used to simulate the behaviour of iodine in both the mother and the fetus. Such simulations provide the basis for the estimation of the dose to the embryo and determine the distribution of maternal iodine at the beginning of the fetal period. The model considers iodine to accumulate in the fetal thyroid from the 11th week. The dose to the fetus delivered following birth is evaluated with the biokinetic and dosimetric models described in ICRP Publication 67. Although a substantial fraction of the emitted energy of electrons and photons is less than 10 keV, conventionally assumed to be non-penetrating radiation, these emissions can escape the small fetal thyroid. Absorbed fractions for both self-dose and crossfire were evaluated for the requirements of radioiodine dosimetry in ICRP Publication 88. (author)

  1. Validation of a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, J; Brooks, B; Perry, K; Milnes, D; Burke, T; McCabe, D; Duff, S; Lutze-Wallace, C L

    2005-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the routine culture methodology for the detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies from bovine and ovine field samples inoculated into Clark's transport enrichment medium (TEM). The work was a collaboration between two different diagnostic laboratories, one in Canada and the other in England. In both labs, TEM samples were incubated for 4 days at 35 degrees C and then tested by culture and ELISA. The ELISA consisted of initial screening with MAb M1825 against C. fetus subspecies core lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All samples positive on ELISA screening were then retested by ELISA with MAb M1825 and MAbs M1177, M1183, and M1194, which recognize serotype A- and/or serotype B-specific C. fetus subspecies LPS epitopes. The Canadian samples consisted of 1,060 preputial washings from 529 bulls, of which 18 were positive by both culture and ELISA and 1,042 were negative by both methods. The English samples consisted of 321 tissue specimens, mostly stomach contents and placentas, from 190 aborted ovine and bovine fetuses. A total of 262 samples were negative by culture and ELISA, 52 samples were positive by culture and ELISA, and 7 samples were culture negative but ELISA positive. The results for all 70 culture-positive isolates were confirmed by conventional biochemical methods as C. fetus subsp. fetus, with 39 presumptively identified by the ELISA as serotype A and 30 presumptively identified as serotype B and with one sample containing isolates presumptively identified as serotype A and serotype B. A receiver operating characteristic analysis of the combined ELISA data from both countries resulted in an area under the curve of 0.997, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.5% relative to the results of culture. The data confirm that this ELISA method can be used as an excellent test for the screening of field samples in TEM for the presence of C. fetus

  2. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  3. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  4. An unusual complication of unsafe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe abortion is a significant medical and social problem worldwide. In developing countries, most of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained personnel leading to high mortality and morbidity. Case Report: A 30 year-old female, gravida 7, para 6 underwent uterine evacuation for heavy bleeding per vaginum following intake of abortifacient to abort a 14 weeks gestation. The procedure was performed at a rural setup and her bowel was pulled out of the introitus through the perforated wound, an unusual complication of unsafe abortion. Illiteracy, unawareness about health services, and easy accessibility to untrained abortion providers lead to very high mortality and morbidity in India. There is unmet need to bring awareness among the people about the safe and effective methods of contraception and abortion services to avoid such complications.

  5. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  6. Congenital Absence of Salivary Glands in Fetuses with Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Bronshtein, Moshe; Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21. To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype. Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P < 0.05). Congenital absence of the salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

  7. Ammonium nitrogen in fetuses of urea-treated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, C C; Roller, M H; Swanson, R N

    1975-02-01

    Eight pregnant Southdown ewes were treated (by drench) with 12.5 ml of 3.3 M urea solution per kilogram of body weight, and ammonium nitrogen concentrations of blood and tissues of these ewes and their fetuses were measured and compared with those of control ewes (given water by drench) and their fetuses. Blood ammonium nitrogen (BAN) and tissue ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations for liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle of ewes and fetuses were determined by an ion-exchange procedure. Samples of blood were collected before treatment, at 30, 90 and 150 minutes after treatment, and at death of the dam. The principal ewes had increasing BAN concentrations with time after drench, and their fetuses had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) BAN concentrations than fetuses from control ewes. All fetuses were alive after death of the dams and had lower TAN values than their dams. The differences in ammonia concentrations between ewes and fetuses were larger in the principal group than in the control group. Except for ewe muscle and fetal liver, all tissues of principals had significantly greater (P less than 0.01) TAN concentrations than those of controls. Muscle of principal ewes and hepatic tissues of their fetuses had greater (P less than 0.05) TAN concentrations than those of control ewes and their fetuses.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis and management in fetuses with cystic hygromata colli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembruch, U; Hansmann, M; Bald, R; Zerres, K; Schwanitz, G; Födisch, H J

    1988-12-01

    We report on 45 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed bilateral cystic hygromata colli by ultrasound. Two of the 45 cases involved a twin pregnancy with only one fetus showing hygromata colli. In 2 cases there was only isolated hygromata colli. The other 43 cases showed the signs of non-immune hydrops fetalis. The cytogenetic findings were: 9 fetuses with Turner syndrome, 1 fetus with Turner mosaicism, 1 fetus with trisomy 18, 6 fetuses with trisomy 21, 12 fetuses with normal karyotype, and 16 fetuses with a failed chromosome culture. In fetuses with Turner syndrome and normal karyotype the sonographic findings were similar: massive bilateral hygromata colli, substantial fluid accumulations in skin and body cavities, oligohydramnios and intra-uterine growth retardation. In the cases with trisomy 21, the relative size of the hygromata colli was smaller. Intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios were not observed. The sole survivor of our group (elective pregnancy interruption: 30 cases; intra-uterine death: 14 cases) (karyotype: 46,XY) presented sonographically with massive ascites, a moderate cystic hygroma, and appropriate fetal development, and a normal amniotic fluid quantity. These findings are analysed in order to provide recommendations for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal management and genetic counselling of the couples concerned.

  9. Standardizing the classification of abortion incidents: the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting and Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Diana; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Fjerstad, Mary; Battistelli, Molly F; Weitz, Tracy A; Paul, Maureen E

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate standardized criteria for assessing abortion-related incidents (adverse events, morbidities, near misses) for first-trimester aspiration abortion procedures and to demonstrate the utility of a standardized framework [the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting & Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework] for estimating serious abortion-related adverse events. As part of a California-based study of early aspiration abortion provision conducted between 2007 and 2013, we developed and validated a standardized framework for defining and monitoring first-trimester (≤14weeks) aspiration abortion morbidity and adverse events using multiple methods: a literature review, framework criteria testing with empirical data, repeated expert reviews and data-based revisions to the framework. The final framework distinguishes incidents resulting from procedural abortion care (adverse events) from morbidity related to pregnancy, the abortion process and other nonabortion related conditions. It further classifies incidents by diagnosis (confirmatory data, etiology, risk factors), management (treatment type and location), timing (immediate or delayed), seriousness (minor or major) and outcome. Empirical validation of the framework using data from 19,673 women receiving aspiration abortions revealed almost an equal proportion of total adverse events (n=205, 1.04%) and total abortion- or pregnancy-related morbidity (n=194, 0.99%). The majority of adverse events were due to retained products of conception (0.37%), failed attempted abortion (0.15%) and postabortion infection (0.17%). Serious or major adverse events were rare (n=11, 0.06%). Distinguishing morbidity diagnoses from adverse events using a standardized, empirically tested framework confirms the very low frequency of serious adverse events related to clinic-based abortion care. The PAIRS Framework provides a useful set of tools to systematically classify and monitor abortion-related incidents for first

  10. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The inverse relationship between abortion and crime has spurred new research and much controversy. If the relationship is causal, then polices that increased abortion have generated enormous external benefits from reduced crime. In previous papers, I argued that evidence for a casual relationship is weak and incomplete. In this paper, I conduct a number of new analyses intended to address criticisms of my earlier work. First, I examine closely the effects of changes in abortion rates between ...

  11. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Rahimeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Parsay, Sosan

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods This case-control study included the case group (n=331) experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331) who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), in which they ...

  12. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimeh Ahmadi; Saeideh Ziaei; Sosan Parsay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331) experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331) who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (...

  13. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  14. Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Paraná State, Brazil: histological and immunohistochemical analys is in fetuses/ Neospora caninum em vacas leiteiras no Estado do Paraná, Brasil: análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica em fetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four bovine abortions (fetuses from Paraná State were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Eight fetuses had non-suppurative encephalitis and miocarditis, and Neospora caninum were detected by immunohistochemistry. Four cows were seropositive to N. caninum. It was the first detection of congenital neosporosis in aborted bovines fetuses, in Paraná State, Brazil.Trinta e quatro fetos bovinos abortados, no Estado do Paraná, foram examinados através de análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica. O Neospora caninum foi detectado, pela imuno-histoquímica, em oito fetos que apresentavam miocardite e encefalite não supurativa. Quatro vacas foram soropositivas para o Neospora caninum. Este é o primeiro relato de neosporose congênita em fetos bovinos abortados, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil.

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.

  16. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle. PMID:27977708

  17. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  18. Therapeutic abortion follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, A J; Davison, L A; Hanson, K H; Loos, S A; Mikkelsen, C M

    1971-05-15

    To determine the long-range psychological effects of therapeutic abortion, 50 women (aged from 13-44 years), who were granted abortions between 1967 and 1968 Because of possible impairment of mental and/or physical health, were analyzed by use of demographic questionnaires, psychological tests, and interviews. Testing revealed that 44 women had psychiatric problems at time of abortion. 43 patients were followed for 3-6 months. The follow-up interviews revealed that 29 patients reacted positively after abortion, 10 reported no significant change and 4 reacted negatively. 37 would definitely repeat the abortion. Women under 21 years of age felt substantially more ambivalent and guilty than older patients. A study of 36 paired pre- and post-abortion profiles showed that 15 initially abnormal tests had become normal. There was a significant increase in contraceptive use among the patients after the abortion, but 4 again became pregnant and 8 were apparently without consistent contraception. It is concluded that the abortions were therapeutic, but physicians are encouraged to be aware of psychological problems in abortion cases. Strong psychological and contraceptive counselling should be exercised.

  19. LHC Abort Gap Monitoring and Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D

    2010-01-01

    Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.

  20. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  1. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, April-June 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information received from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources regarding abortions reported to the Center for Disease Control for the April-June quarter of 1971. Data in tabular and narrative form are given for abortion ratios by state, reported abortions by menstrual weeks of…

  2. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  3. Why women are dying from unsafe abortion: narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Carolyn M; Debbink, Michelle Precourt; Steele, Ellen A; Buck, Caroline T; Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Harris, Lisa H

    2013-06-01

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the life-threatening impact that stigma, financial restraints, and confusion regarding abortion law have on the women of Ghana who seek abortion. They posit that the vast majority of serious abortion complications arise in the setting of clandestine or self-induced second trimester attempts, suggesting that training greater numbers of physicians to perform second trimester abortion is prerequisite to reducing maternal mortality. They also recognized that an adequate supply of abortion providers alone is a necessary but insufficient step toward reducing death from unsafe abortion. Rather, improved accessibility and cultural acceptability of abortion are integral to the actual utilization of safe services. Their insights suggest that any comprehensive plan aimed at reducing maternal mortality must consider avenues that address the multiple dimensions which influence the practice and utilization of safe abortion, especially in the second trimester.

  4. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  5. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  6. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs.

  8. Second trimester medical abortion with mifepristone followed by unlimited dosing of buccal misoprostol in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Abrahamyan, Ruzanna; Winikoff, Beverly

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and acceptability of a regimen using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol with unlimited dosing for second trimester abortion in Armenia. Women seeking to terminate 13-22 week pregnancies were enrolled in the study. Participants swallowed 200 mg mifepristone in the clinic and were instructed to return to the hospital for induction 24-48 h later. During induction, women were given 400 μg buccal misoprostol every 3 h until the fetus and placenta were expelled. The abortion was considered a success if complete uterine evacuation was achieved without oxytocin or surgery. A total of 120 women with a median gestational age of 18 weeks participated in the study. All women began misoprostol induction around 24 h after taking mifepristone. Complete uterine evacuation was achieved in 119 (99.2%) women. The median induction-to-abortion interval was 10.3 h (range 4-17.4) with a mean of 9.5 ± 2.5 h. A median of four misoprostol doses (range 2-6) with a mean of 4 ± 1 misoprostol doses were administered. The induction-to-abortion interval, number of misoprostol doses, pain score and analgesia use increased as gestational age advanced. Acceptability of the method was high among both patients and providers. The medical abortion regimen of 200 mg mifepristone followed 24 h later by induction with 400 μg buccal misoprostol administered every 3 h, with no limit on the number of doses used for the termination of pregnancies of 13-22 weeks' gestation is an effective and acceptable option for women.

  9. Aftershocks: The Impact of Clinic Violence on Abortion Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mireille Jacobson; Heather Royer

    2010-01-01

    Between 1973 and 2003, abortion providers in the United States were the targets of over 300 acts of extreme violence. Using unique data on attacks and on abortions, abortion providers, and births, we examine how anti-abortion violence has affected providers' decisions to perform abortions and women's decisions about whether and where to terminate a pregnancy. We find that clinic violence reduces abortion services in targeted areas. Once travel is taken into account, however, the overall effec...

  10. Aftershocks: The Impact of Clinic Violence on Abortion Services

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Between 1973 and 2003, abortion providers in the United States were the targets of over 300 acts of extreme violence. Using unique data on attacks and on abortions, abortion providers, and births, we examine how anti-abortion violence has affected providers' decisions to perform abortions and women's decisions about whether and where to terminate a pregnancy. We find that clinic violence reduces abortion services in targeted areas. Once travel is taken into account, however, the overall effec...

  11. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Keogh

    Full Text Available Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence.To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar.A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology.In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone.The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  12. Pathohistological changes in fetuses with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đolai Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis or mucoviscidosis is a genetically caused disease. The intensity of disease and histopathological changes grow throughout the life. According to the literature, pathological changes characteristic of cystic fibrosis become noticeable around the sixth month of life. Case Report. After amniocentesis of a 5-lunar month-old fetus had been done, which confirmed cystic fibrosis, the Ethics Commission approved the preterm labor. The autopsy and histopathological analysis demonstrated the existence of typical histopathological changes in the pancreas and intestines. Discussion. In the late fetal period or during the period around the delivery, cystic fibrosis is usually manifested as meconial cap with or without obstruction of the intestinal lumen. Morphological changes in the exocrine glands usually develop only after birth. In this case, the existence of meconial obstruction, as well as the typical acidofil content in the secretory ducts and acini of the pancreas was confirmed, which is unusual for the fetal age of five months.

  13. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Association with Fetus Papyraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC is a rare malformation characterized by localized or a wide area absence of tissue. The disease may involve any site of the body, although usually seen on the scalp. Observed one in 10.000 births, it can occur as the ACC as an isolated lesion and may be associated with cleft palate/lip, syndactyly, absence of fingers, eye abnormalities and congenital heart disease. ACC’s a rare form due to intrauterine twin, which is a form of ex. Large lesions that require surgical repair small defects heal spontaneously with re-epithelialization. We present a rare case of newborn male with truncal ACC associated with fetus papyraceus.

  14. Fetus Amorphous Acardious – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kamakeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetus amorphous acardious is a rare fetal malformation lacking a functional heart and bearing no resemblance to human embryos. The main differential diagnosis is with placental teratoma and is based on the degree of skeletal organization and umbilical cord formation. A 26 year old woman delivered a healthy newborn at 38 weeks of gestation by caesarian section. An amorphous mass covered with healthy looking skin was connected to the placenta with a short pedicle. Xray examination of the mass revealed the presence of vertebral column associated with ribs and pelvic bones and axial skeleton. Histopathological examination demonstrates the presence of cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, skin with adnexal structures and neural tissue.

  15. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  16. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  17. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  18. Fetus in fetu: molecular analysis of a fetiform mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, A; Corteville, J; Foglia, R P; Bliss, D P; Donis-Keller, H; Dowton, S B

    1993-09-01

    Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition presenting as a calcified intra-abdominal mass in the newborn infant. Over 50 cases of fetus-in-fetu have been reported since 1800. Karyotype analysis in 8 cases and protein polymorphisms in 4 documented identical findings in the host and fetiform mass. We report a case of fetus-in-fetu in a newborn female including cytogenetic and molecular studies of both the host and mass. Genotypic information from 7 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays representing 4 chromosomes demonstrates heterozygous and identical alleles in the infant and fetus-in-fetu at all loci studied. A review of the literature is provided including a discussion regarding the impact of molecular data on present hypotheses of fetus-in-fetu pathogenesis.

  19. [Induced abortion in Cartagena, Colombia: estimation using Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel J; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    Estimating induced abortion incidence in a reference hospital and the city of Cartagena, Colombia. This was an ecological study that used Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM). Data from the Rafael Calvo Maternity Clinic (CMRC) was used for estimating post-abortion attention in Cartagena, Colombia. Induced abortion rates and ratios were estimated in the CMRC and the city of Cartagena from CMRC data using the AICM model. The estimated induced abortion ratio in Cartagena was 261/1,000 births in 2005, 244 in 2006 and 259 in 2007. The estimated rate per 1,000 females aged 15-44 for induced abortion was 22 in 2005, 22 in 2006 and 21 in 2007. The estimated rate was similar to the rate found in previous research using Colombian data from 1989. Public health measures should be focused on reducing unwanted pregnancies and thereby reduce induced abortion rates.

  20. Fetal Pain, Abortion, Viability and the Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath Ali

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  1. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  2. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  3. [Illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouana, M; Kadhel, P; Koffi, A; Janky, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the typical profile, and to assess the motivations of women who underwent illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a 1-year prospective study on women who consulted after failure or complication of an illegal abortion with misoprostol. Fifty-two cases of illegal abortion with misoprostol were recorded. The most common profile was an unemployed woman, who was unmarried, foreign-born, had no medical insurance, and a low level of education; the median age was 28 (range 17 to 40). The justifications given were that the legal procedure was considered to be too slow, the young age of the woman, the ease of the self-medication procedure, a history of illegal abortion by misoprostol in the woman's country of origin, ignorance of the legal process, and financial and/or administrative problems. The problem of illegal abortion is probably underestimated in Guadeloupe and possibly France. This description of the profile of the population concerned and the justifications for choosing illegal abortion by misoprostol provides elements allowing better focus of education concerning abortion, contraception and family planning. Access to legal abortion centers should also be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  5. Provokeret abort og stratificeret reproduktion i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2007-01-01

    Hvorfor får kvinder med indvandrerbaggrund dobbelt så mange provokerede aborter som andre kvinder i Danmark? Det var udgangsspørgsmålet for det forskningsprojekt, denne artikel er baseret på. Artiklens argument er, at når nogle grupper af minoritetskvinder får flere aborter end andre kvinder i...

  6. Violence against abortion increases in US clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J

    1994-08-13

    In the US, violence against abortion clinics is escalating. In July 1994, a doctor who performed abortions and one of his escorts was gunned down outside of an abortion clinic. In March of 1993, another doctor was killed outside of a clinic. That killing prompted passage of a federal law designed to protect abortion providers and clinics from violence. In addition to the individuals murdered, the number of violent incidents against abortion clinics increased four-fold to 250 in 1993. Some elderly physicians feel compelled to continue to perform the procedure instead of retiring because there are no young practitioners to replace them. These physicians note that the young practitioners have no experience with the deaths and illness which resulted from illegal abortions and have not been properly trained by their medical schools. The US Attorney General has dispatched federal marshalls to guard abortion clinics, and local police are increasing their protection of clinics. Abortion protestors say that the new federal law will cause some formerly peaceful protestors to resort to violence.

  7. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  8. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  9. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  10. Induced abortions and unintended pregnancies in pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study's underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the other wise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.

  11. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  12. The unmet need for safe abortion in Turkey: a role for medical abortion and training of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihciokur, Sare; Akin, Ayse; Dogan, Bahar Guciz; Ozvaris, Sevkat Bahar

    2015-02-01

    Abortion has been legal and safe in Turkey since 1983, but the unmet need for safe abortion services remains high. Many medical practitioners believe that the introduction of medical abortion would address this. However, since 2012 there has been political opposition to the provision of abortion services. The government has been threatening to restrict the law, and following an administrative change in booking of appointments, some hospital clinics that provided family planning and abortion services had to stop providing abortions. Thus, the availability of safe abortion depends not only on permissive legislation but also political support and the ability of health professionals to provide it. We conducted a study among university medical school students in three provinces on their knowledge of abortion and abortion methods, to try to understand their future practice intentions. Pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaires were answered by 209 final-year medical students. The students' level of knowledge of abortion and abortion methods was very low. More than three-quarters had heard of surgical abortion, but only 56% mentioned medical abortion. Although nearly 90% supported making abortion services available in Turkey, their willingness to provide surgical abortion (16%) or medical abortion (15%) was low, due to lack of knowledge. Abortion care, including medical abortion, needs to be included in the medical school curriculum in order to safeguard this women's health service. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mifepristone and misoprostol compared with misoprostol alone for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Shochet, Tara; Raghavan, Sheila; Blum, Jennifer; Nga, Nguyen Thi Bach; Minh, Nguyen Thi Hong; Phan, Van Quy; Winikoff, Beverly

    2011-09-01

    To estimate the clinical benefit of pretreatment with mifepristone followed by misoprostol compared with misoprostol alone for second-trimester abortion. Two hundred sixty women with live fetuses of gestational ages 14-21 weeks were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in Vietnam. Eligible consenting women received either mifepristone or placebo to take on their own at home and were scheduled to return to the hospital the next day. At the hospital, women were given 400 micrograms buccal misoprostol every 3 hours, up to five doses, until both the fetus and placenta were expelled. Efficacy was evaluated 15 hours after misoprostol dosing began and the procedure was considered complete if uterine evacuation was achieved without recourse to surgical evacuation. Pretreatment with mifepristone resulted in more than twice the chance of complete uterine evacuation in 15 hours (79.8% compared with 36.9%, relative risk 2.16, 95% confidence interval 1.70-2.75). The mean induction-to-abortion interval for complete uterine evacuations was statistically significantly shorter among participants pretreated with mifepristone compared with those given misoprostol alone (8.1, standard deviation 2.8, range 2.5-14.8; and 10.6, standard deviation 2.5, range 6.5-15.5 hours, respectively; P<.001). The side-effect profiles for the two regimens did not differ significantly and acceptability of the treatments was high. Mifepristone-misoprostol is more efficacious and faster than misoprostol alone. Services offering home administration of mifepristone as pretreatment could optimize efficacy and acceptability of medical abortions for women with gestations 14-21 weeks since the last menstrual period. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00784186. I.

  14. The abortion culture issue in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a large number of abortions in our country was first pointed out as far back as 1935 at the 17th Congress of Yugoslav Physicians. The abortion problem in Serbia is still present today, even though modern science has provided new methods and means which are a logical solution to the dilemma on birth control methods from the health and social aspect. Namely, total abortion rate in Serbia was estimated at 2.76 in the year 2007. It is very high; double the number of the total fertility rate and among the highest in Europe and the world. The term abortion culture was first used, as far as we know, by Henry David in the introduction of the book From Abortion to Contraception - A Resource to Public Policies and Reproductive Behavior in Central and Eastern Europe from 1917 to the Present in 1999, without specifically determining it. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important factors of the deterministic basis of endemic induced abortions in Serbia together with indirectly estimating their connection with the existence, namely nonexistence, of the abortion culture in our country. In that sense, potential factors of abortion incidence in Serbia which emerge from the social system and those connected to the individual level have been considered. In other words, a series of laws and other legal and political documents have been analyzed which are significant for perceiving the abortion matter, as well as institutional frameworks for family planning, health services, educating the youth regarding reproductive health, including findings of numerous researches carried out among women of various age and doctors from 1990 till present day in Serbia. The following most significant factors for the long duration of the abortion problem have been singled out: insufficient knowledge of modern contraception, a belief that modern contraceptive methods are harmful to health and a number of psychological barriers as well as those arising from

  15. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  16. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-03-01

    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  17. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct.

  18. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  19. An overview of medical abortion for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Amy G; Regan, Elizabeth; Stuart, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is a safe, convenient, and effective method for terminating an early unintended pregnancy. Medical abortion can be performed up to 63 days from the last menstrual period and may even be used up to 70 days for women who prefer medical abortion over surgical abortion. Counseling on the adverse effects and expectations for medical abortion is critical to success. Medical abortion can be performed in a clinic without special equipment, and it is perceived as more "natural" than a surgical abortion by many women. Follow-up for medical abortion can be simplified to include only serum human chorionic gonadotropin measurements when necessary, although obtaining an ultrasound remains the criterion standard. Pain associated with medical abortion is best treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, possibly in combination with opioid analgesics. Medical abortion can contribute to continuity of care for women who wish to remain with their primary care providers for management of their abortion.

  20. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  1. Effectiveness of the misoprostol for the abortion in the first trimester of the pregnancy in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Práxedes Rojas Quintana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synthetic prostaglandin PGE1 known ad misoprostol is an analog of the E prostaglandin. In the gynecological field it is used for the cervix uterine maturation and in this way it provokes modifications which favor the fast expel of the product of conception in the first trimester of pregnancy. Objectives: to show the effectiveness of misoprostol for medicamentous abortion in the first trimester of adolescents´ pregnancy. Methods: a descriptive, series cases, prospective study which included 763 adolescents in Cienfuegos province from August 2005 to June 2007. Adolescents with their parents' consent asked the doctors for the interruption of their pregnancy status using misoprostol as medicamentous abortion. For the performance of this method, a methodological instrumentation guide created by the Public Health Minister for the usage of misoprostol in vaginal pathway for the abortion induction was used. Results: The expelling of the fetus was successful in 93, 4 % of the adolescents, 66% of them were in their 8 weeks of gestation, 89 % were nulliparae, and 2, 6 were multiparae. The most frequent symptoms produced for this method were bleeding (42%, and pain (38, 4%. Conclusions: the usage of misoprostol was effective for the interruption of pregnancy in the first trimester in adolescents.

  2. Aborter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria; Warburg, Margit

    2008-01-01

    Mens nogle hospitaler nedgraver aborterede fostre på kirkegården, bortskaffer andre dem som vævsaffald. Tvetydig lovgivning er årsagen. Udgivelsesdato: 15. oktober......Mens nogle hospitaler nedgraver aborterede fostre på kirkegården, bortskaffer andre dem som vævsaffald. Tvetydig lovgivning er årsagen. Udgivelsesdato: 15. oktober...

  3. Comprehensive analysis on 486 fetuses with abnormal chromosomal karyotypes%486例异常胎儿染色体核型综合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春荣

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对产前彩超检查出的异常胎儿进行脐血染色体分析,了解胎儿异常与染色体异常的关系.方法:选择2006年1月~2010年1月在临沂市沂水中心医院产前检查的孕妇,行彩超检查出异常胎儿行引产或分娩,引产前或分娩后抽羊水和脐带血行染色体检查,在显微镜下观察染色体的结构和数量.共486例培养成功,记录染色体异常胎儿的发病时间.结果:486例异常胎儿共查出染色体异常65例,39例数目异常,26例结构异常.65例中21-三体占多数,胎儿染色体异常的发生率与孕妇年龄呈正相关.B超显示轻度畸形,染色体检查确认为21-三体.结论:随着孕妇年龄的增长,胎儿异常及胎儿染色体异常发生率逐渐增加.判定胎儿畸形与染色体异常是否有联系时,畸形的数量、类别、严重程度,胎儿能被超声检查出的时间是重要的参考依据.当临床上B超显示轻度畸形应采集脐血检查排除21-三体.%Objective: To understand the relationship between fetal abnormality and chromosomal abnormality by conducting chromosomal analysis of umbilical cord blood in abnormal fetuses found by prenatal ultrasonography. Methods: The pregnant women who received prenatal examination in the hospital from January 2006 to January 2010 were selected, then the abnormal fetuses detected by color ultrasonography underwent induced abortion or delivery, amniotic fluid samples and umbilical cord samples were obtained before induced abortion or after delivery for chromosomal examination, chromosomal structure and number were observed under microscope. A total of 486 cases were cultured successfully, the onset times of fetuses with chromosomal abnormality was recorded. Results; Among 486 abnormal fetuses, 65 fetuses were found with chromosomal abnormality, including 39 fetuses with chromosomal numerical abnormality and 26 fetuses with chromosomal structural abnormality. The fetuses with trisomy 21 were in the

  4. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Adelaja Lamina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  5. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  6. Pituitary gland and sella turcica in human trisomy 18 fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, I; Keeling, J W; Reintoft, I; Hjalgrim, H; Nolting, D; Fischer Hansen, B

    1998-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the phenotypic conditions in the sella turcica/pituitary gland complex in human trisomy 18 fetuses. Fourteen human fetuses with gestational ages from 12 to 39 weeks were included in the study. Normal fetuses at corresponding ages were used as controls. Whole body and special radiographic examination was undertaken before the midsagittal cranial base block, including the pituitary gland, was excised and analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically (keratin wide spectrum [KWS], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and neurophysin [Nph]). In all trisomy 18 fetuses, TSH-positive adenopituitary tissue was present in the sella and in greater or lesser amounts pharyngeally. The neurohypophysis was Nph-positive and located normally in the sella turcica. The adenohypophyseal tissue reacted either KWS-faint or KWS-negative, whereas KWS-positive reaction occurs in normal fetuses. This circumstance might suggest an altered cytoskeletal structure of the surface ectoderm in the pituitary placode in trisomy 18. The sella turcica was malformed in all the fetuses. Very broad craniopharyngeal canals were observed in some of the fetuses. Because endocrine disorders occur in many congenital malformations, it is essential in future studies to chart the sella turcica/pituitary gland region systematically in different genotypes.

  7. Post-abortion and induced abortion services in two public hospitals in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2014-07-01

    Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Euthanasia of mouse fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaunberg, Brenda A; O'malley, James; Clark, Terri; Davis, Judith A

    2004-09-01

    We sought to determine whether any of the common methods of euthanasia for adult rodents would lead to an acceptable death for fetuses or neonates. We wanted to identify a method that was rapid, free of signs of pain or distress, reliable, and minimally distressful to the person performing the procedure and that minimized the amount of handling required to perform the procedure. We evaluated six methods of euthanasia, with and without anesthesia, in three age groups of mice: gravid mice (E14-20) and neonatal pups (P1-P7 and P8-P14). Euthanasia methods included: halothane inhalation, carbon dioxide inhalation, intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital, intravenous potassium chloride, and cervical dislocation with and without anesthesia. Noninvasive echocardiography was used to assess heartbeat during euthanasia. With cardiac arrest as the definition of death, no method of euthanasia killed fetal mice. Halothane inhalation (5% by vaporizer) was not an acceptable method of euthanasia for mice of the age groups tested. Intraperitoneal administration of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia required a higher dose than the previously established dose, and there is a risk of reduced efficacy in pregnant animals due to potential intrauterine injection. Carbon dioxide asphyxiation was the most efficient method of euthanasia for neonatal mouse pups P1-14. For pregnant adult mice, intravenous potassium chloride under anesthesia, carbon dioxide asphyxiation, and cervical dislocation alone or under anesthesia were excellent methods of euthanasia. Copyright 2004 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  9. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  10. Abortion care for adolescent and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Regina-Maria; de Guzman, Anna; Brahmi, Dalia

    2014-07-01

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents (10-19years) and young women (20-24years) is a global public health problem. Adolescents face challenges in accessing safe abortion care. To determine, via a systematic data review, whether abortion care for adolescent and young women differs clinically from that for older women. In a comprehensive data review, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and POPLINE databases were searched from the earliest data entered until November 2012. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing effectiveness, safety, acceptability, and long-term sequelae of abortion care between adolescent/young women and older women were identified. Two reviewers independently extracted data, and the Cochrane guidelines and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used for quality assessment. In total, there were 25 studies including 346 000 women undergoing first- and second-trimester medical abortion, vacuum aspiration, or dilation and evacuation. Effectiveness and overall complications were similar among age groups. However, younger women had an increased risk for cervical laceration and a decreased risk of uterine perforation and mortality. Satisfaction and long-term depression were similar between age groups. Except for less uptake of intrauterine devices among adolescents, age did not affect post-abortion contraception. Evidence from various healthcare systems indicates that abortion is safe and efficacious among adolescent and young women. Clinical services should promote access to safe abortion for adolescents. © 2013.

  11. A measured response: Koop on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, C E

    1989-01-01

    The available scientific literature on the health effects of abortion on women in the US neither supports nor refutes the premise that abortion contributes to psychological problems. The 250 studies that have considered the psychological aspects of abortion are all flawed methodologically. Needed to resolve this issue is a prospective study of a cohort of US women of childbearing age focused on the psychological effects of failure to conceive, as well as the physical and mental sequelae of pregnancy whether carried to delivery, miscarried, or terminated by abortion. The most desirable such study could be conducted for about US$100 million over a 5-year period; a less expensive yet satisfactory study could be conducted for $10 million over the same time frame. Before such a study can be undertaken, a survey instrument must be designed to eliminate the discrepancy between the number of abortions on record and the number of women who admit to having an abortion on survey. Another issue is that the health effects of abortion cannot easily be separated from the controversial social issues surrounding pregnancy termination.

  12. [Medical and social implications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, A; Capra, G

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the evolution of human society the problem or idea of interrupting a pregnancy has been faced many times. Romania has adopted a mixed solution to the termination of pregnancy allowing abortions for medical, eugenic, and social reasons. The 1936 penal code allowed only medical abortion, but recent regulations have offered differing solutions. The old regulation not allowing termination of pregnancy or restricting it was in force with minor modifications until 1957. In 1966 a decree was issued that allowed women with 4 children an abortion for special reasons as determined by an abortion committee, but still therapeutic and strictly medical causes predominated. In 1985 a new regulation of medical law prohibited termination of normal pregnancy up to 28 weeks of gestation and infractions were punishable by law. Illegal induced abortion represents an antisocial manifestation that jeopardizes human relationships in society. Induced abortion occurs often in disintegrated family situations. The social implications of the phenomenon of birth are manyfold. Medical intervention is difficult because of the mutilating effect of abortion. The motives are a matter of reflection for physicians and jurists alike.

  13. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  14. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  15. Acardiac Parabiotic Fetus: A Rare Complication of Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acardiac parabiotic fetus is sequelae of complication of monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy also known as Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence (TRAP. It is rare affecting 1 in 35,000 births and 1 % of monozygotic twins. Acardiac parabiotic twin commonly known as parasite occurs rarely and may lead to high output cardiac failure, hydrops or premature delivery in the pump fetus. In this report, we present a 23 years old primigravida with twin pregnancy, with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with one of the twins being acardiac anceps and the other normal pump fetus. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore rarely documented.

  16. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  17. Feelings of Well-Being Before and After an Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Examined feelings of well-being in 217 women who had abortions. Results suggest that, compared to women who have not had abortions, those who choose abortion feel more negatively. Of women choosing abortion, those who are already mothers are most likely to be depressed and lonely, followed by those from lower educational and socioeconomic…

  18. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  19. Does abortion reduce self-esteem and life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M A; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Steinberg, Julia R; Foster, Diana G

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of obtaining an abortion versus being denied an abortion on self-esteem and life satisfaction. We present the first 2.5 years of a 5-year longitudinal telephone-interview study that follows 956 women who sought an abortion from 30 facilities across the USA. We examine the self-esteem and life satisfaction trajectories of women who sought and received abortions just under the facility's gestational age limit, of women who sought and received abortions in their first trimester of pregnancy, and of women who sought abortions just beyond the facility gestational limit and were denied an abortion. We use adjusted mixed effects linear regression analyses to assess whether the trajectories of women who sought and obtained an abortion differ from those who were denied one. Women denied an abortion initially reported lower self-esteem and life satisfaction than women who sought and obtained an abortion. For all study groups, except those who obtained first trimester abortions, self-esteem and life satisfaction improved over time. The initially lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction among women denied an abortion improved more rapidly reaching similar levels as those obtaining abortions at 6 months to one year after abortion seeking. For women obtaining first trimester abortions, initially higher levels of life satisfaction remained steady over time. There is no evidence that abortion harms women's self-esteem or life satisfaction in the short term.

  20. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  1. Contraception and induced abortion in the West Indies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, A A; de Bruijn, J G M

    2011-10-01

    Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion, prevalence, methods and juridical aspects of induced abortion and prevention policies. Articles were obtained from PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychlNFO and Soclndex (1999 to 2010) using as keywords contraception, induced abortion, termination of pregnancy, medical abortion and West Indies. Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 18 on contraception, 17 on induced abortion and two on both subjects. Main results indicated that healthcare providers' knowledge of emergency contraception was low. Studies showed a poor knowledge of contraception, but counselling increased its effective use. Exact numbers about prevalence of abortion were not found. The total annual number of abortions in the West Indies is estimated at 300 000; one in four pregnancies ends in an abortion. The use of misoprostol diminished the complications of unsafe abortions. Legislation of abortion varies widely in the different islands in the West Indies: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe and St Martin have legal abortions. Barbados was the first English-speaking island with liberal legislation on abortion. All other islands have restrictive laws. Despite high estimated numbers of abortion, research on prevalence of abortion is missing. Studies showed a poor knowledge of contraception and low use among adolescents. Most West Indian islands have restrictive laws on abortion.

  2. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  3. The Fate of Motherhood, Fetuses and Neonates in Drug Addicted Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction causes many complications for mother and fetus. Preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, prenatal mortality, placental abruption, preeclampsia, PROM, cesarean delivery and congenital anomalies among the newborns of addicted mothers are increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the final of maternal, fetal and neonatal of drugs addicted pregnant women. Methods: The study is a Cross-Sectional study was done on 236 pregnant women 19-40 years old addicted to drugs and 236 pregnant women non-addicted that referred for delivery to maternity hospitals of Imam Reza(as and Imam Sajjad(as during 2008-2010. Measuring instruments were: observing and checklist includes various sections were related on the aims. Data Analysis was done using SPSS. After ensuring that these values followed the normal distribution, chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare qualitative variables of two groups and for quantitative variables T test was used. Confidence coefficient of 95% was considered. Results: The results showed complication such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, neonatal death in the first three days of birth, weight loss, low circumference head size among infants were born of mothers addicted compared with the control group had shown significant increase. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes serious complications for mother, fetus and newborn.

  4. USA aborts international family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1996-03-02

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  5. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  6. Psychosocial correlates of delayed decisions to abort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, M B; Kasl, S V

    1976-01-01

    Two samples of women aborting in New York and Connecticut during 1972 and 1973 were studied. In all, six hundred and fifty eight women about to undergo first and second trimester procedures completed a self-administered questionnaire. Items include: demographic, psychosocial and personality parameters, and a detailed review of the decision process leading to abortion. Analyses of the correlates of delay are organized around four components: acknowledgment of pregnancy; seeing a physician ; deciding to abort; and locating a clinic. Other analyses focus on the role of decisional conflict in delay. Methodological issues, implications for educational practice and for theory of decision-making are discussed.

  7. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available.

  8. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women.

  9. Aborto. Responsabilidad compartida/Abortion. Shared responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernesto Betancourt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The father and the mother are involved in the act of procreation, therefore in abortion should also be considered is the father figure in some way and not let you load psychological, emotional and physical exclusively women. Similarly, when she decides to have an abortion he is not observed or questioned integral form to family and society to which she belongs, in short, the stigmatization affects only to the woman in question when there are several actors and circumstances that come into the Act of abortion.

  10. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  11. Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Singh, Susheela; Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth; Henshaw, Stanley K; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2012-02-18

    Data of abortion incidence and trends are needed to monitor progress toward improvement of maternal health and access to family planning. To date, estimates of safe and unsafe abortion worldwide have only been made for 1995 and 2003. We used the standard WHO definition of unsafe abortions. Safe abortion estimates were based largely on official statistics and nationally representative surveys. Unsafe abortion estimates were based primarily on information from published studies, hospital records, and surveys of women. We used additional sources and systematic approaches to make corrections and projections as needed where data were misreported, incomplete, or from earlier years. We assessed trends in abortion incidence using rates developed for 1995, 2003, and 2008 with the same methodology. We used linear regression models to explore the association of the legal status of abortion with the abortion rate across subregions of the world in 2008. The global abortion rate was stable between 2003 and 2008, with rates of 29 and 28 abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years, respectively, following a period of decline from 35 abortions per 1000 women in 1995. The average annual percent change in the rate was nearly 2·4% between 1995 and 2003 and 0·3% between 2003 and 2008. Worldwide, 49% of abortions were unsafe in 2008, compared to 44% in 1995. About one in five pregnancies ended in abortion in 2008. The abortion rate was lower in subregions where more women live under liberal abortion laws (pabortion rate observed earlier has stalled, and the proportion of all abortions that are unsafe has increased. Restrictive abortion laws are not associated with lower abortion rates. Measures to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, including investments in family planning services and safe abortion care, are crucial steps toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals. UK Department for International Development, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and

  12. Second trimester medical abortion – perceptions and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Inga-Maj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Second-trimester abortions account for 10 - 15 % of all induced abortions worldwide with a wide variation of permits in different countries. In Sweden, second-trimester abortions account for less than 10 % of the total number of induced abortions. The indication can be fetal or socioeconomic. The medical abortion regimen with mifepristone and misoprostol, is the regimen used in Sweden. The treatment with misoprostol often causes painful contractions, and prophylactic as we...

  13. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nai-peng Tey; Siew-yong Yew; Wah-yun Low; Lela Su'ut; Prachi Renjhen; Huang, M. S. L.; Wen-ting Tong; Siow-li Lai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowled...

  14. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided in

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with anencephaly and thumb agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Cataliotti, Antonella; Indaco, Lara; Pappalardo, Elisa; Barrano, Barbara; Ettore, Giuseppe; Bianca, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    Severe anomalies of the forebrain together with reduction limb anomalies are a rare congenital anomalies association. We report a prenatal diagnosis of acalvaria, anencephaly and thumb agenesis in a voluntary terminated fetus and discuss the role of genetic counseling.

  16. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  18. Twin Fetuses Papyraeci in a Spontaneous Triplet Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [2,3] The incidence of two ... taking place at home[6] the true incidence of fetus papyraceous ... anemia.[12,13] The index case presented with premature contractions before the age ... to neurological complications, cerebral palsy, renal failure,.

  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Scientific databases, models, datasets & repositories ... Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip sharing on social media links Share this: NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  1. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  2. Abortion choices among women in Cambodia after introduction of a socially marketed medicated abortion product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Therapeutic abortion in California. Effects of septic abortion and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G K; Goldstein, P J

    1971-04-01

    The impact of the reformed California abortion law, passed in November 1967, is investigated. The law allows interruption of pregnancy in the presence of substantial risk of grave impairment to the mental or physical health of the mother. Septic abortions (complete or incomplete abortion in a patient whose gestation is less than 20 weeks; duration and whose temperature is greater than 100.4 degrees F for more than 4 hours) per 1000 deliveries at San Francisco General Hospital fell from 69 in 1967 to 22 in 1969. The total number of abortions rose from less than 100 per 1000 births in 1968 to more than 250 in 1969. Maternal deaths due to abortion decreased in California per 100,000 live births from 8 to 5 to 3 in 1967, 1968, and 1969. Maternal deaths due to other causes remained relatively fixed in incidence. Maternal deaths have decreased much more markedly in the San Francisco Bay area, where many more therapeutic abortions have been performed, than in the Los Angeles Area, where relatively few therapeutic abortions have been performed. The decrease in septic abortion seems to represent a trend toward decrease in the number of illegal abortions.

  4. A comparison of women with induced abortion, spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Creanga, Andreea A; Danso, Kwabena A; Adanu, Richard M K; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Hindin, Michelle J

    2011-07-01

    Despite having one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, complications from induced abortion are the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Ghana. The sample is composed of patients with pregnancy termination complications in Ghana between June and July 2008. The majority of patients report having had a spontaneous abortion (75%; n=439), while 17% (n=100) and 8% (n=46) report having had an induced abortion or an ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Factors associated with women in each of the three groups were explored using multinomial logistic regression. When compared to women with spontaneous abortions, women with induced abortions were younger, poorer, more likely to report no religious affiliation, less likely to be married, more likely to report making the household decisions and more likely to fail to disclose this pregnancy to their partners. Within the induced abortion subsample, failure to disclose the most recent pregnancy was associated with already having children and autonomous household decision making. Identifying the individual and relationship characteristics of induced abortion patients is the first step toward targeted policies and programs aimed at reducing unsafe abortion in Ghana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  6. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-03-01

    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  7. Obstetric performance following an induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowit, Alison; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been legalised in most of the Western world for the past four decades. In areas where abortion practices are legal and easy to access, the risk of short-term complications is very low. As most women requesting induced abortion (IA) are young, potential adverse effects on subsequent reproductive function are important to them. This review investigates obstetric performance following IA and highlights methodological problems associated with research in this area. Some data suggest that IA may be linked with an increased risk of low birth weight, miscarriage and placenta previa but could be protective for pre-eclampsia. Current evidence also suggests an association between IA and pre-term birth. Large prospective cohort studies, which permit meaningful subgroup analyses, are needed to provide definitive answers on outcomes following alternative methods of IA and the impact of gestational age at abortion on future obstetric outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thatcher condemns attacks on abortion mp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-19

    The Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, has stepped in to condemn a series of violent attacks on Liberal MP David Alton who is trying to reduce the [Illegible word] limit on abortions from 28 to 18 weeks.

  9. ABORTION AT GONDAR COLLEGE HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-05-01

    May 1, 2001 ... policy and decision makers. INTRODUCTION ... deaths were consequences of unsafe abortion(5). About ... Gondar that enjoys a zonal population of 192,337 people. ..... this reproductive health issue which mainly affects the.

  10. Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among Adolescents in Africa. ... including the provision of appropriate sexuality education and information as well as supportive services to allow adolescents to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  11. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion.

  12. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe, over 4 000 patients undergo evacuation for ... 50% of the emergency gynaecological workload. Most patients ... Optimal surgical treatment of incomplete abortion requires a ... Analgesia was provided by intravenous pethidine. (50 ...

  13. [Some signs of women applying for abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonová, D; Fait, T; Weiss, P

    2010-05-01

    To discover the motivation of women for abortion. Prospective questionary study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Faculty of Medicine Charles University and General Faculty Hospital Prague. Special questionnaire centered on the social situation, sexual behavior, knowledge about contraception and the use of contraception, and a motivation for abortion was given to one hundred women attending our clinic for abortion for non-medical reasons. Results were discussed in comparison with population survey data. Although education and acces to modern contraceptive methods have induced the great progress in the area of family planning, abortion is still an important psychosocial problem. In our sample an earlier start of sexual intercourse, higher number of sexual partners, and substantialy lower number of hormonal contraception users were found.

  14. Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an undue burden on women seeking access to abortion care in Texas," said researcher Dr. Daniel Grossman. Grossman is an investigator with the Texas Policy Evaluation Project, which studies the impact of state legislation affecting women's reproductive health. He's ...

  15. When legalising abortion isn’t enough

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    LSE’s Ernestina Coast is the Principal Investigator on a new research project in Zambia that seeks to establish how investment in abortion services impacts the socio-economic conditions of women and their households.\\ud \\ud

  16. Evaluation of 2407 fetuses in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylaner, Gülay; Ceylaner, Serdar; Günyeli, Ilker; Ekici, Eyüp; Celasun, Bülent; Danişman, Nuri

    2007-09-01

    Congenital anomalies and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are frequent problems in pregnancies. Detection of the etiology is important for genetic counseling, and presenting the geographic distribution of the causes of disorders is necessary for a national policy on precautions. Here, we report the findings of terminated fetuses due to IUFD and congenital anomalies in Turkish population. Physical examinations of fetuses and genetic evaluations of families were done. X-ray studies and autopsy were done in the event of necessity. Findings of these studies were combined with prenatal ultrasound results. All cases were classified according to ICD-10. The number of fetuses examined was 2407. Out of these, 1268 fetuses had congenital anomalies. Neurologic anomalies and musculoskeletal system malformations were the most frequent disorders. Specific diagnoses were possible in 64% of all multiple malformation syndromes. Abnormal findings were detected in 18.8% of IUFD fetuses. Nine percent had congenital anomalies and 5.2% had cord complications. The percentage of twins and triplets was 7.5% and 13% of them had anomalies. Postmortem evaluation is useful to detect findings necessary for genetic counseling. Our protocol is effective especially in fetuses with congenital anomalies but it can detect only some of the fetal reasons in IUFD cases. A more detailed protocol is needed to investigate IUFD cases. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  17. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhl, S; Casson, N.; Kaiser, C.; Thoma, R; Pospischil, A.; Greub, G; Borel, N.

    2008-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on new possible abortigenic agents such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. Retrospective samples (n = 235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae, rachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were furth...

  19. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴培

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt

  20. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.

  1. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-van Bloois, van der Linda; Duim, Birgitta; Miller, William G.; Forbes, Ken J.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Zomer, Aldert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft). Subspecies identification of mammal-associated C. fetus

  2. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336455798; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352; Miller, William G; Forbes, Ken J; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Zomer, Aldert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft). Subspecies identification of mammal-associated C. fetus

  3. Mifepristone-induced abortion and vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Gao, Er-sheng; Chen, Ai-min; Luo, Lin; Cheng, Yi-min; Yuan, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of first-trimester mifepristone-induced abortion on vaginal bleeding in subsequent pregnancy. This observational cohort study was conducted during 1998-2001 at antenatal clinics in Beijing, Chengdu, and Shanghai, China. The study enrolled 4,931 women with one previous mifepristone-induced abortion, 4,925 women with no history of induced abortion, and 4,800 women with one previous surgical abortion and followed them through pregnancy and childbirth. The rates of vaginal bleeding in pregnant women with a history of medical abortion, no abortion, and surgical abortion were 16.5%, 13.9%, and 17.3%, respectively. The women with medical abortion had a higher risk (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.29) of vaginal bleeding compared with those with no abortion but similar risk to prior surgical abortion. When the correlation between medical abortion and vaginal bleeding was examined by period, increased risk was observed only in the early period (abortion and no abortion showed that the observed risks increased particularly in those with abortion at gestational age ≤ 7 weeks (aRR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.49), those followed by a postabortion curettage (aRR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.84) or complications (aRR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.37). There was no difference between women with medical abortion and women with surgical abortion in the occurrence of vaginal bleeding for either period. One previous mifepristone-induced abortion increased the risk of vaginal bleeding in early gestation period of subsequent pregnancy compared with no abortion, especially if abortion occurred before 7 weeks of gestation and was followed by a curettage or complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  5. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  6. Origin and distribution of the thoracodorsal nerve in pig fetuses of the lineage Pen Ar Lan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleusa Marta Mendonça Tavares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the nerves that make up the brachial plexus, the aim was to study the origin and distribution of the thoracodorsal nerve. Thus, 30 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan obtained from natural abortions in breedings of the Triangulo Mineiro region were used. The specimens were prepared through the injection of 50% Neoprene Latex “450” and 10% formaldehyde solutions in the descending aorta artery, and immersion in the same solution for least 48 hours. The dissections were carried out bilaterally until reaching the brachial plexus, that emerged from the spinal ventral branches of the sixth (C6, seventh (C7 and eighth (C8 cervical nerves and from the first thoracic (T1. It was found that the thoracodorsal nerve was formed from C8 in two antimeres (3.33%; fromT1 in 17 antimeres (28.33%; and from C8 and T1 in 41 antimeres (68.33 and that there was symmetry with regard to its origin in 23 animals (76.66%. It was also found that the thoracodorsal nerve sent branches in 100% of cases for the latissimus dorsi muscle, and 36.66% for the teres major.

  7. Cross-cultural attitudes toward abortion--Greeks versus Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J; Marcos, Anastasios C

    2003-04-01

    Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there are three major differences between Greece and the United States. First, in Greece religiosity has a smaller impact on sexual liberalism, and sexual liberalism has a much weaker impact on both types of abortion attitudes, particularly social abortion attitudes. Second, in Greece religiosity is more strongly related to abortion attitudes than in the United States, particularly to social abortion attitudes. Third, education has a weaker influence in Greece than in the United States.

  8. Management of abortion complications at a rural hospital in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...

  9. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...... present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected and globally an estimated 66...

  10. Characteristics of private abortion services in Mexico City after legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Raffaela; Collado, Maria Elena; Troncoso, Erika; Soto Sánchez, José Ezequiel; Zorrilla, Gabriela Otero; Palermo, Tia

    2010-11-01

    In 2007, first trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City, and the public sector rapidly expanded its abortion services. In 2008, to obtain information on the effect of the law on private sector abortion services, we interviewed 135 physicians working in private clinics, located through an exhaustive search. A large majority of the clinics offered a range of reproductive health services, including abortions. Over 70% still used dilatation and curettage (D&C); less than a third offered vacuum aspiration or medical abortion. The average number of abortions per facility was only three per month; few reported more than 10 abortions monthly. More than 90% said they had been offering abortion services for less than 20 months. Many women are still accessing abortion services privately, despite the availability of free or low-cost services at public facilities. However, the continuing use of D&C, high fees (mean of $157-505), poor pain management practices, unnecessary use of ultrasound, general anaesthesia and overnight stays, indicate that private sector abortion services are expensive and far from optimal. Now that abortions are legal, these results highlight the need for private abortion providers to be trained in recommended abortion methods and quality of private abortion care improved. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Freedom of conscience, professional responsibility, and access to abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, R S

    1994-01-01

    The current shortage of US physicians willing to perform induced abortions has created a conflict between women's legal right to access to pregnancy termination and physicians' right to refuse participation in a procedure they regard as morally objectionable. According to a 1993 survey, 84% of US counties (housing 30% of women of reproductive age) had no abortion provider. This situation has been exacerbated by a trend to isolate abortion from other medical procedures; in 1992, only 12% of residency programs in obstetrics and gynecology routinely offered training on first-trimester abortion. Also contributing to physician reluctance to become abortion providers have been the violence, death threats, property damage, and harassment of abortion seekers perpetrated by anti-abortion groups. To ameliorate the abortion access crisis, without intruding on the religious convictions of individual physicians, there must be greater collaboration between professional and community groups. Local community officials and pro-choice supporters are urged to use their influence to protect abortion providers from harassment. Professional organizations should provide both symbolic and practical support, e.g. increased status and remuneration, to physicians who commit to the hardship of abortion provision. Older physicians, most aware of the threat to women's health posed by any erosion of abortion rights, should educate their younger colleagues about the importance of safe abortion. Finally, training on abortion techniques should be integrated into the medical school curriculum and rotations should be established at local abortion clinics.

  12. Criminal Law Judgment on Conducts Causing Injuries or Death to the Fetus%致胎儿死伤的刑法评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪兵

    2012-01-01

    国内关于胎儿性致死伤的讨论,往往忽略中外刑法在是否规定堕胎罪问题上的明显差异性;自愿堕胎可谓一种自伤行为不构成犯罪,计生部门依法强制堕胎因存在违法性阻却事由而不构成犯罪;凡是违背孕妇意愿伤害胎儿(未导致孕妇死亡),致胎儿在母体内死亡的,或者在母体内受到重大伤害但经过治疗而没有留下后遗症的,以及在母体内受到严重伤害留下后遗症以致出生后不久死亡或者形成严重残疾的,都是对母体健康生育机能的侵害,故意为之的构成故意伤害罪,过失为之的构成过失致人重伤罪。%In our country, discussions on conducts causing injuries or death to the fetus often neglect the apparent differences that whether abortion is forbidden by criminal laws in different countries. This paper holds that in our country, voluntary abortion is no crime but self - injury. Compulsory abortion which is required by the family planning department is a justifiable defense for illegal violation of criminal law. However, those who, against the pregnant woman' s will cause injuries to the fetus and lead to its death within the womb of the pregnant woman ( without causing the woman' s death) ; or cause severe injury to the fetus within the pregnant woman' s womb but leave no sequela upon treatment; or cause severe injury to the fetus within the pregnant woman's womb and the sequel result in death soon after being born or severe disability, shall constitute the crime of intentional injury or the crime of negligent injury causing severe harm, since such conducts have damaged the healthy fertility of a pregnant woman.

  13. Medication abortion in missed abortion up to 13 weeks amenorrhoea: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya R. Prasad

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Medication abortion is a safe and effective method for the termination of missed abortion up to 13 weeks of pregnancy with fewer complications thus reducing the need for surgical methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 3840-3842

  14. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  15. Induced abortion and relevant factors among women seeking abortion in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Tian, Linwei; Xu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the sociological characteristics of abortion seekers according to marital status and previous induced abortions in a major regional hospital in Nanjing, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire in women seeking abortion at Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in China in 2003. The average age of the participants was 26.0 ± 4.5 years. Of the 462 abortion seekers, 95.9% had one previous induced abortion. The majority (49.6%) of the ever-married women were in the age group of 25-29 while the majority (76.9%) of the unmarried women were aged 20-24 years. Unprotected intercourse (53.6%) and contraception failure (43.9%) were the primary reasons given for the current induced abortion for ever-married women. Unmarried women terminated their current pregnancies mainly because they did not want children (62.1%). Of the 182 unmarried subjects, 86.8% had psychological problems in their premarital pregnancy. Education and communication about sexual morality, contraception and reproductive health, as well as post-abortion counseling and services, especially for young women, are needed to reduce the rate of induced abortions. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  17. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Ethiopia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Fetters, Tamara; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Abdella, Ahmed; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Kumbi, Solomon; Audam, Suzette

    2010-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is an important health problem in Ethiopia; however, no national quantitative study of abortion incidence exists. In 2005, the penal code was revised to broaden the indications under which induced abortion is legal. It is important to measure the incidence of legal and illegal induced abortion after the change in the law. A nationally representative survey of a sample of 347 health facilities that provide postabortion or safe abortion services and a survey of 80 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision were conducted in Ethiopia in 2007-2008. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to calculate the incidence of induced abortion. Abortion rates, abortion ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for the nation and for major regions. In 2008, an estimated 382,000 induced abortions were performed in Ethiopia, and 52,600 women were treated for complications of such abortions. There were an estimated 103,000 legal procedures in health facilities nationwide--27% of all abortions. Nationally, the annual abortion rate was 23 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, and the abortion ratio was 13 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in Addis Ababa (49 per 1,000 women) was twice the national level. Overall, about 42% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 101 per 1,000 women. Unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women in Ethiopia. To reduce rates of unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increased access to high-quality contraceptive care and safe abortion services is needed.

  18. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-peng Tey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  19. Abortion incidence and service availability in the United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2014-03-01

    Following a long-term decline, abortion incidence stabilized between 2005 and 2008. Given the proliferation of state-level abortion restrictions, it is critical to assess abortion incidence and access to services since that time. In 2012-2013, all facilities known or expected to have provided abortion services in 2010 and 2011 were surveyed. Data on the number of abortions were combined with population data to estimate national and state-level abortion rates. Incidence of abortions was assessed by provider type and caseload. Information on state abortion regulations implemented between 2008 and 2011 was collected, and possible relationships with abortion rates and provider numbers were considered. In 2011, an estimated 1.1 million abortions were performed in the United States; the abortion rate was 16.9 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, representing a drop of 13% since 2008. The number of abortion providers declined 4%; the number of clinics dropped 1%. In 2011, 89% of counties had no clinics, and 38% of women of reproductive age lived in those counties. Early medication abortions accounted for a greater proportion of nonhospital abortions in 2011 (23%) than in 2008 (17%). Of the 106 new abortion restrictions implemented during the study period, few or none appeared to be related to state-level patterns in abortion rates or number of providers. The national abortion rate has resumed its decline, and no evidence was found that the overall drop in abortion incidence was related to the decrease in providers or to restrictions implemented between 2008 and 2011. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  20. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  1. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion education: Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su'ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M S L; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.

  2. Etiologic diagnosis of bovine infectious abortion by PCR Diagnóstico etiológico de aborto infeccioso bovino por PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teane Milagres Augusto da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious abortion is a significant cause of reproductive failure and economic losses in cattle. The goal of this study was to detect nucleic acids of several infectious agents known to cause abortion including Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum, and Tritrichomonas foetus. Tissue homogenates from 42 fetuses and paraffin-embedded tissues from 28 fetuses and 14 placentas/endometrium were included in this study. Brucella abortus was detected in 14.2% (12/84 of the samples. Salmonella sp. DNA was amplified from 2 fetuses, and there was one positive for Neospora caninum, and another for Listeria monocytogenes. This PCR-based approach resulted in identification of the etiology in 19% of samples, or 20% if considered fetal tissues only.Aborto infeccioso é uma causa significativa de falhas reprodutivas e perdas econômicas na bovinocultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar ácidos nucleicos de vários agentes infecciosos reconhecidos como causadores de aborto, incluindo-se Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Herpesvirus bovino tipo 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum e Tritrichomonas foetus. Homogenados de tecidos de 42 fetos e tecidos incluídos em parafina de 28 fetos e 14 placentas/endométrio foram incluídos neste estudo. Brucella abortus foi detectada em 14,2% (12/84 das amostras. DNA de Salmonella sp. foi amplificado de dois fetos e houve um feto positivo para Neospora caninum e outro para Listeria monocytogenes. Essa metodologia baseada em PCR resultou na identificação da etiologia em 19% das amostras ou 20% se considerados somente os tecidos fetais.

  3. [Role of ultrasound in elective abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylomanski, S; Winer, N

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound plays a fundamental role in the management of elective abortions. Although it can improve the quality of post-abortion care, it must not be an obstacle to abortion access. We thus studied the role of ultrasound in pregnancy dating and possible alternatives and analyzed the literature to determine the role of ultrasound in post-abortion follow-up. During an ultrasound scan, the date of conception is estimated by measurement of the crown-rump length (CRL), defined by Robinson, or of the biparietal diameter (BPD), as defined by the French Center for Fetal Ultrasound (CFEF) after 11 weeks of gestation (Robinson and CFEF curves) (grade B). Updated curves have been developed in the INTERGROWTH study. In the context of abortion, the literature recommends the application of a safety margin of 5 days, especially when the CRL and/or BPD measurement indicates a term close to 14 weeks (that is equal or below 80 and 27mm, respectively) (best practice agreement). Accordingly, with the ultrasound measurement reliable to±5 days when its performance meets the relevant criteria, an abortion can take place when the CRL measurement is less than 90mm or the BPD less than 30mm (INTERGROWTH curves) (best practice agreement). While a dating ultrasound should be encouraged, its absence is not an obstacle to scheduling an abortion for women who report that they know the date of their last menstrual period and/or of the at-risk sexual relations and for whom a clinical examination by a healthcare professional is possible (best practice agreement). In cases of intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability or of a pregnancy of unknown location, without any particular symptoms, the patient must be able to have a transvaginal ultrasound to increase the precision of the diagnosis (grade B). Various reviews of the literature on post-abortion follow-up indicate that the routine use of ultrasound during instrumental abortions should be avoided (best practice agreement). If it becomes

  4. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  5. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamberlin Nina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1 a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2 complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it

  6. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care to

  7. Expanding medical abortion: can medical abortion be effectively provided without the routine use of ultrasound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Bliss; Edelman, Alison; Sneeringer, Robyn K; Ponce de Leon, Rodolfo Gomez

    2011-03-01

    Medical abortion studies have traditionally relied on ultrasound to confirm gestational age, intrauterine location and abortion completion. However, the routine dependence on ultrasound can limit access to safe services for women living in low resource settings that are often most in need of safe abortion care. This review discusses the literature surrounding the safe provision of medical abortion without the routine use of ultrasonography and concludes that clinicians can use the reported last menstrual period (LMP) and physical examination to reasonably estimate gestational age. Completed pregnancy expulsion can be confirmed primarily through history and physical examination with some studies indicating that urine pregnancy tests may also play a limited role. Central to the discussion of whether medical abortion can be provided in most low resource settings without the routine use of ultrasonography is the fact that the mifepristone-misoprostol regimen is a highly effective procedure for pregnancy termination through 63 days' gestation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Indberetning af provokerede aborter i 1994. En sammenligning mellem data i Registeret over Legalt Provokerede Aborter og Landspatientregistere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1997-01-01

    Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions...... in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact...... of the change in method of monitoring on trends in the national and regional abortion rate. The complete number of induced abortions was estimated to be the sum of the number recorded in both registers, cases recorded only in the Register of Induced Abortions, cases recorded only in the National Patient...

  9. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  10. Septic/unsafe abortion: a preventable tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ruqqia; Noor, Shehla; Fawwad, Ali; Abbasi, Nasreen; Bashir, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected problems of health care in developing countries like Pakistan. In countries where abortions are restricted women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have an unwanted pregnancy terminated. The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of septic induced abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality and to highlight the measures to reduce it. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Obs/Gyn B Unit, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2007 to December 2011. During this period all the patients presenting with pyrexia lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, acute abdomen, septic or hypovolaemic shock after undergoing some sort of intervention for abortion outside the hospital were included. After thorough history, examination and detailed investigations including high vaginal and endocervical swabs for culture and sensitivity and pelvic ultrasound supportive management was given followed by antibiotics, surgical evacuation of uterus/ major laparotomy in collaboration with surgeon as required. Patients with DIC or multiple system involvement were managed in High Dependency Unit (HDU) by multidisciplinary team. During the study period out of a total 6,906 admissions 968 presented with spontaneous abortion. There were 110 cases (11.36%) of unsafe abortion, 56.4% presented with vaginal discharge, 34.5% with vaginal bleeding, 21.8% with acute abdomen, while 18.9% in shock and 6.8% with DIC. Forty-nine percent patients used termination as a method of contraception. Mortality rate was 16.36%, leading cause being septicaemia. Death and severe morbidity from unsafe abortions and its complications is avoidable through health education, effective contraception, early informed recognition and management of the problem once it occurs.

  11. Early medical abortion without prior ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Bracken, Hillary

    2015-09-01

    To explore the potential for using last menstrual period (LMP) rather than ultrasound to establish gestational age (GA) eligibility for medical abortion. We used the results of a recently published systematic review to identify studies with data on the number of abortion patients with GA more than 63 or 70 days by ultrasound but less than those or other specific limits by LMP. We analyzed data from these studies to estimate the proportion of women with GAs greater than 63 or 70 days by ultrasound in various subgroups of women defined by LMP. We found three studies with relevant data. One enrolled 4257 medical abortion patients of whom 4% had GAs of >70 days by ultrasound. Of the 2681 who were certain that their LMPs began no more than 56 days prior, only 16 (0.6%) were >70 days by ultrasound. In a second much smaller study of surgical abortion patients, of whom 19% were >70 days by ultrasound, 90 women were certain that their LMPs started more than 56 days prior, and of those, 7 (7.8%) had GAs of >70 days by ultrasound. In the third study, which included surgical abortion patients with a mean GA of 61 days, at least 12% of the 138 patients with LMPs 70 days by ultrasound. The possibility that access to medical abortion can be enhanced for selected women by omitting the requirement for a screening ultrasound is promising and should be further investigated. Gestational dating using LMP rather than ultrasound may be reasonable for selected patients before medical abortion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Meanings of abortion in context: accounts of abortion in the lives of women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Apicella, Carmel; Graham, Jillian; Hickey, Martha; Hopper, John L; Keogh, Louise; Winship, Ingrid; Fisher, Jane

    2017-04-05

    A breast cancer diagnosis and an abortion can each be pivotal moments in a woman's life. Research on abortion and breast cancer deals predominantly with women diagnosed during pregnancy who might be advised to have an abortion. The other-discredited but persistent-association is that abortions cause breast cancer. The aim here was to understand some of the ways in which women themselves might experience the convergence of abortion and breast cancer. Among 50 women recruited from the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study and interviewed in depth about what it meant to have a breast cancer diagnosis before the age of 41, five spontaneously told of having or contemplating an abortion. The transcripts of these five women were analysed to identify what abortion meant in the context of breast cancer, studying each woman's account as an individual "case" and interpreting it within narrative theory. It was evident that each woman understood abortion as playing a different role in her life. One reported an abortion that she did not link to her cancer, the second was relieved not to have to abort a mid-treatment pregnancy, the third represented abortion as saving her life by making her cancer identifiable, the fourth grieved an abortion that had enabled her to begin chemotherapy, and the fifth believed that her cancer was caused by an earlier abortion. The women's accounts illustrate the different meanings of abortion in women's lives, with concomitant need for diverse support, advice, and information.

  14. - Factores relacionados con el aborto en yeguas (Related factors with the abortion in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2006-01-01

    torsión del cordón umbilical (entre los 6 y 9 meses de gestación, especialmente cuando éste mide más de 90 cm. En este caso; hay obstrucción de los vasos sanguíneos y el feto muere por anoxia. Las principales infecciones bacterianas que producen aborto son por Salmonella abortus equi, Leptospira spp., Enrlichia risticii y Streptococcus zooepidermicus. Algunos virus, como el de la artritis viral equina y el herpesvirus equino 1, son agentes causales de aborto en las yeguas. El aborto por hongos también es posible, principalmente debido a Aspergillus spp y algunos tipos de Cándida. El principal método para provocar un aborto es con la administración de PGF2a a las hembras preñadas, debido a la acción luteolítica que posee. Para evitar un aborto se pueden llevar a cabo ciertas medidas, por ejemplo, la administración de progesterona a aquellas yeguas con amenaza de aborto, evitar cubriciones dobles, mantener a las yeguas gestantes alejadas de animales ajenos al rebaño, vacunarlas periódicamente contra el herpesvirus equino y la artritis viral y mantenerlas alejadas de la humedad; además de mantener el nivel nutricional correcto y evitar el maltrato y los golpes. The abortion is the interruption of the gestation with expulsion of a non viable fetus that, in the case of the mares, it is the expulsion of the product before the day 290 of gestation. The signs that precede to an abortion are similar to those of a normal childbirth; however the intensity of these will depend on the time of the gestation, among more advanced she/he is the gestation, more intense they will be the signs. Many factors that predispose to the abortion exist. The abrupt cooling can give origin to an abortion when being stimulated the uterine contractions; also the ingestion of oxytocic plants (as the sorghum, the rye ergot, etc for the pregnant mare they can cause abortion. The reduced ingestion of foods or with deficiencies of certain substances, they cause abnormalities in uterine

  15. Re-visioning Ultrasound through Women’s Accounts of Pre-abortion Care in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has demonstrated the importance of sustained critical engagement with ultrasound visualizations of pregnant women’s bodies. In response to portrayals of these images as “objective” forms of knowledge about the fetus, it has drawn attention to the social practices through which the meanings of ultrasound are produced. This article makes a novel contribution to this project by addressing an empirical context that has been neglected in the existing feminist literature concerning ultrasound, namely, its use during pregnancies that women decide to terminate. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with women concerning their experiences of abortion in England, I explore how the meanings of having an ultrasound prior to terminating a pregnancy are discursively constructed. I argue that women’s accounts complicate dominant representations of ultrasound and that in so doing, they multiply the subject positions available to pregnant women. PMID:26435577

  16. ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE FETUS AS A PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Chervenak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and identify its implications for the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine.Methods: We describe secular medical ethics and its two fundamental principles, beneficence and respect for autonomy. We articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient on the basis of the ethical principle of beneficence.Results: In the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine guided by the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient, the perinatologist should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient. Directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is a patient. Non-directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is not a patient.Conclusion: Counseling pregnant women about the clinical management of their pregnancies should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient.

  17. Effect of Yangxue Antai Granule (养血安胎冲剂) in Prevention and Treatment of Abortion and Short Life T-Suppressor Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恩棠; 李玛建; 高爱平; 沙文萱; 金有慧; 涂序珉; 封江彬; 周藕良

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of T-suppressor cell activity on habitual abortion (HA) and to observe the regulatory effect of Yangxue Antai Granule (YXATG) on T-suppressor cell and its effect on fetus preservation. Methods: T-suppressor cell activities of 56 pregnant women with H A history were tested with method of short life T-suppressor cell activity (MTT method) during early pregnancy, and were followed-up in middle and late pregna ncy in 20 cases of them. All the 56 patients YXATG treatment. Groups of normal early pregnant, normal non-pregnant women and those non-pregnant but with history of habitual abortion were involv ed in this study as control. Results: T-suppressor cell activity in early pregnancy was lowe r than that of middle and late pregnancy (P<0.01, P<0.001) and also low er than that of the control groups (P<0.01, P<0.001). The successful rate of fetus preservation of YXATG was 98.2%, and 98.0% of the cases got normal delivery. Conclusion: Low T-suppressor cell activity might be the immunologic etiology of HA. The fetus preservative effect of YXATG might be due to its regulatory effect on T-suppressor cell activity.

  18. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  19. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2009-03-16

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  20. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  1. Abortion Law and Policy Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable—when it is available on the woman’s request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, advocates will need to study the political, health system, legal, juridical, and socio-cultural realities surrounding existing law and policy in their countries, and decide what kind of law they want (if any). The biggest challenge is to determine what is possible to achieve, build a critical mass of support, and work together with legal experts, parliamentarians, health professionals, and women themselves to change the law—so that everyone with an unwanted pregnancy who seeks an abortion can have it, as early as possible and as late as necessary. PMID:28630538

  2. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughna, S; Bennett, P; Gau, G; Nicolaides, K; Blunt, S; Moore, G

    1993-01-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8213811

  3. Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies.

  4. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The Ethics of Aborted Fetal Cells, Tissues and Organs Sharing in the Different Researches%流产胎儿细胞组织器官学科间共用的伦理问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹锡梅; 景雅; 王洪奇

    2011-01-01

    医学研究中仅用动物实验不能满足深层次的科研及临床治疗的需要.流产胎儿是重要的人源性样本之一,在医学研究中的应用为组织器官的发生发育和一些疾病的发病机制及临床治疗提供科学依据,有极高的科研价值.由于其来源有限,通过学科间共用流产胎儿细胞组织器官,缓解样本量不足的问题,却使传统伦理道德面临新困惑.%Animal experiments samples can not meet the need of the deep development of scientific research and clinical treatment in the medical research. Aborted fetus is one of the human body samples in the medical research. It would be great value in the studies of the development of organs and the pathogenesis of some diseases. However, aborted fetuses are limited in the real life. It can alleviate the problem of the insufficient sample by sharing the cells, tissues and organs of the same aborted fetus in the different researches, while the traditional medical ethics is facing an unprecedented confusion

  6. Autonomous adrenocorticotropin reaction to stress stimuli in human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinska-Kaczynska, Katarzyna; Bartkowiak, Robert; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether human fetuses show ACTH response to stress stimuli, to define the gestational age from which these reactions may be present and to analyze the relationship between hormone concentrations and their changes, both in fetuses and in pregnant women. The study included 81 intrauterine transfusions carried out in 19 pregnant women. 52 procedures were performed directly into the umbilical vein, which is not innervated, so neutral for the fetus (the PCI group) and 29 transfusions into the intrahepatic vein -which puncture is stressful for the fetus (the IHV group). ACTH and cortisol concentrations in fetal and maternal plasma obtained during the procedures were assayed. The initial mean plasma ACTH concentration in the PCI group equaled 18.94pg/mL, but in the IHV group it was significantly higher and amounted 75.17pg/mL (p0.05) and in the PCI group (22.36pg/mL, p>0.05). The observed hormonal response in the IHV group proves the existence of fetal pituitary reaction to stress. The initial fetal ACTH concentration in the IHV group correlated with the number of transfusions performed on a single fetus (R=0.41; p=0.04). No correlation with parity, gestational weeks or the volume of transfused packed red blood cells was found. There was also no correlation between fetal and maternal ACTH concentrations in any group. Presented data suggest that the human fetus shows autonomous ACTH reaction to stress stimulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000

  8. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  9. Physician opinions concerning legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn; Rochat, Roger; Fink, Lauren; Richardson, Kalie; Brack, Chelsey; Comeau, Dawn

    2017-01-19

    Since the decriminalisation of abortion in 2006, women in Colombia have continued to seek clandestine abortions, endangering their health and contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. The goal of this study was to explore physicians' opinions towards and knowledge about legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia, and key barriers to the legal abortion access. We conducted 13 key informant interviews followed by a survey with a probability sample of 49 doctors working in public hospitals in Bogotá. Interview and survey data showed lack of technical experience in the provision of abortion and nuanced opinions towards its practice. Key informants described ignorance and lack of abortion training in medical schools as key barriers to provision. In the survey, 16/49 respondents had performed an abortion, 24/49 had referred a woman for an abortion and only 33/49 showed correct knowledge of the law.

  10. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  11. Unsafe abortion: a cruel way of birth control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Development Goal 5A – unsafe abortion contribution to maternal ... Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College & Research Institute, Kancheepuram. ... of unsafe abortion in Colombia, 1989-2008.

  12. Abortion and women's roles in society: opinions from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tia M; Wilson, Kate S; García, Sandra G; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    We aim to assess the opinions of Mexicans in the state of Tlaxcala on abortion and other topics concerning women's reproductive health and status in society. We summarize opinions on abortion and women's roles in society and perform logit regressions to assess characteristics correlated with support for abortion rights. A majority of respondents were against a woman's right to abortion when asked generally, but when asked about specific circumstances, a majority supported the right to abortion in five of the nine hypothetical circumstances proposed. In multivariate analysis, age, education, religion, religious service attendance, and views regarding women's roles in society had significant effects on support for the right to abortion. Our results demonstrate that residents of Tlaxcala view abortion as a personal decision and support a woman's right to abortion in more circumstances than currently allowed under state law.

  13. Student Nurses View an Abortion Client: Attitude and Context Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two studies of the relationship between student nurses' attitudes and patient perception with regard to abortion. Results indicate that the student nurses' judgments were related to their prevailing attitude toward abortion and to their religiosity. (Author/MA)

  14. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  15. Uterine contraction induced by Tanzanian plants used to induce abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....

  16. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  17. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  18. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  19. Access to abortion and secular liberties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arriada Lorea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to legislators to reform the present law and decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments Brazil has assumed with international human-rights organizations, thus assuring the efficacy of civil liberties.

  20. Post-abortion contraception: care and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Monteiro, Renata Luciria; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; dos Santos, Osmara Alves

    2014-01-01

    to analyze assistance regarding contraception methods received by women during hospitalization due to abortion, and contraceptive practices the month after this episode. a longitudinal study of women hospitalized due to abortion in a public hospital in the city of São Paulo. Face-to-face interviews (n=170) followed by telephone interviews in the subsequent month (n=147) were conducted between May and December of 2011. a small number of women reported they received guidance on, and prescription for, contraceptive methods at hospital discharge. A trend of statistical significance was identified for prescription of contraceptive methods at discharge and its use in the following month, when adjusted for age. Most women reported sexual intercourse (69.4%) with the use of contraceptive method (82.4%), but no health professional guidance (63.1%). despite the fact that post-abortion contraception assistance was lower than the recommended guidelines by public health policies, women demonstrated willingness to use contraceptive methods.