Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio
An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivi...
Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio
An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds.
Amir Kamali; HesamAdin Seifi; Ahmad Reza Movassaghi; Gholam Reza Razmi; Zahra Naseri
To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.
Amir; Kamali; Hesam; Adin; Seifi; Ahmad; Reza; Movassaghi; Gholam; Reza; Razmi; Zahra; Naseri
Objective:To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospom caninum(N.caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran.In addition,the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination.To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis,data analysis was performed by SAS.Results:N.caninum was detected in 179(45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR.Among the PCR-positive brain samples,only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination.The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16(28%) of PCR-positive samples.The risk factors including season,parity of dam,history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd,cow’s milk production,herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection.This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods.In addition,a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth.Conclusions:The results showed N.caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses.In addition,at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection.These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.
Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.
Malla, Javed Ahmed; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Gupta, Vikas; Chander, Vishal; Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Qureshi, Salauddin; Mishra, Adhiraj; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) is a major viral pathogen affecting bovines leading to various clinical manifestations and causes significant economic impediment in modern livestock production system. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 infection at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds remains a priority for control of BHV-1 spread to susceptible population. Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR), a novel addition in the gamut of isothermal techniques, has been successfully implemented in initial optimization for detection of BHV-1 genomic DNA and further validated in clinical samples. The developed PSR assay has been validated for detection of BHV-1 from bovine semen (n=99), a major source of transmission of BHV-1 from breeding bulls to susceptible dams in artificial insemination programs. The technique has also been used for screening of BHV-1 DNA from suspected aborted fetal tissues (n=25). The developed PSR technique is 100 fold more sensitive than conventional PCR and comparable to real-time PCR. The PSR technique has been successful in detecting 13 samples positive for BHV-1 DNA in bovine semen, 4 samples more than conventional PCR. The aborted fetal tissues were negative for presence of BHV-1 DNA. The presence of BHV-1 in bovine semen samples raises a pertinent concern for extensively screening of semen from breeding bulls before been used for artificial insemination process. PSR has all the attributes for becoming a method of choice for rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 DNA at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds in resource constrained settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.
A retrospective study of bovine abortions associated with Bacillus licheniformis is described. The material consisted of 2445 bovine abortions submitted for diagnostics from 1986 through 1993. Initially, B, licheniformis had been isolated from 81 cases. Sections of these cases were reexamined...... isolations, especially from the placenta, lungs, and abomasal contents, combined with the histological findings points to B, licheniformis abortions as being of haematogenous origin with subsequent transplacental spread to the fetus....
Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z
Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maia S. Marin
Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.
Letícia Trevisan Gressler
Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.
High rate of abortion and developmental abnormalities is thought to be closely associated with inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nuclei during bovine cloning.It is known that one of the important mechanisms for epigenetic reprogramming is DNA methylation.DNA methylation is established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases(DNMTs),therefore,it is postulated that the inefficient epigenetic reprogramming of transplanted nuclei may be due to abnormal expression of DNMTs.Since DNA methylation can strongly inhibit gene expression,aberrant DNA methylation of DNMT genes may disturb gene expression.But presently,it is not clear whether the methylation abnormality of DNMT genes is related to developmental failure of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.In our study,we analyzed methylation patterns of the 5' regions of four DNMT genes including Dnmt3a,Dnmt3b,Dnmtl and Dnmt2 in four aborted bovine clones.Using bisulfite sequencing method,we found that 3 out of 4 aborted bovine clones(AF1,AF2 and AF3)showed either hypermethylation or hypomethylation in the 5' regions of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b.indicating that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b genes are not properly reprogrammed.However,the individual AF4 exhibited similar methylation level and pattern to age-matched in vitro fertilized (IVF)fetuses.Besides,we found that tle 5'regions of Dnmtl and Dnmt2 were nearly completely unmethylated in all normal adults.IVF fetuses,sperm and aborted clones.Together,our results suggest that the aberrant methylation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b 5' regions is probably associated with the high abortion of bovine clones.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichtheimia corymbifera (previously Absidia corymbifera is a filamentous zygomycetes belonging to the order Mucorales and to the family Lichtheimiaceae. Members of genus Lichtheimia spp. are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous in nature. Lichtheimia corymbifera is a recognized agent of diseases in man and animals. In cattle it causes abortion and mastitis. Three cases of bovine abortion occurred in a herd located in the Po Valley. Serological examinations were performed on fetal and mother's blood. One of the aborted fetus was referred to our laboratory. The paper describes the isolation and characterization of Lichtheimia corymbifera from a bovine aborted fetus. Methods Serological examinations were performed on fetal and mother's blood. Lesions on fetal tissues and placenta leaded the diagnostic suspect towards a mycotic aetiology. Tissues were then put in culture, and at the same time an histological examination was performed, together with bacteriological and virological tests. The isolate from placenta and fetal tissues was identified and characterized by PCR and RFLP, using the ITS region as a target sequence and AclI restriction site within the amplicon to distinguish Lichtheimia corymbifera among the other fungi. Results Serological, bacteriological and virological tests gave aspecific results. Histological examination evidenced numerous PAS positive hyphae within the necrotic cotiledons and numerous fungal nonseptate hyphae to the GMS stain. Colonies with typical morphological features of fungi grew up on Sabouraud agar from fetal skin and placenta. On the developed colonies the microscopic examination has shown a large number of nonseptate hyphae and sporangia consistent with Mucorales. PCR and RFLP allowed the identification of the isolate as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Conclusion The present report describes the isolation and the molecular characterisation of a fungal isolate from bovine aborted fetus and placenta. The
Full Text Available Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP. q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.
Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue
Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426
Goodman, N W
The 30th anniversary of the passing of the abortion law in England sparked off yet another skirmish in the continuing struggle. Not only the Catholic Church but also anti-lobby groups have protested against the abortion law. Anti-lobby groups consider abortion as an evil that must be fought. To further explain their point, the anti-lobby groups used the conclusions on pediatric anesthetic practice to change their tactics in combating the abortion issue from the emotional point of view to the apparently rational. A group of pediatricians, anesthetists, bioethicists and neuroanatomists has considered the problem of when the fetus may first be able to feel pain. They have decided that the fetus cannot feel pain before the 26th week and recommended that the fetus be given an anesthetic for any abortion later than the 24th week. The anti-lobby groups say that this view limits the perception of pain to the cerebral cortex and that the thalamus is well enough developed by the 10th week for the growing embryo to feel the pain. However, as to the question of fetal pain, one can never know whether fetuses feel pain, because they can never tell.
Li, Zhaocai; Cai, Jinshan; Cao, Xiaoan; Lou, Zhongzi; Chao, Yilin; Kan, Wei; Zhou, Jizhang
ABSTRACT The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus is one of the causative agents of abortion and fetal loss in sheep, goats, and cattle in many countries. It also affects the reproductivity of yaks (Bos grunniens). This study reports the whole-genome sequence of Chlamydia abortus strain GN6, which was isolated from aborted yak fetus in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.
Li, Zhaocai; Cai, Jinshan; Cao, Xiaoan; Lou, Zhongzi; Chao, Yilin; Kan, Wei; Zhou, Jizhang
The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus is one of the causative agents of abortion and fetal loss in sheep, goats, and cattle in many countries. It also affects the reproductivity of yaks ( Bos grunniens ). This study reports the whole-genome sequence of Chlamydia abortus strain GN6, which was isolated from aborted yak fetus in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.
Borel, Nicole; Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas
Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion. PMID:18258043
Many people believe that the abortion debate will end when at some point in the future it will be possible for fetuses to develop outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, would make possible to reconcile pro-life and pro-choice positions. That is because it is commonly believed that there is no right to the death of the fetus if it can be detached alive and gestated in an artificial womb. Recently Eric Mathison and Jeremy Davis defended this position, by arguing against three common arguments for a right to the death of the fetus. I claim that their arguments are mistaken. I argue that there is a right to the death of the fetus because gestating a fetus in an artificial womb when genetic parents refuse it violates their rights not to become a biological parent, their rights to genetic privacy and their property rights. The right to the death of the fetus, however, is not a woman's right but genetic parents' collective right which only can be used together. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification.
Full Text Available Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular and gram negative coccobacilli and one of the most important causes of abortion in ruminants especially in ewes. This investigation was performed with the purpose of molecular study and sequencing of Chlamydia abortus isolated from aborted sheep fetuses of Alborz Province. In this study, DNA extraction was performed on 100 samples from aborted fetuses of 32 sheep flocks from different areas of Alborz province. Then using specific primers of gene IGS-Sr- RNA, polymerase chain reaction was conducted and 10 samples were selected randomly from the positive cases were sent to Macrogene company in Korea for sequencing. In this study, 37 samples from a total of 100 aborted fetuses were positive for Chlamydia abortus. After sequencing, more than 99 percent of the positive samples were similar with sequences in gene bank. The sequencing results indicated that the samples were very similar to isolates LN554882/1, AF051935/1 and CR848038/1 of the gene bank and were in the same cluster. Also, this investigation indicated that Chlamydia abortus is one of the main reasons of ewe abortion in Alborz province.
Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C
Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie
The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.
Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Ben Hassena, Amal; Ben Slima, Ahlem; Mallekh, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane
Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples ta...
Full Text Available The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.
Bronner, Anne-Christine; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie
The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the ...
Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier
Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to
Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...
Almería, Sonia; Serrano-Pérez, Beatriz; López-Gatius, Fernando
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a preference for cattle and dogs as hosts. When N. caninum infection occurs in cattle it induces abortion, bovine neosporosis being a main cause of abortion worldwide. In dairy cattle, the economic burden of neosporosis-associated abortion is so great that it might results in closure of a farm. However, not all infected cows abort and it is not yet understood why this occurs. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review provides insights on how immune response against the parasite determines protection or contribution to abortion. Aspects on markers of risk of abortion are also discussed. Humoral immune responses are not protective against N. caninum but seropositivity and antibody level can be good markers for a diagnosis of bovine neosporosis and its associated abortion risk. In addition, humoral mechanisms against N. caninum infection and abortion differ in pure-breed and cross-breed pregnant dairy and beef cattle. Concentrations of Pregnancy Associated glycoprotein -2 (PAG-2) can also be used to predict abortion. A partially protective immune response encompasses increased IFN-γ expression, which has to be counterbalanced by other cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-10, especially towards the end of pregnancy. Although IFN-γ is required to limit parasite proliferation a critical threshold of the IFN-γ response is also required to limit adverse effects on pregnancy. In clinical terms, it may be stated that IFN-γ production and cross-breed pregnancy can protect Neospora-infected dairy cows against abortion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Coxiella burnetii is an important intracellular pathogen that ruminants can act as primary reservoirs. Reservoirs may excrete the bacterium into the placenta, vaginal mucus and feces. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect C. burnetii in aborted samples from ruminant flocks in Mashhad city, northeast of Iran, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Materials and Methods: A total number of 154 fetal tissue samples of cattle, sheep and goat were subjected to nested PCR assay. Results: Sixteen (17.3% out of 92 samples from sheep and 15 (25% from 60 cattle fetuses were positive. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate the presence of C. burnetii in aborted ruminants and these can be the potential reservoirs of C. burnetii in the mentioned area.
Teane Milagres Augusto da Silva
Full Text Available Infectious abortion is a significant cause of reproductive failure and economic losses in cattle. The goal of this study was to detect nucleic acids of several infectious agents known to cause abortion including Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum, and Tritrichomonas foetus. Tissue homogenates from 42 fetuses and paraffin-embedded tissues from 28 fetuses and 14 placentas/endometrium were included in this study. Brucella abortus was detected in 14.2% (12/84 of the samples. Salmonella sp. DNA was amplified from 2 fetuses, and there was one positive for Neospora caninum, and another for Listeria monocytogenes. This PCR-based approach resulted in identification of the etiology in 19% of samples, or 20% if considered fetal tissues only.Aborto infeccioso é uma causa significativa de falhas reprodutivas e perdas econômicas na bovinocultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar ácidos nucleicos de vários agentes infecciosos reconhecidos como causadores de aborto, incluindo-se Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Herpesvirus bovino tipo 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum e Tritrichomonas foetus. Homogenados de tecidos de 42 fetos e tecidos incluídos em parafina de 28 fetos e 14 placentas/endométrio foram incluídos neste estudo. Brucella abortus foi detectada em 14,2% (12/84 das amostras. DNA de Salmonella sp. foi amplificado de dois fetos e houve um feto positivo para Neospora caninum e outro para Listeria monocytogenes. Essa metodologia baseada em PCR resultou na identificação da etiologia em 19% das amostras ou 20% se considerados somente os tecidos fetais.
Having read Professor Peter Huntingford's letter (25 August, p 496), I am more convinced than ever that reduction to the simplest possible terms will always clarify an issue, and I am at one with him in deploring the terms "serious," "grave," and "substantial." His last paragraph approximates to such clarify when he says "the right of women to choose freely whether or not they bear a child"--but I fear that the phrase is slanted and ignores an essential ingredient in the abortive act. Whereas the secondary effect of abortion is certainly that the woman will not bear a child, the primary effect is the killing of that child, admittedly small and defenceless. Maybe there are many who will seek to justify the killing of their fellow members of the human race on the grounds that they are not wanted, or might be handicapped; if so, let them proclaim these views "in good set terms." But if the principle of getting rid of the unwanted by killing them is to expand its application further, who among us will be safe when someone else can decide our fate? Even the advocates of euthanasia usually insist that it be voluntary. Who yet has asked a fetus whether it wants to live or be killed?
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05 in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea. Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses.
Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan
Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (Pmaternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, Pmaternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, Pmaternal weight effect (5-6%, Ppaternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, Pinteraction between maternal and paternal genomes (Pmaternal weight (Pmaternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle.
Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G
Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each
An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.
Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier
The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P
Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier
The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier
Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests that early detection may be
Nunes, J P
Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.
Wilson, E L
If you are pregnant and near 40 years old there is 1/137 chance that your child may have Down's syndrome, or 1/65 chance he will have a physical or mental problem. There are tests that can indicate these problems but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion. A woman should not be forced to carry an unwanted child, and the needs of childless couples should not be addressed in abortion discussions. The Roe v. Wade case made the distinction of not having to determine when life begins, but when it can be sustained outside the body. The Missouri statute states that human life begins at conception, an unborn child has protectable life interests and the parents of that child have protectable life interests of the unborn child in relation to life, health and its well being. States that are really concerned with the interests of unborn children should improve prenatal care, educate teens on contraception, AIDS, and be concerned about violent behavior and smoking. Voters in Michigan and Arkansas approved a law to stop the use of public funds for abortion, other than saving the mother's life. Pro- choice advocates are concerned that the conservative appointees to the supreme court will reverse the previous decision.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin, a muscle-specific member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta family, negatively regulates muscle development. Double-muscled (DM cattle have a loss-of-function mutation in their myostatin gene responsible for the hypermuscular phenotype. Thus, these animals are a good model for understanding the mechanisms underpinning muscular hypertrophy. In order to identify individual genes or networks that may be myostatin targets, we looked for genes that were differentially expressed between DM and normal (NM animals (n = 3 per group in the semitendinosus muscle (hypertrophied in DM animals at 260 days of fetal development (when the biochemical differentiation of muscle is intensive. A heterologous microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences of around 6,000 genes expressed in muscle was used. Results Many genes were found to be differentially expressed according to genetic type (some with a more than 5-fold change, and according to the presence of one or two functional myostatin allele(s. They belonged to various functional categories. The genes down-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly those encoding extracellular matrix proteins, slow contractile proteins and ribosomal proteins. The genes up-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly involved in the regulation of transcription, cell cycle/apoptosis, translation or DNA metabolism. These data highlight features indicating that DM muscle is shifted towards a more glycolytic metabolism, and has an altered extracellular matrix composition (e.g. down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2, and up-regulation of COL4A2 and decreased adipocyte differentiation (down-regulation of C1QTNF3. The altered gene expression in the three major muscle compartments (fibers, connective tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue is consistent with the well-known characteristics of DM cattle. In addition, novel potential targets of the myostatin gene were identified (MB, PLN, troponins, ZFHX1B
Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Nunomura, Yuka; Kokawa, Saki; Kimura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kirino, Yumi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mekata, Hirohisa; Aoki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Mai; Umetsu, Moeko; Morita, Tatsushi; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Asai, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Makino, Shinji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Abi, Ahmad Jan; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya
Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum ; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.
Klavano, G.G.; Christian, R.G.
A survey was conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout of October 1982 to determine if the incident changed the number and type of bovine abortions and abnormal bovine feti submitted to the diagnostic laboratory from the blowout area. The records of the total number of bovine feti submitted were compared between three areas to determine if there was a significant difference between the areas closer to the well site and the larger total area. No changes or trends could be ascribed to the well blowout. 2 refs., 5 tabs
Fromer, M J
Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view
Suteu, O.; Titilincu, A.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.; Mircean, A.; Cozma, V.
Roč. 106, č. 3 (2010), s. 719-722 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : DEFINITIVE HOSTS * DAIRY- CATTLE * transmission * ABORTIONS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2010
Harris, George W
Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.
Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity
Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.
The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F 1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F 1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating
Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier
Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucello...
Full Text Available The measurement of antibody responses of animals exposed to BVDV either through a natural exposure or an immunization protocol is still a standard procedure. For BVDV, the test formats have been largely limited to ELISA which is a valuable diagnostic test to measure the level of BVDV specific antibodies as well as antigen in blood samples. In the present study, 120 blood samples were collected from the cows with the history of abortion in different period of pregnancy from different industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad area of Iran. Also 30 samples were collected from the cows with no history of abortion as control. The presence of antibody against BVDV from the 120 serum samples was investigated by indirect ELISA. From 120 serum samples which were collected from aborted cows, 89 samples were positive (%74.16. From these positive samples, 12(13.48%, 54 (60.68% and 23 (25.84% samples belong to the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. From 89 positive samples, 12 (13.48% samples were related to stillbirth and 8 (8.99% samples were belongs to the mummified fetus. From 89 positive samples, 71 (79.78% were related to cattle between 2-5 years old and 18 (20.22% were associated to cattle more than 5 years old. In control group, 20 samples (66.66% were antibody positive. Also the presence of BVDV antigen in serum samples was investigated by Ag-capture ELISA. From 120 serum samples, 2 samples were positive (1.67%, which belongs to the second period of pregnancy. In control group, none of the samples were antigen positive. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of BVDV infection is high among the aborted cows of Mashhad area. Although this prevalence is higher than the control group, the observed difference is not significant.
Calandra, Patricio M; Di Matía, José M; Cano, Dora B; Odriozola, Ernesto R; García, Juan A; Späth, Ernesto J A; Odeón, Anselmo C; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Morrell, Eleonora L; Campero, Carlos M; Moore, Dadín P
The aim of this study was to describe two events in which Neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. In the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. One aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (OR=4.9; IC 1.2-19.9) (p0.05). Neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were achieved in any case. On the contrary, antibodies and pathognomonic histopathological lesions were observed in the four fetuses from both cases. Interestingly, the findings in the first event suggest the epidemic behavior of the disease. In contrast, in the second event it appears that few abortions were due to N. caninum, suggesting the presence of endemic neosporosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori
Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Perez Duarte, A E
Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other
Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...
... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...
Vidal, Sara; Kegler, Kristel; Posthaus, Horst; Perreten, Vincent; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina
Abortions in cattle have a significant economic impact on animal husbandry and require prompt diagnosis for surveillance of epizootic infectious agents. Since most abortions are not epizootic but sporadic with often undetected etiologies, this study examined the bacterial community present in the placenta (PL, n = 32) and fetal abomasal content (AC, n = 49) in 64 cases of bovine abortion by next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. The PL and AC from three fetuses of dams that died from non-infectious reasons were included as controls. All samples were analyzed by bacterial culture, and 17 were examined by histopathology. We observed 922 OTUs overall and 267 taxa at the genus level. No detectable bacterial DNA was present in the control samples. The microbial profiles of the PL and AC differed significantly, both in their composition (PERMANOVA), species richness and Chao-1 (Mann-Whitney test). In both organs, Pseudomonas was the most abundant genus. The combination of NGS and culture identified opportunistic pathogens of interest in placentas with lesions, such as Vibrio metschnikovii, Streptococcus uberis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli. In placentas with lesions where culturing was unsuccessful, Pseudomonas and unidentified Aeromonadaceae were identified by NGS displaying high number of reads. Three cases with multiple possible etiologies and placentas presenting lesions were detected by NGS. Amplicon sequencing has the potential to uncover unknown etiological agents. These new insights on cattle abortion extend our focus to previously understudied opportunistic abortive bacteria.
Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...
Vers un modèle de surveillance intégrée des maladies exotiques abortives chez les bovins en France métropolitaine : évaluation de la surveillance évènementielle et exploration d’outils complémentaires de surveillance syndromique
Bronner , Anne
The surveillance system for exotic abortive diseases in French cattle (i.e. abortive diseases that are not currently found in France), such as brucellosis, is a typical example of a surveillance system that is in need of improvement. This type of surveillance only actually exists for brucellosis. Clinical surveillance is the cornerstone of brucellosis surveillance and consists in the mandatory notification of each bovine abortion. However, while no quantitatively assessments have been made, i...
To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.
Sánchez-Miguel, C; Crilly, J; Grant, J; Mee, J F
The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of maternal serology for the diagnosis of Salmonella Dublin bovine abortion and stillbirth. A retrospective, unmatched, case-control study was carried out using twenty year's data (1989-2009) from bovine foetal submissions to an Irish government veterinary laboratory. Cases (n = 214) were defined as submissions with a S. Dublin culture-positive foetus from a S. Dublin unvaccinated dam where results of maternal S. Dublin serology were available. Controls (n = 415) were defined as submissions where an alternative diagnosis other than S. Dublin was made in a foetus from an S. Dublin unvaccinated dam where the results of maternal S. Dublin serology were available. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data: the dichotomous dependent variable was the S. Dublin foetal culture result, and the independent variables were the maternal serum agglutination test (SAT) titre results. Salmonella serology correctly classified 87% of S. Dublin culture-positive foetuses at a predicted probability threshold of 0.44 (cut-off at which sensitivity and specificity are at a maximum, J = 0.67). The sensitivity of the SAT at the same threshold was 73.8% (95% CI: 67.4%-79.5%), and the specificity was 93.2% (95% CI: 90.3%-95.4%). The positive and negative predictive values were 84.9% (95% CI: 79.3%-88.6%) and 87.3% (95% CI: 83.5%-91.3%), respectively. This study illustrates that the use of predicted probability values, rather than the traditional arbitrary breakpoints of negative, inconclusive and positive, increases the diagnostic value of the maternal SAT. Veterinary laboratory diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners can recover from the test results, information previously categorized, particularly from those results declared to be inconclusive. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...
Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C
opponents. Opponents have taken an active approach in decomposing their beliefs into different strands to be argued. Their assertions that the fetus is a person from conception or a person in potential have forced proponents of legalized abortion to argue in a largely reactive mode.
Ali, Shahzad; Ali, Qurban; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Jamal, Syed M
Brucellosis is endemic in bovines in Pakistan. The Brucella species and biovars involved, however, are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to isolate and characterize brucellae from seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes which had recently aborted. The seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes were collected from the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan. Isolation of brucellae was done on modified Farrell's serum dextrose agar. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping methods, while molecular typing was done by genus (B4/B5) and species-specific (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella ovis, and Brucella suis) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 30 isolates were recovered from milk (n = 5), aborted fetuses (n = 13), and vaginal swabs (n = 12). Most isolates were from cattle (56.7 %). All of them were identified as B. abortus biovar 1 based on conventional biotyping methods and genus and species-specific PCR. This preliminary study provides the first report on the prevalence of B. abortus biovar 1 in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan.
This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap
China is to outlaw the selective abortion of female fetuses to correct an imbalance in the ratio of boys to girls that has grown since the family planning policy was introduced more than 20 years ago.
Malik, N.A.; Ghauri, A. Q.
We report a case of harlequin fetus born to the consanguineous parents, She had the typical skin manifestations of thick armour like scales with fissures, complete ectropion and eclabium, atrophic and crumpled ears and swollen extremities with gangrenous digits, Supportive treatment was given but the neonate died on the 4th day. (author)
Rojas, María Del C; Fort, Marcelo; Bettermann, Simone; Entrocassi, Carolina; Costamagna, Sixto R; Sachse, Konrad; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo
Reproductive losses linked to an infectious etiology in bovine cattle are a major economic concern worldwide. In Argentina, more than 50% of abortion cases have unknown causes. Species belonging to Chlamydiaceae family are frequent etiologic agents of abortion around the world; however, there is yet no information on their prevalence in Argentina. The objective of this work was to identify Chlamydia spp., and particularly C. abortus in reproductive losses from bovine cattle in La Pampa, Argentina. Real time PCR targeting Chlamydiaceae-specific DNA fragments was performed on 251 samples obtained from bovine abortions and stillborns, and ArrayTube was used for species identification on positive samples. Chlamydiaceae DNA was detected in 12 samples of aborted fetuses (4.78%), 83.33% (10/12) accounting for abortions and 16.66% (2/12) for stillborns. C. abortus was detected by ArrayTube in 5 cases (1.99% of all samples, and 41.67% of Chlamydiaceae positive samples). This study shows the first detection of Chlamydiaceae and C. abortus DNA on reproductive losses of bovine cattle in Argentina, and the described prevalence value (4.78%) should be taken as baseline value due to the type of samples analyzed. Detection of genetic material from Chlamydiaceae not matching any of the studied species could be due to intraspecies variants or local species not yet described. Further research on Chlamydia infections in bovine cattle in Argentina is imperative to describe their range, to analyze their economic and zoonotic implications and to make recommendations about prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
A federal appeals court has affirmed lower court rulings that substantial portions of the Illinois' 1975 Abortion Act and 1977 Abortion Parental Consent Act are unconstitutional. The 7th Court adopted an April 12, 1978 district court opinion that invalidated several sections of the Illinois 1975 abortion statute, including parental and spousal consent requirements and provisions requiring that a woman be informed of the "physical competency" of the fetus at the time the abortion was to be performed. The appeals court specifically addressed the statute's provision making a liveborn fetus resulting from an abortion a ward of the state, unless the abortion was performed to save the woman's life. Regarding the 1977 Parental Consent Act, the 7th Circuit reaffirmed its August 1978 ruling that it is unconstitutional to require an unmarried minor to have the consent of both parents or, if they refused consent, a circuit court judge before undergoing an abortion. The appeals court also agreed with the lower court's November 2nd ruling that the Act's requirement of a 48-hour delay between the time the minor gives her consent and the performance of an abortion violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.
Prognóstico de Gestações com Ameaça de Abortamento entre a 6ª e a 13ª Semana que Apresentam Embrião/Feto Vivo ao Exame Ultra-sonográfico Prognosis of Pregnancy with Threatened Abortion between 6 and 13 weeks Presenting Embryo/Fetus Alive at Ultrasound Scan
Luiz Carlos Watanabe
Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar resultados entre gestações com e sem ameaça de abortamento que apresentaram embrião/feto vivo ao exame ultra-sonográfico em idade gestacional entre 6 e 13 semanas. Métodos: trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, caso-controle, realizado no período de fevereiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação tópica e única, atividade cardíaca embrionária/fetal presente no exame ultra-sonográfico, realização de exame ultra-sonográfico entre 6 semanas completas e 13 semanas e 6 dias, ausência de alteração morfológica fetal, ausência de tentativa de abortamento por uso de drogas ou manipulação, ausência de doença materna e resultado conhecido da gestação. Preencheram os critérios de inclusão 1531 gestações, sendo 257 casos com ameaça de abortamento (grupo estudo e 1274 sem ameaça de abortamento (grupo controle. Estes dois grupos foram comparados quanto à evolução da gestação para: abortamento, óbito intra-uterino, prematuridade e crescimento intra-uterino restrito. Resultados: os porcentuais de abortamento (11,7% e prematuridade (17,8% foram estatisticamente superiores nas pacientes do grupo estudo (pPurpose: to compare the outcome of pregnancies with and without threatened abortion presenting alive embryo/fetus between 6 and 13 weeks at sonographic evaluation. Method: this was a retrospective case-control study, carried out from February 1998 to December 1999. Criteria for inclusion were: topic and single pregnancy; embryo/fetus cardiac activity present in the ultrasound scan; gestational age between 6 weeks and 13 weeks and 6 days, absence of fetal anomalies, absence of attempt of abortion by drugs or manipulation, absence of maternal disease, known pregnancy result. A total of 1531 pregnancies were examined, of which 258 with threatened abortion (case group and 1273 without threatened abortion (control group. The two groups were compared regarding outcome such as
Bastit i Costa, M A
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of
García-Romero, H; González-González, A; Galicia, J; Garcia-Barrios, C
We revised ethical concepts related to abortion from the points of view of the mothers; life, health, and considerations are made concerning the embryo or fetus as a biological, ontological, moral, and potential person. Certain religious matters on abortion are described and commented on. Effects of abortion penalization in Mexico and the legislation in the Mexican states are examined, as well as the motives of depenalization in certain countries.
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda
Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.
Abortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close to us but not identical to us. On the other hand, the fetus is not like a plant or even like a living being in the animal kingdom. Yet the fetus is not a complete and independent human being either. There are strongly opposing philosophical/religious viewpoints on abortion. On the one hand, pro-life groups and the Roman Catholic Church absolutely oppose abortion. They view the fetus as a full and independent human being, with absolute rights equal to those of the mother. According to this view, the right of the fetus to life can never be disregarded, and abortion is viewed as murder. On the other hand, the permissive, feminist, liberal view, emphasizes the basic right of a woman over her body. This right justifies abortion on demand solely dependent on the woman's wishes at any stage of pregnancy and for any reason whatsoever. This view totally ignores the rights of the fetus and views it as a part of the mother's body. This article deals with some aspects of the approaches of various religions to abortion due to fetal indications, in particular the Jewish viewpoint.
Barati, Sara; Moori-Bakhtiari, Naghmeh; Najafabadi, Masoud Ghorbanpoor; Momtaz, Hassan; Shokuhizadeh, Leili
Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) is caused by infection of sheep and goats by Chlamydia abortus bacterium. Chlamydial abortion in bovine could occur by Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. C. psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis or ornithosis disease in humans and birds. It also causes acute pneumonia in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed at surveying the role of chlamydial agents in ruminants abortion. A total of 117 aborted material samples (Cotyledon, liver, spleen, and abomasal contents of fetus) from 9 cattle and 100 sheep in Shahr-e-Kord and 8 sheep from Bagh-e-Malek were collected from different herds with abortion history during the lambing periods from 2014 to 2016. After DNA extraction, the samples were tested by species-specific PCR to detect C. abortus, C. pecorum and C. psittaci. Out of 117 clinical sample (108 sheep and 9 cattle), chlamydial infection was detected in 66 (56.41%) samples by Chlamydiales order-specific primers. A total of 24 (36.36%) and 24 (36.36%) samples indicated positive forms of C. abortus and C. psittasi infections, respectively. Only 1 (1.5%) C. pecorum was identified from cattle using nested PCR during this study. Among 66 Chlamydiales -positive samples, 20 (30.30%) samples with coinfection of C. abortus and C. psittaci were detected, however, infection of 3 species was not detected in the samples. Because of the high percentage of chlamydial infection in these regions and probability of coinfection, conducting epidemiological studies on the role of different animals is highly recommended.
Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua
Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)
In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense.
An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.
This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors.
Smith, T W
In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics
Dongol, A; Mool, S; Tiwari, P
Threatened abortion is the most common complication in the first half of pregnancy. Most of these pregnancies continue to term with or without treatment. Spontaneous abortion occurs in less than 30% of these women. Threatened abortion had been shown to be associated with increased incidence of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour and intra uterine growth retardation. This study was to asses the outcome of threatened abortion following treatment. This prospective study was carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2009 till May 2010. Total 70 cases of threatened abortion were selected, managed with complete bed rest till 48 hrs of cessation of bleeding, folic acid supplementation, uterine sedative, and hormonal treatment till 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonogram was performed for diagnosis and to detect the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Patients were followed up until spontaneous abortion or up to delivery of the fetus. The measures used for the analysis were maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of presentation, previous abortions, presence of subchorionic hematoma, complete abortion, continuation of pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of fetus. Out of 70 cases subchorionic haematoma was found in 30 (42.9%) cases. There were 12 (17.1%) patients who spontaneously aborted after diagnosis of threatened abortion during hospital stay, 5 (7.1%) aborted on subsequent visits while 53 (75.8%) continued pregnancy till term. Among those who continued pregnancy intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 7 (13.2%), antepartum hemorrhage in 4 (7.5%), preterm premature rupture of membrane in 3 (5.66%) and IUD in 3 (5.66%). Spontaneous abortion was found more in cases with subchorionic hematoma of size more than 20 cm2. In cases of threatened abortion with or without the presence of subchorionic hematoma, prognostic outcome is better following treatment with bed rest
AJRH Managing Editor
The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the fetus to term and ..... key sources of labour and they help strengthen ..... Mogobe D. Denying and preserving self: Batswana.
Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly
Wentz, Philip A; Belknap, Ellen B; Brock, Kenneth V; Collins, James K; Pugh, David G
To determine the effect of experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) on llamas and their fetuses, evaluate seroprevalence of BVDV in llamas and alpacas, and genetically characterize BVDV isolates from llamas. Prospective study. 4 pregnant llamas for the experimental infection study and 223 llamas and alpacas for the seroprevalence study. Llamas (seronegative to BVDV) were experimentally infected with a llama isolate of BVDV via nasal aerosolization. After inoculation, blood samples were collected every other day for 2 weeks; blood samples were obtained from crias at birth and monthly thereafter. For the seroprevalence study, blood was collected from a convenience sample of 223 camelids. Isolates of BVDV were characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Viremia and BVDV-specific antibody response were detected in the experimentally infected llamas, but no signs of disease were observed. No virus was detected in the crias or aborted fetus, although antibodies were evident in crias after colostrum consumption. Seroprevalence to BVDV was 0.9% in llamas and alpacas. Sequences of the llama BVDV isolates were comparable to known bovine isolates. Findings suggest that llamas may be infected with BVDV but have few or no clinical signs. Inoculation of llamas during gestation did not result in fetal infection or persistent BVDV infection of crias. Seroprevalence to BVDV in llamas and alpacas is apparently low. The most likely source for BVDV infection in camelids may be cattle.
For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general
Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens
Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...
Co-infection by porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets in southern Brazil Co-infecção por circovírus suíno tipo 2 e parvo-vírus suíno em fetos abortados e natimortos suínos no Sul do Brasil
Caroline A. Pescador
Full Text Available Porcine circovirus types 1 and 2 (PCV1, PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV are widespread in pig populations around the world. Nevertheless, only PCV2 has been associated with different clinical syndromes, thus representing a major problem to the pig industry. The association of cases of swine abortions and stillborns with PCV1 and PCV2 and PPV was studied retrospectively (2005-2007. Additional pathogens were also investigated in lesioned fetuses. The studied litters included stillborn piglets and several mummified fetuses of varied sizes. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial pale areas, and mesocolic edema were the gross lesions. Escherichia coli was detected as co-infecting with PCV2 the cases in which mesocolic edema was seen. Microscopic lesions included non-suppurative myocarditis, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, mineralization foci and intranuclear inclusion bodies in cardiomyocytes, and interstitial mononuclear pneumonia. Samples from 7 (5.78 per cent of 121 aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets had lesions consistent with a viral cause and showed both positive anti-PCV2 immunostaining as well as PCV2-PCR. In samples from 3 (2.47 per cent of these 7 fetuses, co-infection with PPV was confirmed by Nested-PCR. Both viruses were detected in fetuses at different stages of gestation. Viral antigens of PCV2 were detected by immunohistochemistry mainly in macrophages and myocytes. PCV1 individually was not detected in any of these affected fetuses, but it was associated with PCV2 and/or PPV in some of them. These findings indicate that PCV2 alone or in association with PPV should be kept in mind when investigating causes of infectious abortion in pigs in Brazil.Estudou-se retrospectivamente (2005-2007 a associação de casos de abortos e natimortos suínos com infecções por circovírus suíno (PCV tipos 1 e 2 e parvovírus suíno (PPV. Outros agentes patogênicos foram pesquisados em amostras de fetos com lesões. O estudo incluiu natimortos e
Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona
This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed.
Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B
Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.
Buckles, N B
Studies have shown that very few women experience significant depression in the weeks following abortion and most have strong feelings of relief and happiness; what mild feelings of guilt, regret, or remorse do exist immediately following abortion tend to diminish quickly. Traditionally attitudes were that abortion could even precipitate psychosis and cause infertility, depression, and sexual dysfunction. The findings of a 1963-65 study of 116 women who underwent abortions indicate that few women had regrets immediately. Studies done after the 1973 Supreme Court decision conclude that even psychiatrically disturbed women who undergo abortion remain stabilized or improved afterwards. Women who do have postabortion problems are usually those who were late aborters, who feel that the decision was not freely made, or that the pregnancy fulfilled certain needs. When working with these women clinicians use a variety of techniques, encouraging the women to express their feelings of loss and anger and supporting the choice that was made, while providing contraceptive and decision making education. The strategy in 3 cases described here involved the woman first saying goodbye to the fetus and her former relationship with it in a gestalt dialogue. The next part of the strategy is establishing positive remembrance of the significant meaning of the fetus to the woman. There are usually 5 sessions at the end of which the woman feels optimistic; the 6th session is a followup 6 months to 1 year later at which most women report no further symptoms.
Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh
Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...
He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)
In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.
Koschwanez, Maria; Meli, Marina; Vögtlin, Andrea; Greub, Gilbert; Sidler, Xaver; Handke, Martin; Sydler, Titus; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole
At present, despite extensive laboratory investigations, most cases of porcine abortion remain without an etiological diagnosis. Due to a lack of recent data on the abortigenic effect of order Chlamydiales, 286 fetuses and their placentae of 113 abortion cases (1-5 fetuses per abortion case) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. In 0.35% of the cases (1/286 fetuses), the Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR was positive. In the Chlamydiaceae-positive fetus, Chlamydia abortus was detected by a commercial microarray and 16S ribosomal RNA PCR followed by sequencing. The positive fetus had a Porcine circovirus-2 coinfection. By the Parachlamydia real-time PCR, 3.5% (10/286 fetuses of 9 abortion cases) were questionable positive (threshold cycle values: 35.0-45.0). In 2 of these 10 cases, a confirmation by Chlamydiales-specific real-time PCR was possible. All samples tested negative by the Waddlia real-time PCR. It seems unlikely that Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydia, and Waddlia play an important role as abortigenic agents in Swiss sows.
In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion.
Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S
Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.
Togzhan Yezlankyzy; Shokan Niazbekov
Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked problem of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the internet. The definition of abortion is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus as the spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Kazakhstan’s health organization records 300 thousand abortions every year. Abortion problem is unlikely to care a...
Coleman, Mary Clayton
In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.
Locatelli Dittrich, Rosangela; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Oliveira Koch, Marília de; Busch, Ana Paula B; Gonçalves, Kamila Alcalá; Cruz, Amilcar A
Bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. Viable N. caninum has been isolated from brains of fetuses and neonatal calves, and there is no report of isolation of tachyzoites from kidney. Also, detailed information about the genetic diversity of N. caninum is scarce. N. caninum tachyzoites were isolated from the kidney and the brain of an aborted 4-month-old bovine foetus. The parasite was confirmed to be N. caninum by PCR. The tachyzoites of the new isolate, named BNC-PR4, were propagated in Vero cell cultures. Pathogenicity of the parasite was examined in BALB/c mice. Mice inoculated intraperitoneally with BNC-PR4 failed to yield clinical signs of disease and did not induce severe brain lesions, suggesting a bovine isolate with low virulence. The N. caninum-positive DNA sample was further analyzed by multilocus microsatellite (MS) genotyping for MS4, MS5, MS6A, MS6B, MS7, MS8, MS10, MS12, and MS21. Multilocus-microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile that differed from previously reported isolates. Published by Elsevier Inc.
After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned
Introduction. Septic sacroilitis is a rare complication of abortion. 1 . Pregnant women are often at risk of developing varying degree of sacroiliac joint dysfunction due to laxity of the ligaments; this laxity is hormonally induced. Pregnancy arthropathy, which is the commonest cause of hip and pelvic pain in pregnancy, must be ...
Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .
Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...
Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion...... to at least one moral claim. Two hundred and fifty-eight responded to all four claims without using the option 'neither agree nor disagree' and were classified as 'morally engaged responders'. A majority of these had a pro-abortion moral. The general relationship between moral beliefs and attitudes towards...... abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. DISCUSSION: The direction of causality...
Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie
The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...... submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial...... pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes...
Singh, M; Jha, R
To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.
Peters, M; Osmann, C; Wohlsein, P; Schares, G
A captive 17-year old female Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. The fetus showed an early state of mummification. Histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. Although immunohistologically, Neospora (N.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, N. caninum DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in brain, heart, liver and lung of the fetus. N. caninum DNA was extracted from the aborted fetus and the microsatellite marker MS10 was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The obtained MS10 microsatellite pattern has not been described in Germany yet. Nevertheless, the MS10 pattern was very similar to those reported for N. caninum isolated from dogs and cattle in Germany. Because of the histological pattern and extent of the lesions, neosporosis was suspected as the cause of fetal death and abortion. This case report describes for the first time transplacental transmission of N. caninum and abortion due to neosporosis in a tapir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the frequency of risk behaviors in the zoonotic transmission of bovine brucellosis in suburban Dakar. The individual serological status of 300 cattle distributed in thirty farms in this area was determined by the rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. The frequency of risk behaviors toward this zoonosis was determined using two epidemiological surveys that inventoried the known risk factors of brucellosis transmission between animals and humans. Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of rose Bengal and complement fixation tests used in series, i.e. 85% and 98.75 %, respectively, the true prevalence was estimated to be 36.36%. At least one animal was infected in 96.6% of the herds. Positivity to the complement fixation test was significantly associated with age, breed, abortion and the presence of bursitis in cattle. The risk behaviors the most frequently observed in humans in this area were: assisting during calving and abortion, handling of aborted fetuses without gloves, and consuming unpasteurized raw or curd milk and fresh cheese. These results show that brucellosis is present in dairy cattle farms in suburban Dakar. Since the milk produced in these farms is used to supply the city of Dakar, measures must be developed to promote brucellosis prevention methods aimed at Dakar’s population.
Himma, K E
There is no issue more central to the abortion debate than the controversial issue of whether the fetus is a moral person. Abortion-rights opponents almost universally claim that abortion is murder and should be legally prohibited because the fetus is a moral person at the moment of conception. Abortion-rights proponents almost universally deny the crucial assumption that the fetus is a person; on their view, whatever moral disvalue abortion involves does not rise to the level of murder and hence does not rise to the level of something that should be legally prohibited. In this essay, I argue that, under dualist assumptions about the nature of mind, the fetus is not a person until brain activity has begun.(i) First, I argue it is a necessary condition for a thing to be a moral person that it is (or has) a self. Second, I argue it is a necessary condition for a fetus to be (or have) a self, under dualist assumptions, that there has been some electrical activity in the brain. I conclude that a dualist can take the position that abortion ought to be legally permitted at least until the beginning of brain activity in the fetus.iI make no attempt to determine what conditions are sufficient for moral personhood; for this reason, the relevant claim about personhood is purely negative.
Graduate Medical Education has directed obstetrical residents should be taught how to perform abortions, unless they have a moral or religious objection...of Violence Act 2004,” below.) Proponents note that such language would recognize the victimization of the child while in utero and afford...Victims of Violence Act of 2004 (Laci and Conner’s Law)” into law.81 Although intended to protect fetuses, this legislation contains a provision that
This paper argues that the central issue in the abortion debate has not changed since 1967 when the English parliament enacted the Abortion Act. That central issue concerns the moral status of the human fetus. The debate here is not, it is argued, primarily a moral debate, but rather a metaphysical debate and/or a theological debate—though one with massive moral implications. It concerns the nature and attributes that an entity requires to have "full moral standing" or "moral inviolability" including a "right to life". It concerns the question when, in its development from newly fertilised ovum to unequivocally mature, autonomous morally inviolable person does a human being acquire that nature and those attributes, and thus a "right to life". The paper briefly reviews standard answers to these questions, outlining some problems associated with each. Finally there is a brief discussion of one way in which the abortion debate has changed since 1967—notably in the increasingly vociferous claim, especially from disability rights sectors, that abortion on grounds of fetal abnormality implies contempt for and rejection of disabled people—a claim that is rebutted. Key Words: Abortion • moral status of fetus • abortion of abnormal fetuses PMID:11574651
Full Text Available This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challanging topic for those who find themselves facing the moral dilemma of whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. Problems of controversy are numerous. Is abortion a murder or not? Is fetus a person or not? When it becomes the one if ever till the birth? If abortion is not morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it's right to have an abortion. If abortion is morally wrong, that doesn't mean that it is always impermissible to have an abortion. The comon dilema is whether having an abortion is less wrong than the alternatives. These are some of the questions this paper deals with.
Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Faúndes, Anibal; Sousa, Maria Helena de
To analyze the opinion of judges and prosecutors concerning Brazilian abortion law and situations in which the abortion should be allowed. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,493 judges and 2,614 prosecutors in Brazil between 2005 and 2006. Participants completed a structured questionnaire approaching sociodemographic characteristics, opinions about abortion law, and circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data were carried out through Poisson regression. The majority of participants (78%) found that the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful should be broadened, or even that abortion should not be criminalized. The highest rates of pro-abortion opinions resulted from: risk to the life of the mother (84%), anencephaly (83%), severe congenital malformation of fetus (82%), and pregnancy resulting from rape (82%). Variables related to religion were strongly associated to the opinion of participants. There is a trend in considering the need of changing the current abortion law, in the sense of widening the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful, or even toward decriminalizing abortion, regardless of the circumstances in which it takes place.
History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role.
Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán
Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).
Morgenthau, J E
The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more
Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.
Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies
Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of abortion from a Kantian perspective. More specifically, it focuses on Kant’s Formula of Humanity of the Categorical Imperative and the prohibition against treating humanity merely as a means. It has been argued by feminists that forcing a woman to continue a pregnancy against her will is treating her as a mere means for sustaining the fetus, a mere “fetal incubator” (Bordo, 1993. Accordingly, feminists believe, this constitutes an assault on her humanity, the capacity for rationally setting and pursuing her own ends. On the other hand, the woman who aborts her fetus can be seen as treating a being which has the potential for humanity merely as a means for her own ends. The Kantian discussion of abortion gives rise to a number of important questions: Does respecting the pregnant woman’s humanity, and hence enabling her to have an abortion if she chooses that way, go against appropriately respecting the fetus? What does it really mean to respect a fetus’ potential for humanity? Attempting to answer these questions helps us to see the Kantian prohibition against treating humanity merely as a means from a different, less familiar perspective, and puts out some new challenges to Kant’s theory. At the same time, it gives us new and useful insights on the much-discussed issue of the fetus’ status in the abortion debate.
Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu
We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233
On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used...
Cockrill, Kate; Weitz, Tracy A
Most states regulate abortion differently than other health care services. Examples of these regulations include mandating waiting periods and the provision of state-authored information, and prohibiting private and public insurance coverage for abortion. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore abortion patients' perspectives on these regulations. We recruited 20 participants from three abortion providing facilities located in two states in the U.S. South and Midwest. Using a survey and semistructured interview, we collected information about women's knowledge of abortion regulation and policy preferences. During the interviews, women weighed the pros and cons of abortion regulations. We used grounded theory analytical techniques and matrix analysis to organize and interpret the data. We discovered five themes in these women's considerations of regulation: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Women in the study generally supported policies that they felt protected women or informed decisions. However, most women also opposed laws mandating two-day abortion appointments for women who were traveling long distances. Women tended to favor financial coverage of abortion, arguing that it could help poor women afford abortion or reduce state expenditures. Overall the study participants' opinions on abortion policy reflect key values for advocates and policy makers to consider: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Future work should examine abortion regulations in light of these shared values. Laws that promote misinformation or prohibit accommodations of unique circumstances are not consistent the positions articulated by the subjects in our study. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women
... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...
Aline Diniz Cabral
Full Text Available Neospora caninum, a cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle, was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and nested-PCR, using primers from the Nc5 region of the genomic DNA (PCR PLUS and primers from the ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA (PCR JB. A total of 105 fetal samples sent to the Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Animal do Instituto Biológico from January 2006 to May 2008 were examined for evidence of N. caninum. Histological examination revealed 71.4% with non-suppurative inflammation in the heart, lung, liver, kidney, placenta, and brain. Immunohistochemistry detected infections in 8.6% of the samples, mainly in the brain, placenta, and heart. Nested-PCR JB revealed 6.7% with infections, while nested-PCR PLUS returned 20.9% positive results, mainly in brain and placenta, and in the pooled liver and heart. Kappa statistics demonstrated little agreement among the three techniques. The three methods are complementary, since they have distinct diagnostic characteristics and were combined to give a positivity rate of 24.8%.Pesquisou-se Neospora caninum como causador de abortamento e natimortalidade em bovinos, por meio de exame histopatológico (hematoxilina-eosina, imunoistoquímica (IHQ e nested-PCR, utilizando primers da região Nc5 do DNA genômico (PCR PLUS e primers da região ITS1 do DNA ribossomal (PCR JB. Foram avaliadas 105 amostras de abortamento bovino entre janeiro de 2006 a maio de 2008, encaminhadas ao Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Animal do Instituto Biológico para diagnóstico diferencial de causas infecciosas. Observou-se em 71,4% das amostras lesões histológicas (HE caracterizadas pela presença de células inflamatórias mononucleares no coração, pulmão, fígado, rim, placenta e cérebro. A IHQ detectou 8,57% de positividade, sendo maior no cérebro, placenta e coração. A nested-PCR JB revelou 6,66% de casos positivos, enquanto que a nested-PCR PLUS apresentou maior taxa
Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira
Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.
Conti, Jennifer A; Brant, Ashley R; Shumaker, Heather D; Reeves, Matthew F
To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973. Data confirm, however, that more liberal abortion laws do not increase the number of abortions, but instead greatly decrease the number of abortion-related deaths. Several countries including Romania, South Africa and Nepal have seen dramatic decreases in maternal mortality after liberalization of abortion laws, without an increase in the total number of abortions. In the United States, abortions are incredibly safe with very low rates of complications and a mortality rate of 0.7 per 100 000 women. With increasing abortion restrictions, maternal mortality in the United States can be expected to rise over the coming years, as has been observed in Texas recently. Liberalization of abortion laws saves women's lives. The rising number of antiabortion restrictions will ultimately harm women and their families.
Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne
Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…
Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.
This paper argues that the central issue in the abortion debate has not changed since 1967 when the English parliament enacted the Abortion Act. That central issue concerns the moral status of the human fetus. The debate here is not, it is argued, primarily a moral debate, but rather a metaphysical debate and/or a theological debate--though one with massive moral implications. It concerns the nature and attributes that an entity requires to have "full moral standing" or "moral inviolability" including a "right to life". It concerns the question when, in its development from newly fertilised ovum to unequivocally mature, autonomous morally inviolable person does a human being acquire that nature and those attributes, and thus a "right to life". The paper briefly reviews standard answers to these questions, outlining some problems associated with each. Finally there is a brief discussion of one way in which the abortion debate has changed since 1967--notably in the increasingly vociferous claim, especially from disability rights sectors, that abortion on grounds of fetal abnormality implies contempt for and rejection of disabled people--a claim that is rebutted.
Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J
It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.
Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?
... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...
Bellieni, Carlo V; Buonocore, Giuseppe
The risk that abortion may be correlated with subsequent mental disorders needs a careful assessment, in order to offer women full information when facing a difficult pregnancy. All research papers published between 1995 and 2011, were examined, to retrieve those assessing any correlation between abortion and subsequent mental problems. A total of 36 studies were retrieved, and six of them were excluded for methodological bias. Depression, anxiety disorders (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and substance abuse disorders were the most studied outcome. Abortion versus childbirth: 13 studies showed a clear risk for at least one of the reported mental problems in the abortion group versus childbirth, five papers showed no difference, in particular if women do not consider their experience of fetal loss to be difficult, or if after a fetal reduction the desired fetus survives. Only one paper reported a worse mental outcome for childbearing. Abortion versus unplanned pregnancies ending with childbirth: four studies found a higher risk in the abortion groups and three, no difference. Abortion versus miscarriage: three studies showed a greater risk of mental disorders due to abortion, four found no difference and two found that short-term anxiety and depression were higher in the miscarriage group, while long-term anxiety and depression were present only in the abortion group. In conclusion, fetal loss seems to expose women to a higher risk for mental disorders than childbirth; some studies show that abortion can be considered a more relevant risk factor than miscarriage; more research is needed in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Di Giusto, M; Lazzari, R; Giorgetti, T; Paesano, R; Pachi, A
The early discovery of a fetal pathology creates a "crisis" situation fraught with psychic problems for the couple who must live through it. The Authors observed a group of patients in the second trimester of pregnancy. They had all requested therapeutic abortion since serious malformation of the fetus had been confirmed. By means of a questionnaire constructed for the purpose, certain characteristics of fetal malformation and of pregnancy were evidenced, as well as the way these were experienced by the patients. The immediate and delayed reactions to the diagnosis of malformation were also studied, as was the experience lived when faced with the choice of abortion.
Full Text Available Neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. During pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. Alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. In addition, N. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. The economic importance of neosporosis has prompted researchers to invest in the development of measures to prevent infection of cattle by vaccination. A good vaccine must stimulate protective cellular immune responses as well as antibody responses at mucosal sites and, systemically, must activate T-helper cells to produce relevant cytokines, and must elicit specific antibodies that aid in limiting parasite proliferation, e.g., by interference with host cell invasion, activation of complement, and/or opsonization of parasites to have them killed by macrophages. Different types of vaccines have been investigated, either in bovines or in the mouse model. These include live vaccines such as naturally less virulent isolates of N. caninum, attenuated strains generated by irradiation or chemical means, or genetically modified transgenic strains. Live vaccines were shown to be very effective; however, there are serious disadvantages in terms of safety, costs of production, and stability of the final product. Subunit vaccines have been intensively studied, as they would have clear advantages such as reduced costs in production, processing and storage, increased stability and shelf life. The parasite antigens involved in adhesion and invasion of host cells, such as surface constituents, microneme-, rhoptry- and dense granule-components represent interesting targets. Subunit vaccines have been applied as bacterially expressed recombinant antigens or as DNA vaccines. Besides monovalent vaccines
Wang, P D; Lin, R S
Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia.
Conti, Jennifer A; Cahill, Erica
To review updates in how abortion care is depicted and analysed though various media outlets: news, television, film, and social media. A surge in recent media-related abortion research has recognized several notable and emerging themes: abortion in the news media is often inappropriately sourced and politically motivated; abortion portrayal in US film and television is frequently misrepresented; and social media has a new and significant role in abortion advocacy. The portrayal of abortion onscreen, in the news, and online through social media has a significant impact on cultural, personal, and political beliefs in the United States. This is an emerging field of research with wide spread potential impact across several arenas: medicine, policy, public health.
Mianji, Fereidoun A.; Karimi Diba, Jila; Babakhani, Asad
Unrecognised pregnancy during radioisotope therapy of thyroid cancer results in hardly definable embryo/fetus exposures, particularly when the thyroid gland is already removed. Sources of such difficulty include uncertainty in data like pregnancy commencing time, amount and distribution of metastasized thyroid cells in body, effect of the thyroidectomy on the fetus dose coefficient etc. Despite all these uncertainties, estimation of the order of the fetus dose in most cases is enough for medical and legal decision-making purposes. A model for adapting the dose coefficients recommended by the well-known methods to the problem of fetus dose assessment in athyrotic patients is proposed. The model defines a correction factor for the problem and ensures that the fetus dose in athyrotic pregnant patients is less than the normal patients. A case of pregnant patient undergone post-surgical therapy by I-131 is then studied for quantitative comparison of the methods. The results draw a range for the fetus dose in athyrotic patients using the derived factor. This reduces the concerns on under- or over-estimation of the embryo/fetus dose and is helpful for personal and/or legal decision-making on abortion. (authors)
Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan
Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060
van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik
Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916
Kato, M.; Sleeboom-Faulkner, M.
This article examines the dichotomies of collectivism and individualism in the debates on the selective abortion of disabled fetuses, which have occurred over the last four decades in Japan. Disagreements in debates on abortion in Japan have often revolved around the concept of self-determination
Dalrymple, G.V.; Baker, M.L.
The medical profession and the lay public have not been overly concerned about the effects of diagnostic x-rays or radioactive isotopes until the last decade when radiation was rediscovered to cause damage to the fetus. In addition, radiation is associated with increased incidence of childhood cancer as well as chromosome damage and related birth defects. While some fear of radiation during the embryonic-fetal period, one of great radiosensitivity, is justified, the anxiety has been intensified by the attitudes of some physicians. Instances have occurred in which a patient who had received a very small amount of radiation (from diagnostic x-ray examination) was advised to have an abortion. A foreseeable result of such events has been litigation against involved physicians. Counter-measures that have been suggested are: do not irradiate women known to be pregnant without a firm clinical indication; if accidental iradiation is discovered the actual dose to the fetus should be estimated. Usual diagnostic examination will give fewer than 5 rads to the fetus and such doses do not represent grounds for abortion. For doses of 5-10 rads abortion could be considered and above 10 rads there would be stronger consideration for such a recommendation. other factors to be considered include age of the mother, and environmental factors (medicines, food additives, cigarettes, coffee, etc.). Proper radiologic practice will eliminate or reduce the number of pregnant women irradiated
Pilpel, H F
This article enumerates the possible legal questions that would have to be faced should the Hogan-Helms amendment to the U.S. Constitution be passed. The purpose of the amendment is to make all abortions illegal; the fetus is defined as a human being "from the moment of conception." Beyond the problems of defing the "moment of conception" and of the amendment increasing the number of abortions performed illegally, dangerously, and expensively, the passing of the amendment would result in chaos in terms of constitutional law, criminal law, tort law, laws of property and inheritance, tax questions, immigration, and naturalization laws.
January 2018, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology issued a position statement opposing the punishment of women for self-induced abortion. To those unfamiliar with emerging trends in abortion in the United States and worldwide, the need for the declaration might not be apparent. Several studies suggest that self-induced abortion is on the rise in the United States. Simultaneously, prosecutions of pregnant women for behavior thought to harm the fetus are increasing. The ACOG statement responds to both trends by urging doctors to honor the integrity and confidentiality inherent in the doctor-patient relationship. Seen in the context of the larger battle over legal abortion, the statement has far broader implications. By acknowledging the role doctors play in enforcing pregnancy-related crimes, the ACOG position statement wisely anticipates the ways in which doctors will be implicated should access to legal abortion be further restricted. To understand the need for the ACOG directive, you must first understand that the story of what will happen if abortion becomes a crime in the United States is not to be found in history books; it is staring at us across our southern border. © 2018 The Hastings Center.
Full Text Available Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses and group II (third-trimester fetuses, followed by dissection. Result. (1 Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%. In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2 Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3 Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4 Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position.
Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; H?naux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aur?lien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier
Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy ca...
Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others
Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…
Full Text Available Introduction: Abortion in cattle is a major source of economic losses for the agriculture sector. It can be due to infectious or non-infectious factors. Among infectious factors, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and fungi can be involved. The present work investigated the prevalence of the main infectious agents of abortion in Algerian cattle. Material and Methods: Altogether 278 non-aborting and 82 aborting cows were analysed. Results: The prevalence ranged from 0% for Tritrichomonas foetus to 15% for Neospora caninum. Additionally, a case-control study was performed to find the association between the presence of the pathogens and the occurrence of abortion in cows. The odds ratios were significant for Neospora caninum, bovine herpes virus 4, BVD virus, Brucella abortus, Salmonella Dublin, Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo, and Coxiella burnetii. Conclusions: The pathogens enumerated here could be major causes of abortion among Algerian cattle.
The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.
Yun, Kwang Myeong; Lee, Yeong Hwan; Chung, Hye Kyeong; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong
To establish the sonographic characteristics of the hydatidiform mole and the missed abortion with placental degeneration, we have retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of complete mole, 10 cases of partial mole, and 10 cases of missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration, collected at Taegu Catholic General Hospital, from January 1986 to December 1989. The results were as follows : 1. Of 12 cases of complete mole, all demonstrated diffuse intrauterine vesicular pattern of internal echo without a gestational sac. Two cases were recurred after D and E. 2. The partial mole was characterized by focal (70%) or diffuse (20%) distribution of hydatidiform placental change and a gestational sac (100%) with or without a macerated fetus. But the striking hydatidiform placental change was not present in one cases of partial mole. 3. The uterus was larger for dates in 9 cases (90%) of complete mole, but smaller for dates in 7 cases (70%) of partial mole. 4. The missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration was indistinguished from a partial mole due to their similar sonographic appearance : focal or diffuse cystic change of a placenta, a distorted gestational sac with or without a fetus, and a smaller uterus for dates. On conclusion, the complete mole could be easily distinguished from a partial mole or a missed abortion by sonography : a gestational sac or an area of noncystic placenta was not identified in a complete mole. The partial mole was indistinguished from a missed abortion, but if there is the suspicion of trophoblastic proliferation, such as a convex placental surface or a larger uterus for dates, then the diagnosis is probably a partial mole rather than a missed abortion
Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E
From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.
Hart, T M
The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.
Di Nucci, Ezio
In a previous paper, I had argued that Strong's counterexamples to Marquis's argument against abortion-according to which terminating fetuses is wrong because it deprives them of a valuable future-fail either because they have no bearing on Marquis's argument or because they make unacceptable...
The study explored what sources were responsible for exposing professionals to issues of euthanasia of handicapped infants, selective abortion of severely handicapped fetuses and the educability of profoundly retarded persons, and what sources professionals thought were most appropriate for the dissemination of information. The study consisted of…
AJRH Managing Editor
In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...
Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28
Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob
While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion
Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this
Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari
Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.
Martínez, Diana; Thompson, Carolina; Draghi, Graciela; Canavesio, Vilma; Jacobo, Roberto; Zimmer, Patricia; Elena, Sebastián; Nicola, Ana M; de Echaide, Susana Torioni
An isolate of Brucella spp. from an aborted water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fetus was characterized based on its pheno- and genotype. The phenotype was defined by carbon dioxide requirement, hydrogen sulfide production, sensitivity to thionin and basic fuchsin and agglutination with Brucella A and M monospecific antisera. The genotype was based on the amplification of the following genes: bcsp31, omp2ab, and eri and the species-specific localization of the insertion sequence IS711 in the Brucella chromosome via B. abortus-B. melitensis-B. ovis-B. suis (AMOS)-PCR. Unexpectedly, the isolate showed a phenotype different from B. abortus bv 1, the most prevalent strain in cattle in Argentina, and from vaccine strain 19, currently used in bovines and water buffaloes. Genotyping supported the phenotypic results, as the analysis of the omp2ab gene sequence showed an identical pattern to either B. abortus bv 5 or B. melitensis. Finally, the AMOS PCR generated a 1700-bp fragment from the isolate, different than those amplified from B. abortus bv 1 (498bp) and B. melitensis (731bp), confirming the presence of B. abortus bv 5. The OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for Brucellosis confirmed this typing. This is the first report of B. abortus bv 5 from a water buffalo in the Americas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The current condition of the abortion issue is that of an ideological stalemate. Each side has retreated to defend positions that will tolerate compromise of consideration of the other's viewpoint. The result is that both sides fail to see the implications of their views. 1 reason for this current state of affairs is the effect of Roe v Wade. The decision is based in privacy rights, rather than bodily integrity, which means that women are to be left alone when it comes to abortion. This can be seen with the Harris v McRae decision which ended federal funding for abortion services and the Rust v Sullivan decision which further limited doctors to counsel, inform, or refer women about abortion if they take federal money. Both sides of the issue defended absolute, immutable rights which do not leave room for personal, civic, and collective responsibility. Both sides have inconsistencies: the pro-choice side does not recognize that while abortion as a backup to birth control is okay, abortion as a primary means of birth control is not. Yet this is the case in many countries today. The pro-life side maintains that the fetus has the right to be born, yet the conservative administration and its supporters do not want to pay for social and health programs that will give these fetuses a descent quality of life. If they care so much for life, how can they stand by while 20% of children live in poverty? The pro-life side continues to ignore that fact that the majority of Americans support the right to chose. The pro-choice side continues to ignore the fact that 40% of those that favor choice, also feel that abortion is immoral. The final result of these arguments about right, is that they do not exist in the context of the real world. They are formed without looking at the social, economic, and personal contexts in which abortion occurs. The right to abortion should not stand alone, it should be a fail safe combined with family planning education and universal contraception.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with hemorrhages in multiple tissues. At autopsy, multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed at gross examination throughout the body and placenta. Lung, kidney, thymus, and liver fresh tissues were exam...
Department of Radiology, University of Natal, and Depart- ment of Paediatrics and ... imperfect X-ray films). Since the 1I ... tained a teratoma, with 5 fetiform structures. The latter ... dental rudiments of the fetus have suffered some un- paralleled ...
Rayburn, W F; Barr, M
Knowledge of a malformed fetus before the onset of labor would assist the physician in preparing the expectant parents, managing the timing and method of delivery, and preparing for the immediate care of a salvageable infant. This 3-year prospective investigation compared the activity patterns of fetuses who were later found to have major malformation with those of fetuses who had no apparent defects. Fetal motion over prolonged periods was determined by daily charting of fetal movement by the mother. Although not a reliable predictor for all malformations, evidence of fetal inactivity was found to be more common (p less than 0.0001) among fetuses with anomalies (16 of 58 cases, 28%) than among those with no defects (39 of 1,098 cases, 4%). All malformations associated with fetal inactivity were strongly suspected ultrasonographically and included hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, nonimmune hydrops, bilateral renal agenesis, and bilateral dislocation of the hips. Documentation of fetal inactivity is helpful in recognizing certain major malformations and constitutes grounds for more detailed study by ultrasonography.
There is general agreement that uncertainty persists regarding the psychological sequelae of abortion. Inconsistencies of interpretation stem from a lack of consensus about the symptoms, severity, and duration of mental disorder. In addition, opinions differ based on individual case studies and there is no national reporting system or adequate follow up system. Frequently, reviews combine studies conducted prior to and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision, mix elective abortion with those induced for medical reasons, or fail to distinguish between abortions performed early or late in gestation. The literature reveals methodological problems, a lack of controls, and sampling inadequacies. A review of the available literature and the files of "Abortion Research Notes" suggests that women at particular risk for postabortion stress reactions are those who terminate an originally wanted pregnancy, are strongly ambivalent, come very late in their pregnancy, or lack the support of significant others.
Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T
Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.
Clarkson, S E
The medical profession was relieved when the Contraceptive, Sterilization and Abortion Act was passed in New Zealand in 1977, but it now appears that there are continuing problems with the implementation of the law. Most of the law's clauses are concerned with the practical aspects of the performance of abortions in New Zealand. Outlined in the law are requirements for licenses of hospitals, certifying consultants and operating surgeons, and the tasks of the supervising committee are specified. Thus, the medical profession accepted the impossible job of becoming the arbiter of morals of New Zealand society. There have been problems, since passage of the law, with inadequate numbers of certifying consultants being recruited, the resignation of the chair of the Abortion Supervisory Committee, a lack of resources to provide the required counseling services, and local variation in interpretations resulting in inconsistent treatment of abortion requests in different parts of the country. The basis of the problem is the fact that this law requires a moral rather than a medical decision to be made. Although at 1st glance the phrase serious risk to mental health would appear to be easily interpreted, this is not so. The morality of an act of abortion depends on the right afforded the fetus, and no society has as yet achieved a consensus on this. Thus, this must remain the conviction of each separate individual. Some guidance may come from medidal and legal advisers in this moral decision, but it is impossible to delegate personal moral decisions.
Grimes, David A
An estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year, resulting in the deaths of about 70,000 women. Legalization of abortion is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health. Without skilled providers, adequate facilities and easy access, the promise of safe, legal abortion will remain unfulfilled, as in India and Zambia. Both suction curettage and pharmacological abortion are safe methods in early pregnancy; sharp curettage is inferior and should be abandoned. For later abortions, either dilation and evacuation or labour induction are appropriate. Hysterotomy should not be used. Timely and appropriate management of complications can reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Treatment delays are dangerous, regardless of their origin. Misoprostol may reduce the risks of unsafe abortion by providing a safer alternative to traditional clandestine abortion methods. While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health.
Full Text Available Abortion is seen as an immoral and unjust act by many. Nonetheless these views are under pressure to conform to the learned opinion on abortion. A variety of prestigious in the field of applied ethics support abortion in one way or another. And it is a dogma of modern liberalism that even if one is personally opposed to abortion, one must accept the neutral solution of its public permissibility. The present article defends the thesis that abortion is immoral and unjust against these contentions. With regards to the moral status of abortion, it argues that the prohibition of abortion is off a piece with the prohibition of killing generally, which is characterized by protecting all human beings equally. With regards to the compatibility of abortion permissibility with liberalism, the article argues that such a compromise is not neutral, but heavily rigged in favor of the interests and world-views of abortion proponents.
Full Text Available Current ethical and legal issues with regard to abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy are discussed in this paper. These problems are considered from the legal theory point of view as well as from the standpoint of the Serbian Law, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, legal regulations of several EU countries, the USA, Japan, and their judicial practice. First, the pregnancy termination standards that exist in Serbia are introduced. Then the following issues are explained separately: the pro life and pro choice approaches to abortion; abortion according to the legal approach as a way of survival; the moral and legal status of the fetus; prenatal genetic testing, and finally matters regarding managing pregnancy today. Moral and legal principals of autonomy, namely freedom of choice of the individual, privacy and self-determination give women the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In addition, the basic question is whether the right of the woman to abortion clashes with the rights of others. Firstly, with the right of the "fetus to life". Secondly, with the right of the state to intervene in the interest of protecting "the life of the fetus". Third, with the rights of the woman’s partner. The fetus has the moral right to life, but less in relation to the same right of the woman as well as in relation to her right to control her life and her physical and moral integrity. On the other hand, the value of the life of the fetus increases morally and legally with the maturity of gestation; from the third trimester, the interest of the state prevails in the protection of the "life of the fetus" except when the life or health of the pregnant woman are at risk. As regards the rights of the woman’s partner, namely the husband’s opinion, there is no legal significance. The law does not request his participation in the decision on abortion because
Thurmond, M C; Anderson, M L; Blanchard, P C
This study was undertaken to determine if the proportion of dairy cow abortions attributable to Neospora sp. infection increased or occurred in a seasonal cycle during a 6-yr period. Abortions caused by Neospora sp. were tallied for all fetuses submitted to the Tulare branch of the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between January 1985 and December 1990. Regression analysis of 221 cases of Neospora among 762 fetuses submitted showed a weak increasing secular trend (P = 0.053, r2 = 0.05), with predicted monthly proportions at the beginning and end of the 6 yr of 0.16 and 0.33, respectively. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov-type statistic, comparison of the 12-mo distribution of Neospora sp. cases and a hypothetical distribution of cows at risk of aborting found about 16% of variation in cases was attributable to season (P fall. Results indicate that Neospora sp. abortion in California dairy cows is not new or recently emerging and that seasonally related factors influence some of the risk of abortion. Results suggest that Neospora sp. has contributed to the high dairy cow abortion rate for many years, and that seasonally varying exposures may predispose to transmission or recrudescence of infection.
In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
Lisker, Rubén; Carnevale, Alessandra; Villa, Antonio R
Abortion is illegal in most of Mexico, except in the case of rape or physical risk to the mother, but there are several indicators that suggest that at least in Mexico City, society would like to have a more liberal law. The present study was performed to learn what several groups of physicians and medical students residing outside of Mexico City think in this regard. Seven colleagues working in different cities agreed to apply a questionnaire to physicians and or medical students available to them, to learn their opinions regarding the acceptability of induced abortion in several scenarios. Questions one to tree inquires if abortion is acceptable up to week 20 of pregnancy at the simple request of the parents, if the fetus has a severe malformation or anencephaly. Questions four to six personalize the situations by supposing that the physician or spouse have a high risk of having a malformed child. Question seven asks if they would offer prenatal diagnosis to a mother who would abort a malformed fetus. Statistical procedure includes multivariate analysis. The inter-city physicians-students composition was very heterogeneous. The majority of respondents disagreed with abortion on demand of the parents, but clearly agrees to it in the presence of severe malformations. In general males, above 30 years old physicians and less religious individuals, are more in favor to abortion than their respective counterparts. The proportion of acceptance is over 70% in most cases. We believe that this work shows a preliminary indication of a national trend amongst physicians and medical students favoring induced early abortion if the fetus has a severe malformation.
Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.
behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion.
Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J
Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.
Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.
Suranga, M S; Silva, K T; Senanayake, L
Abortion is legally permitted in Sri Lanka, only if it is performed to save the mother’s life. However, it is estimated that a large number of induced abortions take place in Sri Lanka. Knowledge and attitudes towards induced abortion in the society are key issues influencing the policy response towards changes in the law. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adults towards induced abortion in Sri Lanka. Six Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) and five to eight housing clusters from each GND were selected from Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat Division using multi stage stratified random sampling. Fifty households were systematically selected from each GND. An interview was scheduled among 743 residents aged between 19 to 49 years of age after receiving written informed consent. Only 11% of the respondents knew the situations in which abortion was legal in Sri Lanka. Approximately one tenth of the respondents (11%) did not agree with the current law which allows an induced abortion only to save the life of the mother. However, a majority agreed to legalization of abortion for rape (65%), incest (55%) and pregnancies with lethal fetal abnormalities (53%). Less than one tenth of respondents agreed with legalisation of induced abortion for other reasons such as con-traceptive failure (6%), poor economic conditions (7%) and, on request (4%). Although the society rejects abortion on request majority are in favour of allowing abortions for rape, incest and fetuses with lethal abnormalities.
A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.
Rhodes, A M
The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.
Perrotin, F; Simon, E G; Potin, J; Laffon, M
The purpose of this paper is to review available data regarding the management of delivery in intra uterine growth retarded fetuses and try to get recommendations for clinical obstetrical practice. Bibliographic research performed by consulting PubMed database and recommendations from scientific societies with the following words: small for gestational age, intra-uterine growth restriction, fetal growth restriction, very low birth weight infants, as well as mode of delivery, induction of labor, cesarean section and operative delivery. The diagnosis of severe IUGR justifies the orientation of the patient to a referral centre with all necessary resources for very low birth weight or premature infants Administration of corticosteroids for fetal maturation (before 34 WG) and a possible neuroprotective treatment by with magnesium sulphate (before 32-33 WG) should be discussed. Although elective caesarean section is common, there is no current evidence supporting the use of systematic cesarean section, especially when the woman is in labor. Induction of labor, even with unfavorable cervix is possible under continuous FHR monitoring, in favorable obstetric situations and in the absence of severe fetal hemodynamic disturbances. Instrumental delivery and routine episiotomy are not recommended. For caesarean section under spinal anesthesia, an adequate anesthetic management must ensure the maintenance of basal blood pressure. Compared with appropriate for gestational age fetus, IUGR fetus is at increased risk of metabolic acidosis or perinatal asphyxia during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...
the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern. Ethiopia. ... animals and herds given the extensive production system prevailing in the area which may allow contact ... due to abortion, infertility and reduction in milk production. In addition, the ..... Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen, K.
They called bovine brucellosis (Bakkale) and described it as a cattle disease characterized by standing hair coat, fever, loss of appetite, swollen joints, and abortion and transmitted by ingestion and contact. The high prevalence observed calls for urgent government intervention towards public health enlightenment of ...
Aug 14, 1971 ... abortion on the demand of any pregnant woman. Although .... Of these abortions 55% were in single, widowed, divorced or separated women and the ... gists found reluctance in nursing staff for the performance of therapeutic ...
In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.
Seyede Zahra Masoumi
Full Text Available Background & aim: Abortion is the third leading cause of maternal mortality. The attitude of women towards abortion is one of the most important factors involved in this issue. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of women of reproductive age towards induced abortion. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 450 women of reproductive age in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamedan, Iran in 2014. Data was collected using abortion attitude scale consisting of five sections: socioeconomic status, family status, maternal and fetal health status, psycho -cultural background, and fertility status. Mean score less than three in each domain was considered as negative attitude, while scores higher or equal to three indicated positive attitude towards induced abortion. To analyze the data, logistic regression analysis, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed using SPSS version 21. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, induced abortion had no significant relationship with family status, maternal and fetal health, and fertility domains (82.1%, 77.3%, and 64.4%, respectively. A relationship was observed between induced abortion and socioeconomic and psycho-cultural domains (61.8% and 56%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of induced abortion were the attitude towards the effect of abortion on the health of mother and fetus (P= 0.01, as well as the psychocultural status of the mothers (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Evaluation of the results indicated a strong belief in the majority of the participants in psychocultural and socioeconomic domains as the most significant predictive factors for induced abortion. Since it is difficult to alter the socioeconomic and psychocultural domains of individuals, changes are recommended in predominant attitudes towards induced abortion.
The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...
Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...
Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.
Albay, S; Kastamoni, Yadigar; Sakalli, Büşra; Tunali, S
The aim of this study was to assess the absence of the palmaris longus, the proportion of the lengths of tendon and muscle belly, the development of the tendon and the belly during the fetal period, look for any difference between sides and gender. Fifty-eight spontaneously aborted human fetuses (26 female, 32 male, 116 upper extremities) were studied. The presence or absence of the palmaris longus was determined. The lengths of the belly and tendon were measured, and belly/tendon length ratio was calculated. Correlation with gestational age, body side and gender were studied. The muscle was absent in 44 forearms (37.93%; 20 right side, 34.48%; 24 left side, 41.38%); being bilateral in 19 of 58 fetuses (32.76%) and unilateral in six (10.34%). The unilateral absence rate was higher on the left side with a statistically significant difference. The absence of palmaris longus was more common in females, and the difference was statistically significant. The belly/tendon length ratio was 1.04 ± 0.35 on the right side and 1.09 ± 0.3 on the left. It did not show any difference according the fetal age. A sound knowledge on the anatomy and variations of palmaris longus is of great importance during surgical interventions; because it is the first choice for tendon grafts, by the virtue of its structure and function. Thus, this study is of academic interest for anatomists and hand surgeons alike.
Prenatal diagnosis was developed in the 1970s, a result of a partly contingent coming together of three medical innovations-amniocentesis, the study of human chromosomes and obstetrical ultrasound-with a social innovation, the decriminalization of abortion. Initially this diagnostic approach was proposed only to women at high risk of fetal malformations. Later, however, the supervision of the fetus was extended to all pregnant women. The latter step was strongly favoured by professionals' aspiration to prevent the birth of children with Down syndrome, an inborn condition perceived as a source of suffering for families and a burden on public purse. Experts who promoted screening for 'Down risk' assumed that the majority of women who carry a Down fetus will decide to terminate the pregnancy, and will provide a private solution to a public health problem. The generalization of screening for Down risk increased in turn the frequency of diagnoses of other, confirmed or potential fetal pathologies, and of dilemmas linked with such diagnoses. Debates on such dilemmas are usually limited to professionals. The transformation of prenatal diagnosis into a routine medical technology was, to a great extent, an invisible revolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ekmekci, Perihan Elif
Abortion is among the most widely discussed concepts of medical ethics. Since the well-known ethical theories have emerged from Western world, the position of Islamic ethics regarding main issues of medical ethics has been overlooked. Muslims constitute a considerable amount of world population. Turkish Republic is the only Muslim country ruled with secular democracy and one of the three Muslim countries where abortion is legalized. The first aim of this paper is to present discussions on abortion in Islamic ethics in the context of major ethical concepts; the legal status of the fetus, respect for life and the right not to be born. The second aim is to put forth Turkey's present legislation about abortion in the context of Islamic ethical and religious aspects.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Cameron, C; Williamson, R
When a person at risk of having a child with a genetic illness or disease wishes to have an unaffected child, this can involve difficult choices. If the pregnancy is established by sexual intercourse, the fetus can be tested early in pregnancy, and if affected a decision can be made to abort in the hope that a future pregnancy with an unaffected fetus ensures. Alternatively, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be used after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) to select and implant an unaffected embryo that hopefully will proceed to term and produce a healthy baby. We are aware that many individuals at risk regard the latter as ethically more acceptable than the former, and examine whether there is an ethical difference between these options. We conclude that PGD and implantation of an unaffected embryo is a more acceptable choice ethically than prenatal diagnosis (PND) followed by abortion for the following reasons: Choice after PGD is seen as ethically neutral because a positive result ("a healthy pregnancy") balances a negative result ("the destruction of the affected embryo") simultaneously (assuming the pregnancy proceeds to full term and a healthy baby is born). While there is usually the intention to establish a healthy pregnancy after an abortion, this is not simultaneous; A woman sees abortion as a personal physical violation of her integrity, and as the pregnancy proceeds she increasingly identifies with and gives ethical status to the embryo/fetus as it develops in utero and not in the laboratory; Many people see aborting a fetus as "killing", whereas in the case of PGD the spare embryos are "allowed to die". We argue that this difference of opinion gives further weight to our conclusion, but note that this has been addressed and debated at length by others.
Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski
Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.
presentation, she noticed coital bleeding; it was mildI self with no associated dizziness or dyspareunis. She had been treated with drugs on many occasions at hospitals as well as over the counter medicaiions with no improvement. Eight years prior to presentation, she had an induced abortion at about 14 weeks of gestaiion ...
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...
14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...
Claudia Escobar García
This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.
Jun 1, 2014 ... 95% of women would have had an induced abortion. (10), which ... who were fluent in both English and the local language were chosen ... the woman and society. The Muslims ... that “traditional methods are only effective at the early stages of ... modern and traditional family planning services. However ...
Westley, S B
In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data.
Jandová, A; Cifra, M; Pokorný, J; Nedbalová, M; Dohnalová, A; Kobilková, J; Cocek, A
Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.
Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary
van den Brom, R; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Luttikholt, S; Peperkamp, K; Wouda, W; Vellema, P
During five successive lambing seasons between 2006 and 2011, 453 submissions of abortion material, 282 of ovine and 171 of caprine origin, were examined at the Animal Health Service in the Netherlands. Infectious agents as the most plausible cause of the abortion were found in 48 percent of the ovine submissions and in 34 percent of the caprine submissions. Submission of both aborted fetus and placental membranes increased the diagnostic yield of laboratory investigations (17 percent and 21 percent for ovine and caprine submissions, respectively). The main infectious causes of abortion in sheep were Chlamydia abortus, Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria spp., and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The main infectious causes of abortion in goats were Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Listeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Campylobacter spp. In 42 percent of the ovine and in 56 percent of the caprine submissions a causal agent was not identified. Furthermore, in 12 percent of the ovine and 10 percent of the caprine submissions evidence of placentitis, indicative of an infectious cause of the abortion, was found, but no infectious agent was identified. Most infectious causes of ovine and caprine abortion have zoonotic potential. Humans, especially pregnant women, who are in close contact with lambing sheep or goats should be aware of the importance of precautionary hygiene measures.
Nilas, Lisbeth; Glavind-Kristensen, M; Vejborg, Thomas
METHODS: A retrospective 2-year cohort study of 127 women, with gestation between 13 and 24 weeks and a live fetus, seeking induced abortion. The aim was to compare the effect of a 1-day and a 2-day interval between oral mifepristone (200 mg) and vaginal misoprostol (400 microg) every 3 h. RESULTS......: The time to fetal expulsion was longer (9.8 versus 7.5 h; pabortion occurred in 98% within 24 h in both groups The time to abortion was longer in women with a gestation of 17-22 weeks compared to women...
Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula
This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.
The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade.
Claudia Escobar García
Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.
Edwards, R B
This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.
Herwig, Martina C; Loeffler, Karin U; Gembruch, Ulrich; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Müller, Annette M
We report anterior segment abnormalities in both eyes of a 33-week-old fetus endorsing the diagnosis of MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome. After abortion, the fetus was examined by a standard pediatric autopsy that included macroscopic and microscopic examination of both eyes. Postmortem findings included craniofacial stigmata (such as hypertelorism, a flat nose and low-set ears) and an agenesis of the corpus callosum. Array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome (region Xp22.2 to p22.32). Ophthalmopathologic examination of the eyes revealed microphthalmia with anterior segment developmental anomalies, in particular sclerocornea and Peters' anomaly, respectively. General pathology findings plus the ocular findings allowed the diagnosis of MIDAS syndrome. A discussion of differential diagnoses is provided. This case report indicates that ophthalmopathologic investigation of fetal eyes can be of great value for the further classification of syndromes.
Full Text Available Alloimmunization against the Rhesus-D (RhD antigen still remains as a major cause of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. Determination of paternal RhDzygosity is performed by molecular testing and is valuable for the management of alloimmunized pregnant women. A 30-year-old pregnant woman with AB negative blood group presented with two consecutive abortions and no history of blood transfusion. By application of the antibody screening, identification panel, and selected cells, she was found to be highly alloimmunized. RhDzygosity was performed on her partner and was shown to be homozygous for RhD. The sequence- specific priming-polymerase chain reaction used in this report is essential to establish whether the mother requires an appropriate immunoprophylaxis or the fetus is at risk of HDFN.
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
Carnevale, A; Lisker, R; Villa, A R; Armendares, S
Prenatal diagnosis (PD) provides the physician information on whether the unborn fetus has a genetic or chromosomal disorder, and offers patients a new option: selective abortion. In the present study, we analyzed the answers Mexican geneticists provided to a few selected questions from a multinational survey designed by Wertz and Fletcher [1988: Am J Hum Genet 42:592-600]. The selected questions were related to the use of PD, the acceptance of selective abortion, and the self-reported directiveness of counselling following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. Our results show that the great majority of Mexican geneticists participating in the study agree with PD when medically indicated, but not on free demand. Specific cases stimulated the group on thinking more than the general statements provided in the survey. Although the majority agreed that PD should be available to all women, when faced with cases of nonmorbid maternal anxiety, paternity testing, and sex selection, the proportion of geneticists willing to perform the test decreased substantially. When counselling patients on a fetal anomaly, the minority would be as unbiased as possible, and this seems to be the tendency in developing countries where counselling, as stated in the respondents' comments, reflects the belief that the goal of genetics is the prevention of or opposition to abortion. Counselling was influenced by the severity of the disorder. The geneticists' personal attitude toward abortion in the same situations was stronger than when counselling others. Analysis of directiveness in counselling for fetal anomaly showed that older geneticists, with more years of experience in medical genetics, were more likely to be neutral. When counselling directively, the group showed an overall direction toward continuing affected pregnancies. However, older geneticists and those with more than 10 years of practice were more likely than their younger counterparts to counsel towards terminating affected
This is a discussion on pregnancy interruption as it was carried out in the last years in the German Federal Republic, as well as in the German Democratic Republic. Ethical and moral problems and concepts concerning abortion and abortion legislation are discussed from the viewpoint of various ideas and philosophies, especially from the marxist point of view. Moral and ethical concepts result from an evaluation process of human behavior and social relationships. From the marxist insight of people it is known that this is historically concrete and not eternally existing in the nature of man. It is based on concrete people within concrete social situations. Moral values are dependent on social concepts and include human motivations. There is a close relationship between human needs and interests on the one hand and ethical values on the other hand. In abortion too, the single decision of the person does not constitute an ethical value. Abortion cannot be considered independent from the woman, nor from social reality. Reasons for legal abortion have changed through the years according to social needs; before and after World War II poverty, hardship, malnutrition; today it mainly is a question of woman's need for equality in education, profession, and family. Population policies play a role: "soldiers for Hitler" during World War II; preservation of the German race; influx of foreign people with large families. Ethical naturalism "survival of the fittest" is rejected. "Human life" cannot be separated from "developing human life"; zygote, embryo, fetus and newborn are all inseparable stages in human life. A newborn child is not purely biological, like an animal; social aspects are involved. Human nature is a product of history. The developing embryo has no significance as a primary basis for induced abortion but secondarily serves only to determine the optimal time period for abortion. To base abortion on the nature of prenatal human life means nothing more than to
Hunt, M E
A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.
Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Wiebe, Ellen R; Sandhu, Supna
Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Women presenting for abortion over a two-month period at two free-standing abortion clinics, one publicly funded and the other private, were invited to participate in the study. Phase I of the study involved administration of a questionnaire seeking information about demographics, perceived barriers to access to abortion, and what the women wanted from abortion services. Phase II involved semi-structured interviews of a convenience sample of women to record their responses to questions about access. Responses from Phase I questionnaires were compared between the two clinics, and qualitative analysis was performed on the interview responses. Of 423 eligible women, 402 completed questionnaires, and of 45 women approached, 39 completed interviews satisfactorily. Women received information about abortion services from their physicians (60.0%), the Internet (14.8%), a telephone directory (7.8%), friends or family (5.3%), or other sources (12.3%). Many had negative experiences in gaining access. The most important issue regarding access was the long wait time; the second most important issue was difficulty in making appointments. In the private clinic, 85% of the women said they were willing to pay for shorter wait times, compared with 43.5% in the public clinic. Physicians who failed to refer patients for abortion or provide information about obtaining an abortion caused distress and impeded access for a significant minority of women requesting an abortion. Management of abortion services should be prioritized to reflect what women want: particularly decreased wait times for abortion and greater ease and convenience in booking appointments
Dalvie, Suchitra S
This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.
An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy
Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin
Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)
Stotland, N L
US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.
Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D
Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications
Full Text Available The decision by the Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of placing restrictions on the right to an abortion will profoundly affect German women's right to choose. This decision is a culmination of efforts to errode the right to choose for West as well as East German women. In the former GDR, even though liberal abortion laws allowed women access to free abortions, for ideological reasons, the government devised policies that discouraged abortions as a means of birth control. This policy becomes particularly apparent in the early 1980s when the East German government, confronted with a declining birth rate, faced the dilemma of how to leave the existing liberal abortion law intact while discouraging women from aborting their fetuses. To accomplish this task officials persuaded writers to produce literary works that promoted a three-child family policy where abortion was relegated to an inappropriate option. The article analyzes several literary works written in the early 1980s within the context of this renewed effort to encourage women to produce more children at the expense of their personal choice, and concludes that, in spite of the liberal abortion rights in the former GDR, the conditions for exercising these rights proved to be far less favorable.
Watter, W W
There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.
John Donohue; Steven Levitt
We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...
Between December 1990 and May 1991 in Malaysia, clinicians at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru screened 200 women with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage with ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound could evaluate the viability of the fetus and thus the outcome of pregnancy in cases of threatened abortion. A fetal heartbeat was absent in 65% of cases with the remaining 35% of cases having a fetal heartbeat. Nonviability of the fetus or an abnormal or very early pregnancy may have accounted for an absent fetal heartbeat. The pregnancy of 46% of cases continued while 41% experienced spontaneous abortion. Just 6.2% of cases with a fetal heartbeat suffered from spontaneous abortion compared with 69.7% of those without a fetal heartbeat. 93.8% of cases with a fetal heartbeat continued their pregnancies compared with 30.3% of those without a fetal heartbeat. Inability of ultrasound to detect fetal heartbeats during early pregnancy probably accounted for the somewhat high percentage of those without a fetal heartbeat who continued their pregnancies. Among patients with a fetal heartbeat, the number of pregnancies that continued. Ultrasound detected 13% abnormal pregnancies (i.e., molar pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy). Surgery on these cases confirmed the ultrasound findings. These results showed that ultrasound should be used in every case of threatened miscarriage and that a fetal heartbeat does indicate the viability of the fetus.
Bates, C J; Clarke, T C; Spencer, R C
A case of postoperative prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is described. Difficulties in isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this organism are discussed.
Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G
Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.
Full Text Available Background: Authorizing abortion in some cases of fetal and maternal diseases which was implemented by passing its law in 2005, a major change in therapeutic abortion was performed in Iran,s health system. Although there may be cases of illegal abortion, but our study examined legal abortion of Lorestan province in 2013, which led to increase in awareness of health professionals about indications of therapeutic abortion, the time to do it and answer to related questions. Materials and Methods: In this epidemiological and cross-sectional study, all applications for abortion permission, received by Lorestan legal organization in 2013, were studied. The data were recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: From 205 cases during a year, 144 of them obtained permission for abortion of which 88% issued for fetal abnormalities and 12% due to illness of the mother. The most common diseases in the fetus were, the brain and skull abnormalities, and in the mothers, cardiovascular diseases and hematologic abnormalities were the highest. In these cases, the most frequency belonged to the age group of 25-34 years. For 61 requests, permission for abortion had not been issued. High gestational age (26 cases and diseases of the brain and skull, were the most common reasons of request for abortion. Conclusion: Abortion means therapeutic abortion and with the increase in the authorized therapeutic abortion, the illegal abortion will be reduced and leads to increase in the health of pregnant women. By increasing awareness of the medical staff about permitted therapeutic abortion and related laws, a correct and better guidance of pregnant women, we can help them to have a healthy community. As well as the problems of obstetricians and gynecologists, in this field, will be decreased.
Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi
To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.
Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.
Kurjak, A; Zudenigo, D; Predanic, M; Kupesic, S; Funduk, B
Transvaginal color Doppler was used to investigate blood flow in the fetomaternal circulation of 60 women with threatened abortion and 90 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy. The obtained Doppler sonograms were analyzed and the resistance index (RI) was calculated in the maternal circulation, while in the fetal circulation the pulsatility index (PI) was used. There was no significant difference in the RI values of the maternal circulation between women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by bleeding, but with normal pregnancy outcome (p > 0.05). No differences in RI values of the uterine, arcuate and radial arteries were found between pregnancies with threatened abortion and normal pregnancy outcome and women with abnormal outcome (p > 0.05). In 9 of 21 women with visible retrochorionic hematoma, the RI of the spiral arteries was higher on the hematoma side in comparison to the opposite side (p abortion, the RI of the spiral arteries was lower in comparison to the control group. Such findings could be caused by the vasodilatating products of inflammation which probably exist in such areas. There was no significant difference in terms of the PI of fetal blood vessels between normal pregnancy and threatened abortions with normal outcome, as well as between threatened abortions with normal outcome and subsequent abortions of live fetuses (p > 0.05).
Sollom, T; Donovan, P
65 laws relating to fertility were enacted by the 49 state legislatures that held sessions in 1985. This was the largest enacted since 1973, and the 2nd largest total since. Some of the 1985 abortion laws are designed to protect abortion rights. Several states in the US took action to severely punish the perpetrators of violence against abortion clinics. Lesislation dealing with the delivery of family planning services was subjected to public funding restrictions in 1985. Attempts have been made recently on the federal level to prevent Title X recipients from being provided with information on abortion in their pregnancy counseling sessions. These actions are similar to some of the state laws attempting to reach the same end. Many states included funds for family planning in general appropriations bills. Differences among legislators regarding the right of minors to consent to reproductive health care have led to 2 patterns of response: 1) affirmation of the right of minors to receive family planning services on their own consent; or 2) laws mandating parental involvement in a minor's abortion decision. The most troubling aspect of the fertility related legislation endated in 1985 is the effort by a number of legislatures to attach restrictions on abortion counseling and referral to family planning appropriations bills. In 1985, state laws were enacted to regulate the disposal of fetal remains, to prohibit the use of fetal remains for commercial purposes and to impose criminal sanctions for causing the miscarriage of a fetus during a felony.
... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...
Korejo, Razia; Noorani, Khurshid Jehan; Bhutta, Shereen
To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identify the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Prospective observational study. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 1999 to June 2001. The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced contraception. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 women (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encountered in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion.
Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.
Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)
Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Das, A G; Gopalan, S; Dhaliwal, L K
The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the effect of threatened abortion in the current pregnancy on the subsequent perinatal outcome and follow the growth pattern of the fetuses of such complicated pregnancies. The study group consisted of 55 women with threatened abortion and 55 women with normal pregnancies formed the control group. Most of the patients presented at 6-12 weeks' gestation. The fetal growth was monitored by both clinical as well as ultrasound (USG) parameters. The mean growth rates were almost identical throughout gestation. The mean values of each parameter of the study group were found lying with 95% confidence limit values of their control group. The apparent increased incidence of low lying placenta in early pregnancy probably contributed to threatened abortion. There was no significant difference in preterm delivery, low birth-weight and overall perinatal outcome.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the woman-embryo conflict discussed by the Uruguayan Senate during the debates on abortion legalization in October and November 2007. Its aim is to show the underlying notions, which are classified as those that promote the ‘patrimonial control over the body’ and those that promote autonomy. From that perspective, it analyzes the abstract or concrete standpoint given to abortion in the Senators arguments. Then, it discusses the personhood assigned to zef (zygote-embryo-fetus based on biomedical arguments. It also discusses the attribute of moral person given/or not to the pregnant woman. Finally it shows that abortion is basically a fact that influences directly in the organization of social relations.
Holzer, F J
In Tyrol a case of fatal air embolism after an abortion attempt with a bicycle pump, performed by a blind man who later committed suicide, is described. The bicycle tube was inserted into the vagina and air and a soapy solution were pumped in. Autopsies revealed internal bleeding, gas embolisms in the veins of the ovaries and heart, a bloody foamy liquid in the lungs, and an intact 14 cm male fetus. 3 similar cases of fatal air embolisms after abortion attempts with bicycle pumps are described. In 1 case a soapy solution had been injected. Abortion attempts with a pipe and a rubber catheter, reported here, also resulted in rapidly fatal air embolisms. In 1 case death occurred a few seconds after a partner blew air with his mouth into his pregnant mistress' vagina. It is concluded that under some conditions filling the vagina with air (tightly) can cause fatal air embolisms.
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin
Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henshaw, S K
This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries
Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H
Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.
A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298
Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D
A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical
In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.
Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette
Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
... Delivery Introduction to Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Amniotic Fluid Embolism Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Fetal Distress Inverted Uterus Labor That ...
Nakayama, O; Ishizaka, K; Mizutani, N
Nursing students were found to be somewhat hesitant and indecisive about induced abortion in general. They are in favor of some cases of abortion but feel that it should be avoided if possible. They agree to abortion in cases of a mother's health being in danger and possible deformity of the child, but are opposed to it for such selfish reasons as parents' sex preference of their child and motherhood's interference with parents' study or career. They are most undecided about abortion because of financial difficulties since each case would be different. Quantitative analysis via computer was made of the results of a questionnaire given to 112 nursing students. The students were encouraged to give their candid opinion in exchange for their complete anonymity. They were asked to respond to the following reasons for having induced abortion by circling agree, somewhat agree, somewhat opposed, or opposed: 1) unexpected pregnancy at financially difficult times, 2) unwanted sex of fetus revealed by amniocentesis, 3) unwanted pregnancy with a possible hereditary disease 4) some disability of the child revealed by the fetal examination, 5) pregnancy due to rape, 6) pregnancy due to wife's adultery, 7) maternal health risk, 8) unwanted pregnancy, 9) teenage pregnancy (junior high age), 10) German measles contracted during the 1st trimester, 11) untimely pregnancy interfering with a woman's career or college studies, and 12) women's freedom of choice. Problems such as 2), 3), and 4) arose only because of advancement in medical technology, i.e., amniocentesis. Induced abortion because of unwanted sex of the fetus revealed by amniocentesis was the most clear-cut case of disapproval by nursing students.
The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to
Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta
Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated
Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah
Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death. However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.
Mouniq, C; Moron, P
Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for
Torres, A; Forrest, J D
Most respondents to a survey of abortion patients in 1987 said that more than one factor had contributed to their decision to have an abortion; the mean number of reasons was nearly four. Three-quarters said that having a baby would interfere with work, school or other responsibilities, about two-thirds said they could not afford to have a child and half said they did not want to be a single parent or had relationship problems. A multivariate analysis showed young teenagers to be 32 percent more likely than women 18 or over to say they were not mature enough to raise a child and 19 percent more likely to say their parents wanted them to have an abortion. Unmarried women were 17 percent more likely than currently married women to choose abortion to prevent others from knowing they had had sex or became pregnant. Of women who had an abortion at 16 or more weeks' gestation, 71 percent attributed their delay to not having realized they were pregnant or not having known soon enough the actual gestation of their pregnancy. Almost half were delayed because of trouble in arranging the abortion, usually because they needed time to raise money. One-third did not have an abortion earlier because they were afraid to tell their partner or parents that they were pregnant. A multivariate analysis revealed that respondents under age 18 were 39 percent more likely than older women to have delayed because they were afraid to tell their parents or partner.
Bryan, J W; Freed, F W
150 (80 females and 70 males) community college students were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward abortion, their sexual behavior, and their problems. The profile of the students was Caucasian (95%), young (18-24 years = 87%), single (87%), middle and lower middle class, and Catholic (70%). 82% supported abortion choice, 86% had engaged in premarital sex, 70% used contraception, and 26% had premarital pregnancies. The hard reasons for abortion (rape, the woman's life, is endangered, and the fetus is defective) received high support. The soft reasons (the family cannot afford more children or the woman does not want to marry the man) received lower support. The students were divided into 3 groups of 50 students based on the number of abortion reasons they supported out of 43 reasons. The low-group that accepted 0-10 reasons was called anti-abortion. 50% of them still believed a woman has a right to an abortion vs. 97% of the pro-abortion students. The students reported many problems in their families: alcoholic home (39%), loss of a parent through death, divorce, or separation (33%), victims of severe corporal punishment (31%), one or more family members physically abused (20%), and deprived of parental affection while growing up (20%). When the anti-abortion females (N=30) were compared with the pro-abortion females (N=50), they reported significantly (p.01) more hospitalization, a greater number of physical handicaps, and more shyness (p.1). When the anti-abortion males (N=20) were compared with the pro-abortion males (N=50), they reported significantly more obesity and agoraphobia (p.05) and more convictions for a crime (p.1). Comparison of women who had abortion (N=13) with the women who had their baby (N=8) indicated that the latter reported significantly (p.01) more battering by their boyfriend or husband, significantly (p.05) more battering in their family of origin and childhood sexual abuse, and a greater tendency (p.1) to have been raped.
Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie
Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...
Carpenter, Tim E; Chrièl, Mariann; Greiner, Matthias
Emergency preparedness relies on the ability to detect patterns in rare incidents in an early stage of an outbreak in order to implement relevant actions. Early warning of an abortion storm as a result of infection with a notifiable disease, e.g. brucellosis, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), is a significant surveillance tool. This study used data from 507 large Danish dairy herds. A modified two-stage method for detecting an unusual increase in the abortion incidence was applied to the data. An alarm was considered true if an abortion were detected in the month following the alarm month, otherwise false. The total number of abortions that could potentially be avoided if effective action were taken ranged from 769 (22.9%) to 10 (0.3%), as the number of abortions required to set the alarm increased from 1 to 6. The vast majority of abortions could, however, not be predicted, much less prevented, given this early-warning system. The false to true alarm ratio was reduced when the number of abortions that set the alarm increased. The financial scenarios evaluated demonstrated that the value of an abortion, the cost of responding to an alarm and the efficiency of the actions are important for decision making when reporting an alarm. The presented model can readily be extended to other disease problems and multiple-time periods.
Karcher, H L
The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.
Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.
Romans-Clarkson, S E
This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.
Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S
Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gao, Yugang; Wang, Shijie; Du, Rui; Wang, Quankai; Sun, Changjiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Pengju; Zhang, Lianxue
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE, indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX and electron microscopy(EM. The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer.
Ana C.M. Groff
Full Text Available Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a common venereal disease of cattle; the prevalence of this disease can be underestimated mostly because of the nature of the etiological agent, the microaerobic Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of genital campylobacteriosis in samples obtained from bull prepuce aspirate, cow cervical mucus, and abomasum contents of aborted fetuses, collected into enrichment medium. Five different DNA extraction protocols were tested: thermal extraction, lysis with proteinase K, lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate, lysis with DNAzol, and lysis with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The specificity, sensitivity, and technical application of the PCR assay were also evaluated with clinical samples and compared to bacterial isolation by standard culture. DNA extraction by the CTAB protocol provided better results in PCR, and it was able to detect 63 colony-forming units per ml of C. fetus. Out of 277 clinical samples tested, 68 (24% were positive for Campylobacter fetus using PCR, while only 8 (2.8% of the samples were positive by bacterial isolation in solid medium, proving the superiority of the PCR technique when compared to the standard isolation method, and providing evidence for its usefulness as a better screening test in cattle for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis.Campilobacteriose genital bovina é uma doença venérea comum em bovinos. A prevalência desta doença pode ser subestimada na maioria das vezes pela natureza microaeróbica do agente etiológico, Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR no diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital em amostras obtidas de aspirado prepucial de touros, muco cervical de vacas e conteúdo abomasal de fetos abortados, coletados em
Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.
A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)
Stotland, Nada L
Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.
Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costa, Rafael Carneiro; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Abreu, Camila Costa; Nakagaki, Karen Yumi Ribeiro; Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Nascimento, Lismara Castro; Silva, Aline Costa; Maiorka, Paulo César; Peconick, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Djeison Lutier; Varaschin, Mary Suzan
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that is considered one of the main agents responsible for abortion in ruminants. The lesions found in the central nervous system (CNS) of aborted fetuses show multifocal necrosis, gliosis, and perivascular cuffs of mononuclear cells, but the inflammatory and glial cells have not been immunophenotypically characterized. The lesions in the CNS of infected adult animals have rarely been described. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the lesions, the immunophenotypes of the inflammatory and glial cells and the expression of MHC-II and PCNA in the CNS of goats infected with N. caninum. The CNS of eight aborted fetuses and six adult male goats naturally infected with N. caninum were analyzed with lectin histochemistry (RCA1) and immunohistochemistry (with anti-CD3, -CD79α, -GFAP, -MHC-II, and -PCNA antibodies). All animals were the offspring of dams naturally infected with N. caninum. The microscopic lesions in the CNS of the aborted fetuses consisted of perivascular cuffs composed mainly of macrophages (RCA1(+)), rare T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), and rare B lymphocytes (CD79α(+)). Multifocal necrosis surrounded by astrocytes (GFAP(+)), gliosis composed predominantly of monocytic-lineage cells (macrophages and microglia, RCA1(+)), and the cysts of N. caninum, related (or not) to the lesions were present. Similar lesions were found in four of the six male goats, and multinucleate giant cells related to focal gliosis were also found in three adult goats. Anti-GFAP immunostaining showed astrocytes characterizing areas of glial scarring. Cysts of N. caninum were found in three adult male goats. The presence of N. caninum was evaluated with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated anti-PCNA labeling of macrophages and microglia in the perivascular cuffs and the expression of MHC-II by microglia and endothelial cells in the CNS of the aborted fetuses and adult male goats. Macrophages and
Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L
Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.
A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...
The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.
Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.
Brodie, H K; Banner, L
This article opens with a review of the concept of "normatology," which was developed by Sabshin and Offer in four books published over a period of 30 years. Normatology seeks to produce an "operational definition of normality and health" over the life cycle. Such a definition can be used as a guideline in the deliver of health care. The importance of this field of study is highlighted when considering issues such as abortion or physician-assisted suicide. Fortunately, the proclivity of Americans to conduct public opinion polls helps researchers determine what is considered "normal" at any given time. Gallup Polls, which have posed the same question about the legality of abortion from 1975 to 1995, indicate that about half of all Americans continuously occupy the middle ground on this issue despite a somewhat liberalizing trend. In general, public opinion holds that it is normal to want to avoid giving birth to a damaged child, to place the mother's health and safety above that of the fetus, and to terminate a pregnancy resulting from rape. It is less normal to abort a healthy fetus on demand. Thus, abortion will likely continue to be a source of controversy and confusion in our society and among psychiatric patients. In comparison, psychiatrists express attitudes about abortion that are more liberal than normal. In the case of physician-assisted suicide, public approval has increased since 1950 as scientific advancements have facilitated the prolongation of unproductive and painful life. If legalized, physician-assisted suicide may depend upon psychiatric assessment of an absence of mental disease. Such an assessment is required in the Northern Territory of Australia, where voluntary euthanasia is legal, but not in the Netherlands, where it is government-regulated. Psychiatrists must understand public opinion in order to influence it or deal with it competently.
Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291
Morán, Pedro E; Pérez, Sandra E; Odeón, Anselmo C; Verna, Andrea E
Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle with respiratory infections, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, abortions, endometritis and from apparently healthy animals throughout the world. Although it has not yet been established as causal agent of a specific disease entity, it is primarily associated with reproductive disorders of cattle. This virus can infect a wide range of species, either in vivo or in vitro. Two groups of prototype strains were originated from the first isolates: the DN599-type strains (American group) and the Movar-type strains (European group). In Argentina, BoHV-4 was isolated and characterized in 2007 from vaginal discharge samples taken from cows that had aborted. So far, more than 40 isolates, mainly associated with aborting bovine females have been registered in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier
Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.
Full Text Available Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8 in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24 and 71% (n = 39 of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9% when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5% when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.
AJRH Managing Editor
Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.
Full Text Available “Fetus in fetu” is a condition seen rarely in the literature, less than 200 cases reported till now. It is a calcified mass or an encapsulated pendunculated tumor thought to be due to unequal division of totipotent cells of a blastocyst, resulting in a small cellular mass in a more mature embryo thus forming a monozygotic, diamniotic twin pregnancy.
The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.
Himma, Kenneth Einar
I attempt to show that, under materialist assumptions about the nature of mind, it is a necessary condition for fetal personhood that electrical activity has begun in the brain. First, I argue that it is a necessary condition for a thing to be a moral person that it is (or has) a self--understood as something that is capable of serving as the subject of a mental experience. Second, I argue that it is a necessary condition for a fetus to be (or have) a self that some form of electrical brain activity occurs. Third, I argue that since the beginning of brain activity typically occurs at around 10 weeks of gestational age, most fetuses are not persons during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy and hence that abortion of most fetuses during this period does not rise to the moral level of murder.
Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves
Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.
Dubouis-bonnefond, J C; Galle-tessonneau, J R
an infant when in fact it is only potentially an infant. On the unconscious level the father may identify with the aborted fetus in the belief that his own parents may have wanted to destroy him. The abortion may also contain a suicidal element to the extent that the fetus represents a prolongation of the parent. The anxiety and guilt of the father find expression also in auto- and heteroaggressive acts. Through a mechanism of projection, responsibility of the army is substituted for that of the individual.
Vidya Devi Negi
Full Text Available Pregnancy is a transient immuno-compromised condition which has evolved to avoid the immune rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The altered immune response of the pregnant female leads to increased susceptibility to invading pathogens, resulting in abortion and congenital defects of the fetus and a subnormal response to vaccination. Active vaccination during pregnancy may lead to abortion induced by heightened cell mediated immune response. In this study, we have administered the highly attenuated vaccine strain DeltapmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07 in female mice before the onset of pregnancy and followed the immune reaction against challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium in pregnant mice. Here we demonstrate that DV-STM-07 vaccine gives protection against Salmonella in pregnant mice and also prevents Salmonella induced abortion. This protection is conferred by directing the immune response towards Th2 activation and Th1 suppression. The low Th1 response prevents abortion. The use of live attenuated vaccine just before pregnancy carries the risk of transmission to the fetus. We have shown that this vaccine is safe as the vaccine strain is quickly eliminated from the mother and is not transmitted to the fetus. This vaccine also confers immunity to the new born mice of vaccinated mothers. Since there is no evidence of the vaccine candidate reaching the new born mice, we hypothesize that it may be due to trans-colostral transfer of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies. These results suggest that our vaccine DV-STM-07 can be very useful in preventing abortion in the pregnant individuals and confer immunity to the new born. Since there are no such vaccine candidates which can be given to the new born and to the pregnant women, this vaccine holds a very bright future to combat Salmonella induced pregnancy loss.
Ruano, Rodrigo; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sananes, Nicolas; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Deter, Russell L
To evaluate fetal lung growth using 3-dimensional sonography in healthy fetuses and those with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Right and total lung volumes were serially evaluated by 3-dimensional sonography in 66 healthy fetuses and 52 fetuses with left-sided CDH between 20 and 37 weeks' menstrual age. Functions fitted to these parameters were compared for 2 groups: (1) healthy versus those with CDH; and (2) fetuses with CHD who survived versus those who died. Fetal right and total lung volumes as well as fetal observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were significantly lower in fetuses with CDH than healthy fetuses (Pvolume ratios did not vary with menstrual age in healthy fetuses or in those with CDH (independent of outcome). Lung volume rates were lower in fetuses with left-sided CDH compared to healthy fetuses, as well as in fetuses with CDH who died compared to those who survived. The observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were relatively constant throughout menstrual age in fetuses with left-sided CDH, suggesting that the origin of their lung growth abnormalities occurred before 20 weeks and did not progress. The observed-to-expected ratios may be useful in predicting the outcome in fetuses with CDH independent of menstrual age. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola
Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.
Hebebrand, J.; Hofmann, D.; Reichelt, R.; Schnarr, S.; Knapp, M.; Propping, P.; Foedisch, H.J.
The early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) was investigated in human embryos and fetuses between 7 and 26 weeks of gestation. Brain tissue was gained from terminated pregnancies or spontaneous abortions. Binding studies, which were performed with /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (FNZ), revealed that specific benzodiazepine binding is already detectable at an embryonal age of 7 weeks post conception. Binding at this early stage can be displaced potently by clonazepam and the inverse agonist ..beta..-CCE. Additionally, /sup 3/H-FNZ binding is enhanced by GABA. Thus, benzodiazepine binding is of the central type. Receptor density increases steeply in whole brain between weeks 8 and 11 of gestation. In frontal cortex receptor density increases gradually between weeks 12 and 26 of gestation. No specific fetal disease entity (including trisomy 21) was consistently associated with exceptionally high or low B/sub max/-values.
Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kavak, Ebru Celik; Coskun, Berna; Ilhan, Rasit; Orak, Ugur
Monocephalus Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twins. The etiology of this anomaly is stil obscure. We herein report a monocephalus diprosopus case that was diagnosed in week 19 of pregnancy was presented due to its rarity and the significance of its prenatal diagnosis. Recommended a pregnancy termination since it does not have a definitive treatment today, prenatal diagnosis made for such fetuses at an early stage bears importance in terms of lowering the severity of psychological t...
Trussell, J; Ellertson, C
Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can
Thuróczy, Julianna; Müller, Linda; Kollár, Eszter; Balogh, Lajos
Serum progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured weekly until 61 to 62 days after ovulation in 24 pregnant bitches and in the control group of nine nonpregnant bitches in the luteal phase. Fourteen of the 24 dogs had a normal pregnancy and parturition. Ten of the 24 dogs showed mucinous or colored vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, or lethargy. These initial signs of abortion or fetal resorption were noted during the fourth week of pregnancy, and the process occurred over the next 2 weeks. Progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured by quantitative ELISAs validated to dog serum. The serum progesterone concentrations of the group going through abortions differed significantly from the third week until the end of the eighth week. The mean serum thyroxin concentrations of healthy pregnant and nonpregnant groups significantly exceeded the reference range (20-45 nmol/L). The serum thyroxin concentrations in the abortion group were between 16.15 ± 3.17 and 40.78 ± 8.97 nmol/L. The values in this group were significantly different from the other two groups at the third week of the luteal phase. Clinical signs of abortion or fetus resorption manifested in midpregnancy. The clinical signs of abortion coincided in each case with a low serum progesterone concentration (<10 ng/mL). This phenomenon indicated, in contrast with other studies, that the decrease of serum progesterone below 10 ng/mL at the fourth week of pregnancy may signal impending abortion. In the second half of pregnancy, the thyroid gland was not able to respond adequately to the elevated requirement in thyroid hormone, although in other periods of the ovarian cycle, there were no clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children
Kovacs, Christopher S
During embryonic development most of the skeleton begins as a cartilaginous scaffold that is progressively resorbed and replaced by bone. Such endochondral bone development does not cease until the growth plates fuse during puberty. Growth and mineralization of the skeleton are dependent upon the adequate delivery of mineral. During fetal development, the placenta actively transports calcium, magnesium and phosphorus from the maternal circulation. After birth, the role of mineral transport is assumed by the intestines. The limited data currently available on fetal humans are largely based on cord blood samples from normal fetuses and pathological specimens from fetuses which died in utero or at birth. Consequently, much of our understanding of the regulation of fetal mineral and bone homeostasis comes from the study of animal fetuses that have been manipulated surgically, pharmacologically and genetically. Animal and human data indicate that fetal mineral homeostasis requires parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein-but not vitamin D/calcitriol, calcitonin or sex steroids. In the days to weeks after birth, intestinal calcium absorption becomes an active process, which necessitates that the infant depends upon vitamin D/calcitriol. However, even this postnatal function of calcitriol can be bypassed by increasing the calcium content of the diet or by administering calcium infusions.
Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.
An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.
Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L
Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.
Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M
From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.
Ney, P G; Wickett, A R
This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.
Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.
Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A
The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.
Sargison, N D; Truyers, I G R; Howie, F E; Thomson, J R; Cox, A L; Livingstone, M; Longbottom, D
One hundred and forty Cheviot and 100 Suffolk cross Mule primiparous 1-2-year-old ewes, from a flock of about 700 ewes, were vaccinated with an attenuated live 1B strain Chlamydia abortus vaccine about 4 weeks before ram introduction (September 2011). Between 08 March and 01 April 2012, 50 2-year-old ewes aborted and 29 of these died, despite antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment and supportive care. Seven fetuses and three placentae from five 2-year-old ewes were submitted for pathological investigation. The aborted fetuses showed stages of autolysis ranging from being moderately fresh to putrefaction. Unusual, large multifocal regions of thickened membranes, with a dull red granular surface and moderate amounts of grey-white surface exudate were seen on each of the placentae. Intracellular, magenta-staining, acid fast inclusions were identified in Ziehl Neelsen-stained placental smears. Immunohistochemistry for Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide showed extensive positive labelling of the placental epithelia. Molecular analyses of the aborted placentae demonstrated the presence of the 1B vaccine-type strain of C. abortus and absence of any wild-type field strain. The vaccine strain bacterial load of the placental tissue samples was consistent with there being an association between vaccination and abortion. Initial laboratory investigations resulted in a diagnosis of chlamydial abortion. Further investigations led to the identification of the 1B vaccine strain of C. abortus in material from all three of the submitted aborted placentae. Timely knowledge and understanding of any potential problems caused by vaccination against C. abortus are prerequisites for sustainable control of chlamydial abortion. This report describes the investigation of an atypical abortion storm in sheep, and describes the identification of the 1B vaccine strain of C. abortus in products of abortion. The significance of this novel putative association between the vaccine strain
Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E
This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.
Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina
Popular discourse on abortion in film and television assumes that abortions are under- and misrepresented. Research indicates that such representations influence public perception of abortion care and may play a role in the production of social myths around abortion, with consequences for women's experience of abortion. To date, abortion plotlines in American film and television have not been systematically tracked and analyzed. A comprehensive online search was conducted to identify all representations of pregnancy decision making and abortion in American film and television through January 2013. Search results were coded for year, pregnancy decision and mortality outcome. A total of 310 plotlines were identified, with an overall upward trend over time in the number of representations of abortion decision making. Of these plotlines, 173 (55.8%) resulted in abortion, 80 (25.8%) in parenting, 13 (4.2%) in adoption and 21 (6.7%) in pregnancy loss, and 16 (5.1%) were unresolved. A total of 13.5% (n=42) of stories ended with the death of the woman who considered an abortion, whether or not she obtained one. Abortion-related plotlines occur more frequently than popular discourse assumes. Year-to-year variation in frequency suggests an interactive relationship between media representations, cultural attitudes and policies around abortion regulation, consistent with cultural theory of the relationship between media products and social beliefs. Patterns of outcomes and rates of mortality are not representative of real experience and may contribute to social myths around abortion. The narrative linking of pregnancy termination with mortality is of particular note, supporting the social myth associating abortion with death. This analysis empirically describes the number of abortion-related plotlines in American film and television. It contributes to the systematic evaluation of the portrayal of abortion in popular culture and provides abortion care professionals and
Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta
Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated
Jacobson, J L
In 1984, the Reagan administration announced in Mexico City a reversal in the US international family planning policy. The new policy strictly forbids any international family planning group that receives US funds from providing abortion services or counseling. An immediate impact on family planning programs in developing countries was that it prevented the opening of much needed clinics in the poorest, most rapidly growing countries in the world, such as Bangladesh. The University of Michigan School of Public Health estimates an additional 380,000 unwanted pregnancies, resulting in 311,000 births, 69,000 abortions, and 1200 maternal deaths in the next 3 years. Not only did the US change its policy, but congress decreased funding for international family planning programs 20% between 1985 and 1987. The majority of the funding goes to the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and in 1988 the Reagan administration allowed USAID to funnel about $75 million of this money to other projects, e.g. general African development fund. Fewer contraceptives are available due to the reduced funding, and therefore more women seek an abortion as a last resort against unwanted pregnancy. An additional effect of this 1984 policy reversal is that fewer nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are eligible for grants, so USAID gives its family planning funds to government agencies who are not the most effective users of funds and are not always trusted by the people served.
Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Regmi, Shibesh Chandra; Dangal, Ganesh
Unsafe abortion is affecting a lot, in health, socio-economic and health care cost of many countries. Despite invention of simple technology and scientifically approved safe abortion methods, women and girls are still using unsafe abortion practices. Since 2002, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in developing policies, guidelines, task shifting, training human resources and increasing access to services. However, more than half of abortion in Nepal are performed clandestinely by untrained or unapproved providers or induced by pregnant woman herself. Knowledge on legalization and availability of safe abortion service among women is still very poor. Stigma on abortion still persists among community people, service providers, managers, and policy makers. Access to safe abortion, especially in remote and rural areas, is still far behind as compared to their peers from urban areas. The existing law is not revised in the spirit of current Constitution of Nepal and rights-based approach. The existence of abortion stigma and the shifting of the government structure from unitary system to federalism in absence of a complete clarity on how the safe abortion service gets integrated into the local government structure might create challenge to sustain existing developments. There is, therefore, a need for all stakeholders to make a lot of efforts and allocate adequate resources to sustain current achievements and ensure improvements in creating a supportive social environment for women and girls so that they will be able to make informed decisions and access to safe abortion service in any circumstances.
Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor
As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.
Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus
Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown
Rocha, Cláudia E; Mol, Juliana P S; Garcia, Luize N N; Costa, Luciana F; Santos, Renato L; Paixão, Tatiane A
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular and invasive bacterium that has tropism to the placenta, and causes fetal morbidity and mortality in several mammalian species. While infection with L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are known as important causes of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle, the pathogenesis of maternal-fetal listeriosis in this species is poorly known. This study used the bovine chorioallantoic membrane explant model to investigate the kinetics of L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and L. innocua infections in bovine trophoblastic cells for up to 8 h post infection. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were able to invade and multiply in trophoblastic cells without causing cell death or inducing expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Although L. innocua was unable to multiply in bovine trophoblastic cells, it induced transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediator CXCL6. This study demonstrated for the first time the susceptibility of bovine trophoblastic cells to L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii infection.
Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.
Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna
To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.
The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.
DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.
During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance
Walter E. Block
Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.
Political change in Bulgaria has meant the beginning of the recognition of the reproduction rights of women. Abortion, for example, was legalized in 1990. Women in Bulgaria, however, still lack the information they need on basic hygiene and sex. It is impossible to promulgate a progressive strategy in Bulgaria if one ignores the isolation of the Turkish and Gypsy ethnic communities. In addition, an economic crisis exists, and no real measures have been undertaken to mitigate the situation. The new democratic institutions have settled comfortably into the structures of the former communist rule, even to the point of adopting the same extensive demagogic terminology which perpetrates the old gap between words and deeds. For example, although a new birth control strategy and plan for sex education was announced 2 years ago, nothing definite has been done. One development, however, has been the legalization of abortion, which was accompanied by an immediate drop in the abortion rate (still 1.5 abortions/birth). Because of a lack of sex education, 900 children are born to girls under age 15 each year. Bulgaria is just starting to embrace modern values and must update its attitudes towards women. Bulgaria's formal institutions seem to be unable to face this issue, and many societies and foundations have emerged to work for women's rights, to protect out-of-wedlock children, and to fight disease (including AIDS) and drug addiction. However, these organizations are not producing real results and are simply providing shelter to representatives of the old nomenclature. Real efforts to overcome these problems will continue despite the current discouraging state of affairs.
Full Text Available Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. Missed abortion is the most common dangerous condition in pregnancy. An abortion can occur due to maternal complications, chronic disease, endocrine disorders, abortificient drugs, radiation, heavy metals and toxins. The study population consisted of 43 aborted patients and 43 normal pregnant females, referred to Imam Khomeini hospital. 10 mL blood was taken and centrifuged to isolate the patients’ serum. Then, the samples were analyzed to determine the copper and selenium levels, using atomic absorption spectrometry. All data were statistically analyzed by T-test and Mann-Whitney methods. As a result, we found a significant decrease in serum copper level in cases compared with controls. Also the results showed an insignificant decrease in serum selenium levels in the patients compared to the healthy women. According to the results, deficiency of the essential heavy metals may be a probable reason for missed abortion occurrence. These deficiencies can be related to malnutrition, decreased consumption of essential metals and supplementary compounds in pregnancy, lack of regular laboratory monitoring. Thus, consuming supplements in Iranian pregnant women can be helpful in completing a successful pregnancy.
Abortion is a common and widespread form of fertility regulation the world over. Legal and illegal abortion is very common throughout the developing countries. Since abortions are often not legal in the developing countries, unsafe abortions are an important cause of female mortality. The widespread incidence of abortions ...
Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra
Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard
Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...
Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum
Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Halim Berdi Taneh
Full Text Available Background: Fetus-In-Fetu (FIF is a rare congenital malformation, which consists of a fetus mixed with a distinct tissue that is from the other fetus of twin. FIF is defined as a mass containing a vertebral axis often associated with other organs or limbs around this central axis.Case report: The patient was a two day old girl infant who due to a mass in a sacrum area measuring 8.5 x 12.5 cm with soft consistency containing a normal skin color fluid with blood streaks and hemorrhagic and bruise colored patches since birt, was admitted at the Taleghani children's Pediatric Center of Gorgan. The results of the mother's ultrasound in the fourth month of pregnancy had identified the cyst for the fetus. In the primary results of imaging, the first the diagnosis was type 2 sacrocoxigeal teratoma. However, results of post-birth graphy confirmed the presence of fetal bone structure in the infants's sacrum, so FIF was diagnosed for the infant.Conclusion: In the present study, FIF has been seen in sacrum, which is a very rare case in FIF.
408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.
Von Baross, J
The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.
Schleger, Franziska; Landerl, Karin; Muenssinger, Jana; Draganova, Rossitza; Reinl, Maren; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Weiss, Magdalene; Wacker-Gußmann, Annette; Huotilainen, Minna; Preissl, Hubert
Numerosity discrimination has been demonstrated in newborns, but not in fetuses. Fetal magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive investigation of neural responses in neonates and fetuses. During an oddball paradigm with auditory sequences differing in numerosity, evoked responses were recorded and mismatch responses were quantified as an indicator for auditory discrimination. Thirty pregnant women with healthy fetuses (last trimester) and 30 healthy term neonates participated. Fourteen adults were included as a control group. Based on measurements eligible for analysis, all adults, all neonates, and 74% of fetuses showed numerical mismatch responses. Numerosity discrimination appears to exist in the last trimester of pregnancy.
Full Text Available ... Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & Strategies Peer Review Small Business Programs Training & Career ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share ...
Carter, Anthony M
The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...
Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique
Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)
Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M
There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.
Margolis, A J; Davison, L A; Hanson, K H; Loos, S A; Mikkelsen, C M
To determine the long-range psychological effects of therapeutic abortion, 50 women (aged from 13-44 years), who were granted abortions between 1967 and 1968 Because of possible impairment of mental and/or physical health, were analyzed by use of demographic questionnaires, psychological tests, and interviews. Testing revealed that 44 women had psychiatric problems at time of abortion. 43 patients were followed for 3-6 months. The follow-up interviews revealed that 29 patients reacted positively after abortion, 10 reported no significant change and 4 reacted negatively. 37 would definitely repeat the abortion. Women under 21 years of age felt substantially more ambivalent and guilty than older patients. A study of 36 paired pre- and post-abortion profiles showed that 15 initially abnormal tests had become normal. There was a significant increase in contraceptive use among the patients after the abortion, but 4 again became pregnant and 8 were apparently without consistent contraception. It is concluded that the abortions were therapeutic, but physicians are encouraged to be aware of psychological problems in abortion cases. Strong psychological and contraceptive counselling should be exercised.
Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K
This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.
Rothstein, D S
"This paper uses econometric multiple regression techniques in order to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting the demand for abortion for the year 1985. A cross-section of the 50 [U.S.] states and Washington D.C. is examined and a household choice theoretical framework is utilized. The results suggest that average price of abortion, disposable personal per capita income, percentage of single women, whether abortions are state funded, unemployment rate, divorce rate, and if the state is located in the far West, are statistically significant factors in the determination of the demand for abortion." excerpt
Buga, G A B
Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare workers to induced abortion. Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that may influence these attitudes. A cross-sectional analytic study involving the self-administration of an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to medical students at a small, but growing, medical school situated in rural South Africa. Demographic data, sexual practices and attitudes to induced abortion. Two hundred and forty seven out of 300 (82.3%) medical students responded. Their mean age was 21.81 +/- 3.36 (SD) years, and 78.8% were Christians, 17.1% Hindus and 2.6% Muslims. Although 95% of the respondents were single, 68.6% were already sexually experienced, and their mean age at coitarche was 17.24+/-3.14 (SD) years. Although overall 61.2% of the respondents felt abortion is murder either at conception or later, the majority (87.2%) would perform or refer a woman for abortion under certain circumstances. These circumstances, in descending order of frequency, include: threat to mother's life (74.1%), in case of rape (62.3%), the baby is severely malformed (59.5%), threat to mother's mental health (53.8%) and parental incompetence (21.0%). Only 12.5% of respondents would perform or refer for abortion on demand, 12.8% would neither perform nor refer for abortion under any circumstances. Religious affiliation and service attendance significantly influenced some of these attitudes and beliefs
Latham, Stephen R
On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.
Full Text Available This was a descriptive study aimed at exploring the personal experiences of women who induce abortion and the circumstances surrounding induced abortion. The study was conducted in six public hospitals in four different provinces: Baragwanath (Gauteng, Groote Schuur and Tygerberg (Western Cape, King Edward and R.K. Khan (Kwa-Zulu/Natal and Livingstone (Eastern Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African, Indian and Coloured women admitted to the hospitals following backstreet abortions. The study gave women the opportunity to "speak for themselves" about "why" and "how" and the context in which the unscfe induced abortions occurred
Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D
Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.
Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja
To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.
Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza
Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.
Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…
Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.
Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation
Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.
Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members
Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R; Steinberg, Julia R; Borrero, Sonya
Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women's responses to them. Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. Women's reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women's abortion experiences. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H
Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Haas, John M
Cases of a vital conflict, where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during pregnancy, have been the subject of recent vigorous debate. The basic principles put forth in the Ethical and Religious Directives are reviewed, as is the principle of double effect. An illustrative case of severe cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman is described and it is noted that the principle of double effect would not apply. Counter arguments are noted, focusing on Martin Rhonheimer who posits that in the case of vital conflicts, such as performing a craniotomy on a baby stuck in the birth canal, taking the baby's life does not constitute a direct abortion because moral norms do not apply in the extreme conflict situation where both mother and child will die. He states that the death of the fetus is not intentional in these cases. He overlooks "how the life is being saved" and that a choice has been made, which implies a moral act, not just a physical one. Rhonheimer wants to make his moral judgment solely on the basis of intention, prescinding from what actually occurs in the physical world of cause and effect. This is clearly against the teaching in Evangelium vitae. Ethics deal with the deliberate chosen actions in space and time of embodied human beings; it deals inescapably with material actions, with specifications of intentions. Rhonheimer states, "a killing or an abortion is 'direct,' not because the death of the fetus is caused in some physically direct way, but because it is willed as the means to an end." However the death of the child cannot be excluded from the act and is therefore of necessity included in it. What the acting person chooses includes what happens physically in this act. If the action theory proposed by Rhonheimer is accepted, it could be very difficult to avoid death-dealing actions from taking place in Catholic hospitals. This is a moral analysis of cases of "vital conflicts," where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during a
Slotved, H.C.; Jensen, L.; Lind, Peter
was significantly lower than in Group C. Levels of total IgG ranged from 0.01 to 1.78 (mg IgG) ml(-1) measured by single radial immunodiffusion technique. A measurable level of total IgG was found in all foetuses from Groups A and B, with no significant difference between levels in the two groups. Only one foetus......The study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of foetal serology in the diagnosis of Neospora-associated bovine abortions. Fluids from 14 foetuses of cows with confirmed neosporosis (Group A), seven foetuses with confirmed bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVD infection) (Group B) and 11 aborted...... foetuses without demonstrable infection (Group C) were examined. The age of the foetuses ranged from 4.5 months to 9 months. Albumin concentration (measured by Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis) was not significantly different in Group A compared with that in both Groups B and C, while that in Group B...
Full Text Available Background: A variety of renal and urological abnormalities have been reported in subjects with Down syndrome (DS. With increased longevity, it appears that a growing number of these subjects presents chronic renal failure. Definition of underlying cause of renal failure could lead to the prevention of progressive renal dysfunction in these patients. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the morphological changes that occur in the kidney of fetuses with DS. Methods: To this end, 25 subjects were examined. Kidney sections were stained with H&E and digitally scanned. Subjects were subdivided into two groups: fetuses with DS (DS-fetuses, n = 11 with a gestational age ranging from 13 up to 21 weeks, and healthy fetuses (N-fetuses, n = 14 with a gestational age ranging from 9 up to 22 weeks. Results: DS-fetuses showed slightly larger glomeruli as compared to N-fetuses. Moreover, glomeruli in DS-fetuses group were characterized by an enlarged Bowman’s space as compared to glomeruli in N-fetuses (p = 0.0028. Differences in the nephrogenic zone width were also observed; DS-fetuses showed a greater width of this zone as compared with N-fetuses. Discussion: In conclusion, we found relevant morphological differences, which suggests delayed renal maturation. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in glomerular area and several glomeruli were morphologically abnormal. These harmful changes in the glomerular structure may result in a nephron deficit, which may be associated with development of renal diseases and hypertension later in life.Conclusions: We hypothesize that the observed morphological anomalies could have significant implications for both the short- and long-term renal health of subjects with DS.
Ojha, N; Sharma, S; Paudel, J
Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted with history of induced abortion from 16th Dec 2003 to 13th March 2004 was carried out. A total of 305 cases of abortion complications were admitted during the three-month study period, which is 39.7% of the total gynaecological admissions (768). Of these 31 (10.25%) patients had history of induced abortion. Half of the induced abortion cases (52%) were of age group 21-29 yrs and 42% had three or more children. 39% of the cases had history of induced abortion at more than 12 weeks and almost half of the cases (48%) had history of family planning. The most common reason for seeking abortion was too many children (59%) followed by illegitimate pregnancy (16%). Twenty-one patients gave history of abortion being performed by doctors and the most common method used was D and C (75%). 77% of cases presented as incomplete abortion and one case presented with uterine perforation, bowel injury and peritonitis. Twenty patients had evacuation under sedation while five had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); one patient required laparatomy. In two third of the patients intravenous fluid and antibiotics were used. Four patients required blood transfusion. Abortion complications constitute almost 40% of the total gynaecological admissions. Ten percent of the abortion cases had history of induced abortion. Medical persons, mainly doctors, performed most of the cases of induced abortion and D and C was the most commonly used method. However the patients had faced various types of complications. Untrained provider, resulting in serious life threatening injuries, performed more than a third of the cases of
In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.
Cook, R J
It is common to find the term illegal abortion misused. Often times this misuse is perpetrated by antiabortion advocates who wish to reinforce negative stereotypes and thus apply pressure on doctors to refrain from performing abortions. Until a practitioner is prosecuted and convicted of performing an abortion contrary to the law, the procedure should not be referred to as illegal. Instead the legally neutral term, abortion, should be used instead. This would better serve the interests of women's reproductive health. There is no legal system that makes abortion illegal in all circumstances. For example, abortion is often legal if the life of the mother in danger. This includes a perception on behalf of the practitioner that the women may be suicidal or attempt to terminate the pregnancy by herself. A practitioner performing an abortion in such circumstances is not doing so illegally. The use of the term illegal abortion ignores the fact that in criminal law one is presumed innocent until proven guilty. A prosecutor must prove 1st that an intervention was performed and 2nd that a criminal intent accompanied the intervention. It is this 2nd criterion that is often the hardest to prove, since the practitioner must only testify that the intervention was indicated by legally allowed circumstances to be innocent. The prosecutor must show bad faith in order to gain a justified conviction. Even abortion by unqualified practitioners may not be illegal if doctors refuse to perform the intervention because it is still indicated. Accurate description of abortions would clarify situations in which abortion can be legally provided.
Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi
This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.
Full Text Available The debates and feminist actions in favor of the legalization of abortion in Brazil were characterized by progresses and regressions, and above all by countless political negotiations. From the omission of the word “abortion”, in the mid-seventies, to the political choice of decriminalization and application of the cases foreseen by law, Brazilian feminism has been marked by the choice of negotiation. The article concludes that these negotiations have succeeded politically but failed to reach society and heighten public awareness at a large scale.
Ntontis, Evangelos; Hopkins, Nick
Social psychological research on activism typically focuses on individuals' social identifications. We complement such research through exploring how activists frame an issue as a social problem. Specifically, we explore anti-abortion activists' representation of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists so as to recruit support for the anti-abortion cause. Using interview data obtained with UK-based anti-abortion activists (N = 15), we consider how activists characterized women having abortions, pro-abortion campaigners, and anti-abortion campaigners. In particular, we consider the varied ways in which emotion featured in the representation of these social actors. Emotion featured in different ways. Sometimes, it was depicted as constituting embodied testament to the nature of reality. Sometimes, it was depicted as blocking the rational appraisal of reality. Our analysis considers how such varied meanings of emotion shaped the characterization of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists such that anti-abortion activists were construed as speaking for women and their interests. We discuss how our analysis of the framing of issues as social problems complements and extends social psychological analyses of activism. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Ehrich, K; Farsides, B; Williams, C; Scott, Rosamund
This paper stems from an ethnographic, multidisciplinary study that explored the views and experiences of practitioners and scientists on social, ethical and clinical dilemmas encountered when working in the area of PGD for serious genetic disorders. We focus here on staff perceptions and experiences of working with embryos and helping women/couples to make choices that will result in selecting embryos for transfer and disposal of 'affected' embryos, compared to the termination of affected pregnancies following PND. Analysis and discussion of our data led us to consider the possible advantages of PGD and whether a gradualist account of the embryo's and fetus's moral status can account for all of these, particularly since a gradualist account concentrates on the significance of time (developmental stage) and makes no comment as to the significance of place (in-vitro, in-utero).
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects and updates the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion (2008). Major methodological problems pervaded most of the research reviewed. The most rigorous studies indicated that within the United States, the relative risk of mental health problems among adult women who have a single, legal, first-trimester abortion of an unwanted pregnancy is no greater than the risk among women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. Evidence did not support the claim that observed associations between abortion and mental health problems are caused by abortion per se as opposed to other preexisting and co-occurring risk factors. Most adult women who terminate a pregnancy do not experience mental health problems. Some women do, however. It is important that women's varied experiences of abortion be recognized, validated, and understood. 2009 APA.
Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.
Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit
tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....
Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif
CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233
Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif
Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.
The article examines the way that courts and legislatures in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia have answered questions regarding the legal status of a fetus. These questions have arisen in a variety of legal situations: the article deals with succession, criminal, child protection and negligence law. The conclusion offered is that a fetus has a value and an existence that the law should recognise. This does not mean, however, that in all circumstances the law should protect the interests of the fetus. Law-makers will respond differently to claims made on behalf of a fetus, depending on the context. The fetus does not have a uniform value or character in the eyes of the law. The law makes choices as to the situations in which it will take account of actual or threatened antenatal harm.
Horikoshi, Tsuguhiro; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Tatematsu, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Akiko; Unno, Nobuya
We report two cases of a fetus with sirenomelia sequence which showed oligohydramnios and a single umbilical artery. The first case was of a single fetus with symelia apus and only one leg. Prenatal diagnosis of this case was possible. The second case was of a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy in which one fetus had symelia dipus with two fused lower extremities. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition was not made. In both cases, the fetuses died shortly after birth from respiratory distress due to severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Absence of urinary tract, imperforate anus, and spine deformity were confirmed in both cases. Although prenatal diagnosis of symelia dipus seems difficult, this condition must be considered in a fetus with severe oligohydramnios.
Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo
To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies
Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion......, and phase 2 included 823 such patients. RESULTS: In phase 1, in which cases were classified by clinical criteria and information from the patient, 3.9% to 16.1% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. In phase 2, in which the structured interview was changed to an empathetic dialogue...... and previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion....
Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K
A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.
Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.
A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss
Lauster, M; Spear, S J
In Drs. Sprang and Neerhof's article regarding the partial-birth abortion law, it is noted that proposed federal legislation would ban only the intact dilatation and extraction (D&X) procedure. Such an argument is fallacious, since the wording of the proposed federal legislation about D&X is vague when compared with the ACOG definition of intact D&X. This may be because intact D&X, described for the public in a graphic and disturbing text, is being used by the anti-choice movement to achieve its desired outcome of criminalization of all abortion procedures. In these terms, the question as to why the precise ACOG definition of intact D&X is not used in the language of the legislation is asked. Moreover, it is believed that the authors of the article have disregarded the woman's health and well-being because of their obsession with the fetus's rights. Overall, it is suggested that real efforts must be made to care for women whether that entails helping them find ways out of abusive relationships, assisting them in nurturing children, or providing them with effective birth control, including abortion.
Granberg, D; Burlison, J
The political opponents of legal abortion achieved considerable gains in the 1980 American elections. A president who was committed to a strong antiabortion position was elected, and antiabortion candidates prevailed in six out of seven Senate races that pitted supporters against opponents of legal abortion and in seven out of nine similar confrontations in the House races. However, it is not clear that abortion was an overriding or decisive factor in determining those outcomes. Democrats and Republicans, Carter voters and Reagan voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion. The presidential voter groups were divided on several other issues, and along income and racial lines, to a far greater extent than they were on abortion. Voters were not likely to name abortion as one of the more important problems facing the nation. Carter supporters rated abortion as more important than did Reagan supporters. Although the party platforms and the presidential candidates were clearly differentiated in their abortion stands, these differences were not well communicated to the citizenry. When voters attempted to describe the position of each candidate on abortion, they displayed a great deal of uncertainty, error and confusion. In the key Senate races, those who voted for the prochoice candidates held more liberal abortion attitudes than those who voted for the right-to-life candidates. This difference, although statistically significant, was not great, and was smaller than the differences related to several other issues--such as attitudes toward the role of government, women's rights and economic policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G
Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan
Evidence from developed countries has shown that abortion-related mortality and morbidity has decreased with the liberalization of the abortion law. This study aimed to assess the trend of hospital-based abortion complications during the transition of legalization in Ethiopia in May 2005. Medical records of women with abortion complications from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed (n = 773). Abortion and its complications with regard to legalization were described by rates and ratios, and predictors of fatal outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. The overall and abortion-related maternal mortality ratios (AMMRs) showed a non-statistically significant downward trend over the 5-year period. However, the case fatality rate of abortion increased from 1.1% in 2003 to 3.6% in 2007. Late gestational age, history of interference and presenting after new abortion legislation passed have been found to be significant predictors of mortality. Decreased trends of abortion ratio and the AMMR were identified, but the severity of abortion complications and the case fatality rate increased during the transition of legal revision.
Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja
Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.
Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I
Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Koop, C E
The available scientific literature on the health effects of abortion on women in the US neither supports nor refutes the premise that abortion contributes to psychological problems. The 250 studies that have considered the psychological aspects of abortion are all flawed methodologically. Needed to resolve this issue is a prospective study of a cohort of US women of childbearing age focused on the psychological effects of failure to conceive, as well as the physical and mental sequelae of pregnancy whether carried to delivery, miscarried, or terminated by abortion. The most desirable such study could be conducted for about US$100 million over a 5-year period; a less expensive yet satisfactory study could be conducted for $10 million over the same time frame. Before such a study can be undertaken, a survey instrument must be designed to eliminate the discrepancy between the number of abortions on record and the number of women who admit to having an abortion on survey. Another issue is that the health effects of abortion cannot easily be separated from the controversial social issues surrounding pregnancy termination.
Li Suping; Wu Xiaohua; Li Hui
Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E 2 , progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E 2 , and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...
The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…
In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...
Horcajo, P; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Aguado-Martínez, A; Hemphill, A; Ortega-Mora, L M
Bovine neosporosis is a worldwide concern due to its global distribution and great economic impact. Reproductive failure in cattle due to abortion leads to major economic losses associated with the disease. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available against abortion or transmission caused by Neospora caninum infection in cattle. However, vaccination is considered the best measure of control against bovine neosporosis. Several host and parasite factors can influence the dynamics of the infection in bovines. Moreover, the availability of well-defined infection models is a key factor for the evaluation of vaccine candidates. However, working with cattle is not easy due to difficult handling, facilities and costs, and therefore, 'more affordable' models could be used for screening of promising vaccines to establish proof of concept. So far, live-attenuated vaccines have shown good efficacy against exogenous transplacental transmission; however, they have relevant disadvantages and associated risks, which render inactivated or subunit vaccines the best way forward. The identification of novel potential targets and vaccines, and the application of innovative vaccine technologies in harmonized experimental animal models, will accelerate the development of an effective vaccine against bovine neosporosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rothstein, A A
The event of elective abortion to terminate unplanned pregnancies brought to the fore and allowed exploration of issues of fatherliness normally latent and, therefore, not observable in adolescence. This is consistent with the psychoanalytic view that fatherly development is an ongoing process begun long before actual parenthood, encompassing an array of conflicts and themes which are conscious to varying degrees in different developmental stages. Issues expressed by the group of adolescent boys studied were compared with those described in the psychoanalytic literature. Most prominent were regressive wishes for nurturance, competition with one's own father, and efforts to meet paternal ego ideals of maturity and responsibility. Parturition envy and strivings for immortality through offspring were not expressed in this group. Themes of fatherliness were not exclusive; they became intertwined with normal tasks of adolescence and individual dynamics as is illustrated with a clinical case.
Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction causes many complications for mother and fetus. Preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, prenatal mortality, placental abruption, preeclampsia, PROM, cesarean delivery and congenital anomalies among the newborns of addicted mothers are increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the final of maternal, fetal and neonatal of drugs addicted pregnant women. Methods: The study is a Cross-Sectional study was done on 236 pregnant women 19-40 years old addicted to drugs and 236 pregnant women non-addicted that referred for delivery to maternity hospitals of Imam Reza(as and Imam Sajjad(as during 2008-2010. Measuring instruments were: observing and checklist includes various sections were related on the aims. Data Analysis was done using SPSS. After ensuring that these values followed the normal distribution, chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare qualitative variables of two groups and for quantitative variables T test was used. Confidence coefficient of 95% was considered. Results: The results showed complication such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, neonatal death in the first three days of birth, weight loss, low circumference head size among infants were born of mothers addicted compared with the control group had shown significant increase. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes serious complications for mother, fetus and newborn.
Gregori, Beatriz N.
The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation
García Algar, Oscar
El consum de tabac durant l'embaràs exposa al fetus a possibles efectes deleteris de la nicotina que poden afectar els resultats perinatals i la salut del nen. La nicotina sembla afectar el desenvolupament neurològic normal del fetus al principi de la vida. A més, s'ha observat que l'exposició del fetus dins de l'úter al consum de tabac per part de la mare podria induir una síndrome d'abstinència neonatal a la nicotina.
Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab
To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.
Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D
To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.
I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...
Thapa, K; Karki, Y; Bista, K P
Unsafe abortion remains a huge problem in Nepal even after legalization of abortion. Various myths and misconceptions persist which prompt women towards unsafe abortive practices. A qualitative study was conducted among different groups of women using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. Perception and understanding of the participants on abortion, methods and place of abortion were evaluated. A number of misconceptions were prevalent like drinking vegetable and herbal juices, and applying hot pot over the abdomen could abort pregnancy. However, many participants also believed that health care providers should be consulted for abortion. Although majority of the women knew that they should seek medical aid for abortion, they were still possessed with various misconceptions. Merely legalizing abortion services is not enough to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion. Focus has to be given on creating awareness and proper advocacy in this issue.
N. S. Ahmed
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.
Trninić, Zoran; Bender, Marija; Šutalo, Nikica; Kozomara, Davorin; Lasić, Valentina; Bevanda, Danijel; Galić, Gordan
Aim of this study was to establish attitudes of medical students on induced abortion and connection of those attitudes with religiousness, length of their studies, sex and various circumstances of pregnancy. In total, 148 students of the first, second, fifth and sixth year of medical faculty participated in the research. The study was conducted at the Medical Faculty of the University in Mostar. While collecting the data, we used a survey taken over from literature. The data were tested with adequate statistical methods afterwards. 81.1% of students would perform an abortion under certain circumstances (χ 2 =57.189; Pabortion in case that a fetus had malformations (χ 2 =3.892; P=0.49) or if the mother's life were endangered (χ 2 =47.676; Pabortion under various circumstances of pregnancy depending on length of medical education, statistically significant difference was proved in the following circumstances: rape (χ 2 =6.097; P=0.014) and if the pregnancy would endanger mother's mental health (χ 2 =4.488; P=0.034). Students with shorter medical education expressed more liberal attitudes in the above stated circumstances. By comparison of students' readiness to perform an abortion under various circumstances of pregnancy depending on religiousness statistically significant difference was proved in the following circumstances: in case of 'abortion on demand', no matter the reason (χ 2 =11.908; P=0.012), teenage pregnancy (χ 2 =33.308; Pabortion was not proved statistically. Impact of religiousness on that attitude cannot be commented due to very small share of unreligious students in the sample.
A roentgenographic study of the presence of the ossification centers has been made on a total of 235 cases of miscarriage, therapeutic abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death according to criteria of sex, length of gestational age, and weight at birth. The cases were aged from 16 to 42 gestational weeks. The weight of the cases ranged from 110 g to 3780 g at birth. The order of appearance of the eight centers in fetal life was as follows: Ischium, pubis, calcaneus, talus, distal epiphysis of femur, hyoid, proximal epiphysis of tibia, and cuboid bone. Some of the eight ossification centers appeared earlier in girls than in boys of the same gestational age and birth weight. The osseous development of Japanese fetuses and infants weighing over 2000 g was judged less mature than in similar Caucasian and Negro subjects. 10 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.
Faundes; Anibal; Shah; Iqbal H.
Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal con...
Abassade, P; Crémieux, O; Korach, J M; Templier, F; Morette, C; Wolff, M; Baudouy, P Y; Farge, C
Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of endocarditis and endoaortitis: the authors believe this to be the second reported case of infection of an intracardiac prosthesis. The patient was a man who had already undergone replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta, and a gastrectomy, which were predisposing factors. The portal of entry was not found. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive blood cultures and transoesophageal echocardiography. The outcome was rapidly fatal despite antibiotic therapy and surgery, because of the seriousness of the lesions (pseudo-aneurysm of the aorta ruptured into the right atrium), the precarity of the terrain and surgical difficulties.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress
Sotheary, Khim; Long, Dianna; Mundy, Gary; Madan, Yasmin; Blumenthal, Paul D
To assess whether a social marketing initiative focusing on medicated abortion via a mifepristone/misoprostol "combipack" has contributed to reducing unsafe abortion in Cambodia. In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, annual household surveys were conducted across 13 Cambodian provinces in 2010, 2011, and 2012. One married woman of reproductive age who was not pregnant and did not wish to be within the next 2 years in each randomly selected household was approached for inclusion. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 1843 women in 2010, 2068 in 2011, and 2059 in 2012. Manual vacuum aspiration was reported by 61 (72.6%) of 84 women surveyed in 2010 who reported an abortion in the previous 12 months, compared with only 28 (52.8%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.001). The numbers of women undergoing medicated abortion increased from 22 (26.2%) of 84 in 2010 to 27 (49.1%) of 53 in 2012 (P=0.003), whereas the numbers undergoing unsafe abortion decreased from 4 (4.8%) in 2010 to 0 in 2012 (P=0.051). Social marketing of medication abortion coupled with provider training in clinical and behavioral change could have contributed to a reduction in the prevalence of unsafe abortion and shifted the types of abortion performed in Cambodia, while not increasing the overall number of abortions. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Harris, Lisa H
Abortion is highly stigmatized in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, many women who seek or undergo abortion keep their decision a secret. In many regions of the world, stigma is a recognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion, even when abortion is legal. Women may self-induce abortion in ways that are dangerous, or seek unsafe clandestine abortion from inadequately trained health care providers out of fear that their sexual activity, pregnancy, or abortion will be exposed if they present to a safe, licensed facility. However, unsafe abortion rarely occurs in the United States, and accordingly, stigma as a cause of unsafe abortion in the United States context has not been described. I consider the relationship of stigma to two serious abortion complications experienced by U.S. patients. Both patients wished to keep their abortion decision a secret from family and friends, and in both cases, their inability to disclose their abortion contributed to life-threatening complications. The experiences of these patients suggest that availability of legal abortion services in the United States may not be enough to keep all women safe. The cases also challenge the rhetoric that "abortion hurts women," suggesting instead that abortion stigma hurts women.
Full Text Available ... is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, ... Institutes of Health and four research institutions. The fetal surgical procedure also increases the chances that a ...
Full Text Available ... This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...
Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M
Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided
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Abstract: Reproductive and other sexual health indicators among adolescent young ... intensification of sex education, and provision of family planning information and ..... subjects were aware of pregnancy induced abortion methods and the.
Full Text Available Given the prevalence of sexual and gender-basedviolence in Darfur, why are safe abortion services andtreatment of complications resulting from unsafeabortions or miscarriages not provided at all refugee/IDP health facilities?
Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z
This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings.
Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena
Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.
Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr
We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...
Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
In Greece modern contraceptive methods are used only in a very limited manner and abortion is the primary form of birth control. There are several social and psychological issues that are considered to be responsible. A 1985 study done for the Family Planning Center of Thessaloniki found that the ratio of live births is 1.3 and the ratio of abortion is 1.8/woman. 88% of women in the study had had an abortion while practicing coitus interruptus. 90% of the women never bought condoms. In a 1989 study only 6% of women had a positive attitude about condoms. Abortion is used as the primary method of birth control regardless of a woman's socioeconomic status. Further it was found that abortion did not correlate with other modern attitudes or the emancipation of women. The decision to abort was related to difficulties and constraints inherent in bring up a child. However positive attitudes toward contraception were related to educational and occupational levels. To complicate matters the information concerning contraceptives was problematic and related to the women's own lack of initiative to find out, and a lack of correct information offered from gynecologists. A 1990 study on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to HIV infection indicated that the most favored method of contraception was condoms, but 60.8% of the men reported use versus 33.7% of the women. However these figures are not very representative because the survey was given in the context of HIV prevention and no attempt was made to distinguish between regular and irregular use patterns. Abortions is not a moral issue in Greece. It was legalized in 1986 only because it came to the attention of the government that the previous prohibition was being completely ignored. Abortion is strongly affected by social and psychological factors that are complex and result from cultural view points about fertility, maternal value, and life itself that are unique to the Greek culture.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of women who presented to the hospital for elective abortion. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was designed and conducted at our university hospital between March 2013-April 2013 by the method of face-to-face interviews with 500 women who presented to the hospital as patient or relatives of patients. Poll consisted of 6 questions about demographic characteristics and 14 questions evaluating the opinions and attitudes about abortion. Results: The age of the women who participated in the study was ranging between 18 and 75 years with the mean age of 31.5±11.9 years. Twenty-six women (5.2% were illiterate, while 109 (21.8% were university graduates. 70.8% of women stated that they were against elective abortion. Among the reasons against abortion on request were: “forbidden by the religion”-53.1% of women, “against human rights”-35.3%, and “unhealthy for the mother”-7.1% of women. About the prohibition of abortion, 82.4% of women said that “it may be performed under necessary conditions”, 9.6% “it should be completely forbidden”, and 8% stated that “it should never be forbidden”. Conclusion: A large number of respondents reported that they have negative attitude towards elective abortion, however, in case of medical necessity, abortion should be performed. During the legal arrangements done about situations that may affect the public health, such as abortion regulations, we believe it would be useful to assess the perspective of the society on this issue.
The study investigates the social background of teenagers before being teenage mothers or having an induced abortion. A discrete-time proportional hazard modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal observations of population-based registers covering all children born in Denmark in 1966...... and neglect, psychiatric disorder, and being in care during childhood. Results show a significant social gradient for teenage pregnancies. The teenage mothers were in a more disadvantaged position than pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion...
F. Makorah; K. Wood; R. Jewkes
This was a descriptive study aimed at exploring the personal experiences of women who induce abortion and the circumstances surrounding induced abortion. The study was conducted in six public hospitals in four different provinces: Baragwanath (Gauteng), Groote Schuur and Tygerberg (Western Cape), King Edward and R.K. Khan (Kwa-Zulu/Natal) and Livingstone (Eastern Cape). In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African, Indian and Coloured women admitted to the hospitals following backstreet...
The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.
The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt
Renato L. Santos
Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.
Walsh, Jennifer M
Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia
Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...
David, H P
Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths.
Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show
Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.
Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A
Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M
In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro
chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....
countries where women do not have legal access to abortion. Postabortion care focuses on treatment of incomplete abortion and provision of postabortion contraceptive services. To enhance women's access to postabortion care, focus is increasingly being placed on upgrading midlevel providers to provide......Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...
Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.
BACKGROUND: Complications of unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical assessment for life-threatening complications and the following management in women admitted with complications from abortions at a rural...... abortion and by trimester. Actual management was compared to the audit criteria and presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty six per cent of the women were in second trimester. Abortion complications were distributed as follows: 53 % incomplete abortions, 28 % threatened abortions, 12...... % inevitable abortions, 4 % missed abortions and 3 % septic abortions. Only one of 238 cases met all criteria of optimal clinical assessment and management. Thus, vital signs were measured in 3 %, antibiotic criteria was met in 59 % of the cases, intravenous fluid resuscitation was administered to 35...
Pundel, J P
Most of this essay on the abortion problem in French-speaking western Europe concerns the Sermon of Hippocrates forbidding abortion; the discussion ends with an ethical discussion on abortion codes in a pluralist society. 1st, scholars question whether Hippocrates himself actually wrote the text of the Sermon, or whether his Pythagorean followers did. 2nd, probably abortion in Hippocrates' time was relegated to midwives and lithotomists. The meaning of the quotation "I do not give any abortive remedy" is obscure since in other contexts Hippocrates distinguished between abortive and contraceptive drugs and also abortive instruments. Finally, Hipoocrates specifically recommended abortion, e.g., to avoid pregnancy for prostitutes. Persons in authority, then, should not invoke Hippocrates or any other moral code to deprive a woman of medical abortion, especially in cases of rape, age, and failure of contraception. Divorce, for example, has been legalized in most countries, without forcing anyone to take advantage of it.
Schiavon, Raffaela; Collado, Maria Elena; Troncoso, Erika; Soto Sánchez, José Ezequiel; Zorrilla, Gabriela Otero; Palermo, Tia
In 2007, first trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City, and the public sector rapidly expanded its abortion services. In 2008, to obtain information on the effect of the law on private sector abortion services, we interviewed 135 physicians working in private clinics, located through an exhaustive search. A large majority of the clinics offered a range of reproductive health services, including abortions. Over 70% still used dilatation and curettage (D&C); less than a third offered vacuum aspiration or medical abortion. The average number of abortions per facility was only three per month; few reported more than 10 abortions monthly. More than 90% said they had been offering abortion services for less than 20 months. Many women are still accessing abortion services privately, despite the availability of free or low-cost services at public facilities. However, the continuing use of D&C, high fees (mean of $157-505), poor pain management practices, unnecessary use of ultrasound, general anaesthesia and overnight stays, indicate that private sector abortion services are expensive and far from optimal. Now that abortions are legal, these results highlight the need for private abortion providers to be trained in recommended abortion methods and quality of private abortion care improved. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2, VP3 (RNAi-VP3, or VP4 (RNAi-VP4 of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID(50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. CONCLUSION: RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.
Medeiros, Robinson Dias de; Azevedo, George Dantas de; Oliveira, Emilly Auxiliadora Almeida de; Araújo, Fábio Aires; Cavalcanti, Francisco Jakson Benigno; Araújo, Gabriela Lucena de; Castro, Igor Rebouças
To analyze and compare the knowledge and opinions of Law and Medical students regarding the issue of abortion in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study involving 125 graduate students from the class of 2010. Of these, 52 were medical students (MED group) and 73 law students (LAW group). A questionnaire was applied based on published research about the topic. Dependent variables were: monitoring the abortion debate, knowledge concerning situations where abortion is permitted under Brazilian law, opinion about situations that agree with extending legal permission to terminate pregnancy and prior knowledge of someone who has undergone induced abortion. Independent variables were: sex, age, household income and graduation course. χ² and Fisher's exact tests, with the level of significance set at 5%. Most interviewees reported monitoring the debate on abortion in Brazil (67.3% of the MED group and 70.2% of the LAW group, p>0.05). When assessing knowledge on the subject, medical students had a significantly higher percentage of correct answers than law students (100.0 and 87.5%, respectively; p=0.005) regarding the legality of abortion for pregnancies resulting from rape. Elevated percentages of correct responses were also recorded for both groups in relation to pregnancies that threaten the life of the mother (94.2 and 87.5% for MED and LAW groups, respectively), but without statistical significance. A significant percentage of respondents declared they were in favor of extending legal abortion to other situations, primarily in cases of anencephaly (68%), pregnancy severely harming the mother's physical health (42.1%) or that of the fetus in cases of severe congenital malformation (33.7%). Results showed a satisfactory knowledge on the part of law and medical school graduate students regarding the legality of abortion in Brazil, combined with a favorable trend towards extending legal permission to other situations not covered by the law. It is important to
Cochrane, Rosemary A; Cameron, Sharon T
In Scotland, in contrast to the rest of Great Britain, abortion at gestations over 20 weeks is not provided, and provision of procedures above 16 weeks varies considerably between regions. Women at varying gestations above 16 weeks must travel outside Scotland, usually to England, for the procedure. To determine the views of professionals working within Scottish abortion care about a Scottish late abortion service. Delegates at a meeting for abortion providers in Scotland completed a questionnaire about their views on abortion provision over 16 weeks and their perceived barriers to service provision. Of 95 distributed questionnaires, 70 (76%) were analysed. Fifty-six respondents (80%) supported a Scottish late abortion service, ten (14%) would maintain current service arrangements, and five (7%) were undecided. Forty (57%) of the supporters of a Scottish service would prefer a single national service, and 16 (22%) several regional services. Perceived barriers included lack of trained staff (n = 39; 56%), accommodation for the service (n = 34; 48%), and perception of lack of support among senior management (n = 28; 40%). The majority of health professionals surveyed who work in Scottish abortion services support provision of abortion beyond 16 weeks within Scotland, and most favour a single national service. Further work on the feasibility of providing this service is required.
Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…
Background: Abortion accounts for 35% of maternal mortality in Kenya. Kenya has reported an increase in the rate of unsafe abortions from 32 to 48 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 and 2012 respectively. During the same period, women presented in public health facilities with severe complications indicating ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students' attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. METHODS AND RESULTS: A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students' pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students' attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights.
Wylomanski, S; Winer, N
Ultrasound plays a fundamental role in the management of elective abortions. Although it can improve the quality of post-abortion care, it must not be an obstacle to abortion access. We thus studied the role of ultrasound in pregnancy dating and possible alternatives and analyzed the literature to determine the role of ultrasound in post-abortion follow-up. During an ultrasound scan, the date of conception is estimated by measurement of the crown-rump length (CRL), defined by Robinson, or of the biparietal diameter (BPD), as defined by the French Center for Fetal Ultrasound (CFEF) after 11 weeks of gestation (Robinson and CFEF curves) (grade B). Updated curves have been developed in the INTERGROWTH study. In the context of abortion, the literature recommends the application of a safety margin of 5 days, especially when the CRL and/or BPD measurement indicates a term close to 14 weeks (that is equal or below 80 and 27mm, respectively) (best practice agreement). Accordingly, with the ultrasound measurement reliable to±5 days when its performance meets the relevant criteria, an abortion can take place when the CRL measurement is less than 90mm or the BPD less than 30mm (INTERGROWTH curves) (best practice agreement). While a dating ultrasound should be encouraged, its absence is not an obstacle to scheduling an abortion for women who report that they know the date of their last menstrual period and/or of the at-risk sexual relations and for whom a clinical examination by a healthcare professional is possible (best practice agreement). In cases of intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability or of a pregnancy of unknown location, without any particular symptoms, the patient must be able to have a transvaginal ultrasound to increase the precision of the diagnosis (grade B). Various reviews of the literature on post-abortion follow-up indicate that the routine use of ultrasound during instrumental abortions should be avoided (best practice agreement). If it becomes
Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani
Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for
Full Text Available Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD age of 27.12 (5.97 years. The majority of abortions (95.5% were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%. Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%, tender uterus (11.3%, septic shock (3.9% and pelvic peritonitis (2.4% were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2% of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%. There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively.Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care
Reynolds argues that the nonconsequentialist moral theory proposed by Alan Donagan in his book The Theory of Morality (University of Chicago Press; 1977) does not resolve the cases in which craniotomy or removal of a cancerous uterus appears necessary to save the life of a pregnant woman. Donagan's absolute prohibition against the murder of the innocent and his rejection of the principle of double effect have led him to view the fetus as a pursuer or assailant or to assert the theory of proleptic agreement--that in risk taking ventures the parties may agree that killing one person to save the lives of the others will be accepted. Reynolds holds these arguments to be inapplicable in therapeutic abortions involving craniotomy or hysterectomy and concludes that Donagan's absolutist theory must be reexamined.
Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K
Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions...... in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact...... of the change in method of monitoring on trends in the national and regional abortion rate. The complete number of induced abortions was estimated to be the sum of the number recorded in both registers, cases recorded only in the Register of Induced Abortions, cases recorded only in the National Patient...
Stringfellow, D A; Scanlan, C M; Hannon, S S; Panangala, V S; Gray, B W; Galik, P A
Uterine flushings, cervical mucus swabs and udder secretions collected at weekly intervals from five mixed breed beef cows (four Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccinates, and 1 non-vaccinate) were cultured for Brucella abortus . Prior to sampling, four of the five had aborted 7-to 8-month-old fetuses and one gave brith to a weak calf. The fetuses and/or udder secretions from the cows were culture positive for B. abortus at the time of parturition. Three of the cows developed persistent udder infections. Two of these cows were also shown to have brucellae in their cervical mucus for 10 and 20 days and in their uterine flushings for 17 and 41 days after parturition, respectively. One other cow had brucellae in the cervical mucus for 16 days and in the uterine flushings for up to 36 days post-abortion. All attempts to isolate the organism from this cow's udder secretions in culture were negative. In two cows with culture-positive uterine flushings, isolations of brucellae were made subsequent to normal postpabortion return to estrus.
Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L
The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition.
SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke
Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...
Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa
Summary Background Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. Methods National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey-4. Findings We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million–17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2–52·1) per
Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable—when it is available on the woman’s request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, advocates will need to study the political, health system, legal, juridical, and socio-cultural realities surrounding existing law and policy in their countries, and decide what kind of law they want (if any). The biggest challenge is to determine what is possible to achieve, build a critical mass of support, and work together with legal experts, parliamentarians, health professionals, and women themselves to change the law—so that everyone with an unwanted pregnancy who seeks an abortion can have it, as early as possible and as late as necessary. PMID:28630538
Stotland, Nada L
Induced abortion is widely believed - by the public, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers - to lead to adverse mental health sequelae. This belief is false, as it applies both to adult women and adolescents. However, it has been used to rationalize, and been quoted in, restrictive and intrusive legislation in several states and in proposed federal legislation. It is essential for gynecologists to have accurate information, as clinicians, for their patients, and, as key experts, for policy makers. New articles concluding that there are adverse psychological outcomes from induced abortion continue to be published. The methodological flaws in these articles are so serious as to invalidate those conclusions. Several recent scholarly analyses detail these flaws. Methodologically sound studies and reviews continue to demonstrate that psychosocial problems play a role in unwanted conception and the decision to abort unwanted pregnancies but are not the result of abortion. Clinicians may have to reassure patients making decisions about their pregnancies that abortion does not cause psychiatric illness. They can do so on the basis of recent analyses substantiating that finding. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Borgatta, L; Burnhill, M S; Tyson, J; Leonhardt, K K; Hausknecht, R U; Haskell, S
To evaluate the introduction of an early medical abortion program with methotrexate and misoprostol, using a standardized protocol. A total of 1973 women at 34 Planned Parenthood sites participated in a case series of early medical abortion. Ultrasound was used to confirm gestational age of less than 49 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. Women were given intramuscular methotrexate 50 mg/m(2) of body surface area on day 1, and then they inserted misoprostol 800 microg vaginally at home on day 5, 6, or 7. Women were advised to have a suction curettage if the pregnancy appeared viable 2 weeks after methotrexate or if any gestational sac persisted 4 weeks after methotrexate. Outcomes were complete medical abortion and suction curettage. Sixteen hundred fifty-nine women (84.1%) had a complete medical abortion, and 257 (13.0%) had suction curettage. The most common reason for curettage was patient option (8.9%). At 2 weeks after methotrexate use, 1.4% of women had curettage because of a viable pregnancy; at 4 weeks, 1.6% of women had curettage because of a persistent but nonviable pregnancy. One percent of women had curettage because of physician recommendation, most commonly for bleeding. Suction curettage rates decreased with site experience (P <.006) and were lower at early gestational ages (P <.004) and in nulliparous women (P <.004). Medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol is safe and effective and can be offered in a community setting.
In Algeria, the epidemiology of cattle abortions is not well understood. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate the prevalence of abortion in 75 Algerian cattle herds and correlate its possible association with brucellosis positivity and some managerial risk factors. The cattle abortion herd prevalence was 41.33% [95% CI 30.16-52.5%]. As for brucellosis, the serological evidence of brucellosis exposure was observed in 9 out of 75 herds accounting for 12% [95% CI 4.65-19.35] herd seroprevalence. The risk factor analysis using the univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression did confirm that brucellosis positivity (OR = 5.19), mixed herd (OR = 2.5), contact with other herd (OR = 2.91), presence of dog in the herd (OR = 2.89), imported cattle (OR = 1.91), and farmers with less than 2 years' experience (OR = 2.69) as risk factors for abortion in Algerian cattle herds. Targeting these factors using a comprehensive control measure is needed to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with abortion in dairy cattle.
Vora, Neeta L; Powell, Bradford; Brandt, Alicia; Strande, Natasha; Hardisty, Emily; Gilmore, Kelly; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Bizon, Chris; Reilly, Jason; Owen, Phil; Powell, Cynthia M; Skinner, Debra; Rini, Christine; Lyerly, Anne D; Boggess, Kim A; Weck, Karen; Berg, Jonathan S; Evans, James P
PurposeWe investigated the diagnostic and clinical performance of exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities with normal karyotype and microarray and, in some cases, normal gene-specific sequencing.MethodsExome sequencing was performed on DNA from 15 anomalous fetuses and from the peripheral blood of their parents. Parents provided consent to be informed of diagnostic results in the fetus, medically actionable findings in the parents, and their identification as carrier couples for significant autosomal recessive conditions. We assessed the perceptions and understanding of exome sequencing using mixed methods in 15 mother-father dyads.ResultsIn seven (47%) of 15 fetuses, exome sequencing provided a diagnosis or possible diagnosis with identification of variants in the following genes: COL1A1, MUSK, KCTD1, RTTN, TMEM67, PIEZO1 and DYNC2H1. One additional case revealed a de novo nonsense mutation in a novel candidate gene (MAP4K4). The perceived likelihood that exome sequencing would explain the results (5.2 on a 10-point scale) was higher than the approximately 30% diagnostic yield discussed in pretest counseling.ConclusionExome sequencing had diagnostic utility in a highly select population of fetuses where a genetic diagnosis was highly suspected. Challenges related to genetics literacy and variant interpretation must be addressed by highly tailored pre- and posttest genetic counseling.
Drury, Suzanne; Williams, Hywel; Trump, Natalie; Boustred, Christopher; Lench, Nicholas; Scott, Richard H; Chitty, Lyn S
In the absence of aneuploidy or other pathogenic cytogenetic abnormality, fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT ≥ 3.5 mm) and/or other sonographic abnormalities have a greater incidence of genetic syndromes, but defining the underlying pathology can be challenging. Here, we investigate the value of whole exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities but normal microarray analysis. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from chorionic villi or amniocytes in 24 fetuses with unexplained ultrasound findings. In the first 14 cases sequencing was initially performed on fetal DNA only. For the remaining 10, the trio of fetus, mother and father was sequenced simultaneously. In 21% (5/24) cases, exome sequencing provided definitive diagnoses (Milroy disease, hypophosphatasia, achondrogenesis type 2, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and Baraitser-Winter Syndrome). In a further case, a plausible diagnosis of orofaciodigital syndrome type 6 was made. In two others, a single mutation in an autosomal recessive gene was identified, but incomplete sequencing coverage precluded exclusion of the presence of a second mutation. Whole exome sequencing improves prenatal diagnosis in euploid fetuses with abnormal ultrasound scans. In order to expedite interpretation of results, trio sequencing should be employed, but interpretation can still be compromised by incomplete coverage of relevant genes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hoar, Bruce R.
Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...
Hansen, S K; Birkebaek, J S; Husfeldt, C; Munck, C B; Nøddebo, S M; Petersson, B H
The object of this study was to describe a group of women applying for legal abortion in relation to their use of contraception and reasons for choosing an abortion. During a period of 13 months (1991-92) a questionnaire was distributed to women applying for legal abortion at Hillerød Hospital in Denmark. Three hundred and thirty-nine women participated. Fifty-nine percent of the women had become pregnant although they had used contraception. As seen in other studies, women still state demographic factors as their most important reasons for choosing an abortion. Women with two or more children do not want to have more children. Single women do not want children without being in a stable relationship. Furthermore occupation and education were frequently stated as important reasons for having an abortion. Economy and housing were not main reasons but contributory factors. Thirty percent of the women expressed ambivalence about the choice of abortion at the time when the abort was due.
Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Édith
This guideline reviews evidence relating to the provision of surgical induced abortion (IA) and second trimester medical abortion, including pre- and post-procedural care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, and other health care providers who currently or intend to provide and/or teach IAs. Women with an unintended or abnormal first or second trimester pregnancy. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the key words: first-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester medical abortion, dilation and evacuation, induction abortion, feticide, cervical preparation, cervical dilation, abortion complications. Results were restricted to English or French systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from 1979 to July 2017. National and international clinical practice guidelines were consulted for review. Grey literature was not searched. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. The summary of findings is available upon request. IA is safe and effective. The benefits of IA outweigh the potential harms or costs. No new direct harms or costs identified with these guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. All rights reserved.
Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG
Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and ＞8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.
Malhotra, S; Devi, P K
Abortion was legalized in many states in India in April 1972. This study deals with 2 groups of patients admitted to P.G.I., Chadigarh, with problems of induced septic abortion. Group 1 consisted of 88 patients admitted during the 2 1/2 year period from 1 July 1969 to 31 December 1971, before the legalization of abortion. Group 2 consists of 133 patients admitted during the 2 1/2 year period from 1 July 1973 to 31 December 1975. 1 year after the new abortion law had been in force. Not only has there been an increase in the total number of patients, there has been an increase in the severity of infection. Evidently, the liberalization of the law has encouraged more patients to seek abortions and has encouraged more doctors, lacking proper qualifications, to perform them. The morbidity and mortality with induced septic abortion can only be reduced if enough public propaganda makes the people especially in rural areas conscious of the hazards of induced abortion by "dais" and unqualified personnel, simultaneously making them aware of the provision of law and facilities available at different centers. Meanwhile, the law against unskilled and untrained personnel should be rigorously enforced.
Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000
Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering "feminised" re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about "gendercide" as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of "medical power" in the light of what took place.
Harper, Cynthia; Darney, Philip; Henderson, JT; Puri, M; Blum, M; Harper, CC; Rana, A; Gurung, G; Pradhan, N; Regmi, K; Malla, K; Sharma, S
Background: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe
of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.
Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne
" ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...
Nikolajsen, Tine; Nielsen, Frank; Rasch, Vibeke
Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect.......Women in Tanzania use plants to induce abortion. It is not known whether the plants have an effect....
... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...
Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie
To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....
Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle
Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...
Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn
BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...
Ali Mohammad Behroozikhah
Full Text Available To determine the most prevalent biovar responsible for brucellosis in sheep and goat populations of Iran, a cross-sectional study was carried out over 2 years in six provinces selected based on geography and disease prevalence. Specimens obtained from referred aborted sheep and goat fetuses were cultured on Brucella selective media for microbiological isolation. Brucellae were isolated from 265 fetuses and examined for biovar identification using standard microbiological methods. Results showed that 246 isolates (92.8% were B. melitensis biovar 1, 18 isolates (6.8% were B. melitensis biovar 2, and, interestingly, one isolate (0.4% obtained from Mazandaran province was B. abortus biovar 3. In this study, B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated in none of the selected provinces, and all isolates from 3 provinces (i.e., Chehar-mahal Bakhtiari, Markazi, and Ilam were identified only as B. melitensis biovar 1. In conclusion, we found that B. melitensis biovar 1 remains the most prevalent cause of small ruminant brucellosis in various provinces of Iran.
A proposal to legalize abortion has been presented to the Italian parliament by Representative Loris Fortuna. Thus far, the bill has the whole-hearted support of only the Radical Party. The Vatican has already voiced its strong opposition to this legislation. "The proposal to legalize abortion, even in certain circumstances, must inevitably be met with resistance and refusal," said Father Concetti, the Vatican representative. Professor Emanuele Lauricella, secretary of the Italian Obstetrics and Gynecology Society, on the other hand, claimed that abortion should be permitted, not only when an immediate danger to the mother's life exists, but also when there are other, simpler health risks. The passage of the bill in the near future, however, is very doubtful.
Hertz, J B; Heisterberg, L
A prospectively collected group of 93 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion was carefully monitored throughout pregnancy, during birth and in the perinatal period, and any deviation from a completely uneventful course was registered. Comparison was made with a selected group of 282 non-risk pregnant women. A significant association was found between threatened abortion and the overall number of complications in the second half of pregnancy requiring medical intervention and/or admission to hospital, impending pre-term birth requiring betamimetics, pre-term birth, retention of the placenta, birth weight below 2000 g, light-for-dates infants in case of pre-term birth or birth weight below 2000 g, and hyperbilirubinemia in infants with birth weight below 2000 g. The incidences of perinatal mortality and congenital malformations did not differ significantly from those of the control group. Pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion constitute a risk group requiring careful obstetric and perinatal supervision and follow-up.
Roberto Arriada Lorea
Full Text Available In Brazil, facing an issue like abortion requires a secular perspective since the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution places upon the State the need to regard not only different viewpoints of different religions, but more specifically assure the right to diversity existing within a same religion, as well as the right to exercise different views from those of the hierarchy of his/her own religion. As such, there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to legislators to reform the present law and decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments Brazil has assumed with international human-rights organizations, thus assuring the efficacy of civil liberties.
Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.
Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems
Hireche, Sana; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Bouaziz, Omar; Boussena, Sabrina
Enzootic abortion of ewes is one of the most serious health problems in sheep flocks worldwide. It has a significant economic impact because abortion, decrease in milk production and weak lambs. Besides, the bacteria is zoonotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia abortus infection in 552 ewes in Constantine using a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA kit. Chlamydial DNA was investigated in ten ovine fetuses and eight placentas using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The study concluded that 7.2 % of ewes were seropositive and 33.3 % of sheep flocks had at least one seropositive ewe. Adjacent farmworker visits (OR = 7.667, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.307; 27.203) was defined as a risk factor. Deliveries of weak lambs (OR = 2.920, 95 % CI (OR) = 1.022; 8.342) and septicemia in lambs (OR = 9.971, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.383; 41.713) were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed positive signals to C. abortus in six fetuses and four placentas. Sequencing of the omp2 gene revealed that the Algerian strain is 96 % similar with C. abortus FAS strain. C. abortus plays a major role in abortion in northeastern Algeria. Appropriate control measures must be implemented to reduce economic losses and to avoid human contamination.
Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))
Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo
Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.
According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text
Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.
Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beams of approx.1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I/sub max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I/sub max/ for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of approx.20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention is given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades are given for the two operational systems. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Krafczyk, G.; Dugan, G.; Harrison, M.; Koepke, K.; Tilles, E.
Over the past several years, Fermilab has been operating with a single turn proton abort system in both the superconducting Tevatron and the conventional Main Ring. The abort kicker power supply for this system discharges a lumped capacitance into the inductive magnet load, causing the beam to enter the abort channel. The characteristics of this current waveform are defined by the requirements of the machine operation. The standard fixed target running mode calls for 12 booster batches of beam which leaves a rotating gap in the beam of about1.8 μs. The current waveform is required to rise to 90% of I /SUB max/ in this time to avoid beam loss from partially deflected beam. Aperture limitations in both the accelerator and the abort channel demand that the current in the magnets stays above this 90% I for the 21 μs needed to ensure all the beam has /SUP max/ left the machine. The 25 mm displacement needed to cleanly enter the abort channel at 1 TeV corresponds to a maximum current in each of the 4 modules of about20 kA. Similar constraints are needed for the Main Ring and Tevatron antiproton abort systems. A unique feature of this design is the high voltage, high current diode assembly used to clip the recharge of the capacitor bank. This allows the current to decay slowly with the L/R time constant of the magnet and diode series combination. Special attention will be given to the diode characteristics needed for this passive switching element. Operational experience and proposed upgrades will be given for the two operational systems
Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita
Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....
This work deals with the relationship between induced abortion and mental health with a special focus on the area of political controversy. This article explores the historical background of the abortion and its legislative implications in Europe with special reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina. This work is based on etnographich, analitical and historical aproaches. It explains abortion in medical terms and analyzes the psychological effects of the abortion. This is a significant and challan...
Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M
Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.
高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华
The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting
In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.
Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke
. The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...
Full Text Available This paper represents a case study of the types of fallacies that may occur in the argumentation stage of an ethical dispute over abortion. The theoretical framework I use is the pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, 2004 which conceives of fallacies as violations of the rules for critical discussion. I will focus on the fallacies resulting from the violation of the relevance rule in two fragments of argumentative texts illustrating opposing positions on abortion. I claim that these fallacies function as winning strategies in the ethical dispute in case.
Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.
Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...
HAHN, H.; DAVINO, D.
Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit
I. S. Sokolovska
Full Text Available It is a very important problem of determining the harmonious development of the fetus during determining the tactics of delivery breech presentation. The aim of the study was to determine the ratio of the harmonious development of the fetus at different gestational periods. Methods and results. For all study groups determined biparietal, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, shoulder length, thigh length. For all investigated values of the ratio it was uneven and deviates from the standard distribution. Conclusion. Some pregnant women who have not deviations from the standard deviation, or have only one indicator increases with gestational age.
Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Di Trano, J.L.
This work aims to review existing guidelines on the hypothesis that must be taken into account when calculating impact from the dose on the fetus for widely employed radioactive drugs. Recent research is added giving data on placenta transference linked to pregnancy term. The most widely used diagnostic and therapeutic practices are analyzed comparing the dose impact on the fetus with limits internationally accepted. This will allow having the necessary tools to answer questions concerning radiological risks due to the administration of radioactive drugs to pregnant women
Bettarini, S S; D'Andrea, S S
Subsequent to the legalization of abortion in Italy in 1978, abortion; rates among Italian women first rose and then declined steadily, from a peak of 16.9 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 1983 to 9.8 per 1,000 in 1993. Abortion rates vary considerably by geographic region, with rates typically highest in the more secular and modernized regions and lowest in regions where traditional values predominate. Data from 1981 and 1991 indicate that age-specific abortion rates decreased during the 1980s for all age-groups, with the largest declines occurring in regions with the highest levels of abortion. Moreover, a shift in the age distribution of abortion rates occurred during the 1980s, with women aged 30-34 registering the highest abortion rate in 1991, whereas in 1981 the highest level of abortion occurred among those aged 25-29. The abortion rate among adolescent women was low at both times (7.6 per 1,000 in 1981 and 4.6 per 1,000 in 1991). These data are based only on reported legal abortions; the number of clandestine abortions remains unknown.
Reproductive Health and the Question of Abortion in Botswana: A Review. Stephanie S Smith. Abstract. The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the ...
abortion and 10(6.9%) with self-induced abortions. More women ..... 36%. 32%. I had this stigma associated with abortion so it delayed me. ... I faced pressure from family members and this delayed my decision to seek medical help. 3. 2. 2. 1.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...
Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah
spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION...
XUChong; CHENFu; LIULi; ZHAOFei-Sha
To clarify the possible correlation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and spontaneous abortion, 68 women, aged 23-37, experienced 2-9 times of spontaneous abortion were tested for ASA by ELISA. 38 fertile women, aged 24-40, without history of abortion were employed as control.
Background. Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively ...
Debates on abortion have escalated following the implementation in 1997 of the new law that legalises abortion from the age of twelve years in South Africa. Very often the person that opts for an abortion is merely an adolescent, who is still en route to adulthood. The adolescent's teacher shares the responsibility of the ...
Background: Unsafe abortion accounts for a greater proportion of maternal deaths, yet it is often not adequately considered in discussions around reducing maternal mortality. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of unsafe abortion and the extent to which unsafe abortion contributes to maternal morbidity and ...
Background: Mid trimester abortion constitutes 10-15% of all induced abortions worldwide and accounts for the majority of complications. In Africa, studies demonstrating the proportion of second trimester abortions are few. However to appropriately intervene with a view to reducing the morbidity and mortality due to mid ...
To explore the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion in Nigeria and Ghana, we developed a computer-based decision analytic model which simulates induced abortion and its potential complications in a cohort of women, and comparatively assessed the cost-effectiveness of unsafe abortion and three ...
In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; ...
Objectives: Abortion is associated with significant healthproblem with short- and long-term complications that affect the quality of life of those who are fortunate enough to escape mortality. This study evaluated the population of patients with complications of abortion, identified the abortion providers and the pattern of ...
Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer
Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578